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PRIMARY ENERGY FLIPBOOK

Basic information and graphics about energy and the sources that provide us with energy.

GRADE LEVEL

Primary

SUBJECT AREAS

Science Social Studies Language Arts

Teacher Advisory Board

Shelly Baumann, Rockford, MI Constance Beatty, Kankakee, IL Sara Brownell, Canyon Country, CA Amy Constant, Raleigh, NC Joanne Coons, Clifton Park, NY Nina Corley, Galveston, TX Regina Donour, Whitesburg, KY Darren Fisher, Houston, TX Deborah Fitton, Cape Light Compact, MA Linda Fonner, New Martinsville, WV Viola Henry, Thaxton, VA Linda Hutton, Kitty Hawk, NC Doug Keaton, Russell, KY Michelle Lamb, Buffalo Grove, IL Barbara Lazar, Albuquerque, NM Robert Lazar, Albuquerque, NM Mollie Mukhamedov, Port St. Lucie, FL Don Pruett, Sumner, WA Larry Richards, Eaton, IN Joanne Spaziano, Cranston, RI Gina Spencer, Virginia Beach, VA Tom Spencer, Chesapeake, VA Nancy Stanley, Pensacola, FL Doris Tomas, Rosenberg, TX Patricia Underwood, Anchorage, AK Jim Wilkie, Long Beach CA Carolyn Wuest, Pensacola, FL Debby Yerkes, Ohio Energy Project, OH Wayne Yonkelowitz, Fayetteville, WV

Teacher Advisory Board Vision Statement NEED Mission Statement

The mission of the NEED Project is to promote an energy conscious and educated society by creating effective networks of students, educators, business, government and community leaders to design and deliver objective, multi-sided energy education programs. In support of NEED, the national Teacher Advisory Board (TAB) is dedicated to developing and promoting standards-based energy curriculum and training.

Permission to Reproduce

NEED materials may be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Correlations to National Science Standards .......... 4 Teacher Guide ....................................................... 5 Teacher Background Information: What Is Energy? ............................................... 7 Light ................................................................ 9 Heat .............................................................. 11 Motion ........................................................... 13 Sound ........................................................... 15 Growth ........................................................... 17 Sources of Energy .......................................... 19 Solar ............................................................. 23 Biomass ........................................................ 29 Wind .............................................................. 35 Hydropower ................................................... 39 Geothermal .................................................... 43 Coal .............................................................. 47 Petroleum ...................................................... 53 Natural Gas ................................................... 59 Propane ......................................................... 63 Uranium ......................................................... 67 Electricity & Safety ......................................... 73 Saving Energy ................................................ 77 Student Pages: Introduction to Energy ................................. 6-21 Solar ........................................................ 22-27 Biomass ................................................... 28-33 Wind ......................................................... 34-37 Hydropower .............................................. 38-41 Geothermal ............................................... 42-45 Coal ......................................................... 46-51 Petroleum ................................................. 52-57 Natural Gas .............................................. 58-61 Propane .................................................... 62-65 Uranium .................................................... 66-71 Electricity .................................................. 72-75 Saving Energy ........................................... 76-83

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Primary Energy Flipbook PAGE 3

Correlations to National Science Content Standards

(Bolded standards are emphasized in the unit.)

PRI­B: 1.a PRI­B: 3.b PRI­C: 3.a PRI­D: 1.a Objects have many observable properties, including size, weight, shape, color, temperature, and the ability to react with other substances. Heat can be produced in many ways, such as burning, rubbing, or mixing one substance with another. Heat can move from one object to another by conduction. All animals depend on plants. Some animals eat plants for food. Other animals eat animals that eat plants. Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. These materials have different physical and chemical properties, which make them useful in different ways; for example, as building materials, as sources of fuel, or for growing the plants we use as food. Earth materials provide many of the resources that humans use. The sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the earth. Resources are things that we get from the living and nonliving environment to meet the needs and wants of a population. Some resources are basic materials, such as air, water, and soil; some are produced from basic resources, such as food, fuel, and building materials; and some resources are nonmaterial, such as quiet places, beauty, security, and safety. The supply of many resources is limited. If used, resources can be extended through recycling and decreased use. Environments are the space, conditions, and factors that affect an individual's and a population's ability to survive and their quality of life. Changes in environments can be natural or influenced by humans. Some changes are good, some are bad, and some are neither good nor bad. Pollution is a change in the environment that can influence the health, survival, or activities of organisms, including humans. Some environmental changes occur slowly, and others occur rapidly.

PRI­D: 1.b PRI­D: 2.a PRI­F: 3.a PRI­F: 3.b

PRI­F: 3.c PRI­F: 4.a PRI­F: 4.b PRI­F: 4.c PRI­F: 4.d

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Primary Energy Flipbook

© 2009 THE NEED PROJECT · PO BOX 10101 · MANASSAS, VA 20108 · 1-800-875-5029

Teacher Guide

PRIMARY STUDENTS ARE INTRODUCED TO CONCEPTS OF ENERGY AND THE ENERGY SOURCES WITH A FLIPBOOK OF BOLD GRAPHICS, SIMPLE WORDS AND SENTENCES. STUDENTS ENHANCE THEIR READING, COMPREHENSION, AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS.

