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CHAPTER

1

Flat Slabs

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Common practice of design and construction is to support the slabs by beams and support the beams by columns. This may be called as beam-slab construction. The beams reduce the available net clear ceiling height. Hence in warehouses, offices and public halls some times beams are avoided and slabs are directly supported by columns. This types of construction is aesthetically appealing also. These slabs which are directly supported by columns are called Flat Slabs. Fig. 1.1 shows a typical flat slab.

d 2

Critical section for shear

Fig. 1.1

A typical flat slab (without drop and column head)

The column head is some times widened so as to reduce the punching shear in the slab. The widened portions are called column heads. The column heads may be provided with any angle from the consideration of architecture but for the design, concrete in the portion at 45º on either side of vertical only is considered as effective for the design [Ref. Fig. 1.2].

Critical section for shear d 2

90° Concrete in this area is neglected for calculation

Fig. 1.2 Slab without drop and column with column head

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Advanced R.C.C. Design

Moments in the slabs are more near the column. Hence the slab is thickened near the columns by providing the drops as shown in Fig. 1.3. Sometimes the drops are called as capital of the column. Thus we have the following types of flat slabs:

d 2 d 2 Critical section for shear

Critical section for shear

Fig. 1.3 Slab with drop and column without column head

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Slabs Slabs Slabs Slabs

without drop and column head (Fig. 1.1). without drop and column with column head (Fig. 1.2). with drop and column without column head (Fig. 1.3). with drop and column head as shown in Fig. 1.4.

d 2

Critical section for shear 45° 45°

Fig. 1.4

Slab with drop and column with column head

The portion of flat slab that is bound on each of its four sides by centre lines of adjacent columns is called a panel. The panel shown in Fig. 1.5 has size L1 ´ L2. A panel may be divided into column strips and middle strips. Column Strip means a design strip having a width of 0.25L1 or 0.25L2, whichever is less. The remaining middle portion which is bound by the column strips is called middle strip. Fig. 1.5 shows the division of flat slab panel into column and middle strips in the direction y.

Flat Slabs

L2a C of panel A L2b C of panel B

3

L1

y

o

Column strip x

Middle strip

Column strip

Middle strip

Column strip

L2a 4 L but < 1 4

L2b 4

but < L1 4

Fig. 1.5 Panels, column strips and middle strips is y-direction

1.2

1.2.1

PROPORTIONING OF FLAT SLABS

Drops

IS 456-2000 [Clause 31.2] gives the following guidelines for proportioning.

The drops when provided shall be rectangular in plan, and have a length in each direction not less than one third of the panel in that direction. For exterior panels, the width of drops at right angles to the non continuous edge and measured from the centre-line of the columns shall be equal to one half of the width of drop for interior panels. 1.2.2 Column Heads

Where column heads are provided, that portion of the column head which lies within the largest right circular cone or pyramid entirely within the outlines of the column and the column head, shall be considered for design purpose as shown in Figs. 1.2 and 1.4. 1.2.3 Thickness of Flat Slab

From the consideration of deflection control IS 456-2000 specifies minimum thickness in terms of span to effective depth ratio. For this purpose larger span is to be considered. If drop as specified in 1.2.1 is provided, then the maximum value of ratio of larger span to thickness shall be = 40, if mild steel is used = 32, if Fe 415 or Fe 500 steel is used If drops are not provided or size of drops do not satisfy the specification 1.2.1, then the ratio shall not exceed 0.9 times the value specified above i.e., = 40 ´ 0.9 = 36, if mild steel is used. = 32 ´ 0.9 = 28.8, if HYSD bars are used It is also specified that in no case, the thickness of flat slab shall be less than 125 mm.

