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CHAPTER

19

DIRECTED READING

Human Impact on the Environment

Section 19-1: Global Change

Global Change Affects Ecosystems Worldwide

In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

1. Scientists have discovered that acid rain is caused by a. acid evaporating into the atmosphere. b. sulfur introduced into the atmosphere from burning coal. c. hydrochloric acid in clouds. d. gas introduced into the atmosphere from animal wastes. 2. Which of the following statements about acid rain is NOT true? a. Rain and snow in the northeastern United States are more acidic than in the rest of the United States. b. In the United States and Canada, many lakes are "dying" as their pH levels fall below 5.0. c. Acid rain is causing damage to forests. d. Tall smokestacks prevent smoke from polluting the atmosphere. 3. A hole in the ozone layer has formed over a. Antarctica. b. North America. c. Australia. d. None of the above

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

4. The primary cause of the destruction of ozone is a. a higher concentration of sulfuric acid in acid precipitation. b. higher carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. c. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) reaching the upper atmosphere. d. increased amounts of ultraviolet radiation reaching our planet. 5. Exposure to high levels of ultraviolet radiation can lead to a. more productive food crops. b. larger animal populations. c. warmer summers and cooler winters. d. skin cancers and cataracts. 6. The protective shield of ozone is needed because ozone a. is part of the nitrogen cycle. b. absorbs solar wind. c. absorbs ultraviolet radiation. d. is a source of oxygen. 7. The use of CFCs has been banned or limited in many countries because a. CFCs are carcinogens. b. Ultraviolet light breaks down CFCs and the resulting chlorine destroys ozone. c. CFCs cause asthma. d. less expensive coolants can be used in refrigerators and air conditioners. Biology: Principles and Explorations Directed Reading Chapter 19

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Release of CO2 and Other Greenhouse Gases Has Led to Global Warming

Mark each statement below T if it is true or F if it is false.

8. Earth's moderate climate is partly a result of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 9. When fossil fuels are burned, carbon atoms combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. 10. The greenhouse effect refers to the cooling of the atmosphere that results from greenhouse gases. 11. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased steadily over the last 130 years. 12. The global average temperature has increased steadily over the last 130 years.

Section 19-2: Ecosystem Damage

Chemical Pollution Can Have Disastrous Results

Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided.

1. What is biological magnification?

2. What are agricultural chemicals?

3. What happened to the oil tanker Exxon Valdez, and what impact did it have on the environment?

4. Why did Lake Erie become polluted?

5. What effect does DDT have on birds?

74

Biology: Principles and Explorations

Directed Reading

Chapter 19

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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Loss of Resources Is a Serious Environmental Problem

Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided.

6. Why is the rosy periwinkle an important species?

7. Why is the rosy periwinkle in danger of being wiped out?

8. Why is Zea diploperennis an important species?

9. Why is Zea diploperennis in danger of being destroyed?

10. Why are people concerned about the destruction of tropical rain forests?

11. Why is the loss of topsoil a great concern?

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

12. What are aquifers?

13. How is our ground water being wasted?

Human Population Is a Key Environmental Concern

Mark each statement below T if it is true or F if it is false.

14. Since 1650, the average birthrate has remained near 30 births per 1,000 people. 15. The rate of population growth has increased since 1650 because of a decrease in the death rate.

Biology: Principles and Explorations

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Chapter 19

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16. A growth rate of 1.7 percent per year will cause the global population to double in 20 years. 17. All countries are increasing in population. 18. It is predicted that the population of Earth will stabilize at 10 billion to 15 billion people.

Section 19-3: Solving Environmental Problems

Reducing Pollution Will Take a Worldwide Effort

Complete each statement by underlining the correct term or phrase in the brackets.

1. In the early 1990s, there was an international agreement to stop [CFC / DDT] production. 2. All cars in the United States are required by law to have [filters / catalytic converters]. 3. The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires that power plants install ["scrubbers" / recycling devices] in their smokestacks to reduce pollution. 4. The gasoline [tax / act] can reduce the use of gasoline.

Environmental Problems Can Be Solved

The following are five components to solving an environmental problem successfully. In the space provided, describe what each component entails.

5. assessment

6. risk analysis

7. public education

8. political action

9. follow-through

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Biology: Principles and Explorations

Directed Reading

Chapter 19

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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CHAPTER 19

Human Impact on the Environment

SECTION 19-1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. b d a c d c b T T F T T 16. F 17. F 18. T

SECTION 19-3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CFC catalytic converters "scrubbers" tax Collect data and perform experiments to construct a model of the ecosystem. The model is used to make predictions about the future course of the ecosystem. Predict what could be expected to happen if a particular course of action were followed. Evaluate any adverse effects that a plan of action might have. Explain the problem to the public, present the alternative actions available, and explain the probable costs and results of the different choices. The public, through its elected officials, selects and implements a course of action. The results of any action should be carefully monitored to see if the environmental problem is being solved.

6.

7.

SECTION 19-2

1. Biological magnification refers to the way the concentration of harmful chemicals in the fatty tissue of animals increases as the chemicals move up through the trophic levels of the food chain. 2. Agricultural chemicals are chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers that are introduced into the global ecosystem as a result of modern agriculture. 3. The Exxon Valdez ran aground in 1989 off the coast of Alaska, and 42 million liters (11 million gallons) of oil polluted about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of coastline, causing extensive damage to wildlife. 4. Large amounts of industrial chemicals were released into the lake. 5. The presence of DDT in birds causes thin, fragile eggshells that break during incubation. 6. Two potent anticancer drugs have been isolated from the leaves of the rosy periwinkle. 7. The species can only be found in Madagascar, which is a country that has been greatly damaged by deforestation. 8. Zea diploperennis is a wild species of corn that is resistant to five of the main types of viral diseases that damage corn. It can be crossed with Zea mays to produce fertile hybrids. 9. Zea diploperennis exists only in Mexico on one mountain field that was nearly destroyed by farmers clearing land in the area. 10. Tropical rain forests contain a vast number of species of plants, and animals and are being destroyed at a very fast rate. 11. It takes tens of thousands of years for topsoil to accumulate, and topsoil cannot be replaced. 12. Aquifers are porous rock reservoirs for ground water. 13. Our ground water is being wasted through pollution and leaky faucets and through its use in watering lawns and washing cars. 14. T 15. T 8. 9.

CHAPTER 20

Introduction to the Kingdoms of Life

SECTION 20-1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fungi Archaebacteria eukaryotes The cell walls of eubacteria are strong and made of peptidoglycan. Eubacterial genes have no introns. Instead, the entire gene is transcribed as a single mRNA transcript. Eubacteria are found in practically every environment on Earth. Eubacteria cause diseases and are used by humans for processing food. do not have in the digestive systems Thermophiles

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

SECTION 20-2

1. A colonial organism is a group of cells that are permanently associated, but the cells do not communicate with one another. 2. An aggregation is a temporary collection of cells that come together for a period of time and then separate. 3. Although the cell walls of colonies adhere to one another, few cell activities are coordinated.

Biology: Principles and Explorations

Directed Reading

Answer Key

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