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CHAPTER

28

DIRECTED READING

Introduction to Animals

Section 28-1: Animals--Features and Body Plans

Animals Share Several General Features

Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided.

1. What is heterotrophy?

2. Why is mobility a logical feature for a heterotroph?

3. What is diploidy?

4. What is sexual reproduction?

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

5. What is the benefit of not having cell walls?

Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided.

6. The cells of all animals except sponges are organized into structural and functional units called .

7. In all animals except sponges, the zygote undergoes cell divisions forming a hollow ball of cells called a(n) .

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8. The is the layer of cells in the blastula that gives rise to the outer layer of skin, the nervous system, and the sense organs. 9. The is the layer of cells in the blastula that gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract, respiratory system, and many glands. 10. The is the layer of cells in the blastula that gives rise to most of the skeleton, muscles, and circulatory system.

Most Animals Show Body Symmetry

In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase.

11. body plan 12. asymmetrical 13. radial symmetry 14. cephalization 15. bilateral symmetry a. body parts arranged around a central axis, like the spokes of a bicycle wheel b. sensory structures and nerves concentrated at the body's anterior c. a term used to describe an animal's shape, symmetry, and internal organization d. body is irregularly shaped e. body has a distinct right and left half

Many Animals Have an Internal Body Cavity

Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided.

16. What is a coelom?

17. What benefit do animals derive from having a coelom?

"Advanced" Organisms Show Body Segmentation

Mark each statement below T if it is true or F if it is false.

18. Segmented animals are constructed from a series of repeating, similar units called segments. 19. Segmentation is a trait of earthworms, not vertebrates. 20. Segments are totally independent of one another.

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21. Segmentation offers evolutionary flexibility because a small change in an existing segment can produce a new type of segment with a different function. 22. Evidence of segmentation in human beings can be seen in the backbone.

There Are Many Kinds of Animals

Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided.

23. A(n) 24. Studies of bears than to raccoons. tree shows how animals are related through evolution. have shown that pandas are more closely related to

25. Clues to animal relations can be found by comparing patterns of development in animal . 26. Clues to animal relations can be found by looking at the 27. Clues to animal relations can be found by comparing the physiology of living animals. record. and

Section 28-2: Animal Body Systems

Tissues and Organs Perform Specific Tasks

In the space provided, explain how the terms in each pair differ in meaning.

1. gastrovascular cavity, digestive tract

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2. gills, lungs

3. open circulatory system, closed circulatory system

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4. neurons, ganglia

5. exoskeleton, endoskeleton

6. excretion, digestion

In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase.

7. respiratory system 8. digestive system 9. circulatory system 10. hydrostatic skeleton 11. excretory system a. enables digestion of foods that are larger than individual cells b. consists of water that is contained under pressure in a closed container c. takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide d. removes wastes produced by cellular metabolism e. transports oxygen and nutrients

Animals Have Different Reproductive Strategies

Complete each statement by underlining the correct term or phrase in the brackets.

12. Parthenogenesis is an example of [asexual / sexual] reproduction. 13. Species of animals that have both testes and ovaries are called [hermaphrodites / asexual]. 14. A sponge can reproduce by [fragmenting / fertilizing] its body. 15. Animals that live on land usually reproduce by [internal / external] fertilization.

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5. 6. 7. 8.

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SECTION 27-2

1. Oxygen is absorbed through the leaves, stems, and roots of a plant. 2. To make chlorophyll, plants also need nitrogen and magnesium. 3. Plants use calcium for enzyme activity, membrane function, and cell wall production. 4. Nitrogen is needed to make proteins, nucleic acids, ATP, chlorophyll, and coenzymes. 5. auxin 6. hormone 7. apical dominance 8. Auxins cause a plant to grow toward light because it causes the cells on the dark side of a stem to become larger. 9. Auxins cause cell walls to become more flexible. 10. Ethylene causes fruits to ripen and loosens the fruits of plants, such as cherries. 11. negative 12. length of days and nights 13. short 14. Dormancy is the condition in which a seed or plant remains inactive, even when conditions are suitable for growth. 15. Chemicals that cause dormancy break down in response to low temperatures. Dormant seeds and plants must be exposed to cold for a certain amount of time before they can grow.

9.