SKILLS

Nonfiction Reading Critical Thinking Vocabulary Listening Grouping Comparison and Contrast

GRADE LEVEL

K-2

PREPARATION

Familiarize yourself with the format of and information in this booklet and the Primary Activities booklet. Highlight the information in the teacher background sections that you want to present to the students. All of the major energy sources are included here, as well as information on conservation and efficiency. For very young students, you may wish to introduce some of the energy sources and not others. Decide which activities you want to conduct to reinforce the information presented in the booklet. Plan your unit and procure any materials you need to conduct the activities.

PROCEDURE

Introduce the subject to the students with a brief discussion of energy and what they know about energy. Read the booklet with the students, using the information you have highlighted. Conduct the activities you have planned to reinforce the information. Evaluate the activities with the students.

© 2009 THE NEED PROJECT · PO BOX 10101 · MANASSAS, VA 20108 · 1-800-875-5029

Primary Energy Flipbook PAGE 5

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WHAT IS ENERGY?

Energy makes change ­ it produces a change of some kind; it does things for us. We use energy to move cars along the road and boats over the water. Energy is used to bake a cake in the oven, and to keep ice frozen in the freezer. It provides power so we can listen to our favorite songs on the radio, and light our homes. Energy makes our bodies grow and allows our minds to think. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. Energy is found in many different forms such as light, heat, sound, motion, and growth.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Where Where Where Where Where Where

does does does does does does

the the the the the the

hair dryer get its energy? (electricity) What kinds of energy does the hair dryer make? (heat, motion, and sound) boy get his energy? (food that he eats) How is he using energy? (to move, see, hear, think, stay warm or cool) television get its energy? (electricity) What kind of energy does it make? (sound, light, heat) car get its energy? (battery and gasoline) What kind of energy does it make? (motion, sound, heat) rain get its energy? (the sun drives the water cycle) corn get its energy? (light from the sun)?

ACTIVITY

Look around the classroom and point out things that are using energy (computer, clock, lights, plants, animals). Decide where each item gets its energy and how it uses it.

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LIGHT ENERGY

We use light energy every day. We use it to see things. Without light, our lives would be very different. We use light energy for more than seeing. The energy in light helps plants grow. Doctors use special light to help in surgery. We can also use light to make products and electricity. What is light? Light is energy that travels in waves. All the energy we get from the sun travels in waves or rays. Some of that energy is in light waves we can see­­it is visible light.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How do the things in the picture make light? How is light important to us? What other things make light? How is the light from the moon produced? (Sunlight is reflected from the surface of the moon.) What is life like at home at night when the power goes off and you have no light?

ACTIVITIES

1. Have the students close their eyes and imagine a world without light. 2. Turn down the lights in stages (and close the blinds) and notice the effect on what you can see.

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HEAT ENERGY

We use heat, called thermal energy, every day. We can't see heat, but we can feel it. Our bodies make heat and our stoves and lights do, too. We heat our houses, our food, and our water. Sometimes there is too much heat and we move it. Refrigerators take heat away from the food inside. Air conditioners take heat from inside the house and move it outside. Swimming pools take heat from our bodies.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How do the things in the picture make heat? How is heat important to us? What other things make heat? How do jackets help keep us warm? (They hold in the heat from our bodies.) How do you keep your house warm in the winter?

ACTIVITIES

1. Have the students rub their hands together quickly to feel the heat produced by friction. 2. Have the students put one hand in the sun and one in the shade and feel the difference as the sunlight hits their skin and turns into heat.

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MOTION AND ENERGY

Look around you. Many things are moving. They are in motion. Clouds drift across the sky. Leaves fall from trees. A car speeds by. Birds fly. Hearts pound. Bells ring. Babies cry. Plants grow and so do you. The earth moves, the air moves, and so does every living thing. All of this motion takes energy. Nothing can move without energy. Cars get their energy from gasoline. The clouds move because of energy in the wind. The wind gets its energy from the sun. So do growing plants. All of your energy comes from the sun, too.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. Where do the things in the picture get the energy to move? 2. What gives you the energy to move? (The energy in the food you eat - which comes from the sun as plants absorb light.) 3. What makes a ball roll down a hill? (Gravitational energy - the attraction of all objects to each other.)

ACTIVITY

1. Have the students think of all the things moving in their bodies even when they are holding very still.

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SOUND AND ENERGY

Energy is moving around you all the time­­energy in the form of sound waves. Sound waves are everywhere. Even on the quietest night you can hear sounds. Close your eyes, hold very still and listen for a moment. How many different sounds can you hear? Sound is a special kind of kinetic, or motion, energy. Sound is energy vibrating through substances. All sounds are caused by vibrations­­the back and forth motion of molecules. The molecules collide with each other and pass on energy as a moving wave. Sound waves can travel through gases, liquids, and solids. The sounds you hear are usually moving through air. When a sound wave moves through air, the air molecules vibrate back and forth in the same direction as the sound. The vibrations push the air molecules close together, then pull them apart.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4.

