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CHAPTER
2
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF
INERTIA
Under this topic first we will see how to find the areas of given figures and the volumes of given solids. Then the terms centre of gravity and centroids are explained. Though the title of this topic do not indicate the centroid of line segment, that term is also explained, since the centroid of line segment will be useful in finding the surface area and volume of solids using theorems of Pappus and Guldinus. Then the term first moment of area is explained and the method of finding centroid of plane areas and volumes is illustrated. After explaining the term second moment of area, the method of finding moment of inertia of plane figures about xx or yy axis is illustrated. The term product moment of inertia is defined and the mehtod of finding principal moment of inertia is presented. At the end the method of finding mass moment of inertia is presented.
2.1
DETERMINATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES
In the school education methods of finding areas and volumes of simple cases are taught by many methods. Here we will see the general approach which is common to all cases i.e. by the method of integration. In this method the expression for an elemental area will be written then suitable integrations are carried out so as to take care of entire surface/volume. This method is illustrated with standard cases below, first for finding the areas and latter for finding the volumes:
A: Area of Standard Figures
(i) Area of a rectangle Let the size of rectangle be b × d as shown in Fig. 2.1. dA is an elemental area of side dx × dy. Area of rectangle, A =
d/2 O d/2
y dx dy x
z
b2 d2
dA =
b2 b 2
b 2 d 2
z z
d2 d 2
dx dy
b/2 b/2
= x = bd.
y
Fig. 2.1
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AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
71
If we take element as shown in Fig. 2.2,
d2
A=
d 2
z
d2
dA =
d2 d 2
d 2
z
d/2
b dy
d/2 b
dy y
= b y = bd
Fig. 2.2
(ii) Area of a triangle of base width `b' height `h'. Referring to Fig. 2.3, let the element be selected as shown by hatched lines Then
y dA = bdy = b dy h
y h b¢ b dy
y A = dA = b dy h 0 0
=
b y2 bh = h 2 2 0
h
z
h
z
h
Fig. 2.3
(iii) Area of a circle Consider the elemental area dA = rddr as shown in Fig. 2.4. Now, dA = rd dr r varies from O to R and varies from O to 2
2 R
A=
2
=
2
= = =
zz z LMN z
0 0 0 0
y
rd dr
r2 2
2
O P Q
R
d
0
dr r dq q O R
rdq x
R d 2
2 0
R2 2
R2 2 Fig. 2.4 . 2 = R 2 In the above derivation, if we take variation of from 0 to , we get the area of semicircle as R 2 R 2 and if the limit is from 0 to / 2 the area of quarter of a circle is obtained as . 2 4
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
(iv) Area of a sector of a circle Area of a sector of a circle with included angle 2 shown in Fig. 2.5 is to be determined. The elemental area is as shown in the figure dA = rd . dr y varies from to and r varies from O to R A=
=
L R O = M N2 P Q
2