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Advanced R.C.C. Design

1.3

DETERMINATION OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE

For this IS 456-2000 permits use of any one of the following two methods: (a) The Direct Design Method (b) The Equivalent Frame Method

1.4

THE DIRECT DESIGN METHOD

This method has the limitation that it can be used only if the following conditions are fulfilled: (a) There shall be minimum of three continuous spans in each directions. (b) The panels shall be rectangular and the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span within a panel shall not be greater than 2. (c) The successive span length in each direction shall not differ by more than one-third of longer span. (d) The design live load shall not exceed three times the design dead load. (e) The end span must be shorter but not greater than the interior span. (f) It shall be permissible to offset columns a maximum of 10 percent of the span in the direction of the offset not withstanding the provision in (b). Total Design Moment The absolute sum of the positive and negative moment in each direction is given by M0 = Where, M0 = Total moment W = Design load on the area L2 ´ Ln Ln = Clear span extending from face to face of columns, capitals, brackets or walls but not less than 0.65 L1 L1 = Length of span in the direction of M0; and L2 = Length of span transverse to L1 In taking the values of Ln, L1 and L2, the following clauses are to be carefully noted: (a) Circular supports shall be treated as square supports having the same area i.e., squares of size 0.886D. (b) When the transverse span of the panel on either side of the centre line of support varies, L2 shall

+ L2b . 2 (c) When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered, the distance from the edge to the centre-line of the panel shall be substituted for L2. WL n 8

be taken as the average of the transverse spans. In Fig. 1.5 it is given by

bL

2a

g

Distribution of Bending Moment in to ve and +ve Moments The total design moment M0 in a panel is to be distributed into ve moment and +ve moment as specified below:

Flat Slabs

5

In an interior span Negative Design Moment Positive Design Moment In an end span Interior negative design moment 0.65 M0 0.35 M0

= 0.75 -

Positive design moment

LM MN LM MN

. 010 M0 1 1+ ac 0.28 M0 1 1+ ac

OP PQ OP PQ

= 0.63 -

Exterior negative design moment =

where ac is the ratio of flexural stiffness at the exterior columns to the flexural stiffness of the slab at a joint taken in the direction moments are being determined and is given by ac = Where,

LM 0.65 OPM MN1 + a1 PQ

c

0

K K

c s

Kc = Sum of the flexural stiffness of the columns meeting at the joint; and Ks = Flexural stiffness of the slab, expressed as moment per unit rotation. Distribution of Bending Moments Across the Panel Width The +ve and ve moments found are to be distributed across the column strip in a panel as shown in Table 1.1. The moment in the middle strip shall be the difference between panel and the column strip moments.

Table 1.1

S. No. a b c

Distribution of Moments Across the Panel Width in a Column Strip

Distributed Moment Per cent of Total Moment 100 75 60

Negative BM at the exterior support Negative BM at the interior support Positive bending moment

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Advanced R.C.C. Design

Moments in Columns In this type of constructions column moments are to be modified as suggested in IS 4562000 [Clause No. 31.4.5]. Shear Force

d from the periphery of the column/capital drop 2 panel. Hence if drops are provided there are two critical sections near columns. These critical sections are shown in Figs. 1.1 to 1.4. The shape of the critical section in plan is similar to the support immediately below the slab as shown in Fig. 1.6.

The critical section for shear shall be at a distance

Critical section

d/2 Support section column / column head (a )

Support section

d/2

d/2 Critical section (b)

Fig. 1.6

For columns sections with re-entrant angles, the critical section shall be taken as indicated in Fig. 1.7.

Critical section Support section d/2

Support section

d/2 Critical section d/2

d/2

d/2 (a)

(b)

Fig. 1.7

In case of columns near the free edge of a slab, the critical section shall be taken as shown in Fig. 1.8.

Free edge Critical section Free corner

d/2 d/2 (a) Corner column (b) Critical section

Fig. 1.8

Flat Slabs

7

The nominal shear stress may be calculated as V tv = b0 d where V is shear force due to design b0 is the periphery of the critical section d is the effective depth The permissible shear stress in concrete may be calculated as ks tc, where ks = 0.5 + bc but not greater than 1, where bc is the ratio of short side to long side of the column/capital; and tc = 0.25 fck If shear stress tv < tc no shear reinforcement are required. If tc < tv < 1.5 tc, shear reinforcement shall be provided. If shear stress exceeds 1.5 tc flat slab shall be redesigned.