How do the things in the picture make sound? How is sound important to us? (communication, music, entertainment) What makes some sound pleasant and some unpleasant? (pitch, volume, personal choice) How does your throat make sound? (The muscles in your chest push air past your vocal chords, making them vibrate.)

ACTIVITIES

1. Have the students feel their throats while humming to feel the vibrations. 2. Have the students explore the range of sounds they can make with their voices. 3. Have the students tap different objects with a pencil and notice the difference in the sounds.

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GROWTH AND ENERGY

Every living thing is growing all the time. Sometimes they grow bigger. Sometimes they do not get bigger, but they still grow. They grow new cells to replace old ones. It takes energy to grow--chemical energy stored in simple sugars. The energy to make these sugars comes from light energy. Most of this light energy comes from the sun. Plants absorb the light energy and store it in their leaves, stems, fruits, and roots as chemical energy. They use the energy to grow. When we eat the plants, or animals that eat plants, we absorb the chemical energy.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. How do the things in the picture get their energy to grow? 2. Can you get energy straight from the sun to grow? 3. What happens if you eat more food than you need? Not enough food?

ACTIVITIES

1. Have the students draw an energy flow from a carnivore (meat eater) back to the sun. 2. Look on packages of food at the calories. Calories are a measure of the energy in the food.

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SOURCES OF ENERGY

We use many different energy sources to do work for us. Energy sources are classified into two groups--renewable and nonrenewable. In the United States, most of our energy comes from nonrenewable energy sources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, propane, and uranium are nonrenewable energy sources. They are used to make electricity, to heat our homes, to move our cars, and to manufacture all kinds of products. These energy sources are called nonrenewable because their supplies are limited. Petroleum, for example, was formed millions of years ago from the remains of ancient sea plants and animals. We can't make more petroleum in a short time. Renewable energy sources include biomass, geothermal energy, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy. They are called renewable energy sources because they are replenished in a short time. Day after day, the sun shines, the wind blows, and the rivers flow. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. Electricity is different from the other energy sources because it is a secondary source of energy. We have to use another energy source to make electricity. In the United States, coal is the number one energy source for generating electricity.

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SOLAR ENERGY

We get most of our energy from the sun. We call it solar energy. It travels from the sun to the earth in waves or rays. Some are light rays that we can see. Some rays we can't see, like x-rays. The sun is a giant ball of gas. It sends out huge amounts of energy every day. Most of the energy goes off into space. Only a small part reaches the earth. We use solar energy in many ways. All day, we use sunlight to see what we're doing and where we're going. Sunlight turns into heat when it hits things. Without the sun, we couldn't live on the earth--it would be too cold. We use the sun's energy to heat water and dry clothes. Plants use the light from the sun to grow. Plants take the energy in light and store it in their roots and leaves. That energy feeds every living thing on earth. We can also burn plants to make heat. The energy from the sun makes rain fall and wind blow. We can capture that energy with dams and windmills. Coal, oil and natural gas were made from prehistoric plants and animals. The energy in them came from the sun. We use that energy to cook our food, warm our houses, run our cars, and make electricity. Solar energy is free and clean. There is enough for everyone. And we will never run out of it. Solar energy is renewable. The sun will keep making energy for millions of years. Why don't we use the sun for all our energy needs? We don't know how to yet. The hard part is capturing the sunlight. It shines all over the earth and only a little bit reaches any one place. On a cloudy day, most of the light never reaches the ground at all. Lots of people put solar collectors on their roofs. Solar collectors capture the sunlight and turn it into heat. People heat their houses and their water using the sun's energy. Solar cells can turn light energy into electricity. Some toys and calculators use solar cells instead of batteries. Big solar cells can make enough electricity for a house. They are expensive, but good for houses far away from power lines. Today, solar energy provides only a tiny bit of the electricity we use. In the future, it could be a major source of energy. Scientists are looking for new ways to capture and use solar energy.

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When solar energy comes in contact with an object it turns into heat.