z zz z LMN OPQ z
dA =
r2 2
R  0 R
r d dr
R
dr
rdG
d =
0

R2 d 2
0
r dG
O a
=

R2 2 2 = R 2
Fig. 2.5
a f
(v) Area of a parabolic spandrel Two types of parabolic curves are possible (a) y = kx2 (b) y2 = kx Case a: This curve is shown in Fig. 2.6. The area of the element dA = y dx = kx2 dx A=
Lx O = kM P N3Q
3
z
a
dA =
a
0
z
a 0 0
y
kx dx
y = kx
2
2
ka = 3
3
h x=a dx x
x
We know, when x = a, y = h i.e., h = ka2 or k = A=
h a2
Fig. 2.6
ka 3 h a3 1 1 = 2 = ha = rd the area of rectangle of size a × h 3 3 3 a 3 Case b: In this case y2 = kx Referring to Fig. 2.7
dA = y dx = A=
kx dx
z
a
y dx =
0
z
a
kx dx
0
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
2
OF INERTIA
73
=
k x3 2
L M N
2 3
O P Q
a 0
=
k
2 32 a 3
y y = kx
We know that, when x = a, y = h Hence i.e., h2 = ka A= A=
h
or
h2 k= a
h x dx x=a
2 . . a3 2 a 3
Fig. 2.7
2 2 ha = rd the area of rectangle of size a × h 3 3 (vi) Surface area of a cone Consider the cone shown in Fig. 2.8. Now, x R h Surface area of the element,
y= dA = 2 y dl = 2 = 2 A=
x R dl h
dl R a x y dx
x dx R h sin
x2 2 R h sin 2
Rh = Rl = sin (vii) Surface area of a sphere Consider the sphere of radius R shown in Fig. 2.9. The element considered is the parallel circle at distance y from the diametral axis of sphere.
dS = 2 x Rd = 2 R cos Rd, since x = R cos
2
L O M P N Q
h
h
0
Fig. 2.8
S = 2 R2 = 2 R = 4 R2
2
 2
z
cos d
2  2
dy y q dq
x
Rdq
sin
Fig. 2.9
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
B: Volume of Standard Solids
(i) Volume of a parallelpiped. Let the size of the parallelpiped be a × b × c. The volume of the element is dV = dx dy dz V=
zzz
abc 000 a 0
dx dy dz y
b 0
= x (ii) Volume of a cone: Referring to Fig. 2.8
z
c 0
= abc
dV = y2 . dx =
h2 R
2
x x2 2 R dx , since y = R 2 h h
h2
2
V=
z
0
h
x dx =
2 3
R
2
LM x OP N3Q
3
h
0
= (iii) Volume of a sphere Referring to Fig. 2.9
2 h R h = R 2 h 3 3
dV = x2 dy But i.e., x2 + y2 = R2 x 2 = R2 y2 dV = (R 2 y2)dy V=
The surface areas and volumes of solids of revolutions like cone, spheres may be easily found using theorems of Pappus and Guldinus. This will be taken up latter in this chapter, since it needs the term centroid of generating lines.
j L y OP = MR y  3 P M N Q L R a Rf R   S R  = MR R  3 3 M  T N L 1 1O 4 R = R M1  + 1  P = N 3 3Q 3
R
R
z
R2  y 2 dy
3 R
e
2
R
2
3
3
3
UOP  VP Q W
3
3
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
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2.2
CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND CENTROIDS
Consider the suspended body shown in Fig. 2.10a. The self weight of various parts of this body are acting vertically downward. The only upward force is the force T in the string. To satisfy the equilibrium condition the resultant weight of the body W must act along the line of string 11. Now, if the position is changed and the body is suspended again (Fig. 2.10b), it will reach equilibrium condition in a particular position. Let the line of action of the resultant weight be 2 2 intersecting 11 at G. It is obvious that if the body is suspended in any other position, the line of action of resultant weight W passes through G. This point is called the centre of gravity of the body. Thus centre of gravity can be defined as the point through which the resultant of force of gravity of the body acts.