1.5

EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD

IS 4562000 recommends the analysis of flat slab and column structure as a rigid frame to get design moment and shear forces with the following assumptions: (a) Beam portion of frame is taken as equivalent to the moment of inertia of flat slab bounded laterally by centre line of the panel on each side of the centre line of the column. In frames adjacent and parallel to an edge beam portion shall be equal to flat slab bounded by the edge and the centre line of the adjacent panel. (b) Moment of inertia of the members of the frame may be taken as that of the gross section of the concrete alone. (c) Variation of moment of inertia along the axis of the slab on account of provision of drops shall be taken into account. In the case of recessed or coffered slab which is made solid in the region of the columns, the stiffening effect may be ignored provided the solid part of the slab does not extend more than 0.15 lef into the span measured from the centre line of the columns. The stiffening effect of flared columns heads may be ignored. (d) Analysis of frame may be carried out with substitute frame method or any other accepted method like moment distribution or matrix method. Loading Pattern When the live load does not exceed ¾th of dead load, the maximum moments may be assumed to occur at all sections when full design live load is on the entire slab. If live load exceeds ¾th dead load analysis is to be carried out for the following pattern of loading also: (i) To get maximum moment near mid span ¾th of live load on the panel and full live load on alternate panel (ii) To get maximum moment in the slab near the support ¾th of live load is on the adjacent panel only It is to be carefully noted that in no case design moment shall be taken to be less than those occurring with full design live load on all panels. The moments determined in the beam of frame (flat slab) may be reduced in such proportion that the numerical sum of positive and average negative moments is not less than the value of total design

8

Advanced R.C.C. Design

moment M0 =

WL n . The distribution of slab moments into column strips and middle strips is to be 8 made in the same manner as specified in direct design method.

1.6

SLAB REINFORCEMENT

Spacing The spacing of bars in a flat slab, shall not exceed 2 times the slab thickness. Area of Reinforcement When the drop panels are used, the thickness of drop panel for determining area of reinforcement shall be the lesser of the following: (a) Thickness of drop, and (b) Thickness of slab plus one quarter the distance between edge of drop and edge of capital. The minimum percentage of the reinforcement is same as that in solid slab i.e., 0.12 percent if HYSD bars used and 0.15 percent, if mild steel is used. Minimum Length of Reinforcement At least 50 percent of bottom bars should be from support to support. The rest may be bent up. The minimum length of different reinforcement in flat slabs should be as shown in Fig. 1.9 (Fig. 16 in IS 456 2000). If adjacent spans are not equal, the extension of the ve reinforcement beyond each face shall be based on the longer span. All slab reinforcement should be anchored property at discontinuous edges. Example 1.1: Design an interior panel of a flat slab of size 5 m ´ 5 m without providing drop and column head. Size of columns is 500 ´ 500 mm and live load on the panel is 4 kN/m2. Take floor finishing load as 1 kN/m2. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Solution: Thickness Since drop is not provided and HYSD bars are used span to thickness ratio shall not exceed 1 1 = 0.9 × 32 28.8 \ Minimum thickness required

Span 5000 = 173.6 mm = 28.8 28.8 d = 175 mm and D = 200 mm

=

Let Loads Self weight of slab Finishing load Live load \ Total working load

= 0.20 ´ 25 = 5 kN/m2 = 1 kN/m2 = 4 kN/m2 = 10 kN/m2 = 1.5 ´ 10 = 15 kN/m2

Factored load

Flat Slabs

9

Minimum percentage of steel at section 50 Remainder 50 Remainder 50

Type of bars

Strip

WITHOUT DROP PANEL

WITH DROP PANEL

Straight bars

d b 75 mm max

d b

e b

e b

Column strip

24 BAR DIA OR 300 mm min. ALL BARS 150 mm min. EDGE OF DROP e b 150 mm 24BAR DIA OR 300 mm min. EDGE OF DROP c 75 mm max. c 0.15 l max 150 mm c a a c

C (ALL BARS)

150 mm 0.125lmax

d b

Bent bars*

Remainder 50 Remainder

d b

b e g

g o.15 l max 75 mm max. 150 mm c c

Straight bars

100

Middle Strip

50 Remainder 50

150 mm c (ALL BARS)

Bent bars*

Remainder 50 Remainder

150 mm

f

f

150 mm

75 mm max. D C Clear span - ln Face of support interior support D C

75 mm max. Clear span - ln D

Face of support C interior support [NO SLAB CONTINUITY] [CONTINUITY PROVED] [NO SLAB CONTINUITY]

Bar Length From Face of Support Minimum Length Maximum Length d 0.30 ln e 0.33 ln f 0.20 ln g 0.24 ln

Exterior support

Mark Length

a 0.14 ln

b 0.20 ln

c 0.22 ln

* Bent bars at exterior supports may be used if a general analysis is made. Note. D is the diameter of the column and the dimension of the rectangular column in the direction under consideration.