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BIOMASS

Biomass is anything that is alive. It is also anything that was alive a short time ago. Trees, crops, garbage, and animal waste are all biomass. Most of the biomass we use for energy today is wood. We burn wood to make heat. Biomass gets its energy from the sun. Plants store the sun's energy in their leaves and roots. When we eat biomass, we use the energy to move and grow. When we burn biomass, we use the energy to make heat. We can also change the energy in biomass into gas and liquid fuels. Biomass energy is renewable. That means we can make more. We can always grow more plants. We should plant new trees when we cut down old ones for wood. We also need to take care of the soil in which our crops grow. People and animals get their energy from biomass. The energy in everything we eat comes from plants. Bread is made from wheat, a plant. Hamburgers were once cows that ate grass. Until about 150 years ago, biomass gave people most of the energy they used. The cave dwellers and settlers burned wood for heat. They burned wood to cook food. In many poor countries, wood is still used for most energy needs. People also burn corn cobs and straw. In places without trees, people burn the waste from cows and pigs. Biomass can be used to make electricity. Many towns burn their garbage in waste-to-energy plants. Instead of putting the garbage in landfills, they burn it to make electricity. This saves landfill space and gives them electricity, too. Burning biomass doesn't cause as much pollution as burning coal or oil. But many people don't like to burn waste near their towns. Sometimes it smells bad. Biomass can be used to make a gas called methane. Methane is like the natural gas we use in our stoves and furnaces. In China, many farmers use all of their garbage, even animal and human waste, to make methane. They put the waste into a big tank without air. It makes methane as it rots. Farmers use the gas to cook food and light their homes. The waste that is left can be used as fertilizer to grow more crops. Biomass can also be turned into a fuel like gasoline. Just as apples can be made into cider, corn and wheat can be made into ethanol. Ethanol is a fuel a lot like gasoline. Ethanol costs more than gasoline to use, but it is cleaner. It is also renewable.

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WIND ENERGY

Wind is moving air. We can use the energy in wind to do work. Early Egyptians used the wind to sail ships on the Nile River. People still use wind to move them in sailboats. In Holland, people used windmills to grind wheat. The Pilgrims used windmills to grind corn, to pump water, and to run sawmills. Today, we use wind to make electricity. The energy in wind comes from the sun. When the sun shines, it heats the earth. Some parts of the earth get hotter than others. An area where land and water meets is a good example. Land usually absorbs and releases energy more quickly than water. The air over the land gets hotter than the air over the water. The warm air rises and cooler air rushes in to take its place. The moving air is wind. As long as the sun shines, there will be winds on the earth. We will never run out of wind energy. It is a renewable energy source. It is also free, since no one can own the sun or the air. Some places have more wind than others. Areas near the water usually have a lot of wind. Flat land and mountain passes are good places to catch the wind, too. Today, we use big wind turbines to catch the wind. Sometimes, there are hundreds of wind turbines in one place. This is called a wind farm. Some wind turbines are as tall as 20-story buildings! Not all wind farms are on land, some countries have wind farms on the water. These are called offshore wind farms. Right now the United States only has wind farms on land. Many of the wind turbines on wind farms are very tall so they can catch the most wind. Some wind turbines are as tall as a 20-story building! Not all wind turbines are that big though. Some wind turbines might be only 30 feet tall. People can put these small turbines up in their backyards to generate electricity to use at home. Schools can put small wind turbines on their property to make electricity too. Small wind turbines can even be put on sailboats so people have electricity when they are sailing in the water. When the wind blows, it pushes against the blades of the wind turbines. The blades spin around. They turn a generator to make electricity. The wind turbines don't run all the time, though. Sometimes the wind doesn't blow at all. Sometimes the wind blows too hard. Most wind turbines only run about three-fourths of the time. Today, wind energy makes only a little of the electricity we use­­enough to power a city the size of Chicago, Illinois. Most of the big wind farms are in the west. There are plans for many more all over the country. There are also wind farms planned to be built off of our coasts in the ocean. Wind is a clean energy source. Wind turbines don't burn fuel, so they don't pollute the air. Older wind turbines were sometimes very noisy, but the new ones are not. One wind turbine doesn't make much electricity. Most wind farms have many, many wind turbines. Wind farms take up a lot of land; most of the land they are on can still be farmed or used to graze animals. Wind is a safe, clean energy source for making electricity.

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HYDROPOWER

Hydro means water. Hydropower is the energy we make with moving water. Moving water has a lot of energy. We use that energy to make electricity. Gravity­­the force of attraction between all objects­­makes the water move. Gravity pulls the water from high ground to low ground. The rain that falls in the mountains flows down the valleys to the oceans. The sun heats the water in the oceans, turning it into water vapor, a gas. This is called evaporation. The water vapor rises. It turns into clouds when it reaches the cold air above the earth. The clouds release the water as precipitation­­rain or snow­­and the cycle starts again. This is called the water cycle. The water cycle will keep going forever. The water on earth will always be there. We won't run out of it. That's why we call hydropower a renewable energy source. Water wheels can use the energy in moving water. A water wheel has buckets around a big wheel. The buckets fill with water at the top of the wheel. The weight of the water turns the wheel and dumps the water at the bottom. Early settlers used water wheels to grind grain and run sawmills. Factories used water wheels to run their machines. In many countries, water wheels are still used. Moving water can be used to make electricity. First, a dam is built across a river. This stops the water and makes a big lake behind the dam. This lake is called a reservoir. When the gates of the dam are opened, the water rushes from the reservoir into the dam. Gravity pulls it. The water flows down big tubes called penstocks and turns giant wheels, called turbines. The spinning turbines make electricity. The first hydro plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. Today, there are about 2,000 dams in the United States that make electricity. Hydropower is a clean source of energy. No fuel is burned, so the air is not polluted. It is the cheapest source of electricity, because the water is free to use. And we won't run out of water­­it is renewable. The reservoirs can be used for swimming, fishing, boating, and other sports. When dams are built, however, the reservoirs flood a lot of land. They change the flow of the rivers. Sometimes, fish in the rivers can't swim and lay their eggs like they could before.

