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Immunization. Research data from Purdue

Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

News brief: Benefit of HPV vaccination, frequent screening for women over 41 is likely to be low ... p.6

University update understanding of immunization ... p.14

Immunization. Research on immunization

discussed by W.A. Lindsay and co­researchers ... p.15

BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. BioSante

Pharmaceuticals Rated Among Top 15 Companies on the Biotechnology Patent Scorecard(TM) as published in the Wall Street Journal ... p.7

Immunization. Studies from S.B. Manoff et al

have provided new data on immunization ... p.16

Influenza. Studies conducted at University of

Tehran on influenza recently published ... p.16

Gene Therapy. Studies from H. Suzuki et al

add new findings in the area of gene therapy ... p.8

Malaria. Study results from University of

Manitoba broaden understanding of malaria ... p.17

Immunization. Data from M. Haidari et al

provide new insights into immunization ... p.9

OPKO Health, Inc. OPKO Health Acquires

Mexican Pharmaceutical Company ... p.18

Immunization. New findings from St. Lukes

Hospital in the area of immunization published ... p.10

Rheumatoid Arthritis. Recent studies from

La Sapienza University add new data to rheumatoid arthritis ... p.19

Immunization. New findings in immunization

described from St. Pauls Hospital ... p.12

Vaccines. Researchers from University of

Ghent, Medical Department provide details of new studies and findings in the area of vaccines ... p.20

Immunization. New findings in immunization

described from University of Missouri, Medical Department ... p.13

Allergies Vaccines. Research results from

Juntendo University, Research Center update knowledge of allergies vaccines ... p.21

Immunization. New immunization data have

been reported by scientists at University of Birmingham ... p.13

Bacillus Subtilis. Research from Sun

Yat­Sen University, Department of Parasitology has provided new information about Bacillus subtilis ... p.21

Gastroenterology. Research from Johns

Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering provide new insights into gastroenterology ... p.22

Immunization. Study results from University

Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine provide new insights into immunization ... p.32

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. Studies from

Massachusetts General Hospital update current data on HIV/AIDS vaccine ... p.23

Infectious Diseases Vaccines. Findings

from National Institutes of Health advance knowledge in infectious diseases vaccines ... p.33

Human Papillomavirus. Reports from G.

Giuffre et al highlight recent research in human papillomavirus ... p.24

Infectious Diseases Vaccines. Reports

outline infectious diseases vaccines study findings from National Institutes of Health ... p.35

Immunization. Data on immunization

described by researchers at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... p.25

Influenza Immunology. Study findings from

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology provide new insights into influenza immunology ... p.37

Immunization. Investigators at International

Vaccine Institute zero in on immunization ... p.26

Immunization. New findings from Texas

Technical University, University Health Science Center describe advances in immunization ... p.26

Life Sciences. Reports summarize life

sciences study results from National Institutes of Health ... p.37

Life Sciences. Research conducted at

Rollins School of Public Health has updated our knowledge about life sciences ... p.38

Immunization. New research on

immunization from University of Birmingham summarized ... p.27

Immunization. Research data from College

of Medicine update understanding of immunization ... p.28

Life Sciences. Study data from University

Medical Center, Department of Parasitology update knowledge of life sciences ... p.39

Immunization. Research from National

Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders has provided new data on immunization ... p.29

Opportunistic Infections Vaccines. New

findings reported from Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology describe advances in opportunistic infections vaccines ... p.40

Immunization. Researchers at Semmelweis

University, Institute of Public Health have published new data on immunization ... p.30

Preventable Disease Vaccines.

Researchers from Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases report recent findings in preventable disease vaccines ... p.41

Immunization. Scientists at Johns Hopkins

University detail research in immunization ... p.31

Immunization. Scientists at Veterans Affairs

Medical Center report research in immunization ... p.32

Adverse Drug Reactions. Research on

adverse drug reactions published by scientists at Harvard University ... p.41

Cancer Vaccines. Research from INSERM

yields new data on cancer vaccines ... p.42

Life Sciences. Reports outline life sciences

research from K. Lee and colleagues ... p.53

Cancer Vaccines. Research from Medical

University of Vienna provide new insights into cancer vaccines ... p.43

Lung Disease. Data on lung disease

described by S. Roussel et al ... p.53

Malaria. Findings from G. Arevalopinzon and

co­researchers advance knowledge in malaria ... p.54

Cancer Vaccines. Researchers from Army

publish findings in cancer vaccines ... p.44

Malaria. Research from M. Tamborrini and

co­authors in the area of malaria published ... p.55

Chlamydia. Research on chlamydia detailed

by scientists at Queensland University of Technology ... p.45

Myxoma. Reports from A. Muller and

colleagues advance knowledge in myxoma ... p.56

Hepatitis B Virus. New hepatitis B virus data

have been reported by R. Vanhoudt and co­authors ... p.45

Paratuberculosis. Findings from University

of Otago in paratuberculosis reported ... p.57

Herpes Virus. Scientists at University of

Saskatchewan, Vaccine & Infection Diseases Organization release new data on herpes virus ... p.46

Pneumonia. Findings in pneumonia reported

from J.A. Hedrick and co­researchers ... p.58

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. New findings in

HIV/AIDS vaccine described by A. Nandi and co­researchers ... p.47

Vaccines. Studies from University of the

Basque Country further understanding of vaccines ... p.58

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. New HIV/AIDS vaccine

research reported from T. Dieltjens and co­authors ... p.48

Vaccinia. Research from D.N. Grigoryev and

colleagues provide new insights into vaccinia ... p.59

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. Research data from

Royal Victoria Hospital update understanding of HIV/AIDS vaccine ... p.49

Cancer Vaccines. Reports from National

Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion describe recent advances in cancer vaccines ... p.60

Human Papillomavirus. Findings in human

papillomavirus reported from L.G. Bermudezhumaran and co­researchers ... p.50

Cancer Vaccines. Research on cancer

vaccines detailed by scientists at National Institutes of Health ... p.62

Immunization. Data on immunization

described by L. Derre et al ... p.50

Cancer Vaccines. Scientists at Mayo Clinic,

Department of Immunology publish research in cancer vaccines ... p.63

Immunization. Research from M.B. Stoddard

and co­authors in the area of immunization published ... p.51

Cancer Vaccines. Scientists at Tongji

Hospital, Tongji Medical College report research in cancer vaccines ... p.64

Japanese Encephalitis. New japanese

encephalitis study findings have been reported from Sanofi Pasteur ... p.52

Cancer Vaccines. Study findings from

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic broaden understanding of cancer vaccines ... p.65

Measles Vaccines. New measles vaccines

research from D. Schmid and colleagues discussed ... p.74

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccines.

Findings from University of Pennsylvania broaden understanding of simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines ... p.75

German Measles Vaccines. Study data

from Mayo Clinic update understanding of german measles vaccines ... p.66

Hepatitis B Virus. Studies from R. van Houdt

et al have provided new data on hepatitis B virus ... p.67

Vaccines. New vaccines research from

Jawaharlal Nehru University discussed ... p.76

Hepatitis B Virus Epidemiology.

Researchers from University of Chicago, Center for Liver Diseases detail new studies and findings in the area of hepatitis B virus epidemiology ... p.67

Vaccines. New vaccines study findings

recently were published by investigators at Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ... p.77

Hepatitis B Virus Vaccines. New findings

reported from M.L Shiffman and co­authors describe advances in hepatitis B virus vaccines ... p.68

Vaccines. Reports outline vaccines study

results from University of Iowa, Department of Pathology ... p.77

Vaccines. Research from Wuhan University

reveals new findings on vaccines ... p.78

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. Data on HIV/AIDS

vaccine discussed by researchers at University of Iowa ... p.69

Whooping Cough Vaccines. Studies from

University of Sydney in the area of whooping cough vaccines described ... p.79

HIV/AIDS Vaccine. New HIV/AIDS vaccine

findings from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center described ... p.70

HIV/AIDS Vaccine Therapy. Research

results from University of Bologna update knowledge of HIV/AIDS vaccine therapy ... p.70

Accelovance. Accelovance Prepares for

Continued Growth; Adds to Senior Management Team ... p.80

Advaxis, Inc. Advaxis Chairman/CEO

Thomas A. Moore Issues Statement ... p.81

Human Papillomavirus Vaccines. Studies

from University of Melbourne, Department of General Practice describe new findings in human papillomavirus vaccines ... p.71

AltraVax, Inc. AltraVax, Inc. Acquires

Revolutionary Technology Platform for Vaccine Development ... p.82

Immunization. Research on immunization

described by scientists at China Agricultural University, College of Biological Science ... p.72

Antigenics Inc. Antigenics Reports Fourth

Quarter and Year End 2009 Financial Results ... p.83

Life Sciences. Investigators at Nagoya

University target life sciences ... p.73

B&D Consulting. Dr. Peter Honig Brings

FDA and Global Regulatory Expertise to Health & Life Sciences Team ... p.84

Life Sciences. Research from San Raffaele

Scientific Institute provides new data about life sciences ... p.73

BioCrossroads. BioCrossroads' Indiana

Seed Fund Invests in Vaccine Biotech Company ... p.85

Novavax, Inc. Stanley Erck Elected as

Executive Chairman ... p.101

Pfizer. VetCentric Announces Partnership

With Pfizer Animal Health ... p.101

BookIT. BookIT: Finland Reduces Queues

for Swine Flu with Mobile Solution ... p.87

Research and Markets. Pipeline Insight:

Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines ­ Prospect of First Approval Set to Reinvigorate Interest from Major Companies in the Multi­Billion Dollar Market ... p.102

Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. Celldex

Receives $3 Million Sublicense Income Payment from TopoTarget ... p.88

Consumer Health Services, Inc.

Convenient DR Walk­In Medical Center Opens in Chelsea, NYC ... p.89

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. GeoVax

Labs, Inc. Reports Data on Prototype Adjuvant ­ Supplemented HIV Vaccine Tested in Preclinical Animal Studies ... p.103

Gentel Biosciences, Inc. Gentel

Biosciences Powers Protein Research with New Proteomics Multi­System(TM) ... p.90

Sinovac Biotech Ltd. Sinovac Completes

Acquisition Aimed at Expanding Production Capacity ... p.104

GenVec, Inc. GenVec Announces Contract

With the Department of Homeland Security ... p.91

Hard to Treat Diseases. Hard To Treat

Diseases HTDS Ships First $1 Million USD Order to Chile ... p.91

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS. Prepared Remarks:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius ... p.105

Immune Targeting Systems. Immune

Targeting Systems ITS Ltd. Secures an (GBP)8.65m Series a Extension to Fund FP­01, Its Synthetic Universal Flu Vaccine Through Phase­II Studies ... p.92

VIRxSYS Corporation. VIRxSYS

Announces at CROI Promising Results from Its HIV Vaccine Study ... p.108

Walgreens. Walgreens Named as One of

Fast Company Magazine's Most Innovative Health Care Companies ... p.109

Intezyne. Intezyne Announces Issuance of

Seven Patents Covering Its IVECTTM Method ... p.93

Merck & Co., Inc. In Phase III Data Merck's

GARDASIL(R) Was Efficacious Against Anal Disease Caused by HPV­6,11,16 and 18 ... p.95

Washington University School of Medicine. Flu vaccination rate at large,

Midwest health system rises dramatically due to mandatory policy ... p.111

Merial. MERIAL Receives Full License

Approval for ONCEPT Canine Melanoma Vaccine ... p.97

Wellcome Trust. New method makes

vaccines stable at tropical temperatures ... p.112

Novavax, Inc. NOVAVAX Presents Positive

Clinical Results at the World Health Organization Conference, Geneva, Switzerland ... p.100

Wiley-Blackwell. Influenza vaccines: Poor

evidence for effectiveness in elderly ... p.113

News brief: Benefit of HPV vaccination, frequent screening for women over 41 is likely to be low

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- The overall potential benefits of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations or frequent HPV screenings for women over the age of 41 are low, concludes a new study published online February 15 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The study found that the rate of new infections preventable by vaccination declines with age. Furthermore, new infections among women at any age typically do not progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN 2) or CIN 3, the precursors for cervical cancer. This study was undertaken because researchers wanted to examine whether women's age and the duration of carcinogenic HPV infections influenced subsequent persistence of infection and risk of CIN 2 or worse disease. Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, M.D., of the Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste, Fundacion INCIENSA, in San Jose, Costa Rica, and colleagues screened over 9,000 women in Costa Rica aged 18 to 97 years. Those with CIN 2 or worse disease at enrollment were treated and not followed further. Among the remaining participants, those at low risk of CIN 2 or worse were rescreened at 5-7 years (passively followed), whereas higher-risk participants and subsets of low-risk women and initially sexually non-active women were rescreened annually or semiannually (actively followed) for up to 7 years. Most of the CIN 2 or worse disease diagnosed during the study period was associated with persistent carcinogenic HPV infections that were prevalent, or already present at the time of initial testing. The vast majority of newly detected carcinogenic HPV infections did not persist and did not lead to CIN 2 or worse disease during the study period, regardless of age. The rate of newly detected carcinogenic HPV infections declined with increasing age and ranged from 35 percent in women aged 18-25 years to 13.5 percent in women aged 42 years and older. "Understanding the relevance of the concept of duration of infection can improve cervical cancer prevention strategies that integrate prophylactic vaccination with HPV

screening," the authors write. "For example, evidence that newly detected infections in older women do not harbor a higher risk of persistence or CIN 2 [or worse disease] than in younger women and that older women acquire fewer new infections indicates that the possible benefit of vaccinating older women is much reduced..." Study limitations: The most important conclusion that newly-detected HPV infections typically do not progress to CIN2 or worse at any age might not hold beyond the 7 years of follow-up in this study. Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Cervical Carcinoma, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Epidemiology, HPV Vaccines, Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccines, Immunization, Oncology, Vaccination, Women's Health, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

BioSante Pharmaceuticals Rated Among Top 15 Companies on the Biotechnology Patent Scorecard(TM) as published in the Wall Street Journal

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: BPAX), has been ranked 15th on The Patent Board's list of the top 67 biotechnology companies as determined by an assessment of the overall quality of each company's patent portfolio. The Biotechnology Patent Scorecard is published quarterly in The Wall Street Journal and links a company's patents to its core science and overall quality. The Patent Scorecard provides deeper insights into patent portfolios as measurable financial assets and drivers of market value. BioSante appears on The Biotechnology Patent Scorecard for the first time, ranked on the basis of its acquisition of Cell Genesys (previously ranked 17th) in October of 2009 as well as its patents in women's health and calcium phosphate portfolio. The merged company has new patents from Cell Genesys's research on immunotherapies, and has a Research IntensityTM over three times the industry average. Roche Holdings, Inc. was ranked 1st on the list, followed by Biogen Idec, Inc., and Human Genome Sciences. "We are gratified by The Patent Board's recognition of our science and technology strength," said Stephen M. Simes, BioSante's president and CEO. "Our acquisition of Cell Genesys in late 2009 has resulted in an expansion of our product portfolio, especially in oncology products. Several of these cancer immunotherapies currently are in human clinical trials at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and are being conducted at no cost to BioSante. We acquired 95 patents and 85 patent applications that cover the newly acquired technologies. Our objective is to maximize the value of these products and technologies at minimal cost to BioSante." About The Patent Board The Patent Board is the world's leading business-based patent advisor to Fortune 500 companies, technology-based start-ups, law firms, investment banks, and governments. With four decades of experience, The Patent Board utilizes proprietary data, tools, and analytics to leverage patent-based IP as an asset class. The Patent Board is the official patent ratings partner for The Wall Street Journal, with a weekly Patent Scorecard column for the WSJ Market Data Center online and monthly publications in many leading business-based magazines. The Patent BoardTM tracks and

analyzes innovation, movement, and the business impact of patent assets across 17 industries on a global basis. The Patent Board has offices in Chicago and Philadelphia. For more information, visit The Patent Board's website at www.PatentBoard.com. About The Patent Board Indicators Patents Granted - equals the number of U.S. patents granted in a given year, excluding design and other special-case inventions. Science StrengthTM - ranking measure to indicate how much a company uses science in building its patent portfolio with a combined measure of science and quantity. Innovation Cycle TimeTM - indicates whether a patent or patent portfolio is building off newer or older inventions (art). Industry ImpactTM - indicates the extent to which others are building upon a portfolio of issued US utility patents as compared to the total set of utility patents. Technology StrengthTM - ranking measure to indicate an overall strength of the company's patent portfolio holdings with a combined measure of quality and quantity. Research IntensityTM - indicates the extent to which a portfolio includes patents with above average Science Linkage as compared to the control group. About BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. BioSante is a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on developing products for female sexual health, menopause, contraception and male hypogonadism. BioSante's lead products include LibiGel® (transdermal testosterone gel) in Phase III clinical development by BioSante under a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) SPA (Special Protocol Assessment) for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), and ElestrinTM (estradiol gel) developed through FDA approval by BioSante, indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, currently marketed in the U.S. Also in development are Bio-T-GelTM, a testosterone gel for male hypogonadism, licensed to Teva Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: TEVA) and an oral contraceptive in Phase II clinical development using BioSante patented technology. The current market in the U.S. for estrogen and testosterone products is approximately $2.5 billion and for oral contraceptives approximately $3 billion. The company also is developing its calcium phosphate technology (CaP) for aesthetic medicine (BioLookTM), as a vaccine adjuvant, including for an H1N1 (swine flu) vaccine, and drug delivery. In addition, BioSante will seek opportunities for its GVAX cancer immunotherapies, 2A/Furin and other technologies. Additional information is available online at: www.biosantepharma.com. Keywords: Acquisitions, Biogen Idec Inc., Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Cancer Vaccines, Cell Genesys Inc., Clinical Trial Research, Contraception, Endocrinology, Estrogen, Finance, Financial, Food, Genetics, Health, Hormones, Immunization, Immunotherapy, Investing, Investment, Investment Bank, Mergers, Oncology, Oral Contraceptive, Patents Actions, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Science And Technology, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, Women's Health, BioSante Pharmaceuticals Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from H. Suzuki et al add new findings in the area of gene therapy

