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CMSD Strategic Development Initiative

Academic Transformation ­ Summary of Research and Academic Fact Base

Funding for CMSD Strategic Development Initiative provided by: The Cleveland Foundation and The George Gund Foundation

HS Strategy Session

The situation today within CMSD high schools

Overall goal: Prepare all students for college and the 21st century workforce

State of CMSD high schools

1 Academic goal of college readiness for all unmet · Students unprepared at 9th grade transition · Many drop out before graduating · Graduates are not college ready (1.9% score 3+ on AP test) 2 Accountability largely based on state measures · Public scorecards focus on OGT proficiency · AAPs and school goal setting includes non-academic factors (eg, attendance, safety, conditions for learning), which will become publically transparent in 2009-10 3 Pockets of strength in principal quality · Opportunity to increase "bench strength" · Some leadership changes required 4 Support for quality teachers improving, though still limited · Core curriculum and aligned PD supports progressing · However, level of instructional rigor and teacher quality still highly variable in classrooms · Principals have limited flexibility to hire, evaluate, develop, fire 5 HS portfolio includes promising new and innovative schools, but need to broaden access to quality · Many traditional and themed schools struggling to drive student outcomes · Some neighborhoods have no good options

Example strategies to address

· 9th grade on-track strategies · High expectations and increased rigor (eg, set stretch achievement goals, expand focus on AP) · Create publically transparent school scorecards based on broad measures with clear expectations, supports, and consequences · Develop data dashboards for teachers · Build principal pipeline (eg, partner with New Leaders for New Schools or build program internally) · Expand school level autonomy where strong leaders in place · Continue to expand instructional support in HS to support teaching quality · Expand supply of quality schools · Structure district to support a portfolio that is sustainable long term (eg, revamp new schools office, ensure financial viability and transparency)

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Model districts mix school reforms and system strategies

Both sets of strategies are necessary for success

Denver

Profile Outcomes Traditional: College prep: Themed: Magnet: Charter: Alternative: SLCs: HS breakdown 98% urban, 65% LI1, 73K students 10 point increase in graduation rate from 2002-05 6 6 3 4 12 5 n/a 19% 19% 9% 13% 38% 16% n/a

San Francisco

99% urban, 55% LI1, 56K students 69% proficiency rate on AP tests with 30% student participation 5 3 7 n/a 6 3 14 20% 12% 28% n/a 24% 12% 56%

Charlotte

92% urban, 46% LI1, 129K students 0.5 point increase in average ACT scores in 3 years 13 3 12 4 0 5 n/a 37% 9% 34% 11% 0% 14% n/a

Priority HS-level system strategies

· Hold schools accountable ­ New school scorecard used to annually review schools and implement interventions, supports, and incentives · Grant school autonomy ­ District gives schools autonomy over people, time, & money. Schools and district collaborating to create autonomy zones

· Support 9th grade ­ Certain HS's offer transitional support and advisors for 9th graders · Focus on college ­ All high schools share a core curriculum of college readiness. Certain HS's teach curriculum around "fields of interest" or in college seminar-style course structures

· Increase educational choice ­ District offers zone of themebased schools to promote students' interests, abilities and talents (with a core academic curriculum across schools) · Graduate college ready ­ ½ point increase in ACT over three years indicate college readiness focus

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1. Low income Source: Broad foundation database; web and lit search

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Summary of findings to date

Academic student outcomes

Research has found staying on-track in the 9th grade is the most predictive indicator of graduation and high school success · 80% of on-track freshman1 graduate in four years vs. 22% of off-track freshman · Avoiding even 1-2 failed classes dramatically improves a students' chance of graduating To increase on-track performance, schools and districts should focus first on student attendance · 8x more predictive than incoming 8th grade test scores on course failure rates · A top-quartile 8th grader who misses 10-14 days will score 3x as many Fs as a bottom-quartile 8th grader who misses 0-4 days Student survey data indicates that strong student-teacher relationships, high expectations, and relevance improve student attendance · High scores on teacher trust and personal support for students are worth 4 days of attendance · Believing high school is relevant to their future is worth another 3 days for students Longitudinal studies indicate rigorous coursework most critical to "college readiness", especially in mathematics · Students who complete calculus are twice as likely to receive a bachelor's degree than those who complete up to Algebra 2 · Research suggests students not taking high-level courses due to low expectations or course availability

1. Defined as student has accumulated five full course credits and has no more than one semester F (one-half of a full credit) in a core subject (English, math, science, or social studies)

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1 Academic outcomes

On-track freshmen four-times more likely to graduate

Definition: accumulation of five full year course credits and no more than one "F" in core subject

Graduation rate (%)

100

4X

On-track end of freshman year1 Off-track end of freshman year1

81 80

60

40

22 20

0

4-year graduation rate

To remain on track students must complete normal coursework with passing grades

1. On track defined as student has accumulated five full course credits and has no more than one semester F (one-half of a full credit) in a core subject (English, math, science, or social studies) Source: Consortium report "The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation"

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1 Academic outcomes

Success in courses primarily driven by attendance

Attendance more than 8x more predictive of failure compared to eight grade test scores

High performing 8th graders fail if they do not attend class

Eighth-grade national quartile on the ITBS1

Average number of Fs Highest 0.3 0.9 2.1

Third

0.5

1.0

2.2

4.0

5.7

7.3

Second

0.5

1.3

2.5

4.5

5.9

7.8

10.1

10.0

10.1

Lowest

0.7

1.3

2.8

4.5

6.3

7.1

9.7

9.7

0-4 Low performing 8th graders succeed if they attend class

5-9

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40+

Absences in days by semester

1. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Note: This figure only includes students still enrolled in school at the end of their freshman year Source: CCSR,"What matters for staying on track and graduating"

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1 Academic outcomes

Theory in action: Chicago's "graduation pathways"

District strategy launched in February 2008 in response to the Consortium's research Strategic priorities

· Freshmen Watch List alerts high schools to every incoming freshman's grades, attendance, and test scores to profile their needs · Freshmen Success Reports Periodically update teachers of freshman's data · Freshmen Connection provides orientation and skills-building programs for entering students · Achievement Academies: Two-year program (8 schools) for overage students not qualified to enter high school · Credit-Recovery Report: Twice-yearly list of students who need to regain lost credits

Prevention

Early intervention

Credit recovery

· Lunchtime, after-school, or Saturday sessions for freshmen who risk graduating late because they failed courses · Alternatives: evening school, online courses, summer school as added options

Re-enrollment and reengagement

· Saturday study and community service for expelled students or those with discipline violations · Alternative placements of students expelled for behavior problems · YES Initiative: anti-gang-violence initiative focusing on juvenile offenders and incoming freshmen

"Now, we get a picture of the whole freshman class [for the first time]...As teachers, we can see how we are doing with a student compared to other teachers." -CPS English teacher on the importance using the data

Source: Education week, March 11, 2009

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1 Academic outcomes

Rigorous coursework is best indicator for college readiness

Higher level math is critical component of coursework

In-depth cohort analyses highlight importance of course load

Rigorous academic curriculum is the strongest of the pre-collegiate momentum indicators Bachelor's degree attainment rate by highest level of mathematics reached in high school1

Pre-algebra

4 7 17

more than 2X

The highest level of mathematics reached in high school continues to be a key marker in precollegiate momentum, with the tipping point of momentum toward a bachelor's degree now firmly above Algebra 2...

Algebra 1 Geometry Algebra 2 Trigonometry

39 60 75 83 0 20 40 60 80 100

To close gaps in preparation--and ultimate degree attainment--the provision of a rigorous curriculum has to be in place

Precalculus Calculus

(%)

High schools must offer rigorous courses, students must be encouraged to take them, and students must choose to take them

Source: US DoE, Toolbox Revisited Paths to Degree Completion From High School Through College; Education Policy Improvement Center; Redefining College Readiness; ACT; College Readiness Begins in Middle School; College Board; Proposal to Present at Getting From Facts to Policy: An Education Policy Convening; Dougherty, Mellor, and Jian; The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation, NCEA, 2006

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1 Academic outcomes

Mix of factors build student motivation for academic rigor

Key factors drive student motivation...

Set high expectations to drive student motivation

...that are not always in place across US...

· 2/3 of HS students who study three or fewer hrs/week still report getting "mostly A's and B's" · Half of students surveyed said they were challenged to do their best · 18% of students in the college-prep track took a math course after their junior year of high school

...but are critical to college readiness

· 75 percent of "A" students say they are highly motivated to succeed, compared with only half of the "C" students

Ensure graduate level curriculum

· Low income students who score proficiently on AP tests are 32% more likely to complete college

Build college-level habits

· Almost half of HS students study only 3 or fewer hours per week

· First year college students study ~13-14 hours per week

Start in middle school

· Only ~33% of college-hopeful 8th graders plan to complete HS courses recommended for college readiness

· "Students who are not proficient in core academics by 8th grade are much less likely to be collegeready at the end of high school"

Source: US DoE, Toolbox Revisited Paths to Degree Completion From High School Through College; Education Policy Improvement Center;, Redefining College Readiness; ACT; College Readiness Begins in Middle School; College Board; Proposal to Present at Getting From Facts to Policy: An Education Policy Convening; Dougherty, Mellor, and Jian; The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation, NCEA, 2006

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1 Academic outcomes

Theory in action: Austin's "College Readiness Initiative"

Relies on multiple partnerships with outside organizations

Description

· Dell Math Academy: Provide intensive academic intervention services for selected at-risk 9th grade math students · Supports professional development opportunities for teachers that help teachers examine issues related to achievement and explored instructional strategies to improve proficiency

Push academic rigor in the classroom...

· Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID): Targets the "academic middle" and places them in advanced courses · Provides trained college tutors to provide academic support for advanced courses and to be good role models · Advanced Placement Strategies: Partners schools with private donors to provide incentives for students, teachers and schools to strengthen AP participation · Project Advance: Provides access to post-secondary opportunities through college visits, workshops, college/career fairs, and general early preparation for admissions

...and connect students with college in HS

· ACC/AISD College Connection: Partners with local community college to provide hands-on assistance with the process of applying to college, taking placement tests, and making choices about degrees and schedules · Participation guarantees admissions to local college

Source: AISD website; Michael and Susan Dell Foundation; AP Strategies

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2 Accountability for success

Districts moving to differentiated accountability models

Example of Oakland, providing supports and consequences for failure

Oakland categorizes every school using three criteria...

...that determines the level of intervention ascribed

Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

1

2

3

Current academic performance

Value add in academic performance

Shrinking of achievement gap

Increased monitoring and support Increased curricular flexibilities

Accountability for results

Blue tier

Green tier

Yellow tier Focus Schools

Orange tier

Red tier

· Severely underperforming schools are designated as "focus schools" and will receive either: ­ Intense monitoring and support ­ Internal restructuring or new school design ­ Closure recommendation

Source: Oakland Unified School District

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2 Accountability for success

At HS level, school scorecards employ broad measures

Data tracking reflects the findings of what matters in high schools

Example measures

Student outcomes · Graduation rates · Employment and college enrollment · Academic attainment (eg, state tests, ACT, SAT) Academic progress · Value-added measures · Freshman on-track to graduation · AP course placement and scoring · Teacher certification and absences Performance drivers · School cleanliness · Parental satisfaction · Attendance Student connection · Participation in extracurricular activities · Connection with teachers · Safety

Source: Various urban district school scorecards; BCG analysis

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Tracked / reported at CMSD?

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2 Accountability for success

Districts pushing autonomy to school buildings

Example of Boston's "Pilot School program", similar to many pushes for autonomy nationwide

Low autonomy

City schools # of high schools % of high schools 25 56% Exam schools 3 7%

School governance scale

Boston Public Schools

Highly autonomous

Charter schools 6 13%

Discovery schools1 0 0%

Pilot schools 11 24%

District provides autonomy...

Staffing - Power to select staff, though pilot teachers can be bumped by more-senior district employees during layoffs Curriculum - Can set their own graduation requirements with some curricular flexibility

Governance - School board has authority over principal selection, supervision, and firing Budget - Per-pupil amount given as a lump sum Calendar - Can set longer school days, years

...without ceding full authority

· Governing board defined in pilot school proposal can be composed of teachers, principals, parents, civic leaders, etc. · District central office provides critical resources (instructional supports, coaches, textbooks, etc) · Authorization requires 2/3 vote of union, and schools must follow limited language in BTU contract

Outcomes are positive

Students in Boston's pilot high schools perform better on [state] tests, are suspended less frequently, attend class more often, and graduate in higher percentages than students enrolled in the city's regular public high schools" - The Boston Globe (Nov, 2007)

1. Discovery Schools have flexibility over their budget and curriculum, but not over staffing, governance, or school schedule. Currently only serving Elementary and middle schools Note: Count and proportions of high schools are estimated. Some include middle school grades Source: BPS website: Boston Globe; BTU website; EdWeek; Center for Collaborative Education

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3 Principal quality

Successful principal training programs build pipeline

Requires targeting candidates 18 months prior to placement as full time school principal

Recruitment (eg, spring of 2010) Target candidates · Education/instructional leaders · Target business leaders Attract internal and external candidates · Offer comparable salary / benefits to an assistant principal · Hold spaces/offer relocation to attract external candidates Create rigorous application process · Require application, essays, resumes, and letters of recommendation · Conduct a multiple round interview process, including role playing exercises

Training (eg, Summer 2010-summer 2011) Summer intensive (4-6 weeks) · Provide classroom based program led by trained experts · Provide comprehensive courses including: ­ Leadership ­ Human resources ­ Curriculum, instruction, and assessment ­ Budgeting and finance ­ Community and public relations ­ Operations management Residency (1 year) · Require experiential learning under guidance of an existing principal · Offer professional development roadmap, including: ­ Day to day interaction with mentor principal ­ Weekly meetings/coaching from experienced principals ­ School related project focusing on instruction and student achievement

Evaluation and placement (eg, Fall 2011) Evaluate candidates · Test competency in instruction · Allow mentor principals and instructors to qualitatively assess candidates Assist in placement of program graduates · Assist grads in locating/securing positions · Guarantee interview for principal position · Provide ongoing coaching/ professional development after program completion · Require 4-6 year commitment to district after graduates secure a position

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4 High quality teaching

Districts focusing on improving teacher quality

Focus on increasing average efficacy of the teaching workforce

Boost effectiveness of average performers · Day to day performance management · Individualized coaching and development · Opportunities to observe and practice excellence · Incentives tied to effectiveness

Improve or counsel out persistently less effective teachers and replace with more effective teachers

Retain and leverage most effective teachers · Financial incentives · Greater autonomy · Greater input into school decision making · Incentives to take on more students, difficult situations, and broader responsibilities in classroom · Promotion up career path

Teacher effectiveness (eg, value add, growth, PE rating)

These levers can boost performance and consistency of the teacher workforce

Source: New Teacher Project, April 2009

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5 High school portfolio

Summary of findings

Portfolio and school reform models

While educators understand what drives performance, there is no silver bullet solution--ie, no model at the high school level is empirically proven to improve student outcomes · Targeted interventions alone (eg, building a new instructional program) are unlikely to be sufficient to turn around severely underperforming schools · Coordinated holistic effort must address instruction, structure, and school governance is some fashion · Anecdotal evidence suggests some models (eg, specialty academies, established charters) have been able to make significant gains Local context and leadership matter · High performing districts' employ different mix in their portfolio, depending on the local context · Choosing a model that the district and community can support increases the chances of success · Hiring an excellent leader with key autonomies (people, time, money) priority one Implementation is the most critical factor that will determine success · New programs without fidelity to every detail of the model consistently fail · Programs should be piloted on a small scale and rigorously evaluated from day one to facilitate learning and improvement as a district · Quick wins show that this effort will be different, set the tone for transformation

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Urban districts have tried several HS school reform models

Research identifies some positive benefits, but no definitive answer for what works

What empirical research says about results Description Themes Small schools SLCs Magnets Early college College prep

Focusing of curriculum around a central theme or topic (eg, computech) Small, enrollment capped schools, freestanding or within one building Smaller, often theme-based learning communities within a school Open enrollment schools servicing particular neighborhoods or regions Allows dual enrollment with colleges, often by operating on a higher education campus Focused on college prep, but via instructional/cultural methods (i.e, no formal dual enrollment) Implementing structural and instructional supports to track students towards specific careers

Benefits

Successfully target niche community desires... Reduce alienation of high-risk students and increase safety... Improved graduation rate and increased personalization... Provides choice to parents in a neighborhood... Sets high expectations and expedites transition to college...

Limitations

...but have not been able to achieve significant student gains ...effect on achievement or college success is minimal ...but no proof of systematic improvement of test scores ...but often risk "skimming" top students from an area ...but no proof that they are effective at keeping at-risk students in schools ...but students are more likely to have college-educated parents

Actively affects culture to one of post-secondary readiness...

Academy

Proven to Increase earnings over time and effectively address high-risk students...

...but primarily helps men and has no effect on post-secondary enrollment

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Reform must address three dimensions in a holistic fashion

Latest school level reforms attempt to coordinate across instruction, governance, and structure

Change school operations and the way schools are run, eg · Autonomous district zones · Granting Charters · Education Management Orgs

Governance reform

Improve teaching and learning, eg · More structured curricula (eg, Math and literacy programs) · Professional development, other Instructional teacher quality approaches

reform

Structural reform

Organize schools to deliver education services, eg · Extended instruction time · Small learning communities · Community connections

Source: American Institutes for Research, Spring 2009, "Improving low performing HS models: Searching for evidence."

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Each school reform yields benefits, also has limitations

Governance reform

Examples Seeks to address: · Charters, educational management orgs (EMOs) · School autonomy levels · Reaction time to multidimensional failure · Autonomy allows rapid response to student and community needs · Allows increased accountability in exchange · Requires careful, timeintensive selection of providers (eg., RFP), often difficult at high school level

Structural reform

· Extended day, SLCs, small school, new scheduling · High drop out rates · Low attendance · 9th grade transition · Smaller communities simplify additional reform · "Advisories" are proven to promote personalization and help attendance · Risks "tracking" students · Configuring physical space often complex · Balancing customization with district policy difficult

Instructional reform

· Refining or augmenting curricula, providing PD · Low proficiency rates · Low student engagement · Low graduation rates · Targets specific academic performance deficits · Certain practices (eg, PD) can be easily scaled across schools · Requires basic school discipline to implement · Can require community input for major unique reform

Benefits

Limitations

There is no "right" approach ­ benchmark districts have used research but tailored their HS network

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Some models focus first on instruction and structure

Instructional reform Theme school Example Context

NC New Schools Project (NCNSP) · NC implemented STEM programs in 10 "turnaround" HS's in 2007 · Schools selected by application · 7-month planning time for principals · · · · · Focus on STEM curriculum Establish "college-ready" culture Provide accelerated student learning Partner with local businesses Create growth plan for each student

Structural reform Academies

Career academies (MDRC study) · MDRC (ed non-profit) studied 2,500 high schools to gauge impact of career academies and other HS reform models Structural reform features: · Consistent classmates and teachers over years · Common planning time Instructional reforms features: · College, work force readiness · 1+ occupational course related to the Academy's career theme · Partnerships with local businesses, providing internship and employment opportunities for students · HR resources are required to maintain curricular integration of academy theme (e.g., PD, leadership training, curricular supports) · Decreased dropout rate, increased long-term earnings (esp for men) · Little effect on standardized testing · ·

Small Learning Community

New Century High Schools (NCHS) NCHS is a collection of 75+ HS's in NYC formed in 2002 (~400 students) Schools were formed with support of New Visions for Public Schools Limit attendance to ~400 student per high school Focus on graduation and attendance rate by emphasizing personalized relationship Concentrate on data-driven approaches that are ongoing, timely, and continuously used Resources vary by school

