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Biodiesel Activities in the Region

2008 Western Region Clean Cities Coordination Peer Exchange

June 25 ­ Diamond Bar, CA

Presented by Hoon Ge

Summary of Topics

· U.S. Update · California Differences & Special · · · · ·

Regulatory Issues Fuel Quality Issues & ASTM Standards Manufacturers Policies on Biodiesel Filter Plugging Issues Terminal Blending Test Kits

U.S. Update

Federal - Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007

Renewable requirement for diesel must met by biodiesel 500 million gallons in 2009 1 billion gallons in 2012

U.S. House Extends Biodiesel Tax Incentive

Extends biodiesel tax incentive for 1 year through Dec. 31, 2009. Provides $1 per gallon incentive for all biodiesel regardless of feedstock. Shuts down the abusive "splash and dash" loophole that currently allows foreign produced fuel to enter the U.S, claim the biodiesel tax incentive, and be shipped to a third country for end use. Properly defines tax benefits available to co-processed renewable diesel. Waiting for Senate approval

Feedstock

Currently Soybeans are Primary Feedstock Current Secondary Feedstock

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Canola Corn Palm Oil Other Vegetable Oil Animal Fat Recycled Oil

Feedstock of the Future

­ Algae ­ Jatropha

California Differences & Special Regulatory Issues

Western States Fuel Specification

California Petrodiesel B1-B5 B6-B19 B100 D975 D975 D975 D6751 Hawaii D975 No Spec No Spec D6751 Nevada D975 No Spec No Spec Other

California Biodiesel Specification

The Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards, has adopted performance and drivability specifications for biodiesel fuel as follows: Biodiesel blending stock and biodiesel fuel blends must meet the specifications set forth by ASTM D975 for blended biodiesel and D6751 for pure biodiesel (B100). Additionally, blends of B5 or higher must display a sign on each dispenser that reads: "This fuel contains biodiesel. Check the owner's manual or with your engine manufacturer before using."

Source ­ DOE

California - Executive Order

Issued by Gov. Schwarzenegger 04/25/2006

Executive Order that, among other things, establishes a target for the state of California to produce and use a minimum of its biofuels within California as follows: 20 percent by 2010 40 percent by 2020 75 percent by 2050 Biofuels includes both ethanol and biodiesel.

Biodiesel Blend Use Requirement San Francisco

The City of San Francisco mandated that diesel vehicles used by San Francisco's public agencies must use at least B20 blends by December 31, 2007. All departments were required to phase in B20 in incremental stages in 2007 to reach 100% use in all diesel vehicles and other diesel equipment.

Biofuels Procurement Preference Hawaii

Contracts for the purchase of diesel fuel are to be awarded with preference given to bids for biofuels or blends of biofuel and petroleum fuel. When purchasing fuel for use in diesel engines, the preference is $0.05 per gallon of B100; for blends containing both biodiesel and petroleumbased diesel, the preference is applied only to the biodiesel portion of the blend. Biodiesel must meet ASTM D6751 specification.

Fuel Quality Issues & ASTM Standards

BQ-9000 "Quality Assurance Program"

"Specifies requirements for a quality assurance program where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to provide product that meets ASTM D 6751... and applicable regulatory requirements, and to address quality assurance through the effective application of the program..."

Helps ensure that end-user is getting high-quality biodiesel!

Fuel Quality

·

Fuel quality is of the utmost concern and importance to the biodiesel industry. ASTM D 6751 is the specification for biodiesel fuels regardless of the feedstock source and/or processing method. · National Quality Program (BQ-9000) launched for Biodiesel Marketers and Producers · Assures "cradle-to-grave" fuel quality

"cradle" "grave"

·

BQ-9000 Information Through the NBB

www.bq-9000.org www.biodiesel.org www.nbb.org

Find information on the requirements for the program and a list of accredited producers and marketers on the NBB website.

Quality Control

In 2006, 41% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification In 2007, 89.6% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification 100% of BQ-9000 certified fuel met ASTM D6751 specifications Currently, one third of production capacity is BQ-9000 Certified

Biodiesel ASTM D6751

Property

· · ·

ASTM Method

Limits

5 max ppm 93 min. 0.2 Max 130 Min 0.05 max. 1.9 - 6.0 0.02 max. 0.0015 max. (15) 0.05 max. (500) No. 3 max. 47 min. Report 0.05 max. 0.50 max. 0.020 max. 0.240 max. 0.001 max. 360 max. 5 max 3 min

Units

(ug/g) Degrees C % volume Degrees % vol. mm2/sec. % mass % mass (ppm) % mass (ppm) Degrees C % mass mg KOH/g % mass % mass % mass Degrees C ppm hours

· · · ·

· · · · · · · · · · ·

Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN 14538 Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 Alcohol Control (One of the following must be met) · Methanol Content EN14110 · Flash Point D93 Water & Sediment D 2709 Kinematic Viscosity, 40 C D 445 Sulfated Ash D 874 Sulfur · S 15 Grade D 5453 · S 500 Grade D 5453 Copper Strip Corrosion D 130 Cetane D 613 Cloud Point D 2500 Carbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* Acid Number D 664 Free Glycerin D 6584 Total Glycerin D 6584 Phosphorus Content D 4951 Distillation, T90 AET D 1160 Sodium/Potassium, combined EN 14538 Oxidation Stability EN 14112

Definition of Biodiesel

Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751. Straight Vegetable Oil is not biodiesel. Other biomass products are not biodiesel.