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Chiba, Japan, "Influenza viruses A and B cause widespread infections of the human respiratory tract; however, existing

vaccines and drug therapy are of limited value for their treatment." "Here, we show that bispecific short-hairpin small-interfering RNA constructs containing an 8-nucleotide intervening spacer, targeted against influenza virus A or influenza virus B, can inhibit the production of both types of virus in infected cell lines. This multiple vector showed remarkable ability to cope with both influenza viruses A and B. Furthermore, the Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus can infect a range of mammalian cells, facilitating its use as a baculovirus vector for gene delivery into cells," wrote H. Suzuki and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "In this study, baculovirus-mediated bispecific shorthairpin RNA expression markedly inhibited both influenza viruses A and B production." Suzuki and colleagues published their study in Oligonucleotides (BaculovirusMediated Bispecific Short-Hairpin Small-Interfering RNAs Have Remarkable Ability to Cope With Both Influenza Viruses A and B. Oligonucleotides, 2009;19(4):307-315). For more information, contact H. Takaku, Chiba Inst Technol, Fac Engn, Dept. of Life & Environm Sci, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Chiba 2750016, Japan. Publisher contact information for the journal Oligonucleotides is: Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, 3RD FL, New Rochelle, NY 10801, USA. Keywords: City:Chiba, Country:Japan, Baculovirus, Biotechnology, Flu, Gene Therapy, Genetics, Genomics, Immunization, Influenza, Respiratory Tract, Treatment, Vaccines, Viral, Virology, Virus This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Data from M. Haidari et al provide new insights into immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Influenza can trigger heart attacks, and vaccination against influenza reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, it is believed that influenza virus in general does not disseminate to extra-pulmonary tissues," scientists in the United States report. "We assessed the vascular effects of influenza infection and whether the virus can directly infect atherosclerotic arteries in mice. We intranasally infected 4 different types of mice-atherosclerotic apo E-deficient (our primary model), LDL receptor knockout, C57BL/6, and outbred Swiss,-with influenza A/HK (H3/N2) virus. On day 7 after infection, we cultured viable virus from lung, aorta, and heart tissue, but not from the blood of apo E-deficient mice. Immunofluorescence studies showed influenza A virus NP1 protein and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed RNA in the aorta of infected apo E-deficient mice. Infected mice had significantly higher blood levels of chemokines and cytokines than control mice. At the local level, gene expression for several chemokines and cytokines was increased and eNOS expression was decreased. Infected mice had a higher density of macrophages in plaque than did control mice," wrote M. Haidari and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "We have shown for the first time that influenza virus can directly infect and reside in atherosclerotic arteries and that infection was associated with systemic and arterial-level proinflammatory changes." Haidari and colleagues published their study in Atherosclerosis (Influenza virus directly infects, inflames, and resides in the arteries of atherosclerotic and normal mice.

Atherosclerosis, 2010;208(1):90-96). For additional information, contact M. Madjid, St Lukes Episcopal Hosp, Texas Heart Inst, 6770 Bertner Ave, MC 2-255, Houston, TX 77030, USA. The publisher's contact information for the journal Atherosclerosis is: Elsevier Ireland Ltd., Elsevier House, Brookvale Plaza, East Park Shannon, Co. Clare, Ireland. Keywords: City:Houston, State:TX, Country:United States, Angiology, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Cardiovascular, Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Flu Vaccines, Heart Attack, Immunization, Inflammation, Influenza Vaccines, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings from St. Lukes Hospital in the area of immunization published

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "A hospital's experience with an inpatient pneumococcal vaccination program is described. Saint Luke's Hospital (SLH) is a 625-bed, tertiary care, referral hospital in Kansas City, Missouri," investigators in the United States report. "In a retrospective analysis conducted in 1995 of pneumococcal vaccination rates in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at the hospital, only 1 of 84 patients had documented pneumococcal vaccination. These results led to efforts to improve assessment of vaccination status, documentation of vaccination, and pneumococcal vaccination rates. In 1998, the pharmacy department at SLH conducted a study to examine the impact of pharmacists on pneumococcal vaccination rates through incorporation of vaccination assessment into selected critical pathways. Pharmacists were assigned to screen and educate patients on chosen pathways. When eligible patients were identified in the intervention group, the pharmacist would then contact their physician for authorization to vaccinate. The success of the study led to several notable changes to the pneumococcal vaccination program in 2001. First, the vaccination assessment was moved from selected critical pathways to the admission database of all patients. Second, a collaborative practice agreement was developed to authorize pharmacists to write pneumococcal and influenza vaccine orders for eligible patients per the program's protocol. These two changes led to a dramatic improvement in overall screening and documentation rates of pneumococcal vaccination for patients with CAP and for other at-risk patients," wrote J.T. Robke and colleagues, St. Lukes Hospital. The researchers concluded: "A pneumococcal vaccination program helped a hospital meet regulatory expectations for vaccination of patients with CAP and vaccinated many other at-risk patients." Robke and colleagues published their study in American Journal of Health - System Pharmacy (A decade of experience with an inpatient pneumococcal vaccination program. American Journal of Health - System Pharmacy, 2010;67(2):148-152). For additional information, contact J.T. Robke, St Lukes Hosp, 4401 Wornall Rd, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA. The publisher of the American Journal of Health - System Pharmacy can be contacted at: American Society Health-System Pharmacists, 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Keywords: City:Kansas City, State:MO, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Community-Acquired, Immunization, Pharmaceuticals, Pneumococcal, Pneumonia Vaccines, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings in immunization described from St. Pauls Hospital

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research published in the Journal of Internal Medicine, "Influenza is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in adults aged over 65 years. Although vaccination remains the most effective method of preventing influenza and its sequellae, current vaccination strategies provide less protection to older adults than to younger persons." "Influenza vaccination in community-dwelling older adults is cost-effective, though there is room for improvement. Newer vaccine strategies considered for use in older adults include alternate routes of administration (intradermal or intranasal), addition of adjuvant, and novel methods of antigen presentation. Measuring cell-mediated immune response to new vaccines in addition to antibody response may correlate better with vaccine efficacy in this population," wrote G.D. Deans and colleagues, St. Pauls Hospital. The researchers concluded: "Whilst pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) has largely spared older adults, the impact of pH1N1 vaccination has yet to be determined." Deans and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Internal Medicine (Influenza vaccines provide diminished protection but are cost-saving in older adults. Journal of Internal Medicine, 2010;267(2):220-227). For additional information, contact G.D. Deans, St. Pauls Hosp, 9B Providence, 1081 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada. The publisher's contact information for the Journal of Internal Medicine is: WileyBlackwell Publishing, Inc., Commerce Place, 350 Main St., Malden 02148, MA, USA. Keywords: City:Vancouver, Country:Canada, Biotechnology, Flu Vaccines, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Internal Medicine, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings in immunization described from University of Missouri, Medical Department

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from the United States, "Requirements for human Th17 differentiation in the context of activated dendritic cells (DCs) are still emerging. Here, we demonstrate that several Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, particularly LPS and a synthetic lipoprotein, activate human DCs to direct increased human Th17 differentiation." "Based on neutralization studies, IL1, IL6, and TGF beta contributed to human Th17 differentiation induced by LPS-activated DCs. Furthermore, TLR ligand-activated DCs produced high levels of IL6 and tow levels of In an antigen presenting cell (APC)-free system, the minimum requirements identified for human Th17 differentiation from adult naive CD4(+) T cells, depleted of CD25(+) cells, were TGF beta and high levels of IL1 beta. However, in the presence of the physiologically tow levels of IL1 such as those produced by DCs, both TGF beta and IL6 were also essential," wrote R.K. Benwell and colleagues, University of Missouri, Medical Department. The researchers concluded: "These results help to explain the conflicting reports in the literature on the rotes of IL1 and IL6 on human Th17 differentiation." Benwell and colleagues published their study in Clinical Immunology (Essential and synergistic roles of IL1 and IL6 in human Th17 differentiation directed by TLR ligand-activated dendritic cells. Clinical Immunology, 2010;134(2):178-187). For more information, contact D.R. Lee, University of Missouri, Sch Medical, Dept. of Mol Microbiol & Immunol, M616 Med Science Bldg, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Clinical Immunology is: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Columbia, State:MO, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Cell Differentiation, Clinical Immunology, Cytokines, Immunization, Immunology, Vaccines, Viral, Virus This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New immunization data have been reported by scientists at University of Birmingham

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research from Birmingham, the United Kingdom, "The Step Study was a randomized trial to reduce HIV infection through vaccination with an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based gag/pol/nef construct; analysis following early cessation of the trial revealed an excess of HIV seroconversion in Ad5 seropositive men. This led to the suggestion that the Ad based vector may boost the number of CD4(+) chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5(+)) T cells, target cells for HIV infection." "We sought to determine the immunophenotype and proliferative capacity of Ad5specific T cells in the peripheral blood of adult donors to determine whether stimulation with replication defective Ad5 vectors could result in the significant expansion of a CD4(+) CCR5(+)

T-cell subset. Ad5-specific T cells were identified in the peripheral blood of healthy donors by interferon-gamma secretion assay and proliferative response was measured by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labelling. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine T-cell differentiation marker, CCR5 and alpha(4)beta(7) expression on memory and proliferated cells. Ad5-specific CD4+ T cells within healthy adult donors exhibit a unique minimally differentiated memory phenotype with coexpression of CD45RA, CD45RO and CCR7. Stimulation with Ad vector leads to rapid expansion in vitro and a switch to an effector memory phenotype. Both short-term reactivated and proliferating Ad5-specific CD4(+) T cells express the HIV coreceptor CCR5 and the HIV gp120-binding integrin alpha(4)beta(7)," wrote G. Chakupurakal and colleagues, University of Birmingham. The researchers concluded: "Ad5-specific T cells demonstrate a phenotype and proliferative potential that would support HIV infection; these results are pertinent to the findings of the Step Study and future use of Ad5 as a vaccine vector." Chakupurakal and colleagues published their study in AIDS (Adenovirus vectorspecific T cells demonstrate a unique memory phenotype with high proliferative potential and coexpression of CCR5 and integrin alpha(4)beta(7). AIDS, 2010;24(2):205-210). For additional information, contact D. Onion, University of Birmingham, Canc Res UK Inst Canc Studies, CR UK Center, Sch Canc Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, UK. Publisher contact information for the journal AIDS is: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 530 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19106-3621, USA. Keywords: City:Birmingham, Country:United Kingdom, AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Adenoviridae, Clinical Trial Research, HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Interferon, Interferon Gamma, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research data from Purdue University update understanding of immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from the United States, "Vaccination and antiviral treatment are two important prevention and control measures for the spread of influenza. However, the benefit of antiviral use can be compromised if drug-resistant strains arise." "In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to explore the impact of vaccination and antiviral treatment on the transmission dynamics of influenza. The model includes both drug-sensitive and resistant strains. Analytical results of the model show that the quantities a'' > (SC) and a'' > (RC) , which represent the control reproduction numbers of the sensitive and resistant strains, respectively, provide threshold conditions that determine the competitive outcomes of the two strains. These threshold conditions can be used to gain important insights into the effect of vaccination and treatment on the prevention and control of influenza. Numerical simulations are also conducted to confirm and extend the analytic results. The findings imply that higher levels of treatment may lead to an increase of epidemic size, and the extent to which this occurs depends on other factors such as the rates of vaccination and resistance development," wrote Z. Qiu and colleagues, Purdue University.

The researchers concluded: "This suggests that antiviral treatment should be implemented appropriately." Qiu and colleagues published their study in Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (Transmission Dynamics of an Influenza Model with Vaccination and Antiviral Treatment. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 2010;72(1):1-33). For more information, contact Z. Feng, Purdue University, Dept. of Math, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Bulletin of Mathematical Biology is: Springer, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:West Lafayette, State:IN, Country:United States, Antiviral, Drug Development, Flu, Immunization, Influenza, Treatment, Vaccination, Viral Inhibition, Viral Therapy, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research on immunization discussed by W.A. Lindsay and coresearchers

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from the United States, "Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period." "All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination," wrote W.A. Lindsay and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals." Lindsay and colleagues published the results of their research in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2010;133 (2-4):287-289). For additional information, contact E. Wiedner, Ringling Bros & Barnum & Bailey Center Elephant Cons, 12850 Old Grade Rd, Polk City, FL 33868, USA. The publisher of the journal Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology can be contacted at: Elsevier Science BV, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Keywords: State:FL, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Immunization, Immunology, Immunopathology, Tetanus, Vaccination, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from S.B. Manoff et al have provided new data on immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Older adults are at high risk of developing invasive pneumococcal disease, but the optimal timing and number of vaccine doses needed to prevent disease among this group are unknown. We compared revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PN23) with primary vaccination for eliciting initial and persistent functional antibody responses," scientists in the United States report. "aged >= 65 years were enrolled. Functional (opsonic) and total immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody levels were measured following either PN23 primary vaccination (n = 60) or revaccination 3-5 years after receiving a first PN23 vaccination (n = 60). Antibody against vaccine serotypes 4, 14, and 23F was measured at prevaccination (day 0), 30 days after vaccination, and 5 years after vaccination. By day 30, both primary vaccination and revaccination induced significant increases in opsonic and IgG antibody levels. Day 30 levels following revaccination were slightly lower but not significantly different than those after primary vaccination. Year 5 levels were similar in both groups and remained significantly higher than prevaccination levels for primary vaccination subjects. There was good agreement between postvaccination opsonic and IgG antibody levels," wrote S.B. Manoff and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "Revaccination of older adults with PN23 was comparable to primary vaccination for inducing elevated and persistent functional and IgG antibody responses." Manoff and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (Revaccination with a 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Induces Elevated and Persistent Functional Antibody Responses in Adults Aged >=65 Years. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2010;201(4):525-533). For additional information, contact S.B. Manoff, Merck Res Labs, UG3CD-28, POB 1000, N Wales, PA 19454, USA. The publisher's contact information for the Journal of Infectious Diseases is: University Chicago Press, 1427 E 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637-2954, USA. Keywords: City:Wales, State:PA, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Pneumococcal, Prevent Disease, Vaccination, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies conducted at University of Tehran on influenza recently published

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- In this recently published article, scientists in Iran conducted a study "To study the antigenic variations in influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Iran for characterization and phylogenetic relationships to vaccine strains. RTPCR, full sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and analysis by sequence handling and phylogenetic programs were done." "The HA sequences of 2007 isolates fell within the clade represented by the HA of A/Brisbane/10/07 and characterized by the amino acid changes relative to the HA of

A/Wisconsin/67/05, G50E and K140I. The only isolate in 2006 fell within A/Berlin/02/06 with V112I and K173E changes. The 2005 isolates characterized by Y159F, S189N and S227P changes within A/California/07/04. In all isolates we had E190D which is important because this was responsible for the loss of ability of A/H3N2 viruses to bind to chicken red blood cells. There were some substitutions in the antigenic sites of the HA. Similar to other studies, conserved residues for catalytic sites and also framework sites of NA supporting the catalytic residues were detected. We had some changes in the variable regions of the NA head domain," wrote J. Yavarian and colleagues, University of Tehran. The researchers concluded: "Comparison between Iranian viruses and vaccine strains showed high similarity between them and vaccine strains used in the northern hemisphere." Yavarian and colleagues published their study in Intervirology (Analysis of the Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of Human Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Circulating in Iran between 2005 and 2007: Antigenic and Phylogenetic Relationships to Vaccine Strains. Intervirology, 2010;53(2):133-140). For additional information, contact J. Yavarian, University of Tehran Med Sci, WHO Influenza Center, Sch Public Hlth, Porsina Ave, Keshavarz Blvd, POB 6446-14155, Tehran, Iran. The publisher's contact information for the journal Intervirology is: Karger, Allschwilerstrasse 10, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland. Keywords: Country:Iran, Biotechnology, Enzymes, Flu, Human Influenza, Immunization, Influenza, Intervirology, Neuraminidase, Vaccines, Viral, Virus This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study results from University of Manitoba broaden understanding of malaria

