Read Microsoft Word - Backgrounder - The Development of Changi Airport _Apr 2010_ For LJ text version

Changi Airport's Development

The air transport industry has seen rapid growth and has been a driving force in the development of civil aviation and airport operations in Singapore since the early 1900s. Over these years, Singapore saw the development of three airports, namely Seletar Airport, Kallang Airport and Paya Lebar Airport, to cater to the unprecedented demand for air transport/travel. Experiencing the strain in handling four million passengers per year, the Singapore government made a decision in 1975 to build a brand new airport at Changi to replace Paya Lebar Airport. The Changi Airport Masterplan Changi Airport's design was driven by practical considerations rather than a search for aesthetic uniqueness. The team overseeing Changi Airport's development settled on a concept that would function and work well. In the early 1970s, two teams of engineers, architects, civil aviation officials and government officers were sent to study other international airports. The team decided that the model for Changi would be one with its central terminal building for passenger processing and piers stretching out to the aircraft parking bays. It would be a practical airport with no illusions of grandeur. The airport design would minimise walking distances, have clear airport signage and make its interior comfortable and green. The Master-Plan unveiled a three-terminal, tworunway complex set out in an H-shaped configuration. Reclamation works More than half of Changi Airport's total land area is reclaimed from the sea. To make way for the construction of Changi Airport in 1975, almost 200 hectares of swamp land was cleared, some 558 buildings had to be demolished, 4,096 graves exhumed and 870 hectares reclaimed from the sea. 12 million cubic metres of earth from nearby hills was removed to fill the swampy ground. Reclamation from the seabed was done using seven cutter-suction dredges round the clock. The sand mixed with water was pumped direct from the dredging sites to the reclamation area. The job was completed within 29 months and more than 40 million cubic metres of sand was used from the seabed.

As at Apr 2010


Early Stages of Development The Phase I development of Changi Airport (from 1975 to 1981) cost S$1.5 billion and included the construction of a passenger terminal building (Terminal 1), a runway, 45 aircraft parking bays, a maintenance hangar, a fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents buildings, inflight catering kitchens and an 80-metre high control tower. When Phase I was completed in 1981, Phase II development started (from 1981 to 1990), comprising a second runway, taxiways, 23 aircraft parking bays, a second fire station and a third cargo agents building. The construction of a second passenger terminal building (Terminal 2) followed in 1986, which included the associated roadways, two multi-storey carparks, a people mover system (Skytrain) and a baggage transfer system between the two terminals. The Phase II development project cost about S$650 million. Location and Accessibility Spanning an area of 1,300 hectares, Changi Airport is located at the eastern tip of Singapore, some 20 kilometres from the city centre. Located along the coastal line of the island, there is minimal noise pollution as flight paths are generally over the sea. Changi Airport is also well-connected by major expressways, for residents and visitors to reach the other parts of Singapore with ease and convenience. With Singapore's extensive and free-flowing road network system, the city centre is almost a doorstop away from the airport with a mere 20-minute drive. The ground access to and from Changi Airport is further enhanced with the extension of the island-wide rail network system (Mass Rapid Transit) to Changi Airport in early 2002. PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDINGS TERMINAL 1 Changi Airport's first passenger terminal, Terminal 1, welcomed its first commercial airline touchdown, a Singapore Airlines' Boeing 747, flight SQ692, on 12 May 1981. Terminal 1 opened for scheduled flight operations on 1 July 1981, receiving its first scheduled flight, a Singapore Airlines' flight SQ101 from Kuala Lumpur. Changi Airport was officially declared open on 29 December 1981 by then Minister for Defence, Mr Howe Yoon Chong. The structure of Terminal 1 follows a centralised terminal concept, consisting of a main five-storey block connected to four finger piers. As at Apr 2010 2

· First Upgrading Terminal 1 underwent its first upgrading in the 1990s. The upgrading, which cost about S$170 million, was completed in 1994 and new facilities such as a rooftop swimming pool, hotel-style dayrooms, and more departure gate lounges and shops were added. The terminal's exterior was also refurbished with aluminium cladding replacing old tiles, and the Arrival and Departure Halls given a more modern appearance.

· Expansion of Terminal 1 In 1998, Terminal 1 was further expanded. The S$420 million expansion project involved the extension of two existing finger piers by an additional 220m, to provide 14 more aerobridge gates. In addition, nine newly configured remote aircraft parking stands were constructed. The last three gates in each of the extended piers were combined into a common gate holdroom specially designed to offer departing passengers a whole new experience in a more spacious and pleasant environment. A retail-cum-dining zone and a set of transfer counters were also created. To improve the airside circulation of aircraft, one more taxiway was constructed to give a total of three connections linking Runways 1 and 2. Two vehicular tunnels linking the terminal buildings and the cargo complex were also constructed to facilitate the crossing of vehicular traffic between the terminal buildings and the cargo complex. The entire project was completed in December 1999.