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GEOTHERMAL

Geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat). Geothermal energy is heat inside the earth. The inside of the earth is very hot. Sometimes this heat comes near the surface. We can use this heat to warm our houses. We can make electricity with it. The earth is made in layers, like an egg. At the center is a core of iron. Around that is an outer core of iron and rock so hot the rock is melted. This liquid rock is called magma. The next layer is a mixture of rock and magma called the mantle. The shell of the earth--with the oceans and mountains--is called the crust. In some places, magma comes close to the earth's surface. It heats the water underground. We can use this heated water. We dig wells and pump the hot water and steam out of the ground. The hot water we use will be replaced by rain. The heat inside the earth will always be there. More heat is made every day in the earth's core. We won't run out of geothermal energy. It is renewable energy. Geothermal energy is everywhere under the ground, but sometimes it is hard to reach. In most places, the crust is miles thick. Magma is near the surface in only a few places. Earthquakes and volcanoes are signs that magma is near the surface. The lava from volcanoes has magma in it. Most of the geothermal energy in the United States is found on the West Coast and in Hawaii. People have used geothermal energy for thousands of years. In some places, there are pools of water that are always hot. They are warmed by underground springs. These hot springs have often been used for bathing. Many people believe these springs have healing powers. Most people in Iceland use hot water from geothermal wells to heat their homes. Some scientists think that someday we will be able to capture the energy in volcanoes. Power plants use steam from geothermal wells to make electricity. The steam is used to spin turbines. The turbines spin magnets in coils of copper wire to make electricity. The power plants are built close to the wells. The steam is pumped straight from the wells to the power plants. Geothermal energy is clean energy. No fuel is burned, so there is no air pollution. The steam is turned into water and put back into the earth. And geothermal energy is cheap--new power plants can make electricity for about the same cost as coal plants.

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COAL

Coal looks like shiny black rock. Coal has lots of energy in it. When it is burned, it makes heat and light energy. Many years ago, Native Americans burned coal to make pots. The early settlers didn't use much coal--they burned wood. People began using coal in the 1800s to heat their homes. Trains and ships used coal for fuel. Factories used coal to make iron and steel. Today, we burn coal mainly to make electricity. Coal was formed millions of years ago, before the dinosaurs. Back then, much of the earth was covered by huge swamps. They were filled with giant ferns and plants. As the plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps. Over the years, thick layers of plants were covered by dirt and water. They were packed down by the weight. After a long time, the heat and pressure changed the plants into coal. Coal is called a fossil fuel because it was made from plants that were once alive. The energy in coal came from the sun. The coal we use today took millions of years to form. We can't make more in a short time. That is why it is called nonrenewable. There is a lot of coal in the U.S. There is enough to last at least 300 years. Most coal is buried under the ground. We must dig it out--mine it. If coal is near the surface, miners dig it up with huge machines. First, they scrape off the dirt and rock, then dig out the coal. This is called surface mining. After the coal is mined, they put back the dirt and rock. They plant trees and grass. The land can be used again. This is called reclamation. If the coal is deep in the ground, tunnels called mine shafts are dug down to the coal. Machines dig the coal and carry it to the surface. Some mine shafts are 1,000 feet deep. This is called deep mining. After the coal is mined, it is cleaned and shipped to market. Most coal is moved by trains to power plants and factories. Sometimes it is moved on barges along rivers. Power plants burn the coal to make electricity. Coal is one of our most important energy sources. It gives us half of the electricity we use and one fourth of our total energy. When coal is burned, it can pollute the air. Power plants and factories work hard to keep the pollution from getting into the air. They clean the coal before they burn it. They use scrubbers to clean the smoke before it goes into the air.