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "A mathematical model is developed to assess the role of gametocytes (the infectious sexual stage of the malaria parasite) in malaria transmission dynamics in a community. The model is rigorously analysed to gain insights into its dynamical features," scientists in Winnipeg, Canada report. "It is shown that, in the absence of disease-induced mortality, the model has a globally-asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number (denoted by a'' >(0)), is less than unity. Further, it has a unique endemic equilibrium if a'' >(0) > 1. The model is extended to incorporate an imperfect vaccine with some assumed therapeutic characteristics. Theoretical analyses of the model with vaccination show that an imperfect malaria vaccine could have negative or positive impact (in reducing disease burden) depending on whether or not a certain threshold (denoted by a double dagger) is less than unity. Numerical simulations of the vaccination model show that such an imperfect anti-malaria vaccine (with a modest efficacy and coverage rate) can lead to effective disease control if the reproduction threshold (denoted by a'' >(vac)) of the disease is reasonably small. On the other hand, the disease cannot be effectively controlled using such a vaccine if a'' >(vac) is high," wrote M.I. Tebohewungkem and colleagues, University of Manitoba. The researchers concluded: "Finally, it is shown that the average number of days

spent in the class of infectious individuals with higher level of gametocyte is critically important to the malaria burden in the community." Tebohewungkem and colleagues published their study in Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (Mathematical Study of the Role of Gametocytes and an Imperfect Vaccine on Malaria Transmission Dynamics. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 2010;72(1):63-93). For more information, contact A.B. Gumel, University of Manitoba, Dept. of Math, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada. Publisher contact information for the journal Bulletin of Mathematical Biology is: Springer, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Winnipeg, Country:Canada, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, Immunization, Malaria, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

OPKO Health Acquires Mexican Pharmaceutical Company

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- OPKO Health, Inc. (NYSE Amex: OPK) announced that it has completed the acquisition of Pharmacos Exakta, S.A. de C.V. ("Pharmacos Exakta"), a privately-owned Mexican pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture, marketing and distribution of ophthalmic and other pharmaceutical products for government and private markets since 1957. OPKO acquired Pharmacos Exakta, including a manufacturing facility owned by an affiliate, for cash and shares of OPKO Common Stock. Phillip Frost, OPKO's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, commented, "We believe this acquisition will provide OPKO with an excellent platform to expand manufacturing and distribution capabilities for a wide range of products while, at the same time, maintaining our original interest in ophthalmology. It also furthers our strategy of expanding commercial activities while we continue to develop our important diagnostic and therapeutic products, as well as our flu vaccine." About OPKO Health, Inc. Miami-based OPKO is a specialty healthcare company involved in the discovery, development, and commercialization of proprietary pharmaceutical and diagnostic products and vaccines. Initially focused on the treatment and management of ophthalmologic diseases, OPKO has since expanded into other areas of major unmet medical need. This press release contains "forward-looking statements," as that term is defined under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (PSLRA), which statements may be identified by words such as "expects," "plans," "projects," "will," "may," "anticipates," "believes," "should," "intends," "estimates," and other words of similar meaning, including statements regarding our ability to expand our manufacturing and distribution capabilities for a wide range of products, our product development efforts, and our strategy of expanding commercial activities while we continue to develop our important diagnostic and therapeutic products, as well as our flu vaccine, as well as other non-historical statements about our expectations, beliefs or intentions regarding our business, technologies and products, financial condition, strategies or prospects. Many factors could cause our actual activities or results to differ materially from the activities and results anticipated in forward-looking statements, including that we may encounter issues with the integration of Pharmacos Exakta which may require significant management and financial resources. These factors include those described in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as risks inherent in funding, developing and obtaining regulatory approvals of new, commercially-viable and competitive

products and treatments. In addition, forward-looking statements may also be adversely affected by general market factors, competitive product development, product availability, federal and state regulations and legislation, the regulatory process for new products and indications, manufacturing issues that may arise, patent positions and litigation, among other factors. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release speak only as of the date the statements were made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements. We intend that all forward-looking statements be subject to the safe-harbor provisions of the PSLRA. Keywords: Acquisitions, Advertising, Biotechnology, Common Stock, Diagnostics, Finance, Financial, Fitness and Nutrition, Flu Vaccines, General Health, Health, Hospitals, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Investing, Investment, Managed Care, Marketing, Medical Devices, Medical Supplies, Mergers, Oncology, Ophthalmic Disease, Ophthalmology, Optical, Other Health, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Physical Therapy, Practice Management, Stock Market, Surgery, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, OPKO Health Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Recent studies from La Sapienza University add new data to rheumatoid arthritis

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Twenty-eight patients with low-moderate, stable rheumatoid arthritis (RA), under treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blockers, were immunized at least once with non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine during three consecutive influenza seasons. Antibodies toward A influenza antigens significantly increased and reached protective levels, still detectable 6 months after vaccination, both in RA patients and healthy controls," scientists writing in the journal Clinical Immunology report. "Response to B antigen instead was only observed from the second year for healthy controls and in the third year for patients. No significant difference in disease activity and antinuclear antibodies was observed as a consequence of vaccine administration, whereas T regulatory cells showed a significant increase 30 days after immunization in RA patients. This study confirms safety of influenza vaccine administration in RA patients treated with TNF alpha blockers. The cohort follow-up revealed the overcoming of poor B vaccine antigen immunogenicity via repeated vaccinations," wrote S. Salemi and colleagues, La Sapienza University. The researchers concluded: "Finally, protective antibody response was still observed 6 months after vaccination." Salemi and colleagues published their study in Clinical Immunology (Influenza vaccine administration in rheumatoid arthritis patients under treatment with TNF alpha blockers: Safety and immunogenicity. Clinical Immunology, 2010;134(2):113-120). Additional information can be obtained by contacting S. Salemi, Roma La Sapienza University, Fac Med & Chirurg 2, AOS Andrea, Via Grottarossa 1035-39, I-00189 Rome, Italy. The publisher of the journal Clinical Immunology can be contacted at: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Rome, Country:Italy, Biotechnology, Clinical Immunology, Flu Vaccines, Immunization, Immunology, Influenza Vaccines, Necrosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis,

Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Researchers from University of Ghent, Medical Department provide details of new studies and findings in the area of vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Due to its many advantages, interest in intranasal vaccination of domestic mammals and humans is currently increasing. Successful stimulation of the immune system by intranasal vaccines requires, however, the presence of lymphoid tissue in the nasal cavity," scientists writing in the journal Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology report. "This nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) has already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, but data about rabbits are very scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the nasal cavities of 10 female adult New Zealand White rabbits were examined for the presence of lymphoid tissue. Primary (1) and secondary (11) lymphoid follicles divided by interfollicular regions were mainly present at the bottom of the ventral nasal meatus and the nasopharyngeal meatus from 1 to 3.3 cm from the tip of the nose. In this region intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes, and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF's) were additionally seen at the dorsal and dorsolateral sides of the nasopharyngeal meatus and within the mucosae of the nasal conchae and the lateral nasal walls. Intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes, and ILF's were, just like in humans, randomly distributed along the entire nasal mucosa. The rabbit NALT is more voluminous compared to rodents in which lymphoid tissue is only present at the bottom of the nasopharyngeal meatus," wrote C. Casteleyn and colleagues, University of Ghent, Medical Department. The researchers concluded: "Since the relative volume of the rabbit nasal cavity is also similar to that of humans, the rabbit could be a valuable research model not only for animal but also for human intranasal vaccine development." Casteleyn and colleagues published their study in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (NALT (Nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue) in the rabbit. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2010;133(2-4):212-218). Additional information can be obtained by contacting C. Casteleyn, University of Ghent, Fac Vet Medical, Dept. of Morphol, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. The publisher of the journal Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology can be contacted at: Elsevier Science BV, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Keywords: City:Merelbeke, Country:Belgium, Biotechnology, Histology, Immunization, Immunology, Immunopathology, Mucosal Immunization, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research results from Juntendo University, Research Center update knowledge of allergies vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'Modulation of allergenicity of major house dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 by interaction with an endogenous ligand,' is the subject of a report. According to recent research published in the Journal of Immunology, "Although many allergens bind endogenous molecules other than Abs in the human body, whether the interaction can modulate allergenicity has been unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of the interaction of recombinant major mite group 1 allergens (Der f 1 and Der p 1), which belong to the papain-like cysteine protease family, with an endogenous protease inhibitor, cystatin A, on their allergenicity." "Cystatin A bound reduced forms of the allergens, in which the cysteine residue at the catalytic center of the protease activity was reduced by treatment with L-cysteine, but did not bind oxidized forms. Cystatin A partially inhibited the binding of IgE in mite-allergic volunteers' sera to the reduced forms, but unexpectedly enhanced the basophil histaminereleasing activity. A catalytic site-mutant of Der f 1 behaved in terms of histamine release, similarly to the reduced form. Molecular modeling showed that cystatin A interacts with the allergens within a narrow area. The results indicate that interaction with cystatin A reduces the limited number of IgE epitopes of the allergens but enhances their biological activity to release histamine, suggesting a new concept, that interaction between allergens and their endogenous ligands modulates the allergenicity even toward enhancement in the effector phase," wrote T. Takai and colleagues, Juntendo University, Research Center. The researchers concluded: "On the other hand, i.p. immunization without alum of mice with cystatin A-treated reduced Der f 1 induced less serum Der f 1-specific IgE than immunization with reduced Der f 1 alone, suggesting that endogenous protease inhibitors suppress the induction of allergen-specific IgE, which is dependent on the enzymatic activity of cysteine protease-allergens, in the sensitization process." Takai and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Modulation of allergenicity of major house dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 by interaction with an endogenous ligand. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7958-65). For additional information, contact T. Takai, Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Keywords: City:Tokyo, Country:Japan, Allergies Vaccines, Allergen, Allergies, Allergy Medicine, Biotechnology, Enzymes, Immunization, Immunology, Papain, Protease Inhibitors, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Parasitology has provided new information about Bacillus subtilis

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Researchers detail in 'Immunogenicity of selfadjuvanticity oral vaccine candidate based on use of Bacillus subtilis spore displaying

Schistosoma japonicum 26 KDa GST protein,' new data in Bacillus subtilis. "One of the promising approaches in mucosal immunization relies on live recombinant vaccine carriers. In this study, we used a six-extracellular protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain WB600 to express Schistosoma japonicum 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)," scientists writing in the journal Parasitology Research report. "Western blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry analyses were used to identify SjGST expression on spore surface. SjGST recombinant spores were used for oral vaccination in mice and were shown to generate mucosal and systemic response. Both SjGSTspecific secretory IgA in feces and IgG in serum augmented significantly on day 33 after oral administration," wrote L. Li and colleagues, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Parasitology. The researchers concluded: "It seemed that surface display of recombinant S. japonicum SjGST on B. subtilis WB600 spores showed good immunogenicity, and B. subtilis spores could be used as potential mucosal delivery vehicles to provide more effective vaccination strategies for parasite prevention and control in the future." Li and colleagues published their study in Parasitology Research (Immunogenicity of self-adjuvanticity oral vaccine candidate based on use of Bacillus subtilis spore displaying Schistosoma japonicum 26 KDa GST protein. Parasitology Research, 2009;105(6):1643-51). Additional information can be obtained by contacting L. Li, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Dept. of Parasitology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. The publisher of the journal Parasitology Research can be contacted at: Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Guangzhou, Country:People's Republic of China, Bacillus Subtilis, Biotechnology, Cytometry, Diagnosis, Diagnostics, Drug Development, Immunization, Parasitology, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering provide new insights into gastroenterology

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on gastroenterology are presented in the report 'Transport of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles in human intestinal M-cell model versus normal intestinal enterocytes.' According to recent research from the United States, "Oral vaccination is one of the most promising applications of polymeric nanoparticles. Using two different in vitro cellular models to partially reproduce the characteristics of intestinal enterocytes and M-cells, this study demonstrates that nanoparticle transport through the M-cell co-culture model is 5-fold that of the intestinal epithelial monolayer, with at least 80% of the chitosan-DNA nanoparticles uptaken in the first 30 min." "Among the properties of nanoparticles studied, ligand decoration has the most dramatic effect on the transcytosis rate: transferrin modification enhances transport through both models by 3-to 5-fold. The stability of the nanoparticles also affects transport kinetics. Factors which de-stabilize the nanoparticles, such as low charge (N/P) ratio and addition of serum, result in aggregation and in turn decreases transport efficiency. Of these stability factors, luminal pH is of great interest as an increase in pH from 5.5 to 6.4 and 7.4 leads to a 3-and 10-

fold drop in nanoparticle transport, respectively. Since soluble chitosan can act as an enhancer to increase paracellular transport by up to 60%, this decrease is partially attributed to the soluble chitosan precipitating near neutral pH," wrote I. Kadiyala and colleagues, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. The researchers concluded: "The implication that chitosan-DNA nanoparticles are more stable in the upper regions of the small intestine suggests that higher uptake rates may occur in the duodenum compared to the ileum and the colon." Kadiyala and colleagues published their study in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Transport of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles in human intestinal M-cell model versus normal intestinal enterocytes. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010;39(1-3):103-9). For additional information, contact I. Kadiyala, Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA. Keywords: City:Baltimore, State:MD, Country:United States, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedicine, DNA, Gastroenterology, Immunization, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy, Transcytosis, Treatment, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from Massachusetts General Hospital update current data on HIV/AIDS vaccine

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on HIV/AIDS vaccine are presented in the report 'A randomized therapeutic vaccine trial of canarypox-HIV-pulsed dendritic cells vs. canarypox-HIV alone in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.' "Targeting canarypox (CP)-HIV vaccine to dendritic cells (DCs) elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses in vitro. We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate whether adding DC to a CP-HIV vaccine improved virologic control during analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected subjects," researchers in the United States report. "Twenty-nine subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy were randomized to vaccination with autologous DCs infected with CP-HIV+keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (arm A, n=14) or CP-HIV+KLH alone (arm B, n=15). The mean viral load (VL) setpoint during ATI did not differ between subjects in arms A and B. A higher percentage of subjects in the DC group had a VL setpoint <5,000 c/mL during ATI (4/13 or 31% in arm A compared with 0/13 in arm B, p=0.096), but virologic control was transient. Subjects in arm A had a greater increase in KLH lymphoproliferative response than subjects in arm B; however, summed ELISPOT responses to HIV-1 antigens did not differ by treatment arm. We conclude that a DC-CP-HIV vaccine is well-tolerated in HIV-1-infected patients, but does not lower VL setpoint during ATI compared with CP-HIV alone," wrote R.T. Gandhi and colleagues, Massachusetts General Hospital. The researchers concluded: "New methods to enhance the immunogenicity and antiviral efficacy of DC-based vaccines for HIV-1 infection are needed." Gandhi and colleagues published their study in Vaccine (A randomized therapeutic vaccine trial of canarypox-HIV-pulsed dendritic cells vs. canarypox-HIV alone in HIV-1infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Vaccine, 2009;27(43):6088-94).

For additional information, contact R.T. Gandhi, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St., GRJ 504, Boston, MA 02114, United States. Keywords: City:Boston, Country:United States, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Antivirals, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Clinical Trial Research, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines, Viral Load, ViroLogic Inc., Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports from G. Giuffre et al highlight recent research in human papillomavirus

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A new study, 'Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in gynaecologic outpatients of Messina, eastern Sicily, Italy,' is now available. According to recent research from Messina, Italy, "In order to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in sexually active female population in Messina, we tested cervical scrapes of women referred to university clinics for routine gynaecologic care. Between March and December 2008, a total of 680 cervical samples of 598 patients (573 Italian from province of Messina and 25 resident aliens) were examined consecutively from laboratory of molecular biology at the Department of Human Pathology." "For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted (QIAamp DNA mini kit, Qiagen), followed by a PCR-based HPV DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping (HPV-HS Bio plus HPV-strip, AB Analytica or HPV-type, AB Analytica). The overall rate of HPV DNA detection in Italian patients (mean age 34 years; range 15-69) was 70.5% (404/573), with 163 cases of multiple infections (40.3%). In 335 patients (82.9%) a high-risk HPV infection was detected. In this group the coexistence of a low-risk HPV infection was documented in 97 cases while 65 patients exhibited only a low-risk HPV infection. HPV-16 was the most prevalent (33.4%), followed by HPV-6 (28.0%), HPV-31 (24.3%), HPV-58 (11.4%), HPV-66 (11.1%), HPV-53 (6.4%), HPV-18 (6.2%), HPV-56 (5.4%), HPV-33 (5.2%) while the other genotypes identified (HPV-11, -40, -42, -43, -44, -54, -61, -70, 81, -26, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -59, -68, -73, -82) were below 5%. HPV prevalence (any type) was 78.7% at age <or=24 years, 73.4% at 25-34 years and 67.1% at 35-44 years and 58.1% at age >or=45 years. A significant association (chi2=12.718; p=0.006) between HPV DNA detection and the younger age was encountered," wrote G. Giuffre and colleagues, . The researchers concluded: "Since available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV infection in Italy are somewhat discordant, this study represents a helpful contribution to the knowledge on the circulation of precise genotypes in east Sicily in order to improve new HPV vaccines." Giuffre and colleagues published their study in Oncology Reports (Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in gynaecologic outpatients of Messina, eastern Sicily, Italy. Oncology Reports, 2010;23(3):745-50). For additional information, contact G. Giuffre, Laboratory of Molecular Biology Applied to Pathologic Anatomy, Dept. of Human Pathology, AOU 'Policlinico G Martino' - Pad D, 98125 Messina, Italy. Keywords: City:Messina, Country:Italy, DNA Detection, DNA Research,

Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Gynecology, HPV, Human Papillomavirus, Immunization, Oncology, Pathology, Proteomics, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Data on immunization described by researchers at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A new study, 'Influenza immunization coverage among residents of long-term care facilities certified by CMS, 2005-2006: the newest MDs quality indicator,' is now available. "In October 2005, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) required that long-term care (LTC) facilities certified by CMS offer each resident annual influenza vaccination. Subsequently, vaccination status was added to resident assessments collected beginning in the influenza season, 2005-2006," scientists writing in the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association report. "This is the first year immunization coverage can be reported based on a census of LTC residents. Report influenza immunization coverage for LTC residents by state, resident, and facility characteristics. Identify uses of the data and areas in need of improvement. Analysis of CMS' Minimum Data Set of 1,851,676 residents in nursing homes from October 1 through December 31 but who could have been discharged between January 1 and March 31 merged with data for 14,493 non-hospital-based facilities from the Online Survey and Certification Assessment Reporting System. Overall, 83% of residents were offered the vaccine and 72% had received the vaccine. Almost 10% refused to receive the vaccine, 14% were not offered the vaccine, 1% were ineligible, and 3% were missing vaccination status. Vaccination coverage varied significantly among states (range: 49% to 87%). Fewer African Americans and Hispanics than whites were offered the vaccine (79% and 79% versus 84%, respectively) and received it (65% and 66% versus 73%, respectively); more African Americans refused the vaccine (12%) than residents of other races and/or ethnicities. Residents of Medicaid-certified-only facilities had higher levels of vaccination than residents of other facilities (82% versus <or=73%). MDS immunization data can be used as surveillance to work with states to improve coverage," wrote B.H. Bardenheier and colleagues, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The researchers concluded: "Further research to examine racial disparities in vaccination among LTC residents is needed." Bardenheier and colleagues published their study in the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (Influenza immunization coverage among residents of long-term care facilities certified by CMS, 2005-2006: the newest MDs quality indicator. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 2010;11(1):59-69). Additional information can be obtained by contacting B.H. Bardenheier, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Immunization Services Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA. Keywords: City:Atlanta, State:GA, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Flu Vaccines, Health Policy, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Medicaid, Medicare, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Investigators at International Vaccine Institute zero in on immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Sublingual immunization with nonreplicating antigens induces antibody-forming cells and cytotoxic T cells in the female genital tract mucosa and protects against genital papillomavirus infection,' have been published. "We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant," scientists in Seoul, Korea report. "Sublingual administration of OVA and CT induced Ag-specific IgA and IgG Abs in blood and in cervicovaginal secretions. These responses were associated with large numbers of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) in the genital mucosa. Genital ASC responses were similar in magnitude and isotype distribution after s.l., intranasal, or vaginal immunization and were superior to those seen after intragastric immunization. Genital, but not blood or spleen, IgA ASC responses were inhibited by treatment with anti-CCL28 Abs, suggesting that the chemokine CCL28 plays a major role in the migration of IgA ASC progenitors to the reproductive tract mucosa. Furthermore, s.l. immunization with OVA induced OVA-specific effector CD8(+) cytolytic T cells in the genital mucosa, and these responses required coadministration of the CT adjuvant. Furthermore, s.l. administration of human papillomavirus virus-like particles with or without the CT adjuvant conferred protection against genital challenge with human papillomavirus pseudovirions," wrote N. Cuburu and colleagues, International Vaccine Institute. The researchers concluded: "Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of s.l. immunization as an efficient vaccination strategy for inducing genital immune responses and should impact on the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases." Cuburu and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Sublingual immunization with nonreplicating antigens induces antibody-forming cells and cytotoxic T cells in the female genital tract mucosa and protects against genital papillomavirus infection. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7851-9). For more information, contact N. Cuburu, International Vaccine Institute, Laboratory Sciences Division, Seoul, Korea. Keywords: City:Seoul, Country:Korea, Biotechnology, Cholera, Gynecology, HPV, Human Papillomavirus, Immunization, Immunology, Vaccines, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings from Texas Technical University, University Health Science Center describe advances in immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Scientists discuss in 'Prime-boost and recombinant protein vaccination strategies using Sm-p80 protects against Schistosoma mansoni infection in the mouse model to levels previously attainable only by the irradiated cercarial vaccine' new

findings in immunization. According to recent research published in the journal Parasitology Research, "Advent of an effective schistosome vaccine would contribute significantly toward reducing the disease spectrum and transmission of schistosomiasis. We have targeted a functionally important antigen, Sm-p80, as a vaccine candidate because of its consistent immunogenicity, protective and antifecundity potentials, and important role in the immune evasion process." "In this study, we report that using two vaccination approaches (prime boost and recombinant protein), Sm-p80-based vaccine formulation(s) confer up to 70% reduction in worm burden in mice. Animals immunized with the vaccine exhibited a decrease in egg production by up to 75%. The vaccine elicited strong immune responses that included IgM, IgA, and IgG (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) in vaccinated animals. Splenocytes proliferated in response to Sm-p80 produced Th1 and Th17 response enhancing cytokines," wrote G. Ahmad and colleagues, Texas Technical University, University Health Science Center. The researchers concluded: "These results again emphasize the potential of Sm-p80 as a viable vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis." Ahmad and colleagues published their study in Parasitology Research (Prime-boost and recombinant protein vaccination strategies using Sm-p80 protects against Schistosoma mansoni infection in the mouse model to levels previously attainable only by the irradiated cercarial vaccine. Parasitology Research, 2009;105(6):1767-77). For additional information, contact G. Ahmad, Texas Technical University Health Sciences Center, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Lubbock, TX 79430 USA. The publisher's contact information for the journal Parasitology Research is: Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Lubbock, State:TX, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Drug Development, Immunization, Parasitology, Proteomics, Schistosomiasis, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New research on immunization from University of Birmingham summarized

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Investigators publish new data in the report 'The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults.' According to recent research published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, "An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted." "The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise relative to vaccination affected the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and fifty-six (76 men) healthy participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three intervention groups who exercised immediately, 6h or 48 h prior to administration of a standard trivalent influenza vaccine. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both the bicep curl and

lateral raise movements at an intensity eliciting 85% of each participant's pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. Antigen-specific serum antibody titres were measured at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination as indicators of the humoral response. All three viral strains elicited strong antibody responses; however, eccentric exercise did not further augment any antibody responses compared to the control group. Cell-mediated immunity at 28 days postvaccination was determined by measuring the IFN-gamma response to in vitro stimulation of the blood with whole vaccine. There were no differences in cell-mediated immunity among the groups. Although these null findings were unexpected, they are consistent with previous research showing that exercise-induced immunoenhancement was only observed when the control group had relatively poor responses," wrote J.P. Campbell and colleagues, University of Birmingham. The researchers concluded: "It is likely that the robust immune responses to the vaccine observed in this study may have limited any further immune enhancement by exercise." Campbell and colleagues published their study in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2010;24(2):236-42). For additional information, contact J.P. Campbell, University of Birmingham, Behavioural Medicine Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK. Keywords: City:Edgbaston, Country:United Kingdom, Biotechnology, Flu Vaccines, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research data from College of Medicine update understanding of immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A report, 'Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus,' is newly published data in Acta Crystallographica Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. According to recent research from the United States, "Human hookworms are among the most pathogenic soil-transmitted helminths. These parasitic nematodes have coevolved with the host and are able to maintain a high worm burden for decades without killing the human host." "However, it is possible to develop vaccines against laboratory-challenge hookworm infections using either irradiated third-state infective larvae (L3) or enzymes from the adult parasites. In an effort to control hookworm infection globally, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, a product-development partnership with the Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop new control tools including vaccines, has identified a battery of protein antigens, including surfaceassociated antigens (SAAs) from L3. SAA proteins are characterized by a 13 kDa conserved domain of unknown function. SAA proteins are found on the surface of infective L3 stages (and some adult stages) of different nematode parasites, suggesting that they may play important roles in these organisms. The atomic structures and function of SAA proteins remain undetermined and in an effort to remedy this situation recombinant Na-SAA-2 from the most prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus has been expressed, purified and

crystallized," wrote O.A. Asojo and colleagues, College of Medicine. The researchers concluded: "Useful X-ray data have been collected to 2.3 A resolution from a crystal that belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a=73.88, b=35.58, c=42.75 A, beta=116.1 degrees ." Asojo and colleagues published their study in Acta Crystallographica Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications (Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Acta Crystallographica Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, 2010;66 (Pt 2):172-6). For additional information, contact O.A. Asojo, College of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Acta Crystallographica Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications is: Blackwell Publishing Inc., 350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148, USA. Keywords: City:Omaha, State:NE, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Immunization, Structural Biology, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders has provided new data on immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Data detailed in 'Protection against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae challenges by mucosal vaccination with a detoxified lipooligosaccharide conjugate in two chinchilla models' have been presented. According to recent research from the United States, "Otitis media (OM) can occur following outset of upper respiratory tract infections. Inhibition of bacterial colonization in nasopharynx (NP) by mucosal vaccination may prevent OM by reducing bacterial invasion of the middle ears (MEs)." "In this study, 80 chinchillas were intranasally (i.n.) immunized with a detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS)-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) mixed with cholera toxin (CT) or CT alone. All vaccinated animals responded with elevated levels of mucosal and serum anti-LOS antibodies. Two weeks after the last immunization, 40 chinchillas were challenged i.n. with NTHi to evaluate NP colonization and ME infection while the rest of the animals were challenged transbullarly (T.B.) to examine the development of OM. Compared to the control group, the vaccination inhibited not only bacterial colonization in NP and transmission to MEs in the i.n. challenge group but also bacterial colonization in NP and transmission to unchallenged ears in the T.B. challenge group. Though no difference was found in the challenged ears of either group right after the T.B. challenge, an early clearance of NTHi from NP and unchallenged ears as well as less severity of OM in the unchallenged ears were observed in vaccinated animals," wrote W. Hong and colleagues, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. The researchers concluded: "Current results along with our previous data indicate that mucosal vaccination is capable of inhibiting NTHi NP colonization and preventing OM occurrence in chinchillas; the i.n. challenge model is preferable for testing the mucosal vaccines while the T.B. challenge model is superior for testing the systemic vaccines."

Hong and colleagues published their study in Microbes and Infection (Protection against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae challenges by mucosal vaccination with a detoxified lipooligosaccharide conjugate in two chinchilla models. Microbes and Infection, 2010;12(1):11-8). For additional information, contact W. Hong, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Vaccine Research Section, Rockville, Maryland 20850 USA. Keywords: City:Rockville, State:Maryland, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Cholera, Communication Disorder, Deafness, Flu, Haemophilus, Immunization, Influenza, Respiratory Tract Infections, Tetanus, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Researchers at Semmelweis University, Institute of Public Health have published new data on immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'Immunosenescence and vaccination of the elderly II. New strategies to restore age-related immune impairment,' is the subject of a report. "One of the greatest health-care challenges in the elderly is to ensure that vaccination against infections are optimally effective, but vaccination can only be effective if cells that are capable of responding are still present in the repertoire. The reversing of immunosenescence could be achieved by improving immune responses or altering vaccine formulation," researchers in Budapest, Hungary report. "Recent vaccination strategies in the elderly exert low effectiveness. Nutritional interventions and moderate exercise delay T cell senescence. Telomerase activity and expression of toll-like receptors can be improved by chemotherapy. Reversion of thymic atrophy could be achieved by thymus transplantation, depletion of accumulated dysfunctional naive T cells and herpesvirus-specific exhausted memory cells. Administration of immunostimulatory and antiinflammatory cytokines show the best practical approach. Reduced dendritic cell activity and co-receptor expression might be increased by interleukin (IL)-2 administration. IL-7 protects both B and T lymphocytes, but IL-2, IL-10, keratinocyte growth factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, as well as leptin and growth hormone also have a stimulatory effect on thymopoiesis. In animals, several strategies have been explored to produce more efficacious vaccines including high dose vaccines, DNA vaccines with immunostimulatory patch, virosomal vaccines and vaccines containing new adjuvants," wrote J. Ongradi and colleagues, Semmelweis University, Institute of Public Health. The researchers concluded: "Hopefully, one of these approaches will be translated into human therapy in a short time." Ongradi and colleagues published their study in Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica (Immunosenescence and vaccination of the elderly II. New strategies to restore age-related immune impairment. Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica, 2009;56(4):301-12). For additional information, contact J. Ongradi, Institute of Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Keywords: City:Budapest, Country:Hungary, Atrophy, Biotechnology, Chemotherapy, Drug Therapy, Herpes Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Neurology, Public

Health, Regulatory Actions, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Scientists at Johns Hopkins University detail research in immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on immunization are presented in the report 'Drug users' adherence to a 6-month vaccination protocol: effects of motivational incentives.' According to a study from the United States, "Vaccines represent a new and promising avenue of treatment for drug abuse but pose new medication adherence challenges due to prolonged and widely spaced administration schedules. This study examined effects of prize-based incentives on retention and medication adherence among 26 cocaine users involved in a 6-month hepatitis B vaccination series." "Participants could meet with research staff weekly for 24 weeks and receive 7 injections containing either the Hepatitis B vaccine or a placebo. All participants received $10 at each weekly visit (maximum of $240). Those randomly assigned to the incentive program received additional monetary payments on an escalating schedule for attendance at weekly monitoring and vaccination visits with maximum possible earnings of $751. Group attendance diverged after study week 8 with attendance better sustained in the incentive than control group (group by time interaction, p=.035). Overall percent of weekly sessions attended was 82% for incentive versus 64% for control (p=.139). Receiving all scheduled injections were 77% of incentive versus 46% of control participants (p=.107). A significantly larger percentage (74% versus 51%; p=.016) of injections were received by incentive versus control participants on the originally scheduled day. Results suggest that monetary incentives can successfully motivate drug users to attend sessions regularly and to receive injected medications in a more reliable and timely manner than may be seen under usual care procedures," wrote M.L. Stitzer and colleagues, Johns Hopkins University. The researchers concluded: "Thus, incentives may be useful for addressing adherence and allowing participants to reap the full benefits of newly developed medications." Stitzer and colleagues published their study in Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Drug users' adherence to a 6-month vaccination protocol: effects of motivational incentives. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2010;107(1):76-9). For more information, contact M.L. Stitzer, Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6823 USA. Keywords: City:Baltimore, State:MD, Country:United States, Addiction Medicine, Alcoholism, Biotechnology, Cocaine, Gastroenterology, Hepatitis, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Mental Health, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Scientists at Veterans Affairs Medical Center report research in immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'Antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine in substance use disorder patients,' is the subject of a report. "The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of prognostic factors previously known to be associated with poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination in a sample of veterans presenting for substance use disorders treatment at a Veterans Health Administration (VA) Medical Center, assess vaccination response, and identify markers for poor response in this population. Results indicated that most participants had multiple prognostic factors previously known to be associated with poor antibody response including male gender, age over 40, smoking, and obesity," investigators in the United States report. "The rate of seroconversion in this sample was 51.9%. This is substantially lower than seen in healthy adults. Alcohol dependence was the only significant independent negative predictor of seroconversion in this sample," wrote H.J. Hagedorn and colleagues, Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The researchers concluded: "Substance use disorders treatment providers who are considering adding hepatitis B vaccination services to their clinics should be aware that the antibody response to the hepatitis B vaccination is inconsistent and that patients with particular demographic characteristics may be at heightened risk of poor antibody response." Hagedorn and colleagues published their study in Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine in substance use disorder patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2010;107(1):39-43). For additional information, contact H.J. Hagedorn, Veterans Health Administration's Substance Use Disorders Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417 USA. Keywords: City:Minneapolis, State:MN, Country:United States, Addiction Medicine, Alcoholism, Biotechnology, Gastroenterology, Gender Health, Gender Medicine, Hepatitis, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Mental Health, Vaccination, Vaccines, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study results from University Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine provide new insights into immunization

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Scientists discuss in 'Rubella seroepidemiology and catch-up immunization among pregnant women in Taiwan: comparison between women born in Taiwan and immigrants from six countries in Asia' new findings in immunization. "Rubella vaccination in Taiwan started in 1986; mass vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 1992. In recent years, 17-31% of all marriages in Taiwan have been between Taiwanese men and foreign women," scientists writing in the The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene report. "The aim of this study was to analyze rubella seroepidemiology and the rate of catch-

up immunization in women. We recruited 10,089 pregnant women, including 1,920 immigrants, who had received prenatal examinations during 1999-2006. The rates of seronegativity among global, Taiwan-born, and non-Taiwan-born pregnant women were 14.0%, 11.9%, and 23.1%, respectively. The seronegativity of rubella antibodies decreased from 28.2% for Taiwan-born women born before September 1971 to 8.0% for those born thereafter. The rates of rubella catch-up immunization among global, Taiwan-born, and non-Taiwan-born pregnant women were 28.6%, 20.5%, and 42.2%, respectively," wrote C.C. Lin and colleagues, University Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine. The researchers concluded: "Our results suggest that substantial numbers of older Taiwan-born women and immigrant women remain susceptible to rubella infection." Lin and colleagues published their study in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Rubella seroepidemiology and catch-up immunization among pregnant women in Taiwan: comparison between women born in Taiwan and immigrants from six countries in Asia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2010;82(1):40-4). Additional information can be obtained by contacting C.C. Lin, Fooying University Hospital, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Pingtung, Taiwan. Keywords: City:Pingtung, Country:Taiwan, Biotechnology, Hygiene, Immunization, Rubella, Vaccination, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings from National Institutes of Health advance knowledge in infectious diseases vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIVinfected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics,' have been published. According to a study from the United States, "This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIVexposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States." "The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic

Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIVinfected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIVinfected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women. Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development. Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions; 4) new guidance on diagnosing of HIV infection and presumptively excluding HIV infection in infants that affect the need for initiation of prophylaxis to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in neonates; 5) updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines; 6) addition of sections on aspergillosis; bartonella; human herpes virus-6, -7, and -8; malaria; and progressive multifocal leukodystrophy (PML); and 7) new recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children. The report includes six tables pertinent to preventing and treating OIs in children and two figures describing immunization recommendations for children aged 0--6 years and 7--18 years," wrote L.M. Mofenson and colleagues, National Institutes of Health. The researchers concluded: "Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov." Mofenson and colleagues published the results of their research in Mmwr Recommendations and Reports (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society

of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Mmwr Recommendations and Reports, 2009;58(RR-11):1-166). For additional information, contact L.M. Mofenson, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA. Keywords: City:Bethesda, State:Maryland, Country:United States, Infectious Diseases Vaccines, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Aspergillosis, Bartonella, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human Papillomavirus, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Malaria, Opportunistic Infections, Pediatrics, Pneumocystis, Pneumonia, Pulmonology, Travel Health, Travel Immunization, Travel Vaccination, Vaccination, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports outline infectious diseases vaccines study findings from National Institutes of Health

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics,' are detailed in a study published in Mmwr Recommendations and Reports. "This report updates and combines into one document earlier versions of guidelines for preventing and treating opportunistic infections (OIs) among HIVexposed and HIV-infected children, last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children in the United States," researchers in the United States report. "The guidelines discuss opportunistic pathogens that occur in the United States and one that might be acquired during international travel (i.e., malaria). Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution. A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions. For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007. After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society

(PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIVinfected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIVinfected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women. Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development. Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions; 4) new guidance on diagnosing of HIV infection and presumptively excluding HIV infection in infants that affect the need for initiation of prophylaxis to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in neonates; 5) updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines; 6) addition of sections on aspergillosis; bartonella; human herpes virus-6, -7, and -8; malaria; and progressive multifocal leukodystrophy (PML); and 7) new recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children. The report includes six tables pertinent to preventing and treating OIs in children and two figures describing immunization recommendations for children aged 0--6 years and 7--18 years," wrote L.M. Mofenson and colleagues, National Institutes of Health. The researchers concluded: "Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov." Mofenson and colleagues published their study in Mmwr Recommendations and Reports (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIVexposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Mmwr Recommendations and Reports, 2009;58(RR-11):1-166). For additional information, contact L.M. Mofenson, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA. Keywords: City:Bethesda, State:Maryland, Country:United States, Infectious Diseases Vaccines, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Aspergillosis, Bartonella, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human

Papillomavirus, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Malaria, Opportunistic Infections, Pediatrics, Pneumocystis, Pneumonia, Pulmonology, Travel Health, Travel Immunization, Travel Vaccination, Vaccination, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study findings from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology provide new insights into influenza immunology

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Innate immune evasion strategies of influenza viruses,' have been published. "Influenza viruses are globally important human respiratory pathogens. These viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional worldwide pandemics, both of which can vary significantly in disease severity," scientists writing in the journal Future Microbiology report. "The virulence of a particular influenza virus strain is partly determined by its success in circumventing the host immune response. This article briefly reviews the innate mechanisms that host cells have evolved to resist virus infection, and outlines the plethora of strategies that influenza viruses have developed in order to counteract such powerful defences," wrote B.G. Hale and colleagues, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology. The researchers concluded: "The molecular details of this virus-host interplay are summarized, and the ways in which research in this area is being applied to the rational design of protective vaccines and novel antivirals are discussed." Hale and colleagues published their study in Future Microbiology (Innate immune evasion strategies of influenza viruses. Future Microbiology, 2010;5():23-41). Additional information can be obtained by contacting B.G. Hale, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Dept. of Microbiology, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York City, NY 10029 USA. Keywords: City:New York, State:NY, Country:United States, Influenza Immunology, Epidemics, Flu, Immunization, Immunology, Influenza, Pandemics, Viral, Virus. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports summarize life sciences study results from National Institutes of Health

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice,' are detailed in a study published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. "TLR ligands are promising candidates for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants that can elicit protective immunity against emerging infectious diseases. Adjuvants have been used most frequently to increase the quantity of an immune response," investigators in the United States report. "However, the quality of a T cell response can be more important than its quantity.

Stimulating certain pairs of TLRs induces a synergistic response in terms of activating dendritic cells and eliciting/enhancing T cell responses through clonal expansion, which increases the number of responding T cells. Here, we have found that utilizing ligands for 3 TLRs (TLR2/6, TLR3, and TLR9) greatly increased the protective efficacy of vaccination with an HIV envelope peptide in mice when compared with using ligands for only any 2 of these TLRs; surprisingly, increased protection was induced without a marked increase in the number of peptide-specific T cells. Rather, the combination of these 3 TLR ligands augmented the quality of the T cell responses primarily by amplifying their functional avidity for the antigen, which was necessary for clearance of virus. The triple combination increased production of DC IL-15 along with its receptor, IL-15Ralpha, which contributed to high avidity, and decreased expression of programmed death-ligand 1 and induction of Tregs," wrote Q. Zhu and colleagues, National Institutes of Health. The researchers concluded: "Therefore, selective TLR ligand combinations can increase protective efficacy by increasing the quality rather than the quantity of T cell responses." Zhu and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2010;120(2):607-16). For additional information, contact Q. Zhu, National Institutes of Health, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA. Keywords: City:Bethesda, State:Maryland, Country:United States, Life Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Vaccination, Immunization, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, AIDS, HIV, Virology, Vaccines, HIV/AIDS, Viral Therapy, Treatment, Viral Inhibition, Antiviral, Biotechnology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research conducted at Rollins School of Public Health has updated our knowledge about life sciences

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on life sciences are presented in the report 'Minding the immunization gap: family characteristics associated with completion rates in rural Ethiopia.' "To examine risk factors for lack of immunization, we tested the impact of maternal, paternal, and household variables on child immunization status in children >or=1 year in a rural area of Ethiopia. Data collected by face-to-face interview on maternal, paternal, household and child variables from cross-sectional random sample community-based study on health and well-being in rural Ethiopia was used to test hypotheses on immunization status of children (n=924)," investigators in the United States report. "Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for two immunization outcomes: record of at least one vaccination, and record of DPT3, indicating completion of the DPT series. Complete data were available for 924 children >or=1 year of which 79% had at least one vaccination. Of those, 64% had DPT3/Polio3; below recommended coverage level. Children were more likely to be vaccinated if the mother reported antenatal care (ANC), and less likely to be vaccinated if the mother had a history of stillbirth, and no opinion of health center. Children were more likely to have DPT3 if: mother had >or=1 year of

education, mother reported ANC, or older paternal age. Children were less likely to have DPT3 in households with food insecurity and no maternal opinion of health center," wrote M.C. Sullivan and colleagues, Rollins School of Public Health. The researchers concluded: "The study had three findings with implications for immunization programming: (1) Mothers completing the recommended ANC visits is strongly associated with receiving at least one vaccination and with completing a vaccination series; (2) Maternal education is associated with a completed vaccination series; (3) Paternal characteristics may affect vaccination series completion." Sullivan and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Community Health (Minding the immunization gap: family characteristics associated with completion rates in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Community Health, 2010;35(1):53-9). For additional information, contact M.C. Sullivan, Rollins School of Public Health, Hubert Dept. of Global Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA. The publisher of the Journal of Community Health can be contacted at: Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Atlanta, State:GA, Country:United States, Life Sciences, Pediatrics, Vaccination, Immunization, Vaccines, Biotechnology, Pediatric Vaccines, Community Health, Public Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study data from University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology update knowledge of life sciences

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Regulatory T cells in human geohelminth infection suppress immune responses to BCG and Plasmodium falciparum,' have been published. "Chronic helminth infections induce T-cell hyporesponsiveness, which may affect immune responses to other pathogens or to vaccines. This study investigates the influence of Treg activity on proliferation and cytokine responses to BCG and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBC in Indonesian schoolchildren," researchers in Leiden, Netherlands report. "Geohelminth-infected children's in vitro T-cell proliferation to either BCG or pRBC was reduced compared to that of uninfected children. Although the frequency of CD4(+)CD25 (hi)FOXP3(+) T cells was similar regardless of infection status, the suppressive activity differed between geohelminth-infected and geohelminth-uninfected groups: Ag-specific proliferative responses increased upon CD4(+)CD25(hi) T-cell depletion in geohelminth-infected subjects only. In addition, IFN-gamma production in response to both BCG and parasitized RBC was increased after removal of CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells. These data demonstrate that geohelminthassociated Treg influence immune responses to bystander Ag of mycobacteria and plasmodia," wrote L.J. Wammes and colleagues, University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology. The researchers concluded: "Geohelminth-induced immune modulation may have important consequences for co-endemic infections and vaccine trials." Wammes and colleagues published their study in European Journal of Immunology (Regulatory T cells in human geohelminth infection suppress immune responses to BCG and Plasmodium falciparum. European Journal of Immunology, 2010;40(2):437-42).

For additional information, contact L.J. Wammes, Leiden University Medical Center, Dept. of Parasitology, Leiden, Netherlands. Keywords: City:Leiden, Country:Netherlands, Life Sciences, Helminth Infection, Pediatrics, Malaria, Tropical Disease, Plasmodium falciparum, Immunization, Vaccines, Biotechnology, Immunology, Cell Proliferation, Parasitology, Cytokines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings reported from Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology describe advances in opportunistic infections vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A report, 'Construction and immunogenicity of Salmonella vaccine vector expressing HIV-1 antigen and MCP3,' is newly published data in Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica. "This study aims to determine the efficacy of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium STM-1 bearing MCP-3 gene as a delivery vehicle for the HIV gag gene (in particular p24 gene) and HIV env gene. The STM1 delivery HIV-p24 vaccination was carried out in the form of a recombinant or a DNA vaccine whereas only a DNA vaccine was used for HIV env," investigators in Australia report. "Naked DNA vaccination was also tested and immune responses were evaluated following immunisation in mouse model. vaccination cellular immune responses induced by recombinant p24 STM1 (STM1/pHly-p24) were greater than those elicited by the p24 DNA vaccine in STM1 (STM1/VR-p24), (but statistically not significant) than those induced by oral vaccination. However, IgA responses induced by oral vaccination with either a recombinant or DNA vaccine of p24 in STM1 are higher than those induced by IP vaccination. In addition, the numbers of cells secreting IL4 are reduced after oral vaccination with STM1/VR-p24/MCP3. However, for the HIV p24 antigen, STM1/MCP3 preferentially induces IFNgamma-secreting splenocytes," wrote E.W. Bachtiar and colleagues, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The researchers concluded: "This result confirms other studies that Salmonella was able to deliver HIV antigens to the immune system and induced specific immune responses to the HIV antigen and for the HIV p24 antigen, STM1/MCP3 induces secretion of IFNgamma." Bachtiar and colleagues published their study in Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica (Construction and immunogenicity of Salmonella vaccine vector expressing HIV-1 antigen and MCP3. Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica, 2009;56(4):403-15). For additional information, contact E.W. Bachtiar, Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Victoria, Australia. Keywords: Country:Australia, Opportunistic Infections Vaccines, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, DNA Research, DNA Vaccines, Gene Therapy, Genetics, Genomics, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Medical Device, Opportunistic Infections, Salmonella, Vaccination, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Researchers from Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases report recent findings in preventable disease vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Investigators publish new data in the report 'Immune status and risk perception of acquisition of vaccine preventable diseases among health care workers.' According to a study from Sao Paulo, Brazil, "Risk perception of acquiring vaccine preventable diseases and the immune status of 187 health care workers (HCW) from a high-complexity university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were assessed. The vaccine preventable diseases more cited as at risk for acquisition were hepatitis B (94.1%), influenza (92.5%), meningococcal disease (90.3%), tuberculosis (85.0%), and varicella (72.7%)." "Previous disease or vaccination reported by HCW were hepatitis B (82.4%), tetanus (87.7%), diphtheria (81.8%), measles (86.6%), mumps (85.6%), rubella (85.0%), varicella (82.9%), and influenza (35.8%). One third of HCW reported previous percutaneous or mucosal occupational accidents, and 83.6% had notified the event to the Hospital Infection Control Committee. Despite good risk perception of acquiring vaccine preventable diseases, only 35.8% of individuals were fully immunized," wrote M.I. Dinelli and colleagues, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The researchers concluded: "Efforts should be made to increase influenza vaccination coverage among all professionals and to reduce the number of nonreported accidents, especially among physicians." Dinelli and colleagues published their study in American Journal of Infection Control (Immune status and risk perception of acquisition of vaccine preventable diseases among health care workers. American Journal of Infection Control, 2009;37(10):858-60). For more information, contact M.I. Dinelli, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Keywords: City:Sao Paulo, Country:Brazil, Preventable Disease Vaccines, Biotechnology, Chickenpox, Diphtheria, Flu, Gastroenterology, Hepatitis, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Influenza, Measles, Meningococcal, Mumps, Mycobacteria, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Pediatric, Preventable Disease, Tetanus, Vaccination, Vaccines, Varicella-Zoster Virus, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research on adverse drug reactions published by scientists at Harvard University

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from the United States, "The importance of post-marketing surveillance for drug and vaccine safety is well recognized as rare but serious adverse events may not be detected in pre-approval clinical trials. In such surveillance, a sequential test is preferable, in order to detect potential problems as soon as possible." "Various sequential probability ratio tests (SPRT) have been applied in near real-

time vaccine and drug safety surveillance, including Wald's classical SPRT with a single alternative and the Poisson-based maximized SPRT (MaxSPRT) with a composite alternative. These methods require that the expected number of events under the null hypothesis is known as a function of time t. In practice, the expected counts are usually estimated from historical data. When a large sample size from the historical data is lacking, the SPRTs are biased due to the variance in the estimate of the expected number of events. We present a conditional maximized sequential probability ratio test (CMaxSPRT), which adjusts for the uncertainty in the expected counts. Our test incorporates the randomness and variability from both the historical data and the surveillance population," wrote L.L. Li and colleagues, Harvard University. The researchers concluded: "Evaluations of the statistical power for CMaxSPRT are presented under different scenarios." Li and colleagues published the results of their research in Statistics in Medicine (A conditional maximized sequential probability ratio test for pharmacovigilance. Statistics in Medicine, 2010;29(2):284-295). For additional information, contact L.L. Li, Harvard University, Dept. of Populat Medical, Sch Medical, 133 Brookline Ave, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA. The publisher of the journal Statistics in Medicine can be contacted at: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., the Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester PO19 8SQ, W Sussex, England. Keywords: City:Boston, State:MA, Country:United States, Adverse Drug Effect, Adverse Drug Event, Adverse Drug Reaction, Adverse Drug Reactions, Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Clinical Trials, Drug Development, Harvard University, Pharmaceuticals, PostTrials Research, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from INSERM yields new data on cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Evaluation of: Chang MH, You SL, Chen CJ et al.; Taiwan study group: Decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B vaccinees: a 20 years follow-up study. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 101, 1348-1355 (2009)," scientists in Lyon, France report. "This population-based study aimed to investigate whether a universal Taiwanese program, launched in 1984, has been able to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond childhood. The Incidence of HCC in Taiwan from 1983 to 2004 was assessed through two national cancer registries where age and sex-specific incidence were compared among a vaccinated and unvaccinated birth cohort with regression models," wrote I. Chemin and colleagues, INSERM. The researchers concluded: "This study further characterized the 64 vaccinated cases that developed HCC in order to discriminate specific risk factors." Chemin and colleagues published their study in Future Oncology (Evaluation of a hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan: impact on hepatocellular carcinoma development. Future Oncology, 2010;6(1):21-23). For more information, contact I. Chemin, INSERM, U871, 151 Cours A Thomas, F69003 Lyon, France. Publisher contact information for the journal Future Oncology is: Future Medicine