Sample reforms

· · ·

Resources

· Assign experienced school-change coaches assigned to principals · Provide residency programs with successful HS's from outside state · Recruit teachers by May and provide extensive PD in STEM content areas as well as access to national models · 80% of schools had no dropouts their first year of operation · 50% increase in state accountability test scores within first year

·

Results

·

Drove graduation rate from 30-50% to ~80% in three years (above the NYC average, 60%)

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Comprehensive reform models leverage 3rd party partners

Address reform holistically in partnership with districts

Comprehensive reform models Example Context

First Thing First · Designed by the Institute for Research and Reform in Education · Implemented in Kansas City, Austin, Houston, St. Louis, LA, Milwaukee · Create theme-based small learning communities · Build student academies (~350 students) that follow same teachers throughout HS · Allow teachers to meet regularly to discuss student progress · Center PD activities that: · Promote active, cooperative learning · Set well-defined, high academic standards · Align curricula with state/local standards · Integrate cluster theme with classroom instruction Talent Development · Developed at Johns Hopkins University, launched in Philadelphia · Currently operating across the country · Institute 9th grade "advisories", with common team teacher planning time · Employ upperclassmen academies · Institute after-hours alternative schooling · Extend block schedule (i.e., four 90minute classes meet daily) · Implement first semester catch-up courses for freshmen · Offer "Freshman Seminar", a semester-long class focused on building academic and social skills · · High Schools That Work Designed by Southern Regional Education Board Currently in 1,200 sites, in 31 states

Structural reforms

· ·

Adopt flexible scheduling to allow for common planning time and enable students to earn more credits Institute small learning communities to reinforce personalization

Instructional reform

·

· ·

Align core academic courses to essential state and national standards that prepare youth for postsecondary studies and careers. In tandem, provide students opportunities to work toward a career certification Plan "catch up" courses for entering 9th graders in need of remediation African Americans in "high implementation schools" were 20% more likely to meet the internal reading goals than "low implementation" schools

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Sample results

· In Kansas City (original user), graduation rate rose from 40% to 80%

· Proven to improve attendance, increase academic course credits earned, and increase on-time promotion rates

·

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Charters and EMOs emphasize governance first

Often incorporate instructional and structural reforms as well

Educational Management Organization

Example Context Edison School Management · Edison is a for profit organization that contracts with schools to operate multiple aspects of operation: curriculum, teaching methods, assessment, PD, and management · Organize small academies · "21st century" curriculum ­ Edison-specific · Implement internal PD - eg, Edison Teaching Academy, support visits from Edison SMEs, Edison Instructional Leadership Conference, etc. · Conduct regular assessment - give teachers realtime feedback to adjust lesson plans · Introduce longer school days ­ Allow for effective teaching practices, eg, individualized instruction, accelerated programming, extra-curricular, etc. · Partner with community ­ Partner with local community · +13 percentage points in reading proficiency, and +24 percentage points in math proficiency

Charter High School

Sacramento High · School was on the verge of state takeover or closure · St. Hope had two weeks between court approval and the scheduled opening day of charter · St. Hope took over entire student body of existing HS · Break into small schools ­ Created 3 small schools · Change perception - Focused on college-readiness (e.g., posted college acceptance letters and pennants) · Establish discipline - Enforced zero-tolerance policies · Create accountability - Set student goals that were regularly checked (eg, weekly check-ins on GPA, attendance, community service and other indicators) · Emphasize personalization ­ Establish student advisories to increase enforce positive adult influences · Decrease inefficiency - Centralized functions across schools

Sample reforms

Results

· Raised state test score by 25% in four years

Governance reform allows district to set expectations without spending resources

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Consider tradeoffs when constructing school portfolio

Models require various levels of resourcing and present unique challenges

Example model Innovative schools

Models have their benefits...

John-Hay style small schools are proven to be effective in CMSD and are creating college ready students... At-capacity schools are financially viable and easily scalable across a district... New models bring innovation and competition to CMSD and attract external dollars and human resources...

...and present challenges

...but require multiple school leaders and are more costly to support

Traditional schools

...but changing the culture of these buildings as structured will be a herculean challenge ...but would require rigorous RFP process, may require significant union negotiations, and come with no guarantee for success

Charters / autonomous schools ...

The overall portfolio will need to consider important trade-offs to be sustainable long-term

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5 High school portfolio

Academy approach may be well suited to Cleveland context

Academy must at least include...

· ... theme-based focus integrated with core academic curriculum

They can also include...

· ...electives outside of core courses that emphasize theme more directly · ...project-based learning opportunities inside and outside of the classroom · ...9th grade SLC's that meet with the same teachers who share planning time · ... block scheduling, staff advisories, or other structural changes · ...separate and independent school leadership for each "track" · ...external theme-related operators to manage school day-to-day

Instruction

· ..."scope and sequence" curriculum consistent with other district schools · ...9th grade support clusters to ensure students are on-track and college ready

Structure

· ...10th-12th grade "soft" academies, that do not force track students · ...school-level autonomy to implement reforms successfully

Governance

· ...partnership with community organizations connected to theme

Academies can be molded to fit the need of a particular community

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A couple of examples of how academies deliver to students

Washington High School

Milwaukee, WI · Five career academy themes are integrated into freshmen curriculum

Tech High School

Atlanta, GA · Provides comprehensive curriculum with a focus on math, science, technology, and communication · Emphasizes project-based activities and real world applications · Provides small learning community environments at all grade levels · Offers dual enrollment courses give students the opportunity to earn high school and college credits · Created and designed as an innovative charter school, approved by the Board of Atlanta Public Schools · Led by Technology Association of Georgia, representing leading employers in the state

Instruction

· Students make career academy path choice at the end of the freshman year · Places students into support teams with 4 academic teachers and operate on a block schedule · Arranges upperclassmen mentors for freshmen · Small schools within high school are strongly partnered with external organizations · E.g., IT academy partners with local org that provides on-site educational team

Structure

Governance

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New Tech High School delivers unique education experience

An example of "multiple pathways" approach to learning

Project based learning

School replaces daily assignments with hands-on projects · Teachers design rigorous projects tied to state and district standards · Significant autonomy allows students to work in groups, decide how to allocate their time and team roles, and take individual responsibility to complete projects · Program heavily develops teaching staff to ensure fidelity to the model · District core curriculum remains in place and is augmented by college credit opportunities Daily access to technology serves as foundation of projects and school philosophy · NTHS philosophy: "have students use technology to research, produce, and present" · Students receive individual computer stations New Tech Network created to export NTHS curriculum across the country · Since 1996, ~40 New Tech high schools have opened in CA, NY, TX, and LA Network of school work together to communicate, collaborate, and coordinate · New Tech Network members tour flagship schools to experience model first-hand · School coaches work onsite with administrators to guide curriculum implementation · Regular meetings, conferences, and updates provide schools with real-time best practices

Networkbased knowledge sharing

An example of a school that supports new ways of learning

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District interviews stress the importance of implementation

What districts have said about the process of building a school portfolio

Denver Public Schools

· Address all schools with reforms, not just new or "innovative" schools · Grant autonomy of people, time, and money ­ qualified principals need flexibility to implement reforms or managed curriculum · Grow what is successful in the near term ­ effective RFP processes take 12-18 months to implement and are often difficult for highschools · Push resources to the schools to ensure central office works for schools, and not the other way around · Partner with local industry to provide both hands on learning for students (eg, internships) as well as school operation · Measure implementation success by setting goals and measuring outcomes · Be prepared to remove leaders unfaithful to reforms · Ensure aligned communication from decision makers throughout process

Baltimore City Public Schools

Austin Independent School District

In the end, fidelity to the model as designed with high quality leaders will determine success

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RFP process can increase supply of quality school options

Timeline requires 12-18 months minimum to allow for planning year

2009

Fall Winter Spring

2010

Summer Fall Winter Spring

2011

Summer Fall

RFP for existing CMSD options

(Innovative schools, existing charters)

Write and release RFP

Select model

Develop school plan

Open school (ramp grade by grade if possible)

· Condensed timeline, aided by existing CMSD presence

RFP for national models

(Charters, EMOs)

Write and release RFP

Dialogue with national providers

Update and rerelease RFP

Select models

Develop school plans

Open school

· Requires lead time to gain commitment to district · Iteration RFP cycle helps build necessary relationship · Year planning time required by most

New school year '10-'11

New school year '11-'12

Source: District interviews (Baltimore, Austin, Denver)

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Literature review of districts offers several key lessons

Common lessons across district high school reform efforts

· Attitudinal changes come before academic ones · Structural changes must be supported with time and training to do the substantive work · Changes in teaching and learning unlikely to occur without well-articulated curriculum · School leaders need the flexibility to act · Many startup schools highly dependent on commitment of talented individuals · Substantive teacher buy-in (or better yet, involvement in design) is crucial · District-level capacity in necessary to "carry the banner" · District and school staff must be committed to perpetually supporting any new reform · Need to establish monitoring strategies · Change requires sustained investment · Easy to lose focus on the why of reform: improved teaching and learning

Source: Learning Research and Development Center (University of Pittsburgh)

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Think about reforms holistically

Structural changes must be accompanied by cultural, academic, and governance changes

Reforms must have human capital

Process requires senior-level support as well as buy-in from teachers and community to succeed

Fidelity to the model is critical

Results cannot happen overnight-- reform requires sustained commitment

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K-8 Strategy Session · Approaches for turning around low performing schools · Supports to be provided to all K-8 schools · Process to build new school models

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Progress we should build upon in CMSD's K8 portfolio