Fig. 1.9

Minimum bend joint locations and extensions for reinforcement in flat slabs

10

Advanced R.C.C. Design

Ln = 5 0.5 = 4.5 m \ Total design load in a panel W = 15 L2 Ln = 15 ´ 5 ´ 4.5 = 337.5 kN Moments Panel Moment Panel ve moment M0 =

WL n 4.5 = 337.5 ´ = 189.84 kNm 8 8

= 0.65 ´ 189.84 = 123.40 kNm

Panel +ve moment = 0.35 ´ 189.84 = 0.35 ´ 189.84 = 66.44 kNm Distribution of moment into column strips and middle strip:

Column Strip in kNm ve moment +ve moment 0.75 ´ 123.40 = 92.55 0.60 ´ 66.44 = 39.86 Middle Strip in kNm 30.85 26.58

Checking the thickness selected: Since Fe 415 steel is used, Mu lim = 0.138 fck b d2 Width of column strip = 0.5 ´ 5000 = 2500 mm \ Mu lim = 0.138 ´ 20 ´ 2500 ´ 1752 = 211.3125 ´ 106 Nmm = 211.3125 kNm Hence singly reinforced section can be designed i.e., thickness provided is satisfactory from the consideration of bending moment. Check for Shear

d from the column face. Hence periphery of critical 2 section around a column is square of a size = 500 + d = 500 + 175 = 675 mm

The critical section for shear is at a distance

Shear to be resisted by the critical section V = 15 ´ 5 ´ 5 15 ´ 0.675 ´ 0.675 = 368.166 kN \ tv =

675 500

368166 × 1000 . = 0.779 N/mm2 4 × 675 × 175

500

675

ks = 1 + bc subject to maximum of 1. bc = \ safe in shear since tv < tc

L1 5 = =1 L2 5

ks = 1 tc = 0.25 fck = 0.25 20 = 1.118 N/mm2

Flat Slabs

11

Reinforcement For ve moment in column strip: Mu = 92.55 kNm 92.55 ´ 106 = 0.87 f y A st d 1 -

LM N

A st f y bd fck

= 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 175 1 -

i.e., i.e.,

1464.78 = Ast 1 -

LM N

A st 21084.3

OP Q

LM N

OP Q

415 Ast × 2500 × 175 20

OP Q

A st 2 21084.3Ast + 1464.78 ´ 21084.3 = 0

Ast = 1583.74 mm2

This is to be provided in a column strip of width 2500 mm. Hence using 12 mm bars, spacing required is given by s=

p 4 ´ 12 2 ´ 2500 = 178 mm 1583.74

Provide 12 mm bars at 175 mm c/c. For +ve moment in column strip: Mu = 39.86 kNm \

39.86 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 175 1 -

630.86 = Ast 1 - or \

LM N

A st 21084.3

OP Q

LM N

415 A st × 2500 × 175 20

OP Q

Ast2 21084.3 Ast + 630.86 ´ 21084.3 = 0 Ast = 651 mm2 Using 10 mm bars, spacing required is s=

p 4 ´ 102 ´ 2500 = 301.6 mm < 2 ´ thickness of slab 651

Hence provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c. Provide 10 mm diameter bars at 300 mm c/c in the middle strip to take up ve and +ve moments. Since span is same in both directions, provide similar reinforcement in other direction also.

12

Advanced R.C.C. Design

Reinforcement Details It is as shown in Fig. 1.10

Column Strip 12-175 c/c Middle Strip Column strip

Column strip

12-175 c/c 10-300 c/c 10-300 c/c

5000

Sign convention Top reinforcement Bottom reinforcement

Column Strip Middle Strip

5000

5000

5000 12-175 c/c

5000

5000 200

10 - 300 c\c

Cover -25 500

500 Section through column strip 3000

10 - 300 c/c

3000

500

section through middle strip

500

Fig. 1.10

Reinforcement details [all dimension in mm units]

Example 1.2: Design an interior panel of a flat slab with panel size 6 ´ 6 m supported by columns of size 500 ´ 500 mm. Provide suitable drop. Take live load as 4 kN/m2. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Solution : Thickness : Since Fe 415 steel is used and drop is provided, maximum span to thickness ratio permitted is 32