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PETROLEUM

Petroleum is an oil that is found underground. Sometimes we call it oil. Oil can be as thick and black as tar or as thin as water. Petroleum has a lot of energy. We can turn it into different fuels--like gasoline, kerosene, and heating oil. Most plastics are made from petroleum, too. People have burned oil for a long time. Long ago, they didn't dig for it. They gathered oil that seeped from under the ground into ponds. It floated on the water. Long before the dinosaurs, oceans covered most of the earth. They were filled with tiny sea animals and plants. As the plants and animals died, they sank to the ocean floor. Sand covered them. Millions of years passed. The weight of the water and heat from the earth turned them into petroleum and natural gas. Petroleum is called a fossil fuel because it was made from plants and animals. The energy in petroleum came from the energy in the plants and animals. That energy came from the sun. The petroleum we use today was made millions of years ago. It took millions of years to form. We can't make more in a short time. That's why we call petroleum nonrenewable. The United States doesn't drill enough oil to meet our needs. We buy more than half the oil we use from other countries. Petroleum is buried underground in tiny pockets in rocks. We drill oil wells into the rocks to pump out the oil. Some wells are more than two miles deep. Texas and Alaska are the states that drill the most oil. A lot of oil is under the oceans along our shores. Oil rigs that can float are used to reach this oil. Most of these wells are in the Gulf of Mexico. After the oil is drilled, it is sent to refineries. At the refineries, it is cleaned and made into different fuels. Most of the oil is made into gasoline. The oil is moved from one place to another by ships and trucks, and through pipelines. What would we do without petroleum? Our country would come to a stop! Our cars, trucks, and planes all use fuel made from oil. Our factories use oil to make plastics and paints, medicines and soaps. We even burn oil to make electricity. We use more petroleum than any other energy source. Petroleum keeps us going, but it can damage our environment. Burning oil can pollute the air. Pollution from cars is a big problem in many parts of the country. Oil companies are making cleaner gasoline and other fuels every year. Oil can also pollute the soil and water if it is spilled. Oil companies work hard to drill and ship oil as safely as possible. They try hard to clean up any oil that spills.

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NATURAL GAS

Natural gas is like air. You can't see it, or smell it, or taste it. But it has a lot of energy in it. You can burn it to make heat. The early Chinese burned natural gas to get salt from sea water. Natural gas was formed millions of years ago, before the dinosaurs. Oceans covered much of the earth, filled with tiny sea plants and animals. When the plants and animals died, they sank to the bottom and were covered by sand. Layers of dead plants, animals, and sand built up over time. Heat and pressure turned the plants and animals into natural gas and petroleum. Since natural gas is made from plants and animals, it is called a fossil fuel. The plants and animals got their energy from the sun. It was stored in them when they died. This is the energy in natural gas. The natural gas we use today took millions of years to form. That's why we call it a nonrenewable energy source. We can't make more in a short time. Someday, most of the natural gas we can reach by drilling underground will be gone. Natural gas is found underground in pockets of rock. We drill wells into the ground and pump out the gas. Some wells are a mile deep! The natural gas is shipped from the wells to plants that clean it. A smell like rotten eggs is added so that we can detect any leaks. We move natural gas from one place to another in underground pipelines. There are more than a million miles of pipelines in the United States alone. Almost everyone uses natural gas. Most homes use natural gas for heat. So do schools and hospitals. Many stoves and water heaters use natural gas, too. Factories burn natural gas to make products like paper, chemicals, fertilizer, and cement. Natural gas is also an ingredient in paint, glue, fertilizer, and many other products. Power plants burn natural gas to make electricity. Most new power plants burn natural gas. Sometimes, natural gas is even used to run cars, trucks, and buses. Most mail trucks use natural gas instead of gasoline. Garbage sometimes produces natural gas as it rots. This kind of natural gas is called methane. Methane is a renewable energy source. There will always be garbage. Natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. It doesn't pollute the air as much as burning coal or oil. That's why it is a good fuel for heating our homes.

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PROPANE

Propane is the gas we use to fuel our backyard grills and heat our homes. It's a lot like natural gas ­ you can't see it, smell it, or taste it, but you can burn it to make heat energy. Propane is a fossil fuel. It was formed millions of years ago, long before the dinosaurs. Like oil and gas, it was formed from tiny sea animals and plants. The plants got their energy from the sun. This is the energy in propane, propane's energy came from the sun. Propane is buried underground mixed with natural gas and petroleum, it has to be separated out at natural gas cleaning plants and oil refineries. Even though propane has been around for millions of years, it was only discovered 97 years ago! Right away scientists knew they had found a good energy source. Half of the farms in the United States use propane to dry crops, run tractors, and heat barns. Businesses use propane for heating and cooking. Most vehicles that we drive inside buildings, like forklifts, use propane for fuel. It is a clean fuel. It doesn't pollute the air. Some people in the country can't get natural gas pipelines to their homes. They use propane instead. They put big propane tanks outside their houses. Small trucks bring the propane right to their houses. When propane comes out of the ground, it is a gas. When it is put under pressure, it becomes a liquid. A lot more liquid can be put into a tank than gas. A tank of propane gas might last a week. The same sized tank of liquid propane would last five years! Liquid propane is easy to move from place to place in tanks. It is portable ­ that means easy to move. We use small tanks of propane for our barbecue grills. One tank can last all summer. Some cars and buses use propane for fuel. It is a very clean fuel. It doesn't pollute the air like gasoline does. Engines must be changed to use propane though, and that is expensive. There aren't many propane filling stations either.