Completed full transition to K8 schools with meaningful system wide benefits · Improved safety and attendance (up 10%) and improved value added gains in the middle grades · Note: pain point exists around ability to deliver broad academic and non-academic options in middle yrs Supporting schools with core curriculum scope and sequence, aligned professional development · Focusing on helping teachers use OAT data to deliver differentiated instruction · Two-thirds of schools have part time literacy and math coach Additional district support focused on setting stretch goals and delivering principal training · Schools developing "our story" through AAPs · McRel training in place for principal development; principal pipeline initiative beginning this fall · "Instructional rounds" a top priority for 2009-10 year, monitoring quality instruction in classrooms Turnaround office providing intensive support for 10 schools in years 6+ of school improvement · Selective leadership changes where needed most · Additional financial resources ($70K per school) · Intensive UVA turnaround training past summer energized school leaders for 2009-10 year · Building an external Advisory Board to help support and guide schools efforts Effective and excellent schools opened through new and innovative schools office

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Guiding principles for building a K8 portfolio

Quality K8 schools must be accessible to families in all neighborhoods · Eg, regional schools more desirable if embedded within neighborhoods K8 portfolio strategy must deal with excess capacity and "right size" schools to student enrollment District can only support limited and planned curricular options at the K8 level · Given student mobility, commonality across portfolio is critical · In addition, district only has capacity to scale and support quality in small number of models District should find ways to bring creative models beyond district supported options · "Non-core" models will need autonomy to drive own programs (ie, either through charter or charter-like autonomy) · New and innovative schools office could provide ongoing support for these schools All K8 schools must prepare students for successful high school transition · Each K8 must be of size that allows for necessary support in the middle grades (eg, Algebra teachers, wrap-around supports, etc)

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K-8 Strategy Session · Approaches for turning around low performing schools · Supports to be provided to all K-8 schools · Process to build new school models

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National leaders on turning around low performing schools

A strong research base exists on what is needed to turnaround the lowest performing schools But an incremental approach will not work for many schools

what works and 15 years of research, we know After ve a strong [school] at doesn't, but the key is to ha wh at model leader who can implement th ry District -Paul Vallas, Louisiana Recove

are like organisms that Most schools in restructuring ars to attempted ilt up immunities over the ye have bu cremental reform" entions, to the medicine of "in interv ounds -Mass Insight report on turnar

Historical opportunity to act, with national support

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historic opportunity to he Recovery Act represents a "T ronically low achieving turn around or close down ch ound the 5,000 lowest schools--Our goal is to turn ar xt five years" performing schools in the ne g $3.5B in funding ncan, August 2009, announcin -Arne Du

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US Ed Dept. proposing four options for turnarounds

$3.5B available through School Improvement funding; requires "rigorous interventions"

Intervention

1. Transformational approach

Proposed1 funding stipulations from DoE

Must address 4 areas · Develop teacher and leader effectiveness, includes replacement of prior principal · Implement comprehensive instructional reform strategies · Extend learning and teacher planning time, creating community oriented schools · Provide operating flexibility and sustained support · Replace principal and minimum 50% of school staff · Adopt a new governance structure · Implement a new or revised instructional program · · · · Close failing school Scope and release RFP seeking external providers Reopen as charter or education management organization New school required to re-admit all prior students

2. Reconstitute with district-led model Severity of intervention

3. Restart school with external operator

4. Close school

· Re-enroll students in a better academic school option · Repurpose building for alternative community use

Funding will be available for efforts that start this year, continue to dialogue with State DoE to ensure linkage

1. Subject to federal and state review Source: Department of Education framework for turnaround school models, August 26, 2009; Ed Weekly reports on school turn around efforts

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Plan to use scoring tool to build school by school options

Discussion scheduled for our October workshops

Start with academic neighborhood profile

K-8 neighborhood level summary

"Washington" Academic Neighborhood

Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood

Analyze each school using scoring tool sub-scores

Subscores add another layer of detail to discussion

Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood

Make decisions at a neighborhood level

School location, enrollment, and excess capacity should also be taken into account

Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood Illustrative data and neighborhood name ­ not representative of any Cleveland academic neighborhood

School 2 School 3 School 1

Basic profile

Academic neighborhood Number of K-8 schools Current enrollment1 Wards encompassed "Washington" 16

1,000

Enrollment

Enrollment

1,500

Enrollment

School 1 School 2 School 5 School 3 School 4 TOTAL Washington High 400 300 200 100 100 1,100 1,200

Excess capacity

-100 0 150 200 200 400 100

Weights (%):

40

20 Building Condition 100.0 100.0 10.0 30.0 20.0 50.0

20 Performance Driver 95.0 85.0 55.0 50.0 10.0 75.0

20

100 TOTAL SCORE 91.0 59.0 51.0 24.0 16.0 63.0

School 5 School 4 Washington High

School

1,500 1,400 1,300 1,200

Academic 80.0 5.0 55.0 15.0 20.0 50.0

Demand 100.0 100.0 80.0 10.0 10.0 90.0

1,100 students A, B, C

500 0

School 1 School 2

K­8

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Facility clearly needs relief from crowding Facility clearly has excess capacity

Report card ratings (2007-08)

Rating # of schools

1 2 0 3

Composition (2007-08)

Race

Black Hispanic Caucasian Other TOTAL Limited English

Special Programs

· N/A

Capacity

Method

· Classrooms x 25 · Classrooms x 25, adjusted for sp. ed. · OSFC · OSFC, adjusted for sp. ed.

School 5 School 3 School 4

%

75 5 20 0 100 5

# of students

1,600

Possible decisions

· Close School 4 · Rebuild School 3 as specialty school · Invest in School 2's academic program · Relieve School 1 overflow

Rationale

· Low enrollment, low academic performance, low building condition · Needs academic improvement, but is funded for rebuilding · Already a new building, needs academic review · Clear overcrowding requires relief

Necessary actions

· Send students to School 3 and School 5 · Swing students to School 4 site · Determine proper academic program for School 2 · Send ~100 students to School 5 and School 3

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Above 'Continuous Improvement' 'Continuous Improvement' 'Academic Watch' 'Academic Emergency'

HS

1,400

Washington High

1,300 1,200

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Potential outcomes for consideration

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Support through transformational turnaround approach Reconstitute with district-led model (note: will need to consider contractual limitations in union contract) Restart with charter Close school Wait and see (continue to support as today)

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1.Transformational approach

CMSD turnaround effort focused on transformational change

Informed by Ed First recommendations

5 6 1

2 3

4

7

Currently in place for 10 schools; Do more schools need this intensive support going forward?

1. Performance Index 2. Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies 3. Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning 4. Student Support Team 5. High performance, high poverty 6. Academic Intervention Team 7. Memo of Understanding

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2. Reconstitute with district-led model

Reconstitution reopens district-led school with new leaders

Many important steps required to successfully implement new school model

Create conditions for reform

Define "what it takes" framework for new school models

Develop school options

Define school models (at K8 level) that district can support in a scalable way · eg, gender academy or community school Determine elements of external support needed to implement school models with fidelity (eg, turnaround specialists) Ensure district's curricular platform(s) aligns with supported models

Choose schools for closing / opening

Select CMSD schools and neighborhoods targeted for closing / new schools · Based on decision support tool output · Considering Mass Insight's readiness framework Choose high performing school leaders to remain onboard, recruit new principal and staff to join · eg, leveraging the principal pipeline Engage building leaders, and community with elements of choice (eg, school model)

Secure external supports

Determine necessary elements of support, eg · Teacher recruitment and support (eg, New Teacher project) · School management (eg, whole school reform models, advisory boards) Release RFP, as needed, carefully scoping necessary supports Match providers with schools and begin implementation planning

Partner with CTU to create necessary conditions for success in new schools · eg, policy barriers exist in contract, may need to revise language1 Build additional internal district capacity to manage closing and opening process

1. For example contract states that reconstitution decisions shall occur no earlier than June 1st of given year and no later than July 1st Source: Education First, Turnaround literature, BCG analysis

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Backup

2. Reconstitute with district-led model

Reconstitution example: Hardy Elementary School

One of nine low-performing "turnaround" schools reconstituted by Chattanooga's district

Description · Assign new principal ­ Seek "strong, young, high energy leader that builds teams" · Reconstitute school staff ­ Interview for all positions, accepting certain current teachers and "scouring the pool of teachers" to fill other positions · Establish order ­ Implement behavior programs (eg, limiting parent admission or posting behavior charts in classrooms) · Collaborate on school planning... ­ Conduct summer planning sessions to discuss teacher expectations, resources, and the use of student assessment data · ...as well as instruction ­ School collaborated closely with staff on instruction: ­ Group teachers into teams to develop instruction and communicate concerns ­ Teachers turn in lesson plans weekly, and are given feedback by the principal ­ Principal conducts regular "walkthroughs" of the school · Partner with the community ­ Eg, visit homes to better understand students · Promote PD ­ Eg, establish "model classrooms" where teachers can observe master teachers and receive coaching · Increase instructional time ­ Eg, extend school year or add additional time during intercessions (voluntarily attended by 98% of Hardy students)

Empower leadership

Build school culture

Sustain positive change

Math and reading proficiency increased by ~30 percentage points in four year

Source Dept. of Education, Doing What Works

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3. Restart with charter

Restarting with charters requires rigorous RFP process

Targets local options in first year, national charter networks in subsequent years

Year 0

Fall Winter Spring

Year 1

Summer Fall Winter Spring

Year 2

Summer Fall

RFP for local options (eg,

existing charters and operators)

Write and release RFP

Select model

Develop school plan

Open school (ramp grade by grade if possible)

· Condensed timeline, aided by pre-existing relationship

RFP for national models

Write and release RFP

Dialogue with national providers

Update and rerelease RFP

Select models

Develop school plans

Open school

· Requires lead time to gain commitment to district · Iteration RFP cycle helps build necessary relationship · Year planning time required by most

New school year '10-'11

New school year '11-'12

Source: District interviews (Baltimore, Austin, Denver)

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K-8 Strategy Session · Approaches for turning around low performing schools · Supports to be provided to all K-8 schools · Process to build new school models

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Creating PreK-8 success depends on ten key components

Focus on teaching cognition in early grades, focus on building motivation in middle grades

All grades (PreK-8)

4 Maintain high expectations at all

Elementary grades (PreK-4)

1

Middle grades (5-8)

8 Prepare students for high school

Focus on "school readiness" for Pre-K early education · Emphasize cognitive learning Carefully control learning climate, eg: · High expectations with nurturing behavioral modification · Collaborative staff responsibility for students · Reinforce positive character Manage curriculum in a centerbased classroom · Emphasize reading, writing, and mathematics · Implement aggressive intervention strategies

grades and achievement levels · Set clear and consistent performance standards

5 Use data purposefully for assessment

2

and accountability · Formative assessments throughout the year · Feedback loops to enable real-time lesson adjustments

6 Support teacher development, eg:

and beyond · Support developmentally appropriate practices · Educate students on high school , career, and college readiness expectations and options

9 Ensure rigorous offerings in and

out of core curriculum · Encourage advanced course work · Offer exploratory opportunities

10 Organize school structure to

3

· Tailor PD to performance data · Ensure quality common planning time in purposefully learning communities

7 Integrate parents and community

develop meaningful studentteacher relationships, eg: · Longer instructional periods · Teacher advisory programs (eg, Humanware)

Much of this work in progress in CMSD, where should incremental focus be going forward?