6000 = 187.5 mm 32 Provide 190 mm thickness. Let the cover be 30 mm

\ Thickness of flat slab

=

\ Overall thickness D = 220 mm Let the drop be 50 mm. Hence at column head, d = 240 mm and D = 270 mm

Flat Slabs

13

Size of Drop It should not be less than

1 ´6m = 2 m 3

Let us provide 3 m ´ 3 m drop so that the width of drop is equal to that of column head. \ Loads For the purpose of design let us take self-weight as that due to thickness at column strip \ Self-weight = 0.27 ´ 1 ´ 1 ´ 25 = 6.75 kN/m2 Finishing load Live load Total load \ Design (factored) load Clear span \ Design load = 1.00 kN/m2 = 4.00 kN/m2 = 11.75 kN/m2 = 1.5 ´ 11.75 = 17.625 kN/m2 Ln = 6 0.5 = 5.5 m W0 = Wu ´ L2 ´ Ln = 17.625 ´ 6 ´ 5.5 = 581.625 kN Design Total Moment Total moment Width of column strip = width of middle strip = 3000 mm.

W0 Ln 581625 ´ 55 . . = = 400 kNm 8 8 \ Total negative moment = 0.65 ´ 400 = 260 kNm Total positive moment = 0.35 ´ 400 = 140 kNm The above moments are to be distributed into column strip and middle strip

M0 =

Column Strip ve moment +ve moment 0.75 ´ 260 = 195 kNm 0.6 ´ 140 = 84 kNm Middle Strip 0.25 ´ 260 = 65 kNm 0.4 ´ 140 = 56 kNm

Width of column strip

2

= width of middle strip = 3000 mm = 476.928 kNm

Mu lim = 0.138 fck b d = 0.138 ´ 20 ´ 3000 ´ 2402 = 476.928 ´ 106 Nmm Thus Mu lim > Mu. Hence thickness selected is sufficient. Check for Shear The critical section is at a distance

14

Advanced R.C.C. Design

d 240 = = 120 mm from the face of column 2 2

\ It is a square of size

= 500 + 240 = 740 mm V = Total load load on 0.740 ´ 0.740 area = 17.625 ´ 6 ´ 6 17.625 ´ 0.740 ´ 0.740 = 624.849 kN

\ Nominal shear Shear strength where where \

= tv = = ks tc

624.489 × 1000 = 0.880 N/mm2 4 × 740 × 240

740

k s = 1 + bc subject to maximum of 1 bc =

500

L1 =1 L2

ks = 1

500

740

tc = 0.25 20 = 1.118 N/mm2 Design shear stress permitted = 1.118 N/mm2 > tv Hence the slab is safe in shear without shear reinforcement also. Shear strength may be checked at distance Reinforcement (a) For ve moment in column strip Mu = 195 kNm Thickness \ d = 240 mm Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d 1 -

120 500 120

d from drop. It is quite safe since drop size is large. 2

LM N

fy A st × b × d fck

195 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 240 1 - 2250.38 = Ast 1 -

LM N

A st 34698.8

OP Q

LM N

OP Q

415 A st × 3000 × 240 20

OP Q

A st 2 34698.8 Ast + 2250.38 ´ 34698.8 = 0

Ast = 2419 mm2 in 3000 mm width

Flat Slabs

15

Using 12 mm bars, spacing required is s=

p 4 ´ 12 2 ´ 3000 = 140.26 mm 2419

Provide 12 mm bars at 140 mm c/c (b) For +ve moment in column strip Mu = 84 kNm = 84 ´ 106 Nmm. Thickness d = 190 mm 84 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 - 1224.5 = Ast 1 - \ Using 10 mm bars s=

p 4 ´ 102 ´ 3000 = 183 mm 1285

LM N

A st 27469.9

OP Q

LM N

415 A st × 3000 × 240 20

OP Q

Ast = 1285 mm2

Provide 10 mm bars at 180 mm c/c (c) For ve moment in middle strip: Mu = 65 kNm; Thickness = 190 mm

65 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 - 947.5 = Ast 1 -

LM N

Ast 27469.9

OP Q

LM N

415 A st × 3000 × 190 20

OP Q

2 Ast 27469.9 Ast + 947.5 ´ 27469.9 = 0

Ast = 983 mm2 in 3000 mm width Using 10 mm bars s=

p 4 ´ 102 ´ 3000 = 239.7 mm 983

Provide 10 mm bars at 230 mm c/c (d) For +ve moment in middle strip Mu = 56 kNm; Thickness = 190 mm Provide 10 mm bars at 230 mm c/c in this portion also. Since span is same in both direction, provide similar reinforcement in both directions. The details of reinforcement are shown in Fig. 1.11.

