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Manufacturing Model: Simulating Relationships Between Performance, Manufacturing, and Cost of Production

SECA Core Technology Program Workshop Sacramento February 19-20, 2003

TIAX LLC Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Reference: TIAX LLC -80034 DE-FC26-02NT41568

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Technical Issues R&D Objectives and Approach Activities for Phase I

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Technical Issues

For commercial success, SOFC technologies must ultimately be manufacturable and cost competitive. A number of factors contribute to uncertainty at this time. Cell design, stack designs, and production processes are still in early stages of development SOFC stacks are radically different in structure from any currently massproduced ceramic products Relationships between cell and stack design, design tolerances, and stack performance are not very well established

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Technical Issues

Proposed manufacturing processes may be amenable to high-volume production, however, specific processes and sequences must be selected.

Potential Process Flow for Planar Anode-Supported SOFC

Multi-Fired Process Flow Multi-Fired Process Flow

Interconnect

Process Flow Process Flow Assumptions Assumptions

Paint Braze onto Interconnect Braze

Multi-Fired Process

Anode

Anode Powder Prep

Progressive Rolling of Interconnect

Shear Interconnect

Electrolyte

Electrolyte Small Powder Prep

Fabrication

Tape Cast Vacuum Plasma Spray Blanking / Slicing Sinter in Air 1400C

QC Leak Check

us Ill

ve ti tr a

Cathode

Cathode Small Powder Prep Screen Print Sinter in Air Finish Edges Vacuum Plasma Spray

Electrical layer Electrical layer powders are made powders are made by ball milling and by ball milling and calcining. calcining. Interconnects are Interconnects are made by metal made by metal forming forming techniques. techniques. Automated Automated inspection of the inspection of the electrical layers electrical layers occurs after occurs after sintering. sintering.

Slip Cast

Screen Print

Slurry Spray

Slurry Spray

Stack Assembly

Note: Alternative production processes appear in gray to the bottom of actual production processes assumed

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Technical Issues

Relationships between cell and stack design, design tolerances, stack performance, and process yields are not very well established. Properties of individual layers, e.g., physical attributes, conductivity (electrical or ionic), polarization, transport, mechanical, are not well defined as a function of temperature Manufacturing Options Individual process steps Sequence of steps Impact on Process yield, tolerances, and reproducibility Performance Thermal cycling and Life Cost

4

Technical Issues

Challenges

A state-of-the-art SOFC manufacturing model will allow developers and NETL to minimize the uncertainties inherently associated with commercialization of a new technology. The model must be able to: Handle all key SOFC stack components, including ceramic cells and interconnects Relate manufactured cost to product quality and likely performance, taking into account manufacturing tolerances product yield line speed Address a range of manufacturing volumes, ranging from tens of MW to hundreds of MW per year Adapt to individual production processes under development by SECA industrial teams

5

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Technical Issues R&D Objectives and Approach Activities for Phase I

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R&D Objectives and Approach

Objectives

The Manufacturing Model Project will develop a tool to provide guidance to the DOE and SECA development teams on system design and manufacturing processes selection.

Phase I SOFC Manufacturing Model Framework and Demonstration Develop model framework Demonstrate benefit of model for system development trade-off analyses Develop Phase 2 plan Deliverables Model framework Demonstration of model capabilities Phase 2 SOFC Manufacturing Model Expansion and Use Expand Phase I model framework to other SOFC system designs, alternative materials, and manufacturing processes Incorporate findings and research of SECA teams

Objectives

Workshop with SECA stakeholders

The primary output of the model will be an activity based manufacturing cost for various SOFC system scenarios.

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Activities for Phase I

Tasks

Phase I will be conducted in three tasks.

Task 1 Model Framework Development Develop architecture of manufacturing model Review architecture with SECA stakeholders Task 2 Model Demonstration Revise existing model architecture based on Task 1 workshop Demonstrate manufacturing model with baseline SOFC system

Task 3 Reporting

Report project progress Prepare Phase I report that summarizes critical manufacturing steps and performance parameters Define Phase II development effort Monthly updates Phase I final report

Objectives

Workshop with SECA stakeholders Definition of model framework, user interface with model, and critical issues to be assessed, model assumptions Deliverables

Workshop with SECA stakeholders

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Activities for Phase I

Deliverables

We anticipate that we will provide DOE and industrial teams with some key conclusions and recommendations:

Identification of critical manufacturing steps and performance parameters if considerable uncertainty exists about these steps, specific additional SECA R&D objectives may be developed Refinement of SECA technology cost and performance estimates Definition of desirable next steps

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Model Architecture

Modeling Approach

Link to Performance/Structural Module

The cost model will be augmented with a SOFC performance model to help relate manufacturing quality to performance.

User Interface

SOFC Scenario Compiler Module

Activity-Based Cost Model

Performance Structural Module

Databases

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Model Architecture

Modeling Approach

Cost Model

The model uses a set of databases to calculate cost for defined production (process flow) scenarios and performance assumptions.