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Priority focus areas

Source: California Dept of Education: Elementary Makes the Grade; NYC Dept. of Education Blueprint for Middle School Success; Research in Middle Level Education key Characteristics of Middle School Performance; MN Association of Secondary School Principals On the Road: In Search of Excellence in Middle Level Education; University of WI-Madison Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies?

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Early education significantly impacts student performance

Robust, 40+ year longitudinal studies of pre-K program have all demonstrated positive benefits of early education

Percentage change from control/comparison group Dimension

Education · Special education placement (%) · Grade repeat (%) · HS completion (%) · College enrollment (%) · Arrest by age 19 (%)

Results indicate significant positive impact of early education

Chicago childparent centers

(41) (40) 20 33

High/Scope Perry preschool

(26) (13) 44 No difference observed (39)

Abecedarian project

(48) (44) 4 157

Average

38 32 23 95

Students with pre-K are...

...less likely to be special ed... ...more likely to graduate HS and enroll in college...

(32)

No difference observed

36

...less likely to be arrested...

Increased lifetime earnings Student performance

$20,517

$50,448

$29,274

$33,413

... likely to have higher earnings...

· Higher reading and math scores through 9th grade

· Higher scores on IQ and language tests through age 7

· Higher reading and math scores through age 21

...and likely to score higher on standardized tests

Source: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup, Journal of Human Resources; Age 21 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis; Comparative Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Program and Its Policy Implications, Economics of Education Review; The Economics of Investing in Universal Preschool Education in California, The RAND Corporation; The Economic Consequences of Early Childhood Education on the School System, National Institute for Early Education Research

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Economic benefits far surpass cost of early education

Per child net economic benefit of Chicago Child-Parent Centers

Benefits to cost ratio: 7.1

40

($K)

50

National studies indicate significant economic benefits

Proposed "universal pre-K program" would benefit school districts... · ~$3K to $4K estimated in school system savings per student served

30

22.0 41.1 13.3

20

10 7.3 6.7 0.8 -10 Cost of program Welfare reduction Education savings Tax revenue 4.5

...state education departments... · Benefit to cost ratio estimate at ~3:1

0

Net Participant Crime reduction returns (eg, economic benefit income)

...and the nation · By 2050, US could see ~$700B in annual savings for ~$100B in investment

Results similar for other preschool programs across the country ­ see appendix for detail

Source: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup, Journal of Human Resources; Age 21 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis; Comparative Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Program and Its Policy Implications, Economics of Education Review; The Economics of Investing in Universal Preschool Education in California, The RAND Corporation; The Economic Consequences of Early Childhood Education on the School System, National Institute for Early Education Research

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Passing middle grades strongly predicts HS graduation

Probability of graduation drops rapidly as students fail middle grades courses

Failing just one course drops your probability of graduating to ~50%

Probability of graduating from HS (%)

Students solidify the kind of student they will be in middle grades

"Most high school students formalize their educational plans between 8th and 10th grades, suggesting that interventions to influence students' educational aspirations are most likely to succeed if they happen by 8th or 9th grade."

80

~70%

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Number of classes failed in 6­8th grades

~50%

~25%

"...most [9th grade] students have developed occupational and educational expectations that are strongly related to socioeconomic status" Those who failed in each of three middle grade years have as low as an 18% chance of graduating high school

Source: Source: ACT report: The Forgotten Middle: Ensuring that All Students Are on Target for College and Career Readiness; Seizing the Middle Ground: Why Middle School Creates the Pathway to College and the Workforce, United Way of Greater Los Angeles; Going to College; How Social, Economic, and Educational Factors Influence the Decisions Students Make.;

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Success in middle grades strongly predicts college readiness

8th grade achievement strong predictor of college readiness

Relative magnitude of effect in predicting 11th ­ 12th grade college and career readiness %

100

5 8

Definition 0

7 8 9 6 18 21 9 14 9 12 10

Honors coursework HS GPA Student testing behaviors

· Accelerated, honors, or AP courses in relevant subject areas · Grade average for courses taken in relevant subject areas · Students' age and grade level at time of taking the ACT, whether students retook the ACT, etc. (i.e., used as a proxy for student motivation)

1

8 14

12 15

Standard coursework Background characteristics

· Highest level of non-honors courses taken in relevant subject areas · Gender, race/ethnicity, parent educational level, annual family income, primary language spoken at home

80

9

60

40

60 54

49

20

42

8th grade achievement

· Standardized test scores in relevant subject areas

0 Reading English Science Math

How to read this: 8th grade achievement (42%) is nearly four times more powerful a predictor of college readiness in 11th or 12th grade than HS GPA (12%)

Source: ACT report: The Forgotten Middle: Ensuring that All Students Are on Target for College and Career Readiness

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K-8 Strategy Session · Approaches for turning around low performing schools · Supports to be provided to all K-8 schools · Process to build new school models

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What it will take to support and scale quality theme schools

Council recommendations based on observation of CMSD portfolio of K8 theme schools

Recommendation

Strengthen district capacity (to fund, support and evaluate)

Sample areas of concern

· "Theme school principals were often unable to staff the theme due to a lack of funding or human resource rules, or they were under-resourced to run a quality theme program" · "Some themes were being taught with antiquated equipment/technology or outdated materials/software unaligned to industry standards for 21st century workplace skills and competencies" · "Not all staff members and leadership have the credentials for the theme. There is no expectation for staff and principals to get the necessary training in their themes" · "Principals did not indicate that they monitored whether or how the scope and sequence was taught in each theme" · "There was a wide variation in curricular rigor and performance expectations among schools with the same theme"

Strengthen school leadership

Set clear expectations and goals

· "General education courses often did not reflect the school theme in classroom lessons or in past lessons" · "With some notable exceptions, the level of instruction and types of instructional activities and materials often reflected low teacher expectations for student performance"

How do we ensure new school models do not encounter similar challenges facing themed schools today?

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Summary of research to date

K8 school models

Districts have tried various primary school models, each with success · Districts rarely use school themes uniformly ­ often several themes in several schools · Districts benchmarked have themed schools only as small subset of total K8 portfolio · Research can narrow options, but local context is critical ­ no "silver bullet" models · Ideal themes match the needs of the community Process for developing models, as important as the specific models themselves · Districts' experience suggests community and school leaders need some role in developing school models, but degree of involvement depends on local context Planning for theme schools require careful consideration of four dimensions: · Develop the theme: Involve the community and validate district resources · Ensure staff buy-in: Strong leadership is critical and hiring autonomy is best practice · Provide resources: Ensure adequate district resources and consider community resources · Establish curriculum: Focus on state standards and ensure infusion of theme in instruction and learning

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2. K8 school models

Benchmarked districts with themed K8s vary in their focus

Themed schools only comprise subset of total K8 portfolio

Pittsburgh, PA

District profile Outcomes Science: Arts: Language: Autonomous: Alternative: Other: New learning method2 : Traditional schools: Total schools3 : 65 schools, 28K students Proficiency in 11 of 14 state reading and math exams 2 3 0 n/a 4 19 4 35 52 4% 6% 0% n/a 8% 37% 8% 67% 100%

Chattanooga, TN

80 schools, 41K students District in "Good Standing" with 70% of schools making AYP 3 2 n/a n/a n/a 1 4 49 59 5% 3% n/a n/a n/a 2% 7% 83% 100%

Boston, MA

125 schools, 56K students 5-15% increases in NAEP scores from 2003-07 2 2 3 12 3 n/a 7 44 62 3% 3% 5% 19% 5% n/a 11% 71% 100%

K81 breakdown

K8-level system strategies

· Reconstitute low-performers ­ Accelerated learning academies are instituted in low-performing K8s to increase instructional time, implement performancebased accountability, and consider new school models to increase relevancy

· Institute magnets ­ Magnet system used to raise academic relevancy to students · Emphasize external best practices ­ principals and teachers visit successful school within and outside district

· Grant autonomy ­ "Pilot" schools provide school-level autonomy over people, time and money without ceding full control · Emphasize early learning ­ Partners with community to start early ed centers

1. Includes K8, elementary, and middle schools 2. Includes alternative learning methods such as Montessori, Paedia, Museum, and project-based learning Note; Percentages do not add up to 100% due to cross-functional schools (eg, a science school that also incorporates a "new learning method") Source: Web and lit search

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Example K8 school model

Neighborhood magnets one method used to build quality

Charlotte-Mecklenberg Schools (CMS) also provides "full magnets" open to entire district

CMS divides its district into neighborhoods...

...and offers magnet opportunities to each neighborhood

District offers magnets to all neighborhoods... · Weighted lottery admissions system gives priority is given to students who... ­ ...live within 1/3 mile of a magnet ­ ...live within the neighborhood of the magnet ­ ...are enrolled in Title I Choice Schools · Lottery system also facilitates socio-economic mix of student body ...and ultimately provided transportation and logistical assistance · Transportation is provided if the magnet school is within the neighborhood or is a "full magnet" · CMS guarantees acceptance for re-enrolling students as well as students' siblings Can magnet model provide opportunity for neighborhood middle schools?