Ltd., Unitec House, 3RD Floor, 2 Albert Place, Finchley Central, London, N3 1QB, England. Keywords: City:Lyon, Country:France, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Gastroenterology, HBV Vaccines, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatocellular Cancer, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatology, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Oncology, Vaccination, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from Medical University of Vienna provide new insights into cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "We have previously shown in mice that vaccination with three Her-2-peptides representing B-cell epitopes of the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu induces Her-2/neu-specific IgG antibodies with strong anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. We have now finalized a phase I clinical trial with an anti-Her-2/neu vaccineconstruct of immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes with the three peptides in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC)," scientists in Vienna, Austria report. "Ten MBC patients with low protein overexpression of Her-2/neu of MBC (+ or ++ upon immunohistochemistry, FISH negative) and positive hormone receptor status were enrolled in a single center phase I study. The virosomal formulated vaccine, consisting of 10 mu g/peptide, was intramuscularly applied three times on days 1, 28, and 56. The primary endpoint of the study, which lasted 12 weeks, was safety, the secondary endpoint immunogenicity. Local erythema at the injection site was the only vaccine-related side effect occurring in four patients. In 8 of 10 patients an increase in peptide-specific antibody titer measured by ELISA was found. Importantly, the induced antibodies were also directed against the native Her-2/neu protein. Cellular immune responses, as measured by in vitro production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNFalpha of PBMCs showed a marked increase after vaccination in the majority of vaccinees. Notably, the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T regulatory cells, which were significantly increased compared to healthy controls prior to vaccination, was markedly reduced following vaccination. In all, the immunological responses after vaccination indicated that the patients in stage IV of disease were immunocompetent and susceptible to vaccination. The Her-2/neu multipeptide vaccine was safe, well tolerated and effective in overcoming immunological tolerance to Her-2/neu," wrote U. Wiedermann and colleagues, Medical University of Vienna. The researchers concluded: "The induction of anti-Her-2-specific antibodies could result in clinical benefit comparable to passive anti-Her-2 antibody therapy." Wiedermann and colleagues published their study in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (A virosomal formulated Her-2/neu multi-peptide vaccine induces Her-2/neu-specific immune responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a phase I study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2010;119(3):673-683). For additional information, contact U. Wiedermann, Medical University of Vienna, Inst Specif Prophylaxis & Trop Medical, Kinderspitalgasse 15, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. The publisher's contact information for the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is: Springer, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Vienna, Country:Austria, Anticancer Therapy, Biological Therapy, Biotechnology, Breast Cancer, Breast Carcinoma, Cancer Vaccines, Clinical Trial Research, Erythema, Flu, Hormones, Immunization, Influenza, Oncology, Peptide Vaccine, Treatment,

Vaccination, Women's Health This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Researchers from Army publish findings in cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research from the United States, "HER-2/neu, overexpressed in breast cancer, is a source of immunogenic peptides that include GP2 and E75. Phase 2 testing of E75 as an adjuvant vaccine has suggested a clinical benefit." "GP2, derived from the transmembrane portion of HER-2/neu, has differing binding characteristics and may be more immunogenic than E75. Results of the first phase 1 trial of GP2 peptide vaccine are presented. Disease-free, lymph node-negative, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2(+) breast cancer patients were enrolled. This dose escalation trial included 4 groups to determine safety and optimal GP2 peptide/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) dose. Toxicities were monitored. Immunologic response was assessed ex vivo via the HLA-A2:immunoglobulin dimer assay to detect GP2-specific CD8(+) T cells (and E75specific CD8+ T cells to assess epitope spreading) and in vivo via delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction (medians/ranges). Eighteen patients were enrolled. All toxicities were grade <= 2. Eight (88.9%) of 9 patients in the first 3 dose groups required GM-CSF dose reductions for local reactions >= 100 mm or grade >= 2 systemic toxicity. GM-CSF dose was reduced to 125 jig for the final dose group. All patients responded immunologically ex vivo (GP2-specific CD8 (+) T cells from prevaccination to maximum, 0.4% [0.0%-2.0%] to 1.1% [0.4%-3.6%], P< .001) and in vivo (GP2 pre- to postvaccination DTH, 0 mm [0.0-19.5 mm] to 27.5 mm [0.0-114.5 mm, P< .001]. E75-specific CD8(+) T cells also increased in response to GP2 from prevaccination to maximum (0.8% [0.0%-2.41%] to 1.6% [0.86%-3.72%], P< .001). The GP2 peptide vaccine appears safe and well tolerated with minimal local/systemic toxicity. GP2 elicited HER-2/neu-specific immune responses, including epitope spreading, in high-risk, lymph node-negative breast cancer patients," wrote M.G. Carmichael and colleagues, Army. The researchers concluded: "These findings support further investigation of the GP2 vaccine for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Cancer 2010;116:292-301." Carmichael and colleagues published their study in Cancer (Results of the First Phase 1 Clinical Trial of the HER-2/neu Peptide (GP2) Vaccine in Disease-Free Breast Cancer Patients. Cancer, 2010;116(2):292-301). For additional information, contact G.E. Peoples, Brooke Army Med Center, Dept. of Surg, Gen Surg Serv, 3851 Roger Brooke Dr, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Cancer is: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA. Keywords: State:TX, Country:United States, Biological Therapy, Biotechnology, Breast Cancer, Breast Carcinoma, Cancer Vaccines, Clinical Trial Research, Hypersensitivity, Immunization, Immunology, Oncology, Peptide Vaccine, Treatment, Vaccination, Women's Health This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research on chlamydia detailed by scientists at Queensland University of Technology

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Australia, "Problem Chlamydial infections represent a major threat to the survival of the koala. Infections caused by Chlamydia pecorum cause blindness, infertility, pneumonia and urinary tract infections and represent a threat to the survival of the species." "Little is known about the immune response in koalas, or the safety of commonly used adjuvants for induction of protective systemic and mucosal immunity. of study In the present study, we immunized 18 healthy female koalas subcutaneously with a combination of three chlamydial antigens [major outer membrane protein (MOMP), NrdB and TC0512 (Omp85)] mixed with one of three different adjuvants [Alhydrogel, Immunostimulating Complex (ISC) and TiterMax Gold]. All adjuvants induced strong neutralizing IgG responses in plasma against the three antigens with prolonged responses lasting more than 270 days seen in Alhydrogel and ISC immunized animals. Cloacal IgG responses lasting > 270 days were also induced in ISC-immunized animals. Chlamydia-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses were elicited by both Alhydrogel and ISC, and these lasted > 270 days in the ISC group," wrote A.J. Carey and colleagues, Queensland University of Technology. The researchers concluded: "The data show that a multi-subunit chlamydial vaccine, given subcutaneously, can elicit Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated and antibody responses in the koala demonstrating that the development of a protective vaccine is feasible." Carey and colleagues published the results of their research in American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (A Multi-Subunit Chlamydial Vaccine Induces Antibody and CellMediated Immunity in Immunized Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): Comparison of Three Different Adjuvants. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2010;63(2):161-172). For additional information, contact K.W. Beagley, Queensland University of Technology, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, 60 Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove, Qld 4059, Australia. The publisher of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology can be contacted at: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., Commerce Place, 350 Main St., Malden 02148, MA, USA. Keywords: Country:Australia, Biotechnology, Blindness, Chlamydia Trachomatis, Gynecology, Immunology, Infectious Disease, Infertility, Obstetrics, Reproductive Immunology, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Urinary Tract Infection, Urology, Vaccines, Women's Health, Women's Health's This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New hepatitis B virus data have been reported by R. Vanhoudt and coauthors

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Netherlands, "For the past decade, a specific hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A strain has been prevalent among men having sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. At what point in time this strain

was introduced in the MSM population, and why only this specific strain continues to be transmitted, remains unclear." "Between 1984 and 2003, sera of 1862 MSM were retrospectively screened for antiHBc in the context of the Amsterdam Cohort studies. After 2003, most MSM participating in this study were vaccinated, making further testing less useful. HBV DNA from anti-HBc seroconverters was amplified and sequenced. Poisson regression was used to test for temporal trends in HBV and HIV incidence. Of the 1042 MSM who were negative for anti-HBc at entry, 64 had seroconverted during follow-up at a median age of 32. At the point of seroconversion, 31 MSM were HIV positive. HBV incidence declined dramatically in the first years and then remained stable throughout the study period. The HBV and HIV incidence ran almost in parallel. With the exception of three MSM, all were infected with genotype A. Fifteen of these (41%) were infected with an identical genotype A strain. For the past two decades, an identical genotype A strain has been circulating among MSM in the Netherlands," wrote R. Vanhoudt and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "Although HBV is generally considered more infectious than HIV, this study shows that the trend and magnitude in HBV and HIV incidence among MSM are similar." Vanhoudt and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Viral Hepatitis (Ongoing transmission of a single hepatitis B virus strain among men having sex with men in Amsterdam. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2010;17(2):108-114). For more information, contact R. Vanhoudt, Public Hlth Serv Amsterdam, Dept. of Infect Dis, Postbus 2200, NL-1000 CE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Publisher contact information for the Journal of Viral Hepatitis is: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., Commerce Place, 350 Main St., Malden 02148, MA, USA. Keywords: Country:Netherlands, AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Clinical Trial Research, Gastroenterology, HBV, HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatology, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Infectious Disease, Vaccines, Viral Hepatitis, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Scientists at University of Saskatchewan, Vaccine & Infection Diseases Organization release new data on herpes virus

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Saskatoon, Canada, "The intracellular trafficking of different VP22-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fusion proteins expressed by bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) recombinants was examined by live-cell imaging." "Our results demonstrate that (i) the fusion of EYFP to the C terminus of VP22 does not alter the trafficking of the protein in infected cells, (ii) VP22 expressed during BHV-1 infection translocates to the nucleus through three different pathways, namely early mitosisdependent nuclear translocation, late massive nuclear translocation that follows a prolonged cytoplasmic stage of the protein in non-mitotic cells, and accumulation of a small subset of VP22 in discrete dot-like nuclear domains during its early cytoplasmic stage, (iii) the addition of the SV40 large-T-antigen nuclear localization signal (NLS) to VP22-EYFP abrogates its early

cytoplasmic stage, and (iv) the VP22 (PRPR134)-P-131 NLS is not required for the late massive nuclear translocation of the protein, but this motif is essential for the targeting of VP22 to discrete dot-like nuclear domains during the early cytoplasmic stage," wrote V.A. Lobanov and colleagues, University of Saskatchewan, Vaccine & Infection Diseases Organization. The researchers concluded: "These results show that the amount of VP22 in the nucleus is precisely regulated at different stages of BHV-1 infection and suggest that the early pathways of VP22 nuclear accumulation may be more relevant to the infection process as the late massive nuclear influx starts when most of the viral progeny has already emerged from the cell." Lobanov and colleagues published the results of their research in Virology (Intracellular trafficking of VP22 in bovine herpesvirus-1 infected cells. Virology, 2010;396 (2):189-202). For additional information, contact V.A. Lobanov, University of Saskatchewan, Vaccine & Infect Dis Organization, 120 Vet Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada. The publisher of the journal Virology can be contacted at: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Saskatoon, Country:Canada, Biotechnology, Herpes Virus, Proteomics. Fusion Proteins, Vaccines, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings in HIV/AIDS vaccine described by A. Nandi and coresearchers

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Neutralizing antibody (nAb) response is sporadic and has limited potency and breadth during infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In rare cases, broad and potent nAbs are actually induced in vivo," researchers in the United States report. "Identifying specific epitopes targeted by such broad and potent nAb response is valuable in guiding the design of a prophylactic vaccine aimed to induce nAb. In this study, we have defined neutralizing epitope usage in 7 out of 17 subjects with broad and potent nAbs by using targeted mutagenesis in known neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 glycoproteins and by using in vitro depletion of serum neutralizing activity by various recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins. Consistent with recent reports, the CD4 binding site (CD4BS) is targeted by nAbs in vivo (4 of the 7 subjects with defined neutralizing epitopes). The new finding from this study is that epitopes in the gp120 outer domain are also targeted by nAbs in vivo (5 of the 7 Subjects), The outer domain epitopes include glycan-dependent epitopes (2 Subjects), conserved nonlinear epitope in the V3 region (2 Subjects), and a CD4BS epitope composed mainly of the elements in the outer domain ( I subject). Importantly, we found indication for epitope poly-specificity, a dual usage of the V3 and CD4BS epitopes, in only one subject," wrote A. Nandi and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "This study provides a more complete profile of epitope usage for broad and potent nAb responses during HIV-1 infection." Nandi and colleagues published their study in Virology (Epitopes for broad and potent neutralizing antibody responses during chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virology, 2010;396(2):339-348).

For additional information, contact X.Z. Yang, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Center, Dept. of Medical, Div Viral Pathogenesis, E CLS-1011, 3 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Virology is: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Boston, State:MA, Country:United States, AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, HIV, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Mutagenesis, Prophylactic Vaccines, Prophylaxis, Vaccination, Vaccines, Viral, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New HIV/AIDS vaccine research reported from T. Dieltjens and coauthors

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "A minority of HIV-1 infected individuals develop broad cross-neutralizing (BCN) plasma antibodies that are capable of neutralizing a spectrum of virus variants belonging to different HIV-1 clades. The aim of this study was to identify the targeted epitopes of an individual with BCN plasma antibodies, referred to as ITM4, using peptide phage display," investigators in Antwerp, Belgium report. "This study also aimed to use the selected mimotopes as tools to unravel the evolution of the antibody landscape and the viral envelope escape which may provide us with new insights for vaccine design. This study led us to identify ITM4 plasma antibodies directed to the 4E10 epitope located in the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER). Analysis of antibody specificities revealed unusual immunogenic properties of the ITM4 viral envelope, as not only the V3 loop and the gp41 MPER but also the C1 and lentivirus lytic peptide 2 (LLP2) region seem to be targets of the immune system. The 4E10-like antibodies are consistently elicited during the 6-year follow up period. HIV-1 ITM4 pseudoviruses showed an increasing resistance over time to MPER monoclonal antibodies 4E10 and 2F5, although no changes are found in the critical positions of the epitope. Neutralization of COT6.15 (subtype C; 4E10-sensitive) pseudoviruses with alanine substitutions in the MPER region indicated an overlapping specificity of the 4E10 monoclonal antibody and the ITM4 follow up plasma. Moreover the 4E10-like antibodies of ITM4 contribute to the BCN capacity of the plasma. Using ITM4 BCN plasma and peptide phage display technology, we have identified a patient with 4E10-like BCN antibodies. Our results indicate that the elicited 4E10-like antibodies play a role in virus neutralization. The viral RNA was isolated at different time points and the ITM4 envelope sequence analysis of both early (4E10-sensitive) and late (4E10-resistant) viruses suggest that other regions in the envelope, outside the MPER region, contribute to the accessibility and sensitivity of the 4E10 epitope," wrote T. Dieltjens and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "Including ITM4 specific HIV-1 Env properties in vaccine strategies may be a promising approach." Dieltjens and colleagues published their study in Retrovirology (Evolution of antibody landscape and viral envelope escape in an HIV-1 CRF02_AG infected patient with 4E10-like antibodies. Retrovirology, 2009;6():113). For additional information, contact T. Dieltjens, Inst Trop Medical, Virol Unit, Dept.

of Microbiol, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium. The publisher of the journal Retrovirology can be contacted at: Biomedical Central Ltd., 236 Grays Inn Rd., Floor 6, London WC1X 8HL, England. Keywords: City:Antwerp, Country:Belgium, AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, HIV, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Retrovirology, Vaccines, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research data from Royal Victoria Hospital update understanding of HIV/AIDS vaccine

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Montreal, Canada, "Immunogenicity, manufacturing feasibility, and safety of a novel, autologous dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy (AGS-004) was evaluated in ten human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected adults successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Personalized AGS-004 was produced from autologous monocyte-derived DCs electroporated with RNA encoding CD40L and HIV antigens (Gag, Vpr, Rev, and Nef) derived from each subjects' pre-ART plasma." "received monthly injections of AGS-004 in combination with ART. AGS-004 was produced within a mean of 6 weeks and yielded 4-12 doses/subject Full or partial HIV-specific proliferative immune responses occurred in 7 of 9 evaluable subjects. Responses were specific for the AGS-004 presented HIV antigens and preferentially targeted CD8(+) T cells. Mild adverse events included flu-like symptoms, fatigue, and injection site reactions. No evidence of autoimmunity, changes in viral load, or significant changes in absolute CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were observed," wrote J.P. Routy and colleagues, Royal Victoria Hospital. The researchers concluded: "This pilot study supports the further clinical investigation of AGS-004." Routy and colleagues published their study in Clinical Immunology (Immunologic activity and safety of autologous HIV RNA-electroporated dendritic cells in HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Clinical Immunology, 2010;134(2):140-147). For more information, contact J.P. Routy, Royal Victoria Hospital, Div Hematol, Room C6-92, 687 Pine Ave W, Montreal, PQ H3A 1A1, Canada. Publisher contact information for the journal Clinical Immunology is: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Montreal, Country:Canada, AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Antivirals, Biotechnology, Clinical Immunology, Drug Development, HIV, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Immunotherapy, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Viral, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings in human papillomavirus reported from L.G. Bermudezhumaran and co-researchers

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and is responsible for 90-99% of cervical cancer (CxCa) cases. Although effective screening programs have reduced the incidence of CxCa in developed countries, they are often not well organized," investigators in France report. "Prophylactic vaccination against HPV seems to be a good strategy for the prevention of CxCa. However, because millions of women are already infected with HPV, therapeutic HPV vaccines need to be developed further to treat these women. This review discusses the actual perspectives on both HPV vaccines and immunotherapy worldwide," wrote L.G. Bermudezhumaran and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "In addition, some of the perspectives in France are also briefly discussed." Bermudezhumaran and colleagues published their study in Expert Review of Vaccines (Perspectives for the development of human papillomavirus vaccines and immunotherapy. Expert Review of Vaccines, 2010;9(1):35-44). For additional information, contact L.G. Bermudezhumaran, INRA, Unite Ecol & Physiol Syst Digestif, F-78352 Jouy En Josas, France. The publisher of the journal Expert Review of Vaccines can be contacted at: Expert Reviews, Unitec House, 3RD FL, 2 Albert Place, Finchley Central, London N3 1QB, England. Keywords: Country:France, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Cervical Cancer, Cervical Carcinoma, HPV, Human Papillomavirus, Immunization, Immunotherapy, Oncology, Prophylactic Vaccines, Prophylaxis, Treatment, Vaccination, Women's Health This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Data on immunization described by L. Derre et al