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URANIUM

Uranium is a mineral found in rocks in the ground. Uranium is nonrenewable. We can't make more. There is plenty of uranium, though. We split uranium atoms to get energy. Everything is made of atoms. Stars, trees, horses, air--all are made of atoms. Atoms are tiny, tiny particles. Every atom is made of even smaller particles. In the center of an atom is the nucleus. It has protons and neutrons in it. Moving around the nucleus are electrons. The number of protons tells us what kind of atom it is. So far, 109 different atoms have been found. You haven't heard of most of them. There are some you do know. Hydrogen is a gas--every atom of hydrogen has one proton. Oxygen has eight, tin has 50, and uranium has 92. You'll learn more about uranium later. There is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. It is called nuclear energy. It holds the atom together. To use this energy, we have to set it free. There are two ways to free the energy in atoms. The first way is to combine atoms to make a new atom. This is called fusion. The energy from the sun is from fusion. Inside the sun, hydrogen atoms combine to make helium. Helium atoms don't need as much energy to hold them together. The extra energy is released as light and heat. Another way to free the energy in atoms is to split them apart. We can split one atom into two smaller atoms. This is called fission. The two smaller atoms don't need all the energy that held the larger atom together. The extra energy is released as heat and radiation. Power plants use fission to make electricity. Atoms of uranium are split into two smaller atoms. The extra energy is released as heat. This heat is used to make electricity. Nuclear power is clean, since no fuel is burned to pollute the air. And uranium is a cheap fuel. Right now, about 20 percent of our electricity comes from splitting atoms of uranium in nuclear power plants. During fission, heat isn't the only energy that is released. Rays of energy, like x-rays, are also given off. These rays of energy, called radiation, can be dangerous. Radiation is everywhere. It comes from the sun, TV sets, and even food. Small amounts of radiation are harmless. Some radiation is helpful. When we go to the doctor or dentist and get pictures of our bones or teeth, they use x-rays which is a form of radiation. Some medicine has radiation in it which helps the doctors to look at organs inside our bodies. Doctors are very careful that we don't get too much radiation. Large amounts of radiation can kill our cells and poison our food and water. Power plants are very careful to keep radiation from escaping. The power plants in the United States are very safe. The fuel from nuclear power plants produces radiation for a long time. After the fuel is used, it still is radioactive--it gives off radiation. It can't be put into a landfill. It must be carefully stored away from people. Some people don't think we should use nuclear energy. They think the radiation is too dangerous. Other people think nuclear energy is a clean, safe way to make electricity.

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ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a mysterious force. We can't see it like we see the sun. We can't hold it like we hold coal. We know when it is working, but it is hard to know exactly what it is. Electricity is simply moving electrons. Electricity has been around forever. Lightning is electricity. It is electrons moving from one cloud to another or jumping to the ground. Have you ever felt a shock after walking across the carpet? A bunch of electrons jumped to you from another object. This kind of electricity is called static electricity. Electrons aren't moving through a wire, they are jumping from one object to another. Power plants use many fuels to make electricity. Most of our electricity comes from burning coal. Uranium, natural gas, oil, wind, hydropower, and biomass also are used to make electricity. From a power plant, electricity flows through transmission lines held up by power towers. The transmission lines carry large amounts of electricity to electric poles in cities and towns. Distribution lines carry small amounts of electricity from the electric poles to houses and businesses. Electricity does a lot of work for us. We use it many times each day. It lights our homes--and warms and cools and helps us clean them. It runs our TVs, DVDs, VCRs, video games, computers and fax machines. It cooks our food and washes the dishes. It mows our lawns and blows the leaves away. It can even run our cars. We use more electricity every year. Electricity can be dangerous, though. It can cause fires and injuries, even death. Here are some rules for using electricity safely: 1. Don't put anything into an outlet except a plug. 2. Don't pull on the cord to unplug an appliance, hold the plug and pull. 3. Dry your hands before you plug in or unplug a cord. 4. If a plug is broken or a cord is cut or worn, don't use it. 5. Don't plug too many cords into one outlet. 6. Keep appliances away from water. Don't use a hair dryer if there's water in any nearby sink. 7. If there's a big storm, turn off the TV and computer. 8. Don't touch any power lines outside. 9. Some power lines are buried underground. If you are digging and find a wire, don't touch it. 10. Don't fly a kite or climb a tree near a power line.