Source: CMS website

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Example K8 school model

Community schools: a model with growing evidence/support

Example of Children's Aid Society: Integration of community programs central to philosophy

Parent Involvement & Leadership

After-school & summer enrichment

0-5 Model

Health Services

Mental Health Services

Community & Economic Development

· Parent Coordinator · Family resource center · Adult education · Parent Councils

· Academic enrichment · Developmental needs · Recreation

· Early Head Start · Head Start

· On site clinics

· Crisis interventions · Assessments and referrals · Counseling

· Community events · Encouraging activism · Skill building

· School linked care

"Some observers have thought that such collaboration requires and endless series of meetings. . . But much of the integrative work occurs in the hallways and at the front door as teachers, parents, and social workers collaborate, refer, redirect, and inform each other. . . ."

Additional examples of school models and research included are part of the appendix

Source: "Community Schools in Action: Lessons from a Decade of Practice"

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Best practice theme schools start with careful planning

Focus on local involvement, hiring flexibility, adequate resources, and relevant curricula

Plan the theme

Develop a viable theme and mission · Choose a theme based on existing resources, local needs, and interests · Link to a clearly defined mission that attracts and energizes stakeholders Hire staff faithful to the mission · Recruit leadership that can drive the mission of a specialized program · Ensure hiring flexibility to ensure staff faithful to the model Provide adequate resources Establish rigorous and relevant curriculum · Integrate relevant theme into instruction through content and learning methods

Implement the program

Maintain theme with integrity · Align theme with district and state standards while articulating an innovative approach to curriculum Establish equitable practices · Ensure equal access to program · Ensure all meet academic standards Develop culture of empowerment · Cultivate a "no-excuses attitude" that develops a collective sense of efficacy Provide ongoing PD · Commit resources to support staff in mastering effective instructional strategies Build leadership capacity · Create formal and informal structures to broaden the school's leadership base

Sustain success

Make data-based decisions to make change and monitor results Build win-win partnerships · Develop relationships with organizations and community members to create support base Develop community outreach · Inform the public about school's mission and needs Align with a district vision · Lead school reform efforts · Incubate best practices · Collaborate with other schools (eg, low performers)

These are "must haves" ­ not "nice to haves"

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Theme must be viable and appeal to community

Assess resources

Engage community

Key lessons from the literature

Determine goals of theme programming · Assess K8 school performance data · Incorporate working knowledge of community resources Focus on what resources are available · Determine if district has financial and human capital to provide themes · Hot Springs, AR: Gave up plans to open a language school when it became clear it would have a difficult time finding enough qualified teachers in the district

Let community outreach guide your theme selection · Use surveys, etc. to gauge local interest in possible themes or suggest themes · Learn from existing advisory groups (eg, chambers of commerce, local colleges and universities

Benchmark examples

· Duval Public Schools, FL: Surveyed every parent in the district, asking what programs they were interested in and what would make them move from their current school

Thoughts from COGCS

· "Many theme schools have undergone...[significant] changes without the [PD] to prepare staff members... to maintain the theme itself" · "[COGCS] found few examples where the general educational program had been modified in a theme school to reflect or take advantage of a school's theme"

Source: US Department of Education: Office of Innovation and Improvement, ERIC, COGCS Final Report, web and lit search

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Principal and staff must be empowered to manage theme

Hiring autonomy highly valued by successful theme schools

Ensure faithful staff

Make sure staff buys in to theme · Staff must either be hired for theme, central to creating the theme, or (at the very least) provided strong, theme-related PD Grant staff autonomy to implement theme · Staff often cite the ability design new curriculum, developing a new program, as reasons for taking on longer workdays · Houston, TX: Allows schools to apply to themes, believing that "home grown" themes--planned by school staff-- engagement is a given

Empower principal

Grant hiring autonomy to principals · Grant freedom to recruit teachers who are a good match to school theme Select strong leadership to... · ...foster trust within a diverse community · ...attract critical mass of high quality staff Encourage partnership with community · Chattanooga, TN: hiring autonomy "was critical to changing the culture of low expectations that had plagued the school in its earlier incarnation."

Key lessons from the literature

Benchmark examples

Thoughts from COGCS

· There are no clear or written guidelines empowering principals to develop partnerships or take initiatives to improve student achievement. Moreover, principals of legacy theme schools report being prohibited from seeking community partners to support their themes.

Staff empowerment means granting autonomy

Source: US Department of Education: Office of Innovation and Improvement, ERIC, COGCS Final Report, web and lit search

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Theme schools may require more or unique resources

Sustain district resources

K8 theme schools require logistical support from central office: · Eg, Evaluation, facilities, transportation, curriculum development May require difficult resource tradeoffs

Cultivate community resources

Access local organizations · Partner actively with local business to provide expertise or physical resources Include parents in building school · Identify and activate key parents to assist and serve as active supporters · Wake County, NC: created universitythemed schools giving students, parents, and teachers frequent opportunities to engage with college faculty and students and to use college facilities

Key lessons from the literature

Benchmark examples

· Montclair, NJ: Made the "very difficult decision" to eliminate PreK programming in order to free space and funds to help preserve the themed schools

Thoughts from COGCS

· Theme schools...report experiencing inconsistent levels of support, weak monitoring, and insufficient resources to maintain their themes. · Principals report having very small discretionary budgets that may be insufficient to maintain their themes effectively

District may only have resources to build and scale two or three K-8 models

Source: US Department of Education: Office of Innovation and Improvement, ERIC, COGCS Final Report, web and lit search

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Best practice K-8 models address local challenges

Community schools may address key issues of CMSD

Example school

Mabel Hoggard Math and Science Magnet School (Las Vegas) Fine Arts Resource School (Crystal, MN)

Theme

Math and science

Description

· Curricula focus on collaborative learning to infuse math and sciences into a lab setting · Students rotate through core areas in early years and gradually focus on certain areas · Quarterly modules focus all academic areas around particular project · Dual immersion aims to produce bilingual, biliterate students · Teacher focus on project- and problem-based instruction, with labs as early as 3rd grade · Strongly encourages parents are to get involved in schooling · Partners with community resources

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Challenges

· Desegregate neighborhood schools

Arts

· Attract suburban populations to the district · Eliminate achievement gap · Combat low performance · Reverse decreases in enrollment

Normal Park Museum Magnet School (Chattanooga, TN) River Glen K8 School (San Jose, CA) Raymond Academy for Engineering (Houston, TX)

Museum

Language

· Desegregate Hispanic school · Combat leadership changes · Educate student on marketable local industry skills (eg, oil and gas) · Address needed wraparound services for student body

Engineering

Fannie Lou Hamer Schools (NYC)

Community

Source: US Department of Education: Office of Innovation and Improvement, ERIC, COGCS Final Report, web and lit search

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Regional magnets

Charlotte offers magnets to provide themed learning

Example of K8 models that could be explored in Cleveland

Elem school Middle school High school

Description International Baccalaureate Talent Development World languages Arts Global leadership Math/science Montessori Technology

Provides rigorous nationally credited college preparatory curriculum with a strong international studies component National operator provides curriculum and teaching methods focused on using real-world problem solving and higher-order thinking skills Provides language immersion opportunities in Chinese, French, German, Japanese, or Spanish Provides specialized studies in the visual arts, theatre arts, music, and dance, partnering with local musical and theater organizations Develops personal leadership qualities while gaining a better understanding of global studies, cultural diversity and economics Offers classes in all subject areas with specially designed classes in the areas of mathematics, the sciences and environmental studies Offers Montessori method teaching to lower level grades

Offers relevant technical offerings in one of three 'Career Pathways': Engineering, Information Technology, and Biotechnolog One school provided for district Multiple schools provided for district

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Materials cover activities completed through the full day K-8 strategy offsite

Tentative date

Today

Workshop topic

Review draft Board materials

Objectives

· Align on process and calendar until end of October · Discuss and finalize community case for change to present to BoE · Discuss district transformation example, prepare for 8/18 session · Review urban district transformation benchmarks · Discuss end-state goals for transformation · Review detailed research · Align on specific goals and actions · Agree on implementation plan to create in further detail · Review detailed research · Align on specific goals and actions · Agree on implementation plan to create in further detail · Set-up guidelines for decision off-site · Determine what information will be needed to make decision · Discuss community feedback (as needed) · Agree to preliminary school-by-school decisions · Review decisions and BoE presentation. Make revisions as needed

Aug 18

Transformation goals workshop

Sep 3

HS strategy session

Sep 17

K-8 strategy session

Oct 6

School workshop set-up

Oct 17 Oct 22

Full day school decision offsite Final summary and plan review

Final summary and plan review to be delivered as part of bridge phase in late November/early December

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Preliminary overview of CMSD Strategic Framework

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Across urban reform visions, common themes emerge

Key themes

Create high expectations for students Develop and support high quality teachers

Example goal statements

· Raise expectations for dramatically higher student outcomes · Expect maximum academic achievement from all students · Support, evaluate, and retain a high-performing team of educators and support staff · Hire, develop, and support great teachers · Equip each school with a high quality principal who is an organizational and instructional leader · Empower principals to make informed decisions/take risks · Partner with families and community to support student learning and engagement · Improve public confidence and strengthen parent/community engagement · Hold schools accountable for students' achieving proficiency · Increase school-level authority in exchange for clearer accountability · Develop efficient and effective support operations for all students, families, teachers, and administrators · Effective central office ­ Provide schools with the support they need to operate effectively · Provide quality choices for all students · Increase parent control over where their children attend school

Empower principals/Develop leaders

Engage parents/community

Increase accountability Make central office more effective

Create more school choice

Source: Urban transformation benchmark research

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Three initiatives have recommended a menu of actions

Too much to do all at once, needs focus and unifying goals

Review of Specialty Schools/ Programs

(small subset of detailed full list of recommendations) Clarify philosophy of the district's theme schools Evaluate effectively Clarify expectations for each theme school and ensure accountability for these expectations Align long-term plans with district's criteria for maintaining them Evaluate principals and teachers based on student achievement Strengthen the district's efforts to evaluate program implementation Boost district capacity to carry out evaluation plan