· Second Upgrading The upgrading works of the Departure and Arrival halls of Terminal 1 commenced in February 2000 at a cost of S$56 million. The west end of the Departure Hall was extended to provide additional check-in islands. All check-in counters were replaced with newly designed and more customer-friendly counters. Plasma screens replaced the LED displays above the check-in counters. The newly configured check-in islands increased the total number of check-in counters from 126 to 160. The Arrival Hall was also extended outwards, nearer to the kerbside, so as to aircondition the taxi queuing area. This change also allowed more natural light into the arrival hall. In addition, full glass-façade frontage across the Arrival Hall was introduced to improve the `see-through' aesthetics. The old aerobridges in Terminal 1 were replaced with new ones with glass facades and wider passageways. In addition, these aerobridges were also equipped with automatic docking which helped to speed up the docking process, thereby shortening the waiting time for passengers to disembark from the aircraft.

As at Apr 2010


· Upgrading-In-Progress In May 2008, a major upgrading programme of Terminal 1 commenced. This is scheduled to be completed in 2011. The works, at an estimated project cost of about S$500 million, will rejuvenate the 27-year-old terminal and enhance the passenger experience at Changi Airport. The concept for Terminal 1's face lift is "Tropical City". Works will refurbish the terminal's interior design and finishes, as well as improve passenger flow at key areas. Areas to be upgraded include the exterior façade, Departure Kerbside, Departure Check-in Hall, Departure Transit Mall and Arrival Hall. In line with the theme, the architectural and interior design will create a warm and familiar feeling for travellers. Landscaping will be integrated with the interior design to maintain the original warmth and welcoming ambience of the terminal. On top of enhancing the aesthetics of the terminal, the processing capacity of key areas, such as the Departure Check-in Hall, will be improved. Older sections of the finger piers will be expanded and seating in the gate holdrooms enhanced. As part of Terminal 1's upgrading works, services and facilities offered will be improved. The building will also be expanded to allow for the provision of new passenger facilities while expanding the retail and F&B offerings. TERMINAL 2 Changi Airport's Terminal 2 welcomed its first commenced flight, a Singapore Airlines flight SQ23 from Amsterdam, on 22 November 1990. The terminal was officially opened on 1 June 1991 by then Prime Minister, Mr Goh Chok Tong. The structure of Terminal 2 also follows a centralised terminal concept, concentrating facilities and services in the main complex of the six-storey building. Connected to the finger piers are two five-storey carparks, enabling passengers and visitors to enter the passenger terminal building under complete cover. A terraced multi-level ceiling is designed to allow natural light in, giving the Departure Hall a warm and cosy ambience. With Changi Airport operating two terminals, an automated passenger mover system, called `Skytrain', was also introduced to provide a rapid link between Terminals 1 and 2. In addition, an inter-terminal baggage handling system consisting of computerized high speed cars running a network of rails in underground tunnels was also in place to enable baggage to be transferred between the two terminals.

As at Apr 2010


· Expansion of Terminal 2 The capacity of Terminal 2 was expanded in a project, which started in October 1992. The expansion project costing S$330 million involved the construction of two new finger piers. The two finger piers provide 22 additional aerobridge gates. The south-east pier with 11 aerobridge gates was completed in August 1995. The north-east pier was operational in June 1996. Terminal 2 now has a total of 35 aerobridge gates. · Major Upgrading Terminal 2 underwent a S$240 million upgrading in April 2003. The upgraded T2 now has a modern look with the clever use of lush greenery and glass to introduce more lighting into the terminal building. A new glass canopy to shield travellers from the sun and the rain was built over the entrances at the departure level. Other improvements to the physical appearance included glass panels at the departure level to let in more natural light, new escalators for better access to eating outlets, a new skylight above the north departure immigration hall and a new lift in the north immigration arrival hall for less mobile passengers. There is also an interesting leaf-shape ceiling structure above the check-in islands that enhances the ambience at the check-in areas. The upgrading has also allowed for more space to be freed up for new retail and food & beverage outlets. The upgrading also allowed the reorganisation of space and layout to maximise the commercial potential of Changi Airport. The Terminal 2 upgrading was completed in mid 2006. TERMINAL 3 Changi Airport's newest passenger terminal, Terminal 3, opened for scheduled flight operations on 9 January 2008. The terminal welcomed its first scheduled flight, a Singapore Airlines flight from San Francisco. In order to meet the increase in air traffic, the construction of Terminal 3 commenced in October 2000. Terminal 3 is constructed on a piece of open land opposite Terminal 2 and cost S$1.75 billion. The 380,000-square metre terminal is a seven-storey building with three basements and four above-ground levels. Terminal 3 has an annual handling capacity of 22 million passengers, bringing the total handling capacity of Changi Airport to about 70 million passengers per year. This new terminal building provides 28 additional aerobridge gates, increasing the total number of aerobridge gates in Changi Airport to 92. Eight of the aerobridge gates are designed for the new generation of large aircraft, the A380.