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SAVING ENERGY

Most of the energy we use today comes from coal, oil, and natural gas. They are fossil fuels. They take millions of years to form. We can't make more quickly. They are nonrenewable. We need to save energy whenever we can. You can help. Reduce: A good way to save energy is by not wasting things. Don't use paper plates or cups all the time. You only use them once­­then throw them away. Write on both sides of your paper. Use a lunch box and thermos instead of paper bags and box drinks. Buy one big bottle of juice instead of six little ones. Buy one big bag of chips--not ten little ones. Reducing waste saves energy. It takes energy to make things and to get rid of them. Buy things without a lot of packaging. Some candy has more plastic around it than food in it. What a waste! Reuse: Try to use things more than once. Wash out plastic sandwich bags and use them again. Use the comics from newspapers to wrap presents. Buy toys at yard sales and you can save energy and money, too. Give your old clothes and toys to someone who needs them-- don't throw them away. Repair: Fix old things whenever you can. Paint your big sister's old bike instead of buying a new one. Compost: Put grass clippings, leaves, branches and food waste into a compost pile instead of throwing them away. It makes great fertilizer for your lawn or garden. Recycle: You can recycle lots of things--cans, paper, glass, and plastic. It only takes a minute to recycle and it saves energy. It takes a lot of energy to dig up metal and make a can. It only takes a little energy to make a new can from an old one. And cans can be recycled over and over again. Plastic bottles can be recycled into clothes and rugs. Paper can be recycled into boxes and bags. Don't throw away anything you can recycle. Save electricity: You use a lot of electricity every day. Use only what you need. Don't turn on two lights if you only need one. Remember to turn off the lights when you leave a room. Turn off the TV and video games, too. On a sunny day, read by a window. It's a simple way to save energy. Keep the refrigerator door closed. Know what you want before you open the door. If you're pouring a drink, don't leave the door open. It takes a lot of energy to cool things. If the air conditioner is on, keep doors and windows closed. Don't go in and out, in and out. If you can, just use a fan and wear light clothes. Save heat: It takes a lot of energy to heat houses and water. If the heat is on, keep doors and windows closed. Wear warm clothes instead of turning up the heat. At night, use blankets to stay warm. When you take a bath, use only the water you need. And don't stand in the shower for a long time. Heating water uses energy. Save gasoline: It takes a lot of energy to operate a car. Walk or ride your bike wherever you can. If you and some of your friends are going to the same place, go together. Take the bus instead of asking for a ride to school. The things you do every day make a difference. If everyone saves just a little energy, it adds up to a lot.

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NEED National Sponsors and Partners

American Association of Blacks in Energy American Electric Power American Electric Power Foundation American Petroleum Institute American Solar Energy Society American Wind Energy Association Aramco Services Company Areva Armstrong Energy Corporation Association of Desk & Derrick Clubs All Wild About Kentucky's Environment Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC BP Foundation BP BP Alaska BP Solar Bureau of Land Management ­ U.S. Department of the Interior C&E Operators Cape and Islands Self Reliance Cape Cod Cooperative Extension Cape Light Compact­Massachusetts L.J. and Wilma Carr Center for the Advancement of Process Technology­College of the Mainland­TX Chesapeake Public Schools­VA Chesterfield County Public Schools­VA Chevron Chevron Energy Solutions ComEd ConEd Solutions ConocoPhillips Council on Foreign Relations CPS Energy Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District­TX Dart Foundation Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM Dominion Dominion Foundation Duke Energy E.On EDF East Kentucky Power El Paso Foundation EnCana Energy Information Administration ­ U.S. Department of Energy Energy Training Solutions Energy and Mineral Law Foundation Energy Solutions Foundation Equitable Resources Escambia County School District­FL FPL Energy Encounter­FL First Roswell Company Florida Department of Environmental Protection Foundation for Environmental Education Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority Guam Energy Office Gulf Power Halliburton Foundation Gerald Harrington, Geologist Houston Museum of Natural Science Hydro Foundation for Research and Education Idaho Department of Education Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Independent Petroleum Association of America Independent Petroleum Association of New Mexico Indiana Office of Energy and Defense Development Interstate Renewable Energy Council Iowa Energy Center Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition Kentucky Department of Energy Development and Independence Kentucky Oil and Gas Association Kentucky Propane Education and Research Council Kentucky River Properties LLC Keyspan KidWind Lenfest Foundation Llano Land and Exploration Long Island Power Authority­NY Maine Energy Education Project Maine Public Service Company Marianas Islands Energy Office Maryland Energy Administration Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources Michigan Energy Office Michigan Oil and Gas Producers Education Foundation Minerals Management Service ­ U.S. Department of the Interior Mississippi Development Authority­ Energy Division Montana Energy Education Council Narragansett Electric ­ A National Grid Company NASA Educator Resource Center­WV National Alternative Fuels Training Center­ West Virginia University National Association of State Energy Officials National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges National Hydropower Association National Ocean Industries Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nebraska Public Power District New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection New York Power Authority New Mexico Oil Corporation New Mexico Landman's Association North Carolina Department of Administration­State Energy Office Offshore Energy Center/Ocean Star/ OEC Society Offshore Technology Conference Ohio Energy Project Pacific Gas and Electric Company PECO Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association Poudre School District­CO Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration Puget Sound Energy Roswell Climate Change Committee Roswell Geological Society Rhode Island State Energy Office Sacramento Municipal Utility District Saudi Aramco Sentech, Inc. Shell Snohomish County Public Utility District­ WA Society of Petroleum Engineers David Sorenson Southern Company Southern LNG Southwest Gas Spring Branch Independent School District­TX Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development­Energy Division Toyota TransOptions, Inc. TXU Energy United Technologies University of Nevada­Las Vegas, NV United Illuminating Company U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy­Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies U.S. Department of Energy ­ Wind for Schools Virgin Islands Energy Office Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy Virginia Department of Education Virginia General Assembly Wake County Public Schools­NC Washington and Lee University Western Kentucky Science Alliance W. Plack Carr Company Yates Petroleum

The NEED Project

PO Box 10101

Manassas, VA 20108

1-800-875-5029

www.NEED.org

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