Inputs · Design · Performance Parameters · Manufacture Processes and Flow · Production Scenarios Outputs (Results) · Tables · Graphs · Crystal Ball ­ sensitivity ­ "frequency distribution"

Calculation Engine (Activity-Based) · Process flow · Equipment options

Manufacturing Costs · Labor · Real estate · Overhead . . .

Material Cost Database · Vendors · Cost vs. volume . . .

Material Properties Database · Density · Particle size distribution · Surface area . . .

Purchased Components · Cost vs. volume · Specifications . . . · · · ·

Formulation Database

Process Database

Capital Equipment Database · Cost vs. product volume

Anode · Equipment Cathode process data Electrolyte · Throughput Interconnects · Size limit · Automation · Scrap · Yield

The model description provides a unified framework for discussion of input parameters of interest to the Team members.

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Model Architecture

Performance/Structural Module

Capabilities

The module also accounts for all the relevant thermo-electrochemical phenomena which influence cell performance and, ultimately, cost.

Interconnect · Heat conduction · Current conduction Flow passages · Heat convection · Plug flow of gas Anode and cathode porous electrodes · Heat conduction · Current conduction · Species diffusion · Internal reforming on anode Anode and cathode reaction zones · Electrochemical reactions · Heat generation Electrolyte · Ion conduction · Heat conduction

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Model Architecture

Performance/Structural Module

Interface with Cost Model

The performance/structural module is used to predict power density, thermal stresses, and other performance factors that influence cost. Performance/Structural Module Framework

Electrochemical reactions Current generation Chemical reactions* Heat generation Heat conduction Heat convection Boundary conditions

Stack/cell geometry

Temperature gradients

Compressive load on the cell#

Stress distribution Power density Material yield

Defects

* Internal reforming reactions # Compressive load needed for establishing contact between different stack layers

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Technical Issues R&D Objectives and Approach Activities for Phase I

14

Manufacturing Model

Technical Issues

We met with the SECA technical teams to discuss what relationships among cell and stack design, design tolerances, stack performance, and process yields should be considered in Phase 1? Properties of individual layers Thickness and other physical attributes Polarization and conductivity (electrical or ionic) Transport Mechanical Manufacturing Options Individual process steps Sequence of steps Impact on Process yield, tolerances, and reproducibility Performance Thermal cycling and life Cost

15

Manufacturing Model

Stack Design

We discussed selection of a stack design for demonstration of the model capabilities and an initial assessment of the impact of selected manufacturing/design factors. What planar stack configuration should be modeled in Phase I? Rectangular or circular Co-, counter-, or cross-flow What design details (e.g., seals, manifolds, insulation) should be included in the Phase I modeling effort? What size (kW) stack should we consider?

16

Manufacturing Model

Performance/Structural Module

What choices affecting both cost and performance should we analyze? For example, we could consider the impact of layer thickness on system power and thermal stresses. Inputs Performance/Structural Module Cost Model

Material Cost

Layer Thickness

Area-Specific Resistivity

Ohmic Losses

Power Density

Stack Size $ kW

Processing Steps

Thermal Stresses

Cracking Failures

Part Yield

Process Cost

17

Manufacturing Model

Use of Performance/Structural Module

In addition, the Performance/Structural Module could be used for standalone simulations to evaluate the sensitivity of particular material or process parameters. Performance/Structural Module

Surface Finish Contact Area Contact Resistance Power Density

Thickness Variations

Pressure Variations

Contact Resistance

Power Density

Oven Temperature Variations

MEA Warping

Mechanical Stresses

Cracking Failures

What design parameters, material properties, or manufacturing conditions are of interest for analysis, either in Phase I or II?

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Manufacturing Model Parameters

Baseline Case

Design

As a basis for Phase I, we will use an anode supported design. Anode/Electrolyte/Cathode Anode/Electrolyte/Cathode One-Half Interconnect Layer One-Half Interconnect Layer

Ferritic Stainless Steel 8YSZ & LSM Cathode 50 µm Y-stabilized ZrO2 Electrolyte 10 µm Ni Cermet Anode 700 µm 4 mm

2 mm

We will only assess the stack costs in this phase. We also considered inclusion of reforming layers or materials in the stack, but have insufficient design information in this Phase of work.

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Manufacturing Model Parameters

Performance Parameters

We propose using the following set of operating parameters for the stack.

Parameter Parameter · Cell voltage · Cell voltage · Power Density · Power Density · Composition of the reactant · Composition of the reactant streams streams · Gas inlet temperatures · Gas inlet temperatures · Fuel utilization · Fuel utilization · Cathode stoichiometry · Cathode stoichiometry · 0.7 V · 0.7 V · 500 mW/cm2 (not reactant limited) · 500 mW/cm2 (not reactant limited) · Anode: reformate; Cathode: air · Anode: reformate; Cathode: air · 650°C at the Anode and Cathode · 650°C at the Anode and Cathode · ~ 50 % · ~ 50 % · ~ 5, adjusted to effect an exit temperature of · ~ 5, adjusted to effect an exit temperature of 800°C. 800°C. Value/Range Value/Range

The performance model will calculate the current distribution over the electrode, the average power density, and the actual fuel utilization.