As at Apr 2010


· Design Concept Passengers using Terminal 3 can expect to move around with ease and minimum dependence on signage. This is possible as Terminal 3 has a seethrough layout concept, making it easier for travellers to orientate themselves. This is part of the four guiding principles adopted when Terminal 3 was designed, namely clarity, natural lighting, external views and maintainability. · Unique Features Terminal 3 features a unique roof architecture which allows soft natural light into the building while keeping the tropical heat out. The one-of-its-kind roof design has 919 skylights with specially designed reflector panels which will automatically adjust themselves to allow an optimal amount of soft and uniform daylight into the terminal building. At night, the skylights will glow with artificial lighting delicately concealed below the reflector panels. The overall effect would be a soothing ambience at all times of the day. Another key highlight of Terminal 3 is a five-storey high vertical garden, called the "Green Wall". Spanning 300 metres across the main building, it can be admired from both the Departure and Arrival Halls. The "Green Wall" is covered with climbing plants and is interspersed with four cascading waterfalls. In addition, a sculptured sandstone art wall display located below the "Green Wall" offers an artistic treat for arriving passengers waiting for their baggage. · Retail and Food & Beverage On the commercial front, more than 20,000 square metres of floor space has been set aside for more than 100 retail and over 40 food & beverage outlets. To complement the see-through layout concept of Terminal 3, the Departure/Transit Mall is designed to provide a compact single shopping street layout that enhances the visibility of the retail outlets. The extensive use of glass in the terminal will allow passengers a vantage view of both the airside and landside shopping and dining zones. · Baggage Handling System and New Skytrain Terminal 3 has a S$121 million state-of-the art baggage system, which includes a high-speed and inter-terminal baggage transfer system and an automated early bag storage facility. Passengers making inter-terminal flight connections at Changi Airport will find it a breeze to transfer between the three terminal with the new S$142 million `Skytrain' ­ a convenient and seamless automated people mover system. The Skytrain system now has a total of seven stations: two each in Terminal 1 and Terminal 2, and three in Terminal 3.

As at Apr 2010



Airport Hotel

In addition, Changi Airport now has a full-service international brand-name hotel, Crowne Plaza Changi Airport, which commenced operations on 28 May 2008. Conveniently located beside Terminal 3, the nine-storey hotel has 320 spacious guest rooms and a 100-seater Crowne Plaza Club Lounge. This, coupled with executive class amenities such as restaurants, meeting rooms, conference rooms, spa lounges, a swimming pool and a health and fitness club, serves to further enhance the experience of travellers. The hotel is linked to Changi Airport Terminal 3 via covered walkways adorned by green walls of lush tropical greenery. Hotel guests are also able to access Terminals 1 and 2 via the Skytrain that links all three passenger terminals. Easy access to the Mass Rapid Transit station and the expressways facilitate guests heading to the city.

BUDGET TERMINAL The Budget Terminal opened for operations on 26 March 2006. It was built in response to the emerging trend of low cost carriers (LCCs) in Asia and after receiving firm commitment from Tiger Airways to use the terminal. The terminal is located along Airport Boulevard, near Changi Airport. The operating costs at the Budget Terminal are kept low to meet the needs and operating models of LCCs. In line with this objective, the compact layout of the single-storey terminal has no need for travellators, escalators and aerobridges. The Budget Terminal offers other services such as a free shuttle bus service to link passengers from the Budget Terminal to Changi Airport's existing terminals, and vice versa. Other services and facilities such as money changers, Internet terminals, duty-free shopping, and food and beverage outlets are also available at the Budget Terminal. The construction and other related costs of the Budget Terminal were about S$45 million. The 25,000 square metres terminal comprises two adjacent single-storey buildings for departure and arrival and is about the size of three football fields, or about a tenth of the size of Changi Airport's Terminal 1. The terminal had an initial capacity to handle about 2.7 million passengers per annum. The Budget Terminal was completed in December 2005 and opened for operations on 26 March 2006. It was officially opened by Minister for Transport and Second Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr Raymond Lim, on 31 October 2006. As at Apr 2010 7