16

Advanced R.C.C. Design

Column strip =Dorp width Column strip =Dorp width

Middle strip 12140 c/c

Column strip

=Dorp width

10180c/c 10230 c/c

6000

=Dorp width Middle strip

12230c/c 6000

Column strip

10180c/c 6000

6000 12 @ 140

6000

6000 10 @ 180 c/c

190 240 500

10 @ 230 Cover - 30

500

Section through column strip 10 @ 230 c/c

190 240 500 500

Fig. 1.11

Reinforcement details

Example 1.3: Design the interior panel of the flat slab in example 1.2, providing a suitable column head, if columns are of 500 mm diameter. Solution: Let the diameter of column head be = 0.25L = 0.25 ´ 6 = 1.5 m It's equivalent square has side `a' where

\

× 1.52 = a2 4 a = 1.33 m Ln = 6 1.33 = 4.67 m W0 = 17.625 ´ 6 ´ 4.67 = 493.85 kN

M0 =

Wo Ln 493.85 × 4.67 = 288.3 kNm = 8 8

Flat Slabs

17

\

Total ve moment = 0.65 ´ 288.3 = 187.4 kNm Total +ve moment = 0.35 ´ 288.3 = 100.9 kNm The distribution of above moment into column strip and middle strips are as given below:

Column Strip ve moment +ve moment 0.75 ´ 187.4 = 140.55 kNm 0.60 ´ 100.9 = 60.54 kNm Middle Strip 0.25 ´ 187.4 = 46.85 kNm 0.4 ´ 100.9 = 40.36 kNm

Width of column strip = width of middle strip = 3000 mm \ Mu lim = 0.138 fck bd2 = 0.138 ´ 20 ´ 3000 ´ 2402 = 476.928 ´ 106 Nmm > Mu Hence thickness selected is sufficient. Check for Shear The critical section is at a distance

d 240 = = 120 mm from the face of column head 2 2 Diameter of critical section = 1500 + 240 =1740 mm = 1.740 m Perimeter of critical section = p D = 1.740 p Shear on this section

1500

120

V = 17.625 6 ´ 6 \ tv =

592.59 × 1000 = 0.45 N/mm2 × 1740 × 240

LM N

p ´ 174 2 = 592.59 kN . 4

OP Q

Maximum shear permitted = ks × 0.25 20 = 1.118 N/mm2 Since ks works out to be 1 Since maximum shear permitted in concrete is more than nominal shear tv, there is no need to provide shear reinforcement Design of Reinforcement (a) For ve moment in column strip Mu = 140.55 kNm; \ d = 240 mm

140.55 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 240 1 - 1622 = Ast 1 -

LM N

A st 34698.8

OP Q

LM N

415 Ast × 3000 × 240 20

OP Q

18

Advanced R.C.C. Design

Ast2 34698.8 Ast + 1622 ´ 34698.8 = 0 Ast = 1705 mm2 Using 12 mm bars,

4 × 12 2 × 3000 = 199 mm 1705 Provide 12 mm bars at 190 mm c/c.

s=

(b) For the +ve moment in column strip Mu = 60.54 kNm;

d = 190 mm

60.54 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 - 882.51 = Ast 1 -

A st 27469.9 2 Ast 27469.9 Ast + 882.51 ´ 27469.9 = 0 Ast = 913 mm2

LM N

OP Q

LM N

415 A st × 3000 × 190 20

OP Q

Using 10 mm bars

4 × 10 2 × 3000 = 258 mm 913 Provide 10 mm bars at 250 mm c/c.