New ASTM Standards passed June 19, 2008

Inclusion of B5 into the D975 specification for #2 diesel fuel Inclusion of B5 into the D396 specification for heating oil Passage of a blended fuel spec for B6 to B20 Addition to D6751 of a cold soak filtration test to eliminate cold filter plugging potential

B20 ASTM Specification

Property

· · · · ·

ASTM Method

D 93 D 2709 D86 D 445 D 5453 D 5453 D 130 D 613 D 2500 D 524 D 664 D 4951 EN14108 EN14108 EN14112 EN14078

Limits

125 min. 0.05 max. 650 max 1.9 ~4.1 0.0015 max. (15) 0.05 max. (500) No. 1 max. 40 min. Report 0.35 max. 0.30 max. 0.001 max. nd nd 6 min ±2%

Units

Degrees F % vol. Degrees F mm2/sec. % mass (ppm) % mass (ppm) Degrees F % mass mg KOH/g % mass ppm ppm hours vol%

· · · · · · · · · ·

Flash Point Water & Sediment Physical Distillation, T90 Kinematic Viscosity, 104°F Sulfur · S 15 Grade · S 500 Grade Copper Strip Corrosion Cetane Cloud Point Carbon Residue 10% residue Acid Number Phosphorus Content Sodium/Potassium, combined Magnesium/Calcium Oxidation Stability Blend Fraction

Manufacturers Policies on Biodiesel

Biodiesel Position with OEM's

Original Equipment Manufacturers: · B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751 · Most OEM HQ's have B20 experience: Won't void warranty Problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplier Want to see additional experience in the field · Higher blends OK'd based on experience of OEM and their technology

Manufacturers Approving B100

Case IH ­ nearly half of all models Fairbanks Morse New Holland

Manufacturers Approving B20

Arctic Cat Buhler Case IH ­ 90% of all models Cummins Caterpillar ­ on several models John Deere Toro

Manufacturers Approving B5

Ford Caterpillar General Motors Isuzu Mack Volkswagen Detroit Diesel Chrysler International Kubota Mercedes Benz Volvo

Filter Plugging Issues

Breakdown of Filter Plugging Sources

From April 2007 to March 2008 - Filter Plugging Problems Addressed by the National Biodiesel Hotline Microbial Only High Water and Microbial High Water Only Biodiesel Contaminants No problem Found Improper blending Other Oxidation, Oil Contaminants Biodiesel Didn't Meet Specification Outside Temperature Was Below Cloud Point ULSD Paraffin's 21% 18% 15% 10% 10% 8% 8% 5% 5% 3%

Microbial Growth

Several filters showed high content of live microbial organisms or a build-up of dead microbial material. The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell. MEG Corp believes that the lack of sulfur in biodiesel and ULSD aids in the build-up of such organisms since sulfur is a key component of many biocides and is a natural inhibitor of bacterial and fungal growth.

Treatment and Prevention

Biocides

-Three major groups: Fuel soluble, Water soluble,

and Universally soluble. -Need to be EPA registered and compatible with the lubricant.

Preventing Fuel Contamination

- Preventing contamination from air and water requires proper tank maintenance and cleaning

Paraffin Wax

The material on these filters was solid until touched or warmed to room temperature, then it melted. Laboratory analysis showed this material was in fact paraffin/hydrocarbon in nature. The high level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank. As a point of note, when the heavy paraffin's are disturbed from the filters, they liquefy. The minor ingredients associated with biodiesel will not liquefy and require heat to go back into solution. Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.

Oxidation

Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up. Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black "asphaltene" type material collecting on the filter. This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.

Engines

Hot Fuel Return

New Technology delivers the unused fuel from the engine block back to the fuel tank much faster. This hot fuel will cause degradation and oxidation of the fuel, which in turn can plug filters.

Hot

Hot

Coking Fuel

Monoglyceride Build-up

This filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material. Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend.

Terminal Blending

Terminal Blending

Biodiesel is added to a stream of diesel fuel as it travels through a pipe or hose in such as way that the biodiesel and diesel fuel become thoroughly mixed by the turbulence encountered in the pipe.

Other Blending Methods

Splash Blending ­ Biodiesel and diesel are loaded separately. Product mixes due to agitation during blending, transport and delivery. In-Tank Blending ­ Biodiesel and diesel are loaded separately or simultaneously at enough of a fill rate that fuels are sufficiently mixed without need for additional mixing or agitation.

Benefits of Terminal Blending

Preferred method of mixing biodiesel blends No added steps for trucks to load biodiesel Better accuracy of bio-blend percentages Better mixing in cold weather Blending documentation on a single bill of lading Movement towards biodiesel at the terminal ­ over 30 terminals nationwide

Test Kits

Field Test Kits

Water and Clarity Microbial Contamination Acid Number Percent Biodiesel Total Glycerin for B100 Test kits are not a substitute for ASTM D6751 but can offer guidance

Useful Information Resources

NBB Resources:

www.biodiesel.org

·Technical Library ·Biodiesel Bulletin ·Informational Resources

·Technical Resources ·Educational Videos Available ·On-line Database & Spec Sheets

Educational Resources

· BEN: Biodiesel ·

· · ·

Education Network Web-based resource specifically for petroleum marketers Partnership between NBB/PMAA www.pmaa.org www.biodiesel.org

Biodiesel Help-line

Established to:

Provide triage for fuel problems

problems not adequately addressed by distributors/producers

Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from:

customers fleets fuel distributors

Provide assistance through chemical analysis

Through the use of third party Lab

Help provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained.

Contact Information

The National Biodiesel Hotline is:

For when you cannot get help elsewhere. Not meant for General guidance issues. You should always begin by asking your fuel supplier, they will most likely be able to answer your question more accurately.

800-929-3437 [email protected]

Questions

Information

Refinery Process Overview

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