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, "The function of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, which may protect against both infectious and malignant diseases, can be impaired by ligation of their inhibitory receptors, which include CTL-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Recently, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) was identified as a novel inhibitory receptor with structural and functional similarities to CTLA-4 and PD-1." "BTLA triggering leads to decreased antimicrobial and autoimmune T cell responses in mice, but its functions in humans are largely unknown. Here we have demonstrated that as human viral antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells differentiated from naive to effector cells, their surface expression of BTLA was gradually downregulated. In marked contrast, human melanoma tumor antigen-specific effector CD8(+) T cells persistently expressed high levels of BTLA in vivo and remained susceptible to functional. inhibition by its ligand herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM). Such persistence of BTLA expression was also found in tumor antigenspecific CD8(+) T cells from melanoma patients with spontaneous antitumor immune responses

and after conventional peptide vaccination. Remarkably, addition of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to the vaccine formulation led to progressive downregulation of BTLA in vivo and consequent resistance to BTLA-HVEM-mediated inhibition," wrote L. Derre and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "Thus, BTLA activation inhibits the function of human CD8(+) cancer-specific T cells, and appropriate immunotherapy may partially overcome this inhibition." Derre and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (BTLA mediates inhibition of human tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells that can be partially reversed by vaccination. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2010;120(1):157-167). For additional information, contact D.E. Speiser, Hopital Orthoped, Ludwig Inst Canc Research, Niveau 5 Est, Av Pierre Decker 4, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. The publisher's contact information for the Journal of Clinical Investigation is: American Society Clinical Investigation Inc., 35 Research Dr., Ste. 300, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA. Keywords: City:Lausanne, Country:Switzerland, Antimicrobials, Autoimmune Disease, Autoimmune Disorder, Biological Therapy, Cancer Vaccines, Immunization, Immunology, Peptide Vaccine, Treatment, Vaccination, Viral, Virus This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from M.B. Stoddard and co-authors in the area of immunization published

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from the United States, "Bacterial endotoxin interacts with the human immune system via complex immunological pathways. The evaluation of endotoxicity is important in the development of safe vaccines and immunomodulatory therapeutics." "The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is generally accepted by the FDA for use for the quantification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) is used to estimate pyrogenicity during early development and production. Other in vitro assays, such as cytokine release assays with human whole blood (WB) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), have also been used and may better estimate the human immunological response to products containing novel LPS molecules. In this study, WB and PBMC interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release assays were used to estimate the endotoxic activities of purified LPS and native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccines derived from wild-type (hexa-acylated lipid A) and genetically detoxified (penta-and tetra-acylated lipid A) group B Neisseria meningitidis. A method for quantification of the differences in endotoxicity observed in the WB and PBMC assays is elucidated. The LAL assay was shown to be relatively insensitive to lipid A variations, and the RPT was less sensitive than the cytokine release assay with WB. The IL-6 and TNF-alpha assays with WB but not the assays with PBMCs distinguished between vaccines containing LPS from penta-and tetra-acylated strains," wrote M.B. Stoddard and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "The high degree of sensitivity of the WB system to LPS variations and the presumed relevance of the use of human tissues to predict toxicity in humans

suggest that this assay may be particularly well suited for the safety evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics containing acylation variants of LPS." Stoddard and colleagues published their study in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (Evaluation of a Whole-Blood Cytokine Release Assay for Use in Measuring Endotoxin Activity of Group B Neisseria meningitidis Vaccines Made from Lipid A Acylation Mutants. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 2010;17(1):98-107). For more information, contact W. Zollinger, WRAIR, Dept. of Bacterial & Rickettsial Dis, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Clinical and Vaccine Immunology is: American Society Microbiology, 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-2904, USA. Keywords: City:Silver Spring, State:MD, Country:United States, Adverse Drug Reaction, Biotechnology, Cytokines, Drug Development, FDA, Immunization, Immunology, Necrosis, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy, Treatment, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Vaccine Safety, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New japanese encephalitis study findings have been reported from Sanofi Pasteur

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research from the United States, "A live chimeric vaccine virus against Japanese encephalitis (JE), ChimeriVax-JE, was used to define methods for optimal, random insertion of foreign immunologic determinants into flavivirus glycoproteins. The conserved M2e peptide of influenza A virus was randomly inserted into the yellow fever-specific NS1 glycoprotein of ChimeriVax-JE." "A technique combining plaque purification With immunostaining yielded a recombinant virus that stably expressed We at NS1-236 site. The site was found permissive for other inserts. The insertion inhibited NS1 dimerization in vitro, which had no significant effect oil Virus replication in Vitro and immunogenicity in vivo. Two different NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies and a polyclonal antibody efficiently recognized only the NS1 protein dimer, but not monomer. Adaptation of the virus to Vero cells resulted in two amino acid changes upstream from the insert which restored NS1 dimerization," wrote A.A. Rumyantsev and colleagues, Sanofi Pasteur. The researchers concluded: "Immunized mice developed high-titer M2e-specific antibodies predominantly of the IgG2A isotype indicative of a Th1-biased response." Rumyantsev and colleagues published their study in Virology (Direct random insertion of an influenza virus immunologic determinant into the NS1 glycoprotein of a vaccine flavivirus. Virology, 2010;396(2):329-338). For additional information, contact K.V. Pugachev, Sanofi Pasteur, Discovery US, 38 Sidney St., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Virology is: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier Science, 525 B St., Ste. 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. Keywords: City:Cambridge, State:MA, Country:United States, Arbovirus Encephalitis, Biotechnology, Central Nervous System Disease, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Flu, Immunology, Influenza, Japanese Encephalitis, Pharmaceutical Business, Pharmaceutical

Company, Polyclonal Antibodies, Sanofi Pasteur, Vaccines, Virology, Yellow Fever This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports outline life sciences research from K. Lee and colleagues

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "The EGF receptor family is a group of receptor tyrosine kinases that have been implicated in the development of a variety of malignancies. As such, they have been targeted in the generation of pharmacologic agents, several of which have been approved as anti-tumor therapeutics," scientists in the United States report. "The lone exception is ERBB4, for which the function and relationship to cancer are not yet clear and no targeted therapies exist. The paper under evaluation demonstrates a role for ERBB4 mutations in the development of melanoma. It identifies ERBB4 mutations present in melanomas that augment proliferation and cell survival and thus contribute to dysregulated growth. Furthermore, it shows that agents targeting the EGF receptor family can reduce the proliferation of melanoma cells harboring these mutations," wrote K. Lee and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "These findings further emphasize the role of the ERBB subfamily in tumorigenesis and establish ERBB4 as a new target in the development of antitumor strategies." Lee and colleagues published their study in Expert Review of Vaccines (It's all in for the HER family in tumorigenesis. Expert Review of Vaccines, 2010;9(1):29-34). For more information, contact B.J. Czerniecki, Abramson Canc Center, Perelman Center Adv Medical, Rena Rowan Breast Center, 3rd Floor W, 3400 Civ Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Expert Review of Vaccines is: Expert Reviews, Unitec House, 3RD FL, 2 Albert Place, Finchley Central, London N3 1QB, England. Keywords: City:Philadelphia, State:PA, Country:United States, Anticancer Therapy, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Drugs, Enzymes, Kinase, Life Sciences, Melanoma, Oncology, Pharmaceuticals, Pharmacology, Proteins, Proteomics, Therapy, Treatment, Tyrosine Kinase This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Data on lung disease described by S. Roussel et al

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis," scientists in Besancon, France report. "Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia),

and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen," wrote S. Roussel and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "The serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen." Roussel and colleagues published their study in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (Comparison of Three Antigenic Extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in Serological Diagnosis of Farmer's Lung Disease. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 2010;17(1):160-167). For more information, contact S. Roussel, University of Besancon, UMR Chronoenvironm 6249, CNRS, Pl St. Jacques, F-25030 Besancon, France. Publisher contact information for the journal Clinical and Vaccine Immunology is: American Society Microbiology, 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-2904, USA. Keywords: City:Besancon, Country:France, Biotechnology, Hypersensitivity, Immunology, Lung Disease, Pneumonia, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings from G. Arevalopinzon and co-researchers advance knowledge in malaria

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "The Plasmodium falciparum P0 ribosomal phosphoprotein (PfP0) was identified for the first time by screening a cDNA expression library of P. falciparum parasites with sera from malaria-immune individuals. Due to its localization on the surface of different parasite life-cycle stages (merozoites and gametocytes) and its recognition by invasion-blocking antibodies, PfP0 has been considered a potential malariavaccine component," scientists writing in the Journal of Molecular Medicine - Jmm report. "In this study, 16 20-mer-long synthetic peptides spanning the entire PfP0 sequence were evaluated by means of receptor-ligand assays with human red blood cells (RBCs) in order to determine the role played by these peptides in the invasion process. Four RBC high-activity binding peptides (HABPs), located mostly toward the N-terminal region, were identified: HABP 33898 ((1)MAKLSKQQKKQMYIEKLSSL(20)), HABP 33900 ((41) ASVRKSLRGKATILMGKNTRY(60)), HABP 33901 ((61)IRTALKKNLQAVPQIEKLLPY (80)), and HABP 33906 ((161)LIKQGEKVTASSATLLRKFNY(180)). The binding pattern of HABPs 33898 and 33906 to enzyme-treated RBCs suggests receptors of protein nature for these two HABPs, one of which could correspond to a common 58-kDa RBC membrane protein, as indicated by results of cross-linking assays. Both HABPs exhibited high content of alpha-helical features and prevented P. falciparum merozoite invasion to RBCs in vitro by up to 91%," wrote

G. Arevalopinzon and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "The invasion-blocking ability reported here for these PfP0 HABPs supports their inclusion in immunological studies with the aim of assessing their potential as candidates for a vaccine against P. falciparum malaria." Arevalopinzon and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Molecular Medicine - Jmm (Fine mapping of Plasmodium falciparum ribosomal phosphoprotein PfP0 revealed sequences with highly specific binding activity to human red blood cells. Journal of Molecular Medicine - Jmm, 2010;88(1):61-74). Additional information can be obtained by contacting M.A. Patarroyo, Fdn Inst Inmunol Colombia FIDIC, Cra 50 26-20, Bogota, Colombia. The publisher of the Journal of Molecular Medicine - Jmm can be contacted at: Springer, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Bogota, Country:Colombia, Biotechnology, Falciparum Malaria, Immunization, Malaria, Malaria Vaccines, Molecular Medicine, Plasmodium falciparum, Tropical Disease, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from M. Tamborrini and co-authors in the area of malaria published

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to a study from Basel, Switzerland, "Clinical profiling of two components for a synthetic peptide-based virosomal malaria vaccine has yielded promising results, encouraging the search for additional components for inclusion in a final multi-valent vaccine formulation. This report describes the immunological characterization of linear and cyclized synthetic peptides comprising amino acids 211-237 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-3)." "These peptides were coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); the conjugates were intercalated into immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs) and then used for immunizations in mice to evaluate their capacity to elicit P. falciparum cross-reactive antibodies. While all MSP-3-derived peptides were able to elicit parasite-binding antibodies, stabilization of turn structures by cyclization had no immune-enhancing effect. Therefore, further pre-clinical profiling was focused on FB-12, a PE conjugate of the linear peptide. Consistent with the immunological results obtained in mice, all FB-12 immunized rabbits tested seroconverted and consistently elicited antibodies that interacted with blood stage parasites. It was observed that a dose of 50 mu g was superior to a dose of 10 mu g and that influenza preexisting immunity improved the immunogenicity of FB-12 in rabbits. FB-12 production was successfully up-scaled and the immunogenicity of a vaccine formulation, produced according to the rules of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), was tested in mice and rabbits. All animals tested developed parasite-binding antibodies. Comparison of ELISA and IFA titers as well as the characterization of a panel of anti-FB-12 monoclonal antibodies indicated that at least the majority of antibodies specific for the virosomally formulated synthetic peptide were parasite cross-reactive. These results reconfirm the suitability of IRIVs as a carrier/adjuvant system for the induction of strong humoral immune responses against a wide range of synthetic peptide antigens," wrote M. Tamborrini and colleagues.

The researchers concluded: "The virosomal formulation of the FB-12 peptidomimetic is suitable for use in humans and represents a candidate component for a virosomal multi-valent malaria subunit vaccine." Tamborrini and colleagues published their study in Malaria Journal (Design and pre-clinical profiling of a Plasmodium falciparum MSP-3 derived component for a multi-valent virosomal malaria vaccine. Malaria Journal, 2009;8():314). For more information, contact G. Pluschke, Swiss Trop Inst, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. Publisher contact information for the Malaria Journal is: Biomedical Central Ltd., 236 Grays Inn Rd., Floor 6, London WC1X 8HL, England. Keywords: City:Basel, Country:Switzerland, Amino Acids, Biotechnology, Drugs, Flu, Immunization, Immunology, Influenza, Malaria, Malaria Vaccines, Pharmaceuticals, Plasmodium falciparum, Therapy, Treatment, Tropical Disease, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports from A. Muller and colleagues advance knowledge in myxoma

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "To study genetic changes underlying myxoma virus evolution in its new host, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), we sequenced selected genomic regions of nine recent virulent field strains and a live attenuated vaccine strain (''MAV'', Germany). DNA was extracted from cell culture passaged myxoma virus," researchers in Portugal report. "A total of 4863 bp (approximately 3% of the genome) of 10 regions spanning 12 genes of the myxoma viruses was sequenced and compared to the original virulent strain ''Lausanne'' and its attenuated field derivative strain ''6918''. The field strains displayed a maximum of three (strains C43, C95) and a minimum of one (strains CD01, CD05) nucleotide substitutions. These were distributed through all analysed coding regions, except gene M022L (major envelope protein), where all strains were identical to ''Lausanne'' and ''6918''. Two new single nucleotide insertions were observed in some of the field strains: within the intergenic region M014L/M015L and within gene M009L, where it leads to a frameshift. These insertions were located after homopolymeric regions. The vaccine strain displayed 37 nucleotide substitutions, predominantly (95%) located in genes M022L and M036L. Interestingly, regions M009L and M014L/M015L of the vaccine were not amplified successfully, suggesting major genomic changes that could account for its attenuated phenotype. Our results support a high degree of genetic stability of myxoma virus over the past five decades," wrote A. Muller and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "None of the analysed genome regions by its own seems sufficient for the genetic characterisation of field strains." Muller and colleagues published their study in Veterinary Microbiology (Partial sequencing of recent Portuguese myxoma virus field isolates exhibits a high degree of genetic stability. Veterinary Microbiology, 2010;140(1-2):161-166). For additional information, contact A. Muller, ICAV UP, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal. Publisher contact information for the journal Veterinary Microbiology is: Elsevier

Science BV, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Keywords: Country:Portugal, Biotechnology, Myxoma, Myxoma Virus, Vaccines, Viral Research, Virology This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings from University of Otago in paratuberculosis reported

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research from Dunedin, New Zealand, "Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants, is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Three distinct forms have been observed in sheep: paucibacillary disease (PB), multibacillary disease (MB), and asymptomatic infection (AS)." "In this study, immune parameters for animals naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and identified postmortem as having PB, MB, or AS were compared to provide a further understanding of the immunological reactivity contributing to or resulting from these different disease states in sheep. PB was associated with strong ex vivo M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen-stimulated gamma interferon responses, pronounced increases in CD25 (+) T-cell frequencies in circulation, antibody production, and a B-cell population that expanded significantly upon ex vivo antigenic stimulation. The MB group featured the highest antibody levels and a lack of cellular immune responsiveness to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen. The AS group expressed an immunological phenotype intermediate between that for noninfected control animals and that for the PB group. The relationship between immune responses and disease severity within the PB group was investigated more closely; significant positive correlations were observed between disease severity and both the CD8(+) population in the circulating blood and the expression of interleukin-4 mRNA in antigen-stimulated blood samples ex vivo," wrote S. Gillan and colleagues, University of Otago. The researchers concluded: "Together, these data point toward distinct immune profiles in sheep that correspond to different Johne's disease states, which can be determined from circulating blood and/or from localized intestinal tract tissue samples." Gillan and colleagues published their study in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (Identification of Immune Parameters To Differentiate Disease States among Sheep Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 2010;17 (1):108-117). For additional information, contact J.F.T. Griffin, University of Otago, Dis Res Lab, Dept. of Microbiology & Immunol, POB 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Publisher contact information for the journal Clinical and Vaccine Immunology is: American Society Microbiology, 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-2904, USA. Keywords: City:Dunedin, Country:New Zealand, Biotechnology, Enteritis, Immunology, Interferon, Mycobacterium, Paratuberculosis, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings in pneumonia reported from J.A. Hedrick and co-researchers

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- According to recent research from the United States, "Common community-acquired infections include those of the upper respiratory tract. In the 1990s, the antimicrobial treatment of upper respiratory tract infections focused on penicillinresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae." "However, following the introduction of a pneurnococcal conjugate vaccine, a decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease occurred, and in the case of otitis media a shift towards Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant causative pathogen was observed. Future antimicrobial therapy for outpatient upper respiratory tract infections may need to focus on pathogens such as penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae, beta-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-resistant H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis," wrote J.A. Hedrick and colleagues. The researchers concluded: "In these circumstances, third-generation oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime and cefdinir, could be increasingly used as an optional firstline therapy in community practice for upper respiratory tract infections suspected to be caused by these key pathogens, as an alternative to amoxicillin-clavulanate." Hedrick and colleagues published their study in Expert Review of Anti - Infective Therapy (Community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections and the role of third-generation oral cephalosporins. Expert Review of Anti - Infective Therapy, 2010;8(1):15-21). For additional information, contact J.A. Hedrick, Kentucky Pediat & Adult Res, 201 S 5th St, Bardstown, KY 40004, USA. Publisher contact information for the journal Expert Review of Anti - Infective Therapy is: Expert Reviews, Unitec House, 3RD FL, 2 Albert Place, Finchley Central, London N3 1QB, England. Keywords: City:Bardstown, State:KY, Country:United States, Amoxicillin, AntiInfectives, Antibiotic, Antimicrobials, Biotechnology, Cefdinir, Cefixime, Clavulanate, Community-Acquired, Drugs, Flu, Haemophilus, Infectious Disease, Influenza, Otitis, Otolaryngology, Penicillin G Potassium, Pharmaceuticals, Pneumococcal, Pneumonia, Pulmonology, Respiratory Tract Infections, Strep Infection, Streptococcal, Streptococcus, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from University of the Basque Country further understanding of vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "The development of vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases that require the predominant induction of cell-mediated immunity, including effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, remains a challenge. Over the past few years, numerous studies have demonstrated that targeting of antigens to immune receptors expressed by dendritic cells (DCs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), elicits potent CTL responses," scientists in Vitoria, Spain report.