Facility Utilization Strategy

· Seek formal approval from the BoE to use the decision process · Facilitate targeted discussions with the community to convey the Case for Change and/or decision process · Execute decision making process with internal leadership team to establish necessary school closings and openings · Plan for school closures and mergers (e.g., student/ staff assignments, budgets, etc.) · Create a comprehensive district transformation plan informed by the 3 initiatives and input from community

School Turnaround

Redesign instruction

Clarify district expectations

Ensure intervention

Develop comprehensive strategic instructional plan Strengthen core curriculum frameworks

Create and implement an ongoing monitoring system and intervention program Evaluate theme schools and use evaluations to change school policy

TBD

Set standards

Establish "stretch" goals for student achievement to raise expectations Empower leadership Ensure properly trained teaching staff remains at the school Build a district wide expectation for quality instruction every day in every classroom Attract, grow, and retain effective school leaders Renegotiate with unions to reduce professional development restrictions

These recommendations should fit into the goals we develop for transformation

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Summary of HS and K8 strategy

National research concludes that no school model provides a silver bullet answer--we know however, successful school reform addresses instruction, structure and governance in a coordinated fashion Given complexity of needed solutions and breadth of the challenge, CMSD K8 and HS strategy will build a portfolio of diverse schools and scale successes as they are proven locally · RFP process, beginning in winter 2009-10, will target new school models to restructure existing buildings · First round of new schools will open Fall 2010, with additional schools targeted for 2011 and beyond · Portfolio will contain mix of district led school models and charter / externally led school models As part of the portfolio approach, CMSD will intensively support existing schools that show promise · In HS, first focusing on 9th grade support (eg, using data, increasing networks and teaming, etc) · In K8, providing differential supports (eg, coaching, instructional focus on middle grades, etc) Given financial constraints, not all schools in need will be addressed in first year; an accountability framework will serve as an ongoing mechanism to choose schools for restructuring and supports · End goal is to build an ever-evolving and improving portfolio of schools system · Decisions will be made each year to increase investments in successes, and to stop what is not working

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CMSD strategic framework for transformation

Preliminary: for discussion

Critical Enablers

Innovation: Embrace new and innovative models, policies, practices and procedures Partnership: Partnering with parents and community to support student achievement Fiscal Stability: Executing strategies in fiscally responsible manner to ensure sustainability

High School Portfolio

· Portfolio of schools to meet the diverse needs of students and families · Intensive 9th grade academies · Focus on college and career readiness Marketing Curriculum and Instruction · · · · · · Scope and Sequence Management, Brand Math and Literacy Coaches Communications, Product Management, Data Usage (Schoolnet) Experience Customer Annual Achievement Plans Clustering for Support Transition Year Planning for students

Great Leaders Great Teachers Exceptional CMSD Students

Sales Leadership Development · · · · · McRel Balanced Leadership Channel Management, Instructional Rounds Sales Force Effectiveness, Redesign Hiring and Placement Processes Account/Relationship Build Principal Pipeline Management Teacher and Principal Evaluation and Development

K ­ 8 Portfolio

· Portfolio of schools to meet the diverse needs of students and families · Focus on early intervention to adequately prepare students for upper grades · Ensuring sufficient scale to deliver true middle school experience in safe environment

Foundational Elements

Robust Accountability System: Sets high expectations, rigorously monitors progress, establishes differentiated support and clearly defines rewards and consequences

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

Critical enablers--Innovation, partnership, fiscal stability

Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

· MOU for new and innovative schools allowed for hiring based on skill and fit with school theme ­ New school leaders point to hiring flexibility as one of the critical enablers to their schools' success · Currently union contracts under review, considering key enablers to reform that will be necessary to improve student outcomes in every school · Financially, CMSD received support from the federal stimulus bill in 2009, receiving $80M over two years ­ Helped plug budget gap, support academic programs and keep teacher and staff levels in schools ­ However, $50M budget shortfall exists for 2010-2011 school year, requiring CMSD to make difficult trade-offs as part of the transformation plan

Strategic priorities going forward

Redefine district contracting procedures to allow schools to hire and support high quality teaching ­ Revisit bumping process that prioritizes seniority over teaching specialties ­ Add flexibility to current limits on professional development and school day ­ Increase principal flexibility to evaluate teaching staff, both formally and informally ­ Alter hiring calendar to attract broader talent pool ­ Explore opportunities to link student performance with teacher evaluation Continue to expand and prioritize what works ­ Audit and assess budget to ensure highest priorities are supported ­ Expand successful programs and schools, be willing to decrease investments in stalled programs ­ Require developing milestones and measures that define success and monitoring performance over time

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

High school portfolio Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

· Launched new and innovative high schools that are successfully driving excellent student achievement ­ John Hay and Mc2STEM rated Excellent ­ Design Lab not yet rated, Ginn Academy continuous improvement; both viewed as successful models · Portfolio of high schools focusing on core curriculum and support for 9th graders ­ Focusing on attendance and transition to HS learning ­ Utilizing Schoolnet OGT data to instruct around core curriculum scope and sequence

Strategic priorities going forward

Continue to focus on fundamental core curriculum delivery and support in all CMSD high schools · Build out core course supports through 12th grade · Increase AP course offerings Increase intensive focus on 9th grade transition · Build 9th grade academies, with focused principal · Increase data tracked (prevention and intervention) · Provide tailored PD to teachers to encourage teaming · Enhance 8th grade summer enrichment program Selectively build academies in buildings where 9th grade supports show progress and promise · Start with 2-4 HS in year 2, implementing 'soft track' themes for 10-12 grades (eg, STEM or arts academy) · Recruit high quality teachers trained in the theme · Dedicate separate administrators to each theme Encourage HS innovation through new and innovative schools and charter models · Release RFP to attract new models and ideas · Target locally and nationally proven model Engage community as partner, especially in seeking resources for upperclass themes

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Academy system to be phased in over four years

Year 1 (2010-11) Year 2 (2011-12) Year 3 (2012-13)

Grow schools and partner with community

Shared resources Shared resources 1 9th grade Academy 2 9th grade Academy 3 Academy Academy Academy 1 2 3 9th grade Academy Academy Academy Academy 1 2 3 Freshman Academy

Year 4 (2013-14)

Sustain the program

Pilot upperclass academies in high schools Institute 9th grade academy

College ready

Shared resources

Institute 9th grade academy · Enact five components of freshmen academies · Separately operate existing school and plan to phase out Determine upperclass academy themes · Determine neighborhood resources, district leadership, and/or external operators interested in academy operation · Plan for implementation

Pilot upperclass academies · Select 2-4 HS's to pilot available upperclass academies based on: ­ Success of 9th grade academy ­ Neighborhood resources ­ Availability of strong and interested leadership Ensure school-level autonomy needed to drive reforms and themes

Grow current academies to include 11th grade · Invest in neighborhood partnerships · Explore creative 11th grade opportunities (eg, internships) Continue to support seniors · Provide access to resources to phasing-out school Expand to more HS's · Where viable, institute upperclass academies in additional HS's

Continue to build crossacademy relationships · Determine sustaining school policies (eg, shared resources/spaces) · Learn from and share best practices Create sustainability plan · Determine succession plan for school leadership · Build teacher attraction and retention plan for theme

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Freshmen academies require five key components

Components span all three dimensions of reform

Element of freshmen academy

1 Structural Increase time on task · Institute block scheduling · Ensure quality common planning time, led by teachers and observed by leadership Implement teacher teaming · Compose teacher teams from each core subject · Assign subgroups of students to each team · Develop data dashboard to inform team planning Integrate curriculum within teacher team · Promote project-based learning, tying year- or semester-end projects with each subject area Require applications for academy teachers · Require teachers to apply to be freshmen academy teachers to ensure interest in resources, requirements, and structure Separate 9th grade physically and in governance · Create separate wing or floor for freshmen · Have stand-alone principal for freshmen academies

Open questions

· Opportunity to extend school day? School year?

2

· What best practices around teaming should be built into teacher training in ahead of school year?

Instructional

3

· What additional work is required to deliver a curriculum to 9th grade, with PD support? · What is the role of project-based learning?

4 Governance

· What teachers union changes are necessary to support these requirements? · What if too few (or too many) teachers apply? · How much capital improvement is required to build physically "separate" space? · Where will high-quality 9th grade principals be recruited and hired from?