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Manufacturing Model Parameters

Impact of Layer Thickness

We will look at the trade-offs between layer thickness and their impact on performance and cost. The latter impacted by material quantities and yield.

Layer Material Nominal Thickness (µm) Remark · Minimize thickness to reduce material weight and resistance · Impact of thickness on strength and MEA stress · Barrier properties vs thickness critical · Impact of coating technology and thickness on defects · Coating technologies · Roll form technique used in baseline study

Anode

Ni-YSZ

700

Electrolyte Cathode Interconnect

YSZ YSZ- LSM Metal

10 50 4300

As part of this effort we will look at the impact of the attributes of various process technologies on each layer, types of defects, and number of defects. It will be critical to find relationships between defects, materials, and processes.

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Manufacturing Model Parameters

Economies of Scale

We will consider how production volume impacts cost ($/kW). Assumptions 5 kW unit size unit operations are automated to achieve uniformity and maximize yield increasing volume can change equipment scale, speed, material logistics in the process, and automation of assembly Parameters Days per week Shifts per day Commercialization (Volume) Steps Production Prototypes Market Entry Market Penetration Our 1999 study was made assuming 250 MW, however, we have not fixed the volume steps at this time for this project.

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Manufacturing Model Parameters

Process Flow Options

We will look at a multi-fired process flow option in Phase I.

Co-fired Process Flow Co-fired Process Flow

· ·Individually tape-cast layers Individually tape-cast layers · ·Laminated together Laminated together · Co-fired in one step · Co-fired in one step

Electrolyte

Electrolyte Small Powder Prep Tape Cast

Multi-fired Process Flow fired Multi-fired Process Flow

· ·Tape-cast anode layer Tape-cast anode layer · ·Electrolyte and cathode layers applied by coatings Electrolyte and cathode layers applied by coatings · Sequential firing steps · Sequential firing steps

Interconnect

Co-Fired Process Flow

Interconnect

Progressive Rolling of Interconnect Shear Interconnnect Paint Braze onto Interconnect Braze

Multi-Fired Process

Anode

Anode Powder Prep

Progressive Rolling of Interconnect

Shear Interconnect

Paint Braze onto Interconnect

Braze

Slip Cast

Electrolyte

Electrolyte Small Powder Prep

Cathode

Cathode Small Powder Prep

Cathode

Cathode Small Powder Prep Tape Cast

Fabrication

Blanking / Slicing Stack Calendar Dual Atm Sinter QC Leak Check Diamond Grind Edges

Fabrication

Tape Cast

Slip Cast

Roll Calendar

Blanking / Slicing

Vacuum Plasma Spray

Blanking / Slicing

Sinter in Air 1400C

QC Leak Check

Screen Print

Sinter in Air

Finish Edges

Anode Stack Assembly

Anode Powder Prep Tape Cast

Slip Cast

Screen Print

Vacuum Plasma Spray

Slip Cast

Note: Alternative production processes appear in gray to the bottom of actual production processes assumed

Slurry Spray

Slurry Spray

Stack Assembly

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Manufacturing Model Discussion

Non-Technical Issues

In this phase, we will use generic data, however, for Phase 2 we will have to develop a protocol(s) for protection of proprietary information with participating teams.

Issues: Issues:

Java User User based Interface Interface

Protection of individual SECA team Protection of individual SECA team proprietary information proprietary information Security of User Interface Security of User Interface Access to model Access to model Access to process and equipment data Access to process and equipment data and specifications and specifications

Manufacturing Manufacturing Process Database Process Database

Thermal Spray Thermal Spray Tape Casting Tape Casting Sintering Sintering

SOFC Scenario SOFC Scenario Compiler Module Compiler Module

Activity-Based Cost Activity-Based Cost Model Model

Manufacturing Manufacturing Process Flow Process Flow

Materials Database Materials Database

LSM LSM YSZ YSZ 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel

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Next Steps

Phase I

We expect Phase I to be completed in approximately 3-6 months.

Modify Model and Analyze Selected Scenarios and Issues Layer thickness and processes Economies of scale Discuss results with SECA teams Develop plans for Phase 2 Phase I Final Report

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Activities for Phase I

TIAX Team Members

The TIAX core team consists of five members whose backgrounds are particularly appropriate to this project.

Staff

Project Input

Email

Telephone

Eric Carlson Chandler Fulton Suresh Sriramulu Yong Yang

Principal Investigator System modeling Fuel cell technology Manufacturing model

[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

617-498-5903 617-498-5926 617-498-6242 617-498-6282

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Information

Manufacturing Model: Simulating Relationships Between Performance, Manufacturing, and Cost of Production

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