"Therefore, the design of new adjuvants has focused on TLR agonists that elicit maturation of DCs to effectively link the innate and adaptative immune responses. The paper under evaluation describes the topical use of resiquimod, a TLR7/8 agonist, to enhance crosspriming to subcutaneously administered ovalbumin," wrote M. Igartua and colleagues, University of the Basque Country. The researchers concluded: "The results obtained demonstrated that topical resiquimod is a potent adjuvant for subcutaneous vaccines, inducing clinically relevant antigenspecific CTL responses, which protect against B16-ovalbumin tumor challenge in mice." Igartua and colleagues published their study in Expert Review of Vaccines (Topical resiquimod: a promising adjuvant for vaccine development? Expert Review of Vaccines, 2010;9 (1):23-27). For more information, contact J.L. Pedraz, University of the Basque Country, Pharmaceut Technol Lab, Fac Pharm, UPV EHU, Paseo University 7, Vitoria 01006, Spain. Publisher contact information for the journal Expert Review of Vaccines is: Expert Reviews, Unitec House, 3RD FL, 2 Albert Place, Finchley Central, London N3 1QB, England. Keywords: City:Vitoria, Country:Spain, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Medical Device, Oncology, Vaccination, Vaccine Development This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from D.N. Grigoryev and colleagues provide new insights into vaccinia

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- "Eczema vaccinatum (EV), a disseminated viral skin infection, is a life-threatening complication of vaccinia virus (VV) inoculation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and is thought to be associated with a defective innate immune response. However, the precise mechanism or mechanisms and key factor or factors of EV are unknown," scientists in the United States report. "Given that patients with psoriasis, another inflammatory skin disorder, are not susceptible to EV, we compared the global transcriptional response of skin to VV in healthy subjects, patients with psoriasis, and patients with AD, focusing on AD-specific genes. We hypothesized that differences in the transcriptional response to VV between patients with AD and patients with psoriasis or healthy subjects would identify a defective pathway or pathways that might be associated with the development of EV. Gene expression profiling of sham-treated and VV treated unaffected skin explants from patients with AD (n = 12), patients with psoriasis (n = 12), or healthy subjects (n = 13) were generated with U133_Plus2 (54,613 probe sets) GeneChips and analyzed with the GCOS_1.4/SAM_2.1/MAPPFinder_2.0 pipeline. Sixty-seven genes were significantly affected by VV in AD skin but not in psoriatic and healthy skin. Genes associated with defense response, response to wounding, and immune response were the most affected by VV in AD skin. All genes in these ontologies were downregulated, including the innate immunity genes leukotriene B-4 receptor (LTB4R), orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor (F2R), complement component 9 (C9), and LPS-binding protein (LBP). These findings were confirmed by means of real-time PCR and validated by means of PubMatrix analysis. ORM1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and NLR family pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) genes were also linked to AD severity," wrote D.N. Grigoryev and

colleagues. The researchers concluded: "This study identified groups of innate immunity genes that are associated with the aberrant response of AD skin to VV and represent potential targets for EV pathogenesis. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125:153-9.)." Grigoryev and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Vaccinia virus-specific molecular signature in atopic dermatitis skin. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2010;125(1):153-159). For more information, contact D.Y.M. Leung, Natl Jewish Hlth, Dept. of Pediat, Div Pediat Allergy & Clin Immunol, 1400 Jackson St, Room K926I, Denver, CO 80206, USA. Publisher contact information for the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is: Mosby-Elsevier, 360 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010-1710, USA. Keywords: City:Denver, State:CO, Country:United States, Allergies, Allergy Medicine, Atopic Dermatitis, Clinical Immunology, Dermatology, Eczema, Immunology, Psoriasis, Skin Infection, Vaccinia, Vaccinia Virus This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion describe recent advances in cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, United States, 2007,' are detailed in a study published in Mmwr Surveillance Summaries. "PROBLEM: Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes) are the leading causes of death in the United States. Controlling health risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, and excessive drinking) and using preventive health-care services (e.g., cancer, hypertension, and cholesterol screenings) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases," scientists in the United States report. "Monitoring health-risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and preventive care practices is essential to develop health promotion activities, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county levels. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: January 2007December 2007. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based, on-going, random--digit-dialed household telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged >or=18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors and use of preventative health services related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. This report presents results for 2007 for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, 184 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs), and 298 counties. In 2007, prevalence estimates of risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and the use of preventive services varied substantially by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following is a summary of results listed by BRFSS question topic. Each set of proportions refers to the range of estimated prevalence for the disease, condition, or behavior, as reported by the survey subject. Adults who reported fair or poor health: 11% to 32% for states and territories and 6% to 31% for MMSAs and counties. Adults with health-care coverage: 71% to 94% for states and territories and 51% to 97% for MMSAs and counties. Annual influenza vaccination among adults aged >or=65 years: 32% to 80% for states and territories, 48% to 83% for MMSAs, and 44% to 88% for

counties. Pneumococcal vaccination among adults aged >/=65 years: 26% to 74% for states and territories, 44% to 83% for MMSAs, and 39% to 87% for counties. Adults who had their cholesterol checked within the preceding 5 years: 66% to 85% for states and territories and 58% to 90% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who consumed at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day: 14% to 33% for states and territories, 16% to 34% for MMSAs and 14% to 37% for counties. Adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity: 17% to 44% for states and territories and 9% to 38% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who engaged in moderate or vigorous physical activity: 31% to 61% for states and territories and 36% to 67% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who engaged in only vigorous physical activity: 19% to 40% for states and territories and 15% to 45% for MMSAs and counties. Cigarette smoking among adults: 9% to 31% for states and territories, 7% to 34% for MMSAs, and 7% to 30% for counties. Binge drinking among adults: 3% to 8% for states and territories. Adults classified as overweight: 33% to 40% for states and territories and 26% to 47% for MMSAs and counties. Adults aged >or=20 years who were obese: 20% to 34% for states and territories and 14% to 38% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who were told of a diabetes diagnosis: 5% to 13% for states and territories and 2% to 17% for MMSAs and counties. Adults with high blood pressure diagnosis: 21% to 35% for states and territories and 16% to 38% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who had high blood cholesterol: 28% to 43% for states and territories, 29% to 49% for MMSAs, and 26% to 51% for counties. Adults with a history of coronary heart disease: 2% to 14% for states and territories, MMSAs, and counties. Adults who were told of a stroke diagnosis: 1% to 7% for states and territories, MMSAs, and counties. Adults who were diagnosed with arthritis: 14% to 36% for states and territories and 16% to 40% for MMSAs and counties. Adults who had asthma: 5% to 10% for states and territories and 3% to 13% for MMSAs and counties. Adults with activity limitation associated with physical, mental, or emotional problems: 10% to 26% for states and territories. Adults who required special equipment because of health problems: 3% to 10% for states and territories and 3% to 14% for MMSAs and counties. The findings in this report indicate substantial variation in self-reported health status, health-care coverage, use of preventive health-care services, health behaviors leading to chronic health conditions, and disability among U.S. adults at the state and territory, MMSA, and county levels. The findings underscore the continued need for surveillance of health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, and the use of preventive services. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) objectives have been established to monitor health behaviors and the use of preventive health services. Local and state health departments and federal agencies use BRFSS data to identify populations at high risk for certain health behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions and to evaluate the use of preventive services," wrote P. Chowdhury and colleagues, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The researchers concluded: "In addition, BRFSS data are used to direct, implement, monitor, and evaluate public health programs and policies that can lead to a reduction in morbidity and mortality." Chowdhury and colleagues published their study in Mmwr Surveillance Summaries (Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas behavioral risk factor surveillance system, United States, 2007. Mmwr Surveillance Summaries, 2010;59(1):1-220). For more information, contact P. Chowdhury, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 USA. Keywords: City:Atlanta, State:GA, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Chronic Disease, Diabetes, Flu Vaccines, Gestational Diabetes, Health Policy, Heart Disease, Hypertension, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Legislation, Obesity, Oncology,

Pneumococcal, Pregnancy, Stroke, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research on cancer vaccines detailed by scientists at National Institutes of Health

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Data detailed in 'Blockade of TGF-beta enhances tumor vaccine efficacy mediated by CD8(+) T cells' have been presented. "Though TGF-beta inhibition enhances antitumor immunity mediated by CD8(+) T cells in several tumor models, it is not always sufficient for rejection of tumors. In this study, to maximize the antitumor effect of TGF-beta blockade, we tested the effect of anti-TGF-beta combined with an irradiated tumor vaccine in a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model," scientists in the United States report. "The irradiated tumor cell vaccine alone in prophylactic setting significantly delayed tumor growth, whereas anti-TGF-beta antibodies alone did not show any antitumor effect. However, tumor growth was inhibited significantly more in vaccinated mice treated with antiTGF-beta antibodies compared to vaccinated mice without anti-TGF-beta, suggesting that antiTGF-beta synergistically enhanced irradiated tumor vaccine efficacy. CD8(+) T-cell depletion completely abrogated the vaccine efficacy, and so protection required CD8(+) T cells. Depletion of CD25(+) T regulatory cells led to the almost complete rejection of tumors without the vaccine, whereas anti-TGF-beta did not change the number of CD25(+) T regulatory cells in unvaccinated and vaccinated mice. Though the abrogation of CD1d-restricted NKT cells, which have been reported to induce TGF-beta production by MDSC through an IL-13-IL-4R-STAT6 pathway, partially enhanced antitumor immunity regardless of vaccination, abrogation of the NKT cell-IL-13-IL-4R-STAT-6 immunoregulatory pathway did not enhance vaccine efficacy," wrote S. Takaku and colleagues, National Institutes of Health. The researchers concluded: "Taken together, these data indicated that anti-TGF-beta enhances efficacy of a prophylactic vaccine in normal individuals despite their not having the elevated TGF-beta levels found in patients with cancer and that the effect is not dependent on TGF-beta solely from CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells or the NKT cell-IL-13-IL-4R-STAT-6 immunoregulatory pathway." Takaku and colleagues published their study in International Journal of Cancer Journal International Du Cancer (Blockade of TGF-beta enhances tumor vaccine efficacy mediated by CD8(+) T cells. International Journal of Cancer Journal International Du Cancer, 2010;126(7):1666-74). For additional information, contact S. Takaku, National Institutes of Health, Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD USA. Keywords: City:Bethesda, State:MD, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Colon Cancer, Colon Carcinoma, Gastroenterology, Immunization, Oncology, Vaccination, Vaccine Efficacy. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Scientists at Mayo Clinic, Department of Immunology publish research in cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Scientists discuss in 'A degenerate HLA-DR epitope pool of HER-2/neu reveals a novel in vivo immunodominant epitope, HER-2/neu88102' new findings in cancer. "Over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in targeting HER-2/neu in immune-based approaches for the treatment of HER-2/neu+ cancers. For example, peptide vaccination using a CD8 T cell-activating HER-2/neu epitope (amino acids 369-377) is an approach that is being considered in advanced phase clinical trials," scientists writing in the journal Clinical Cancer Research report. "Studies have suggested that the persistence of HER-2/neu-specific CD8 T cells could be improved by incorporating human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II epitopes in the vaccine. Our goal in this study was to identify broad coverage HLA-DR epitopes of HER-2/neu, an antigen that is highly expressed in a variety of carcinomas. A combination of algorithms and HLA-DR-binding assays was used to identify HLA-DR epitopes of HER-2/neu antigen. Evidence of preexistent immunity in cancer patients against the identified epitopes was determined using IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELIspot) assay. Eighty-four HLA-DR epitopes of HER-2/neu were predicted, 15 of which had high binding affinity for >or= 11 common HLA-DR molecules. A degenerate pool of four HLA-DR-restricted 15-amino acid epitopes (p59, p88, p422, and p885) was identified, against which >58% of breast and ovarian cancer patients had preexistent T-cell immunity. All four epitopes are naturally processed by antigen-presenting cells. Hardy-Weinberg analysis showed that the pool is useful in approximately 84% of population. Lastly, in this degenerate pool, we identified a novel in vivo immunodominant HLA-DR epitope, HER-2/neu(88-102) (p88)," wrote L. Karyampudi and colleagues, Mayo Clinic, Department of Immunology. The researchers concluded: "The broad coverage and natural immunity to this epitope pool suggests potential usefulness in HER-2/neu-targeting, immune-based therapies such as vaccines." Karyampudi and colleagues published their study in Clinical Cancer Research (A degenerate HLA-DR epitope pool of HER-2/neu reveals a novel in vivo immunodominant epitope, HER-2/neu88-102. Clinical Cancer Research, 2010;16(3):825-34). Additional information can be obtained by contacting L. Karyampudi, Mayo Clinic, Dept. of Immunology, Rochester, Minnesota USA. The publisher of the journal Clinical Cancer Research can be contacted at: American Association Cancer Research, 615 Chestnut St., 17TH Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19106-4404, USA. Keywords: City:Rochester, State:Minnesota, Country:United States, Amino Acids, Biological Therapy, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Carcinoma, Clinical Trial Research, Drugs, Experimental Design, Immunization, Immunology, Oncology, Peptide Vaccine, Pharmaceuticals, Treatment, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Scientists at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College report research in cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A new study, 'Soluble B and T lymphocyte attenuator possesses antitumor effects and facilitates heat shock protein 70 vaccine-triggered antitumor immunity against a murine TC-1 cervical cancer model in vivo,' is now available. "B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA)-herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) signaling coinhibitory pathway is believed to impair antitumor immune competences. An intriguing unresolved question is whether blockade of BTLA-HVEM guides an effective therapeutic tool against established tumors," scientists in Wuhan, People's Republic of China report. "To address this issue, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid (psBTLA) that expressed the extracellular domain of murine BTLA (soluble form of BTLA), which could bind HVEM, the ligand of BTLA, and block BTLA-HVEM interactions. The data in this study showed that treatment by injection of psBTLA resulted in down-regulation of IL-10 and TGFbeta and promotion of dendritic cell function by increasing the expression of B7-1 and IL-12, but the adaptive antitumor immune responses achieved by psBTLA administration alone were limited and could not eradicate the tumor effectively. Next, we evaluated the immunotherapeutic efficacy and mechanism of combination therapy of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) vaccine/psBTLA by using murine TC-1 cervical cancer mice as an ectopic tumor model. Our in vivo studies revealed that treatment with HSP70 vaccine alone did not lead to satisfactory tumor growth inhibition, whereas cotreatment with psBTLA significantly improved antitumor immunity and compensated the deficiency of HSP70 vaccine by increasing the expression of Th1 cytokines, IL-2, and IFN-gamma and decreasing transcription levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, and Foxp3 in the tumor microenvironment," wrote L. Han and colleagues, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College. The researchers concluded: "Taken together, our findings indicate that blocking the BTLA-HVEM interaction with sBTLA enhances antitumor efficacy and results in a significant synergistic effect against existent tumor cells in vivo when combined with the HSP70 vaccine." Han and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Soluble B and T lymphocyte attenuator possesses antitumor effects and facilitates heat shock protein 70 vaccine-triggered antitumor immunity against a murine TC-1 cervical cancer model in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7842-50). For more information, contact L. Han, Tongji Medical College, Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Taiwan. Keywords: City:Wuhan, Country:People's Republic of China, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Cervical Cancer, Cervical Carcinoma, Herpes Virus, Immunology, Oncology, Therapy, Treatment, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study findings from Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic broaden understanding of cancer vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A report, 'Induction of protective immunity against MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours with peptide and dendritic cell-based vaccines,' is newly published data in International Journal of Oncology. "Downregulation of MHC class