5

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

Curriculum and instruction

Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

Launched scope and sequence curriculum in both HS and K8 levels · Part-time literacy and math coaches supporting teachers on core curriculum delivery · Instructional office developing and refining PD to align to core curriculum delivery · Teachers utilizing Schoolnet to diagnose and understand student learning needs ­ Based on OGT data and 2x yearly district benchmark assessments ­ More frequent benchmark assessments in development to expand data diagnosis · Schools developing "our story" as part of Annual Achievement Plans, defining stretch goals · Schools pursuing "half-band strategy" to increase every CMSD student by one half band of proficiency · 9th grade teacher cohorts in some schools clustering for support and intensively focusing on transition year

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Strategic priorities going forward

Continue focus on curriculum implementation-- prioritize and increase resource support · Deliver formative assessments to school and train teachers to use more frequent benchmark testing · Expand PD offering tuned to core curriculum · Build capability in schools to intervene with at-risk students and provide stretch curriculum for high performers Expand focus on AP course offerings in HS · Recruit teachers with necessary training · Encourage students to enroll and take AP tests · Send teachers for AP training Strategically assign skilled 6-8 grade teachers to ensure Algebra and foundational English and sciences are taught in middle grades · Include additional 8th grade classes that provide credit for HS (inc. English, science, and language) Offer 8th grade core courses for HS credit

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

Leadership development

Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

· McRel Balanced Leadership principal training model implemented in all schools ­ Includes part-time coaching support from retired administrators for TurnAround Principals · Strategic plan highlights aspiring principal program and assistant principal academy as priorities ­ Work beginning this fall to build principal pipeline · Teachers supported with newly developed PD, tuned to core curriculum ­ Scale and scope TBD ­ Additional support provided by math and literacy coaches (part-time in some schools) · Strategic plan articulates initiatives around redesigning hiring process and expanding recruitment of highly qualified candidates ­ Progress against goals TBD · Principals trained in 3 minute walk-thrus to collect information about teaching and learning

Strategic priorities going forward

Build (or partner with) a principal training program to create pipeline of qualified principals ­ Consider partnership with research based programs (i.e. New Leaders for New Schools) or partner with local university programs ­ Identify cadre of high potential principals to begin training (inside and outside the district) ­ Consider partnership with research-based institution Expand teacher recruitment and induction programs to attract highly skilled teachers ­ Consider external partnerships (eg, universities, TFA) ­ Offer incentives to teach in highest need schools ­ TIF (requires exploration and definition) Redefine principal and teacher evaluation, based on school level accountability metrics ­ Partner with staff to create meaningful feedback loops ­ Clearly define rewards for exemplary performance and consequences for ineffectiveness ­ Offer differentiated professional development tied to evaluation

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

K8 portfolio Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

· Launched new and innovative K8s that are successfully improving student achievement ­ Majority of gender academies rated effective or better ­ District-sponsored charter, E-Prep, rated effective; viewed as highly successful model · TurnAround department providing intensive supports for 10 low performing K8s ­ Selectively changing leadership as needed ­ Focusing on HPHP readiness framework ­ Providing more resources (eg, coaching support, financial flexibility, counselors, social workers) ­ Striving for quick wins ­ PD for TurnAround school Principals (UVA) ­ PD for Core Teams · Entire CMSD portfolio of K8 focusing on delivery of core curriculum ­ Utilizing Schoolnet OAT data to instruct around core curriculum scope and sequence ­ PD on instructional strategies for Principals and instructional chairs

Strategic priorities going forward

Continue to focus on fundamental core curriculum delivery and support in all CMSD K8s Provide differential intensive supports to schools exhibiting readiness to improve · Expand beyond schools currently designated as 'turnaround schools' · Expand PD and support for principals and teachers, focusing on use of data to inform instruction Restructure schools where school culture hinders change and more severe action is needed · Replace leadership and teachers--refocus on delivering core skills to students · Consider testing 'draw' K8s that expand the size of the middle grades to support transition to HS Encourage K8 innovation through new and innovative schools and charter models · Release RFP to attract new models and ideas · Target locally and nationally proven model Close schools to address overcapacity · For schools with low performance, poor building conditions, weak leadership, and under enrollment

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K8 framework for differentiated accountability over time

Accountability model would allow school decisions to be continuously assessed over time

Provide foundational support across all schools

Adjust support

· As schools decline in performance, targeted supports are put in place

High performers

· Highest performers are granted additional incentives and autonomies · High performers are paired with intensive support schools to provide best practices

Phase out interventions, increase autonomy

· As schools improve in performance, re-allocate intensive resources to struggling schools · Increase school autonomies to incentivize improvement

Adequate performers

· Rely on accountability system to determine gradually increased, differentiated supports · Maintain schools on the road to "intensive support" until resources and capacity to manage is available · Work with school leadership to determine certain resources to keep to maintain performance momentum

1

Intensively support

· Select subset of schools annually to receive intensive, specialized, and prioritized district supports

Intensively supported

· Provide school-selected supports with the expectation of improvement within 1-3 years or face severe options · Schools are assessed annually to be actively managed out

Improve over time Restructure

· Improve over time based on intensive supports · Restructure as district model or new and innovative school · Open school governance to successful charter orgs · Re-assign students to better nearby options · Re-purpose facility

2 3

4

Convert to charter

Close school

Increase support for all middle grades

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Recall: All K8 schools get base level of support

Focus on teaching cognition in early grades, focus on building motivation in middle grades

Elementary grades (PreK-4)

1

All grades (PreK-8)

4 Maintain high expectations at all

Middle grades (5-8)

8 Prepare students for high school

Focus on "school readiness" for Pre-K early education · Emphasize cognitive learning Carefully control learning climate, eg: · High expectations with nurturing behavioral modification · Collaborative staff responsibility for students · Reinforce positive character Manage curriculum in a centerbased classroom · Emphasize reading, writing, and mathematics · Implement aggressive intervention strategies

grades and achievement levels · Set clear and consistent performance standards

5 Use data purposefully for assessment

2

and accountability · Formative assessments throughout the year · Feedback loops to enable real-time lesson adjustments

6 Support teacher development, eg:

and beyond · Support developmentally appropriate practices · Educate students on high school , career, and college readiness expectations and options

9 Ensure rigorous offerings in and

out of core curriculum · Encourage advanced course work · Offer exploratory opportunities

10 Organize school structure to

3

· Tailor PD to performance data · Ensure quality common planning time in purposefully learning communities

7 Integrate parents and community

develop meaningful studentteacher relationships, eg: · Longer instructional periods · Teacher advisory programs (eg, Humanware)

Source: California Dept of Education: Elementary Makes the Grade; NYC Dept. of Education Blueprint for Middle School Success; Research in Middle Level Education key Characteristics of Middle School Performance; MN Association of Secondary School Principals On the Road: In Search of Excellence in Middle Level Education; University of WI-Madison Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies?

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Six elements define "intensive support" menu

Schools would select from menu to increase customization and decreased costs

Dimension

1

Support

Increased human capital Increased financial autonomy Increased staffing autonomy

Description

· Re-allocate one assistant principal and 1-2 guidance counselors to all entering intensive support schools · Provide discretionary "quick win" funds for each school annually · Establish MOU's for each entering school to allow1... ­ ...central office to designate school leadership ­ ...increased ability for school leadership to evaluate staff · Eg, ensure one full day of PD per month for all intensive support school principals, turnaround principal training academy · Partner with effectively rated schools within district and, where possible, outside of district · Allocate cross-functional resources to provide additional, differentiated supports to schools · Prioritize attention on schools within central office · Targeted content coaching and additional PD for teachers · Tutoring and/or coaching assistance

Schoollevel

2 3

4

Cohort principal training Inter-school knowledge sharing Systematic central office supports Curriculum assistance

5

Systemwide

6

7

Intensive supports must be in exchange for clearly stated expectations

1.If broader staffing autonomies are not adopted through the overall CTU contracting process Source: CMSD leadership, vetted with CMSD K8 sub-team principals and assistant superintendents

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Designated as priorities by K8 sub-team

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Intensive support portfolio must be actively managed

First identify new intensive support schools, then assess regularly

Identify intensive support schools

Year 0

Review progress

Year 1

Determine exit strategy

Year 2-3

Identify eligible schools · Based on current academic performance and academic growth over time Prioritize schools based on additional criteria, eg: · Geographic diversity of intensive support school portfolio · Recent capital investment · Assessment of leadership and staff · Additional academic indicators Determine new intensive support schools · Convene cross-functional team · Determine schools in greatest need of intensive supports · Communicate menu of supports and accountabilities to schools

Conduct "soft" assessment · Assess after one year to determine effectiveness of supports · Focus on academic and cultural measurements Adjust supports based on evaluation · Determine modified interventions needed at specific schools · Collaborate with academic office to provide supports to schools Allow additional year for support · Phase-out supports for schools that have increased a report card rating · Continue to support those schools not demonstrating improvement for an additional year

Conduct "hard" assessment · Review intensive support portfolio along key dimensions, eg: ­ HPHP framework, geography, academic and climate indicators · Base review in cross-functional team (eg, academic office, NIS, K8 team) Assign transformative action · Year 2: Consider removal from intensive support portfolio (eg, restructure, convert to charter, close) · Year 3: Require removal from intensive support portfolio Consider incoming intensive support schools · Consider newly eligible schools when determining which and how many schools to remove from portfolio

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Restructure option: K8 'draw' to focus on middle grades

"Draws" emphasize middle grades

Proposed "draw" program supports middle grades · Increase size of middle grade enrollment, retain smaller K8 schools, with diminished middle grade enrollment · Determine model or theme for middle grades · Hire staff and leadership that support and will be faithful to district-supported model · Create application process to provide universal access Increase accessibility to "draws" over time · Pilot program in 1-2 schools to learn best practices · Expand successful models to additional neighborhood "Draws" address other major issues facing K8s · Access to enriched courses: Maximizes neighborhood students' access to certified teachers (eg, Algebra) · Undercapacity at K8 level: Target larger, undercapacity K8s to increase enrollment and facilitate closing of smaller school building

How a 'draw' school could work

New and Innovative school will be accessible to entire neighborhood

Students from neighboring schools can apply for lottery admission to K8 draw

K-8 K-8 K-8

K-8 K-8 K-8 "draw"

Parents who want the smaller K8 experience still have opportunities

Expansion of "draws" may mean closure of smaller K8s

Larger capacity schools can become themed "draw schools", emphasizing middle schools grades

Recommend testing concept in 1-2 neighborhoods to determine if model is viable in Cleveland context

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CMSD transformation: situation today, future priorities

Foundational elements--robust accountability system

Elements of the 2007-12 strategic plan where most progress has been made

· School accountability based on state report card and proficiency on the OGT, publically available and transparent · Schools held accountable through AAPs ­ Defines achievement goals ­ Includes indicators for non-academic student connections

Strategic priorities going forward

Define differentiated central office supports, linked to more broadly defined accountability framework · More intensive supports provided to lower performing schools (eg, additional funding, coaching, etc) · Additional autonomy to higher performing and high potential school leaders · Requires clearly defining expectations with broad school measures, linked to annual performance review of each CMSD school · Should be transparent to allow parents and students to contribute to dialogue on how to improve Develop methodology to track success of program implementation · Increase resources for programs that are working · Eliminate programs that fail to improve student performance Link central office accountability to student outcomes · Reorganize and expand central supports to increase focus on improving instruction · Define performance measures for each department (longer term priority)

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