s=

(c) For ve moment in middle strip: Mu = 46.85 kNm;

d = 190 mm

46.85 ´ 106 = 0.87 ´ 415 ´ Ast ´ 190 1 - 683 = Ast 1 -

A st 27469.9 2 Ast 27469.9Ast + 683 ´ 27469.9 = 0 Ast = 701 mm2

LM N

OP Q

LM N

415 A st × 3000 × 190 20

OP Q

Using 10 mm bars,

4 × 10 2 × 3000 = 336 mm 701 Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c.

s= (d) Provide 10 mm bars at 300 mm c/c for +ve moment in middle strip also. As span is same in both directions, provide similar reinforcement in both directions. Reinforcement detail may be shown as was done in previous problem. Example 1.4: A flat slab system consists of 5 m ´ 6 m panels and is without drop and column head. It has to carry a live load of 4 kN/m2 and a finishing load of 1 kN/m2. It is to be designed using M20 grade concrete and Fe 415 steel. The size of the columns supporting the system is 500 ´ 500 mm and floor to floor height is 4.5 m. Calculate design moments in interior and exterior panels at column and middle strips in both directions.

Flat Slabs

19

Solution: Thickness: Since Fe 415 steel is used and no drops are provided, longer span to depth ratio is not more than 32 ´ 0.9 = 28.8 d= Let us select Loads Self weight 0.24 ´ 1 ´ 1 ´ 25 = 6 kN/m2 Finishing weight = 1 kN/m2 Live load = 4 kN/m2 Total = 11 kN/m2 Wu = 1.5 ´ 11 = 16.5 kN/m2 Panel Dimensions Along length L1 = 6 m Width of column strip and L2 = 5 m = 0.25 L1 or L2 whichever is less.

6000 = 208 28.8 d = 210 mm and D = 240 mm

= 0.25 ´ 5 = 1.25 m on either side of column centre line \Total width of column strip = 1.25 ´ 2 = 2.5 m Width of middle strip = 5 2.5 = 2.5 m Along Width L1 = 5 m \Total width of column strip = 2.5 m Hence, width of middle strip = 6 2.5 = 3.5 m L2 = 6 m Width of column strip = 0.25 ´ 5 = 1.25 m on either side

INTERIOR PANELS

Moments Along Longer Size L1 = 6 m \ Load on panel L2 = 5 m Ln = 6 0.5 = 5.5 m subject to minimum of 0.65 ´ L1 = 3.9 m Ln = 5.5 m W0 = 16.5 ´ L2Ln = 16.5 ´ 5 ´ 5.5 = 453.75 kN

20

Advanced R.C.C. Design

M0 = Appropriation of Moment

. . W0 Ln 45375 ´ 55 = = 311.95 kNm 8 8

Total ve moment = 0.65 ´ 311.95 = 202.77 kNm \ Total +ve moment = 311.95 202.77 = 109.18 kNm Hence moment in column strip and middle strip along longer direction in interior panels are as given below:

Column Strip ve moment +ve moment 0.75 ´ 202.75 = 152.06 kNm 0.60 ´ 109.18 = 65.51 kNm Middle Strip 202.75 152.06 = 50.69 kNm 109.18 65.51 = 43.67 kNm

Along Width L1 = 5 m Panel load Panel moment L2 = 6 m and Ln = 5 0.5 = 4.5 m. = W0 = 16.5 ´ 6 ´ 4.5 = 445.5 kN M0 = W0

Ln 4455 ´ 4.5 . = = 250.59 kN-m 8 8

Appropriation of Moment: Total ve moment = 0.65 ´ 250.59 = 162.88 kN-m Total +ve moment = 250.59 162.88 = 87.71 kN-m \ Moments in column strip and middle strip are as shown below:

Column Strip ve moment +ve moment 0.75 ´ 162.88 = 122.16 kNm 0.60 ´ 87.71 = 52.63 kNm Middle Strip 0.25 ´ 162.88 = 40.72 kNm 0.40 ´ 87.71 = 35.08 kNm

EXTERIOR PANELS

Length of column = 4.5 0.24 = 4.26 m The building is not restrained from lateral sway. Hence as per Table 28 in IS 456-2000, effective length of column = 1.2 ´ length = 1.2 ´ 4.26 = 5.112 m Size of column = 500 ´ 500 mm