T 1 1
T 2
w1
G W
1 2 W = å w1 W = å w1 1
1(a)
(b)
Fig. 2.10
The above method of locating centre of gravity is the practical method. If one desires to locating centre of gravity of a body analytically, it is to be noted that the resultant of weight of various portions of the body is to be determined. For this Varignon's theorem, which states the moment of resultant force is equal to the sum of moments of component forces, can be used. Referring to Fig. 2.11, let Wi be the weight of an element in the given body. W be the total weight of the body. Let the coordinates of the element be xi, yi, zi and that of centroid G be xc, yc, zc. Since W is the resultant of Wi forces, W = W1 + W2 + W3 . . . = Wi and Similarly, and Wxc = W1x1 + W2x2 + W3x3 + . . . Wxc = Wixi = Ü xdw Wyc = Wiyi = Ü ydw Wz c = Wizc = Ü zdw
G Wi O yi zi xi xc z
W
yc zc
x
Fig. 2.11
U  V  W
Eqn. (2.1)
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
If M is the mass of the body and mi that of the element, then M=
W g
and
mi =
Wi , hence we get g
Mxc = mixi = Myc = miyi =
and Mzc = mizi = zidm If the body is made up of uniform material of unit weight g, then we know Wi = Uig, where U represents volume, then equation 2.1 reduces to Vxc = Vixi = Vyc = Viyi =
z z z z z z z
xidm yidm
U  V  W U  V  W
Eqn. (2.2)
xdV ydV
Vzc = Vizi= zdV If the body is a flat plate of uniform thickness, in xy plane, Wi = g Ait (Ref Fig. 2.12). Hence equation 2.1 reduces to Axc = Aixi = Ayc = Aiyi =
y
z
Eqn. (2.3)
x dA y dA
U V W
Eqn. (2.4)
W z xc yc Wi (xi, yc)
dL Wi = g A dL
Fig. 2.12
Fig. 2.13
If the body is a wire of uniform cross section in plane x, y (Ref. Fig. 2.13) the equation 2.1 reduces to Lxc = Lixi = Eqn. (2.5) Lyc = Liyi = y dL The term centre of gravity is used only when the gravitational forces (weights) are considered. This term is applicable to solids. Equations 2.2 in which only masses are used the point obtained is termed as centre of mass. The central points obtained for volumes, surfaces and line segments (obtained by eqns. 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5) are termed as centroids.
z z
x dL
U V W
2.3
CENTROID OF A LINE
dx O x L G x
Centroid of a line can be determined using equation 2.5. Method of finding the centroid of a line for some standard cases is illustrated below: (i) Centroid of a straight line: Selecting the xcoordinate along the line (Fig. 2.14)
Fig. 2.14
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
77
Lxc = xc =
z
0
L
x dx =
LM x OP N2Q
2
L
=
0
L2 2
L 2 Thus the centroid lies at midpoint of a straight line, whatever be the orientation of line (Ref. Fig. 2.15).
y y
L G O L 2 L O G x L 2 L cos 2 G L sin 2
x
Fig. 2.15
(ii) Centroid of an Arc of a Circle Referring to Fig. 2.16, L = Length of arc = R 2 dL = Rd Hence from eqn. 2.5
xcL = i.e., xc R 2 =

 
z z
x
Rdq
xdL
a O a
dq
q
x
R cos . Rd
(i)
= R2 sin
xc = yc L
and

z
R sin R 2 × 2 sin = 2 R
y dL =

z
Fig. 2.16
R sin . Rd

= R2  cos
(ii)
=0 yc = 0 From equation (i) and (ii) we can get the centroid of semicircle shown in Fig. 2.17 by putting = /2 and for quarter of a circle shown in Fig. 2.18 by putting varying from zero to /2.
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
G R G R
Fig. 2.17
Fig. 2.18
2R yc = 0 For quarter of a circle,
For semicircle xc =
2R 2R yc = (iii) Centroid of composite line segments: The results obtained for standard cases may be used for various segments and then the equations 2.5 in the form
xc = xcL = Lixi ycL = Liyi may be used to get centroid xc and yc. If the line segments is in space the expression zcL = Lizi may also be used. The method is illustrated with few examples below: Example 2.1 Determine the centroid of the wire shown in Fig. 2.19.
y D G3
30
0
m m
45° C
G2 G1 A 600 mm B
200 mm k
Fig. 2.19
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
79
Solution. The wire is divided into three segments AB, BC and CD. Taking A as origin the coordinates of the centroids of AB, BC and CD are G1(300, 0); G2(600, 100) and G3(600 150 cos 45°; 200 + 150 sin 45°) i.e. G3(493.93, 306.07) L1 = 600 mm, L2 = 200 mm, L3 = 300 mm L = 600 + 200 + 300 = 1100 mm
Total length
From the eqn. Lxc = Lixi, we get 1100 xc = L1x1 + L2x2 + L3x3 = 600 × 300 + 200 × 600 + 300 × 493.93 Now, xc = 407.44 mm Lyc = Liyi 1100 yc = 600 × 0 + 200 × 100 + 300 × 306.07 yc = 101.66 mm Example 2.2 Locate the centroid of the uniform wire bent as shown in Fig. 2.20.
G2 250 G1 A 400 mm All dimensions in mm B 150 C 30° G3 D
Ans.
Ans.
Fig. 2.20
Solution. The composite figure is divided into 3 simple figures and taking A as origin coordinates of their centroids noted as shown below: ABa straight line L1 = 400 mm, G1 (200, 0) BCa semicircle L2 = 150 = 471.24, CDa straight line L3 = 250; x3 = 400 + 300 +
2 × 150 i.e., G2 (475, 92.49) G 2 475 ,
FG H
IJ K
250 cos 30° = 808.25 mm 2
y3 = 125 sin 30 = 62.5 mm Total length L = L1 + L2 + L3 = 1121.24 mm Lxc = Lixi xc = 451.20 mm Lyc = Liyi gives gives Ans. 1121.24 xc = 400 × 200 + 471.24 × 475 + 250 × 808.25
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
1121.24 yc = 400 × 0 + 471.24 × 95.49 + 250 × 62.5 yc = 54.07 mm Ans. Example 2.3 Locate the centroid of uniform wire shown in Fig. 2.21. Note: portion AB is in xz plane, BC in yz plane and CD in xy plane. AB and BC are semi circular in shape.
z
r = 140
A x D
r=
10 0
B
C
45°
y
Fig. 2.21
Solution. The length and the centroid of portions AB, BC and CD are as shown in table below: Table 2.1
Portion AB BC CD Li
100 140 300
xi
100 0 300 sin 45°
yi
0 140 280 + 300 cos 45° = 492.13
zi
2 × 100 2 × 140
0
L = 100 + 140 + 300 = 1053.98 mm 1053.98 xc = 100 × 100 + 140 × 0 + 300 × 300 sin 45° xc = 90.19 mm Ans. Ans.
From eqn. Lxc = Lixi, we get
Similarly, 1053.98 yc = 100 × 0 + 140 × 140 + 300 × 492.13 yc = 198.50 mm and 1053.98 zc = 100 ×
200 2 × 140 + 140 × + 300 × 0 z c = 56.17 mm
Ans.
2.4
FIRST MOMENT OF AREA AND CENTROID
From equation 2.1, we have xc =
W i xi ,
W
yc =
Wi y i
W
and
zc =
W i zi
W
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
81
From the above equation we can make the statement that distance of centre of gravity of a body from an axis is obtained by dividing moment of the gravitational forces acting on the body, about the axis, by the total weight of the body. Similarly from equation 2.4, we have,
A A By terming Aix: as the moment of area about the axis, we can say centroid of plane area from any axis is equal to moment of area about the axis divided by the total area. The moment of area Aix: is termed as first moment of area also just to differentiate this from the term Aix E , which will be dealt latter. It may be noted that since the moment of area about an axis divided by total area gives the distance of the centroid from that axis, the moment of area is zero about any centroidal axis.
xc =
Ai xi
, yc =
Ai y i
Difference between Centre of Gravity and Centroid
From the above discussion we can draw the following differences between centre of gravity and centroid: (1) The term centre of gravity applies to bodies with weight, and centroid applies to lines, plane areas and volumes. (2) Centre of gravity of a body is a point through which the resultant gravitational force (weight) acts for any orientation of the body whereas centroid is a point in a line plane area volume such that the moment of area about any axis through that point is zero.
Use of Axis of Symmetry
Centroid of an area lies on the axis of symmetry if it exits. This is useful theorem to locate the Y centroid of an area. This theorem can be proved as follows: Axis of symmetry Consider the area shown in Fig. 2.22. In this figure yy is the axis of symmetry. From eqn. 2.4, the distance of centroid from this axis is x x given by:
Ai xi
O
X
A Consider the two elemental areas shown in Fig. 2.22, which are equal in size and are equidistant from the axis, but on either side. Now the sum of moments of these areas cancel each other since the Fig. 2.22 areas and distances are the same, but signs of distances are opposite. Similarly, we can go on considering an area on one side of symmetric axis and corresponding image area on the other side, and prove that total moments of area (Aixi) about the symmetric axis is zero. Hence the distance of centroid from the symmetric axis is zero, i.e. centroid always lies on symmetric axis. Making use of the symmetry we can conclude that: (1) Centroid of a circle is its centre (Fig. 2.23); b d (2) Centroid of a rectangle of sides b and d is at distance and from the corner as shown 2 2 in Fig. 2.24.
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
b b/2
G
G d/2
d
Fig. 2.23
Fig. 2.24
Determination of Centroid of Simple Figures From First Principle
For simple figures like triangle and semicircle, we can write general expression for the elemental area and its distance from an axis. Then equations 2.4

y = x =

A The location of the centroid using the above equations may be considered as finding centroid from first principles. Now, let us find centroid of some standard figures from first principles.
z z
ydA A xdA
Centroid of a Triangle Consider the triangle ABC of base width b and height h as shown in Fig. 2.25. Let us locate the distance of centroid from the base. Let b1 be the width of elemental strip of thickness dy at a distance y from the base. Since DAEF and DABC are similar triangles, we can write:
b1 hy = b h
b1 =
A dy E b1 y F h
FG h  y IJ b = FG 1  y IJ b H h K H hK
= 1
Area of the element = dA = b1dy
FG H
y b dy h 1 A = bh 2
IJ K
B b
C
Fig. 2.25
Area of the triangle From eqn. 2.4

y =
Now,
ydA = y 1  h b dy 0
z
Movement of area = Total area
z
ydA A
h
FG H
y
IJ K
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
83
=
L y y OP = bM  M N 2 3h QP
2 3
z FGH
h 0
y
y2 b dy h
h
I JK
0
=

y =
bh 6 ydA
2
z
A
=
bh 2 1 × 1 6 bh 2

y =
h 3 2h h from the base (or from the apex) of 3 3
Thus the centroid of a triangle is at a distance the triangle where h is the height of the triangle. Centroid of a Semicircle
Consider the semicircle of radius R as shown in Fig. 2.26. Due to symmetry centroid must lie on y axis. Let its distance from diametral axis be y . To find y , consider an element at a distance r from the centre O of the semicircle, radial width being dr and bound by radii at and + d. Area of element = r ddr. Its moment about diametral axis x is given by: rd × dr × r sin = r2 sin dr d Total moment of area about diametral axis,
Y
zz
00
R
r
2
Lr O sin dr d = z M P N3Q
0 3 3
R
sin d
0
dq r q O R X dr
R  cos 0 3 3 R3 2R 1+ 1 = = 3 3 1 2 Area of semicircle A = R 2
=
Fig. 2.26
2R 3 Moment of area  3 = y = 1 2 Total area R 2 4R = 3
Thus, the centroid of the circle is at a distance
4R from the diametral axis. 3
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
Centroid of Sector of a Circle Consider the sector of a circle of angle 2 as shown in Fig. 2.27. Due to symmetry, centroid lies on x axis. To find its distance from the centre O, consider the elemental area shown. Area of the element Its moment about y axis = rd × dr × r cos = r cos drd
2
= rd dr
Y dr r
Total moment of area about y axis
R
=
 0
zz
3
dq q 2a a G X
r cos drd
2 R 
O
Lr O = M P N3Q
= Total area of the sector
R
sin
0
R
R3 2 sin 3
Fig. 2.27
=
 0
=

zz z LMN
2
rdrd
r2 2
OP Q
R
d
0
R 2 = R 2
=

\ The distance of centroid from centre O =
Moment of area about y axis Area of the figure
2R 3 sin 2R 3 = sin = 2 3 R
Centroid of Parabolic Spandrel Consider the parabolic spandrel shown in Fig. 2.28. Height of the element at a distance x from O is y = kx2
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
85
Width of element Area of the element
= dx = kx2dx
Total area of spandrel =
z
a 0
kx 2dx
3 a 0
= Moment of area about y axis = =
L kx OP M3Q N
=
ka 3 3
Y
y = kx
2
h
L kx OP = M N4Q
4
z z
a a 0
y) G(x,
kx 2 dx × x kx 3 dx
a
O
x a dx
X
0
Fig. 2.28
0
= Moment of area about x axis =
kx 2 = kx dx = 2 0
2
z z
0 a
ka 4
4
dAy 2
z
a 0
k2x4 dx = 2
=
x = y =
From the Fig. 2.28, at x = a, y
k 2 a5 10 ka 4 ka 3 3a ÷ = 4 3 4 2 5 3 k a ka 3 ka 2 ÷ = 10 3 10 =h
LM k x OP N2×5 Q
2 5 a 0
h = ka2 or k =
h a2
y =
Thus, centroid of spandrel is
FG 3a , 3h IJ H 4 10 K
3 3h h × a2 = 10 a 2 10
Centroids of some common figures are shown in Table 2.2.
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
Table 2.2. Centroid of Some Common Figures
Shape Figure
y
N O
Area
Triangle
h
G x

h 3
bh 2
b
y
Semicircle
G
r x
0
4R 3
R2 2
y
R2 4
Quarter circle
G x R
y
4R 3
4R 3
Sector of a circle
2a
G
x
2R sin a 3
0
R 2
Parabola
h
G 2a x
0
3h 5
4ah 3
Semi parabola
3a 8
y
3h 5
2ah 3
Parabolic spandrel
h G a x
3a 4
3h 10
ah 3
Centroid of Composite Sections So far, the discussion was confined to locating the centroid of simple figures like rectangle, triangle, circle, semicircle, etc. In engineering practice, use of sections which are built up of many simple sections is very common. Such sections may be called as builtup sections or composite sections. To locate the centroid of composite sections, one need not go for the first principle (method of integration). The given composite section can be split into suitable simple figures and then the centroid of each simple figure can be found by inspection or using the standard formulae listed in Table 2.2. Assuming the area of the simple figure as concentrated at its centroid, its moment about an axis can be found by multiplying the area with distance of its centroid from the
CENTROID
AND
MOMENT
OF INERTIA
87
reference axis. After determining moment of each area about reference axis, the distance of centroid from the axis is obtained by dividing total moment of area by total area of the composite section. Example 2.4 Locate the centroid of the Tsection shown in the Fig. 2.29. Solution. Selecting the axis as shown in Fig. 2.29, we can say due to symmetry centroid lies on y axis, i.e. x = 0. Now the given Tsection may be divided into two rectangles A1 and A2 each of size 100 × 20 and 20 × 100. The centroid of A1 and A2 are g1(0, 10) and g2(0, 70) respectively. The distance of centroid from top is given by:
100 y A1 O g1 20
X
G
y =
100 × 20 × 10 + 20 × 100 × 70 100 × 20 + 20 × 100
g2 A2
100
= 40 mm Hence, centroid of Tsection is on the symmetric axis at a distance 40 mm from the top. Ans.
20 Y All dimensions in mm
Example 2.5 Find the centroid of the unequal angle 200 × Fig. 2.29 150 × 12 mm, shown in Fig. 2.30. Solution. The given composite figure can be divided into two rectangles: A1 = 150 × 12 = 1800 mm2 A2 = (200 12) × 12 = 2256 mm2 Total area A = A1 + A2 = 4056 mm2 Selecting the reference axis x and y as shown in Fig. 2.30. The centroid of A1 is g1 (75, 6) and that of A2 is:
g 2 6 , 12 +
i.e., g2 (6, 106)
L M N
1 200  12 2
a
fOPQ
O y
x
150 12 g1 G A1 X
x =
= =
y =
= =
Movement about y axis Total area A1 x1 + A2 x2 A 1800 × 75 + 2256 × 6 = 36.62 mm 4056 Movement about x axis Total area A1 y 1 + A2 y 2 A 1800 × 6 + 2256 × 106 = 61.62 mm 4056
 
200
g2 A2
12 Y All dimensions in mm
Fig. 2.30
Thus, the centroid is at x = 36.62 mm and y = 61.62 mm as shown in the figure
Ans.
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ENGINEERING MECHANICS
Example 2.6 Locate the centroid of the Isection shown in Fig. 2.31.
Y 100 20 A1 g1
20 A2 100 g2 G y 30 A3 150 g3 O X
All dimensions in mm
Fig. 2.31
Solution. Selecting the coordinate system as shown in Fig. 2.31, due to symmetry centroid must lie on y axis, i.e.,
x =0
Now, the composite section may be split into three rectangles A1 = 100 × 20 = 2000 mm2 Centroid of A1 from the origin is:
Similarly
20 = 140 mm 2 A2 = 100 × 20 = 2000 mm2
y1 = 30 + 100 +
100 = 80 mm 2 A3 = 150 × 30 = 4500 mm2, and
y2 = 30 +
30 = 15 mm 2 A y + A2 y 2 + A3 y 3 y = 1 1 A 2000 + 140 + 2000 × 80 + 4500 × 15 = 2000 + 2000 + 4500 = 59.71 mm Thus, the centroid is on the symmetric axis at a distance 59.71 mm from the bottom as shown in Fig. 2.31. Ans.
y3 =
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Enmec2.p65
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