10. 11. 12. 13.

imperfect incomplete downward A source is a plant part that provides organic compounds for other parts of the plant. A sink is a plant part to which organic compounds are delivered. Translocation is the movement of organic compounds within a plant from a source to a sink. Transpiration is the loss of water from the leaves and stems of a plant. 3 1 4 2

CHAPTER 27

Plant Growth and Development

SECTION 27-1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. germination oxygen perennial annual biennial A seed can be broken by exposure to fire, passing through the digestive system of an animal, or falling on rocks. Rising temperature, increasing soil moisture, and exposure to cold or light may enable germination to begin. All woody plants and many herbaceous plants are perennials. Both primary growth, which increases a plant's length or height, and secondary growth, which increases the width of stems and roots, originate in meristems. The cork cambium, which lies within the bark and produces cork cells, and the vascular cambium, which lies just under the bark and produces vascular tissue, are meristems that produce secondary growth. Apical meristems are regions of active cell division located at the tips of stems and roots. They produce primary growth. Annual rings form as the vascular cambium of a woody stem produces a new layer of secondary xylem each year. grass family monocot petals and sepals F T T F T

7.

CHAPTER 28

Introduction to Animals

SECTION 28-1

1. Heterotrophy means that an organism cannot make its own food. 2. Heterotrophs must move to obtain food. 3. Diploidy means that the cells of adults (except the gametes) have two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent. 4. In sexual reproduction, two parents each form gametes, which fuse to form offspring. 5. Not having cell walls allows for mobility. 6. tissues 7. blastula 8. ectoderm 9. endoderm 10. mesoderm 11. c 12. d 13. a 14. b 15. e 16. A coelom is a fluid-filled body cavity that forms between the body wall and the digestive tract.

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8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

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17. The internal organs in a coelom are suspended in a fluid that protects them from muscular movement. This suspension enables an animal to move about without damaging its internal organs or interfering with their function. 18. T 19. F 20. F 21. T 22. T 23. phylogenetic 24. DNA 25. embryos 26. fossil 27. anatomy 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d F F T Spongin is a resilient, flexible protein fiber used by sponges as a skeleton. A few sponges have skeletons made of tiny needles of silica or calcium carbonate, which are called spicules. Calcareous sponges have spicules composed of calcium carbonate. Glass sponges have spicules made of silica. A sponge has a skeleton to prevent it from collapsing in on itself. Demosponges are sponges that contain spongin. gemmules fragmentation, budding ostia mesoglea Choanocytes (collar cells), mesoglea

11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

SECTION 28-2

1. A gastrovascular cavity is a digestive cavity with only one opening. A digestive tract has two openings--a mouth and an anus. 2. Gills permit the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide in water. Lungs perform the same function on land. 3. In an open circulatory system, the heart pumps a fluid through vessels into the body cavity. The fluid supplies body tissues with oxygen and nutrients. In a closed circulatory system, the heart pumps blood through blood vessels. Materials pass into and out of the blood by diffusing through the walls of the blood vessels. 4. Neurons are individual nerve cells. Ganglia are clusters of nerve cells. 5. An exoskeleton is a hard, external skeleton that encases the body. An endoskeleton is an internal skeleton made of a hard material, such as bone. 6. Excretion refers to the removal of wastes produced by cellular metabolism. Digestion refers to the process of breaking food down into molecules the body can use. 7. c 8. a 9. e 10. b 11. d 12. asexual 13. hermaphrodites 14. fragmenting 15. internal

SECTION 29-2

1. Medusa is one of the two basic forms of cnidarians and is free floating, jellylike, and often umbrella shaped. The other form is a polyp, which is tubelike and is attached to a surface. 2. Tentacles are flexible, fingerlike structures that surround the mouth of a cnidarian. Cnidocytes are individual cells located on the tentacles that sting enemies and prey. 3. nematocyst 4. extracellularly, intracellularly 5. tissues 6. Hydras, basal disk 7. tumbling 8. more, more 9. budding 10. planulae, polyps 11. A true jellyfish spends most of its life as a medusa, while Obelia spends most of its life as a polyp. 12. Ctenophora have no cnidocytes and have only a medusa stage. 13. polyps 14. planulae 15. asexually 16. reefs 17. calcium carbonate

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CHAPTER 29

Simple Invertebrates

SECTION 29-1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. e f a b c

SECTION 29-3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. class, free-living phylum, bilateral proglottids tegument Every cell in a flatworm is close to the worm's exterior environment. Portions of the flatworm's highly branched gastrovascular cavity run close to most of its tissue, so each cell has access to food molecules. Also, oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass into and out of the cells by diffusion.

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