1 × 500 4 mm 4 12

Moment of inertia of column =

Flat Slabs

21

\

kc =

I 1 500 4 = 101844 mm4 = × L 12 5112

LONGER SPAN DIRECTION

Moment of inertia of beam Is = Moment of inertia of slab 1 = × 6000 × 240 3 12 = L2 = 5000 mm kc =

Its length \

Is 1 6000 ´ 2403 = 1382400 mm4 = ´ 5000 12 5000 4 Live load = < 0.75 7 Dead load \ Relative stiffness ratio is

ac =

kc1 + kc2 2 × 1018844 = 1.474 = 1382400 ks

\

1 1 = 1.678 = 1+ . 1474 ac Hence various moment coefficients are:

a = 1+ Interior ve moment coefficient = 0.75

0.1 = 0.690

0.65 = 0.387 0.28 = 0.463 Positive moment coefficient = 0.63 Total moment M0 = 311.95 kNm \ Appropriation of moments in kNm is as given below:

Exterior ve moment coefficient =

Total Interior ve Exterior ve + Moment 0.69 ´ 311.95 = 215.25 0.387 ´ 311.95 = 120.72 0.463 ´ 31.95 = 144.43 Column Strip 0.75 ´ 215.25 = 161.43 1.00 ´ 120.72 = 120.72 0.60 ´ 144.43 = 86.66 Middle Strip 215.25 161.43 = 53.82 120.72 120.72 = 0 144.43 86.66 = 57.77

Shorter Span Direction \ \ ks =

1 5000 × 2403 = 96000 × 12 6000 k + kc2 2 × 1018844 ac = c1 = 2.123 = 960000 ks

22

Advanced R.C.C. Design

1 = 1.471 c 0.1 0.1 Interior ve moment coefficient = 0.75 = 0.682 = 0.75 a 1.471 0.65 0.65 Exterior ve moment coefficient = = 0.442 = 1.471 0.28 0.28 = 0.440 = 0.63 - Positive moment coefficient = 0.63 1.471 Total moment M0 = 250.59 kNm \ Appropriation of moments in shorter span exterior panel in kNm is as given below:

\ a1 = 1 +

Total Interior ve Exterior -ve + Moment 0.682 ´ 250.59 = 170.90 0.442 ´ 250.59 = 110.76 0.44 ´ 250.59 = 110.25 Column Strip 0.75 ´ 170.76 = 128.18 1.00 ´ 110.76 = 110.76 0.60 ´ 110.25 = 66.16 Middle Strip 170.90 128.18 = 42.72 110.76 110.76 = 0 110.25 66.16 = 44.09

In the exterior panel in each column strips half the above values will act. These moments are shown in Fig. 1.12

Col Strip

120.72

Middle Strip

53.82 52.63

Col Strip

161.43 15.06 2 122.16

Middle Strip

50.69 52.63

Col Strip

152.06 122.16

2.5 m

122.16 86.66 2

57.77 35.08

86.66 65.51 + 2 2

43.67 35.08

65.51

3.5 m

40.72

40.72

40.72

120.72

53.82

2.5 m

122.16 2 128.18 86.66 2 57.77

52.63 2 66.16 2

161.43 152.06 2 122.16 128.18 2

86.66 65.51 + 2 2

50.69

52.63 2

152.06 122.16 2 128.18

66.16 2 43.67 44.09

65.51

3.5 m

42.72

44.09 42.72 152.06 2 110.76

42.72

1.25 m

120.72 53.82 4 66.16 110.76 2

161.43

50.69 66.16

152.06 110.76

1.25 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Fig. 1.12

Flat Slabs

23

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Design the typical interior panel of a flat slab floor of size 5 m ´ 5 m with suitable drop to support a live load of 4 kN/m2. The floor is supported by columns of size 450 mm ´ 450 mm. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Sketch the reinforcement details by showing cross sections (i) at column strip (ii) at middle strip. 2. Design the exterior panel of a flat slab of size 6 m ´ 6 m with suitable drop to support a live load of 5 kN/m2. The floor system is supported by columns of size 500 mm ´ 500 mm. Floor to floor distance is 3.6 m. Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel. 3. For the flat slab system of size 6 m ´ 6 m provide suitable drop and fix up overall dimensions. The floor system is supported by columns of size 500 mm ´ 500 mm, the floor height being 3.6 m. Calculate the design moments at various strips in the interior and exterior panels. Give the plan of the floor system showing these design moments.

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