· Expansion of Budget Terminal The Budget Terminal underwent an expansion programme from mid-2008 to mid-2009 to increase the terminal's handling capacity from 2.7 million passengers per annum to 7 million. The S$16 million expansion project involved the addition of seven check-in counters as well as the installation of additional baggage handling equipment. Three more passenger boarding gates were constructed, bringing the total number of boarding gates to ten. The kerbside at the arrival hall was widened to create more room for arriving passengers waiting for vehicles to pick them up. The terminal's total floor area was also increased from 25,000 to 28,700 square metres. Comparing Changi Airport's terminals

Terminal 1 Terminal floor area Handling capacity per annum No. of aerobridge gates Total cost of terminal building (and its associated works) 280,020 m2 21 million

Terminal 2 358,000 m2 23 million

Terminal 3 380,000 m2 22 million

Budget Terminal 25,000 m2 7 million




There are no aerobridge gates $45 million

S$585 million

S$838 million

S$1.75 billion

As at Apr 2010


AIR CARGO CHANGI AIRFREIGHT CENTRE Logistics has always been an integral part of Singapore's economy. Changi Airport plays a dynamic role in air cargo transshipment in the Asia Pacific region. Situated at the northern end of the airport, the Changi Airfreight Centre (CAC) is an integrated 24-hour service centre dedicated to airfreight. The 47-hectare CAC is operated as a Free Trade Zone (FTZ) with round-the-clock cargo services. Companies within the FTZ can move, consolidate, store, breakdown and repack cargo without documentation or custom duties. Cargo agents can take delivery of their shipments within four hours of unloading from airplanes, while urgent shipments can be handled within an hour. The ease with which shipments can be unloaded and distributed has greatly enhanced the growth of transshipment cargo at Changi. Sea-to-air transshipment is facilitated by expressways and advanced infrastructure connecting the seaport and the airport. Within the FTZ at the CAC, air-to air transshipment requires the least documentation or customs duty formalities. In the fast-paced airfreight industry, airlines, cargo agents, shippers and consignees prefer a "one-stop" service provider. With its centralised and integrated facilities, CAC offers exactly that. Within the CAC, there are nine airfreight terminals operated by the ground handling agents at Changi Airport namely Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS) and Changi International Airport Services (CIAS).In addition, there are four cargo agents buildings which provide warehouse and office space to over 200 international and local freight forwarders as well as two express courier centres and 12 freighter aircraft parking bays fronting the airfreight terminals. AIRPORT LOGISTICS PARK OF SINGAPORE (ALPS) In line with Singapore's vision to be the leading integrated logistics hub in the Asia-Pacific region, a S$35 million Airport Logistics Park of Singapore (ALPS) with a total land area of 26 hectares opened in March 2003. ALPS is conveniently located next to Changi Airport in a Free Trade Zone (FTZ). It provides a distinctive advantage for 3PLs because products coming into Singapore can undergo modification and be flown out to any of the world's markets ­ without leaving the FTZ. This means extensive time and cost savings

As at Apr 2010


as government duties, taxation and customs formalities can be avoided, and paperwork reduced. As ALPS is gazetted as an FTZ, there is a Customs Checkpoint in ALPS for the exclusive use of the tenants, thereby allowing swift response to rapidly changing customer demands. ALPS helps to promote quick turnaround and value added logistics activities ideal for high-tech, high value technological products, and fulfilment of orders through electronic commerce. Awards and Accolades Changi Airport has a consistent record of accolades from around the world including more than 340 awards. It received its first `Best Airport' award in 1988, from readers of Business Traveller UK magazine. It has since won this award for 22 consecutive years. Changi Airport's Air Traffic Growth In 1937, when Singapore's first commercial airport was opened, there were 2,735 passenger movements and 32 tonnes of airmail in the whole of Malaya. During Changi Airport's first year of service in 1981, the number had grown to 8.1million passengers, almost 200, 000 tonnes of airfreight and approximately 63,100 aircraft movements. In 2009, Changi Airport handled 37.2 million passengers, 1.63 million tonnes of airfreight and 240,360 aircraft movements. 1981 Passenger movement (million) Cargo handled (million tonnes) Number of scheduled airlines Number of City Links Number of Country links Number of weekly scheduled flights 8.1 0.19 35 70 45 1,400 2009 37.2 1.63 86 201 60 4,900 Increase 4.6x 8.6x 2.5x 2.9x 1.3x 3.5x

As at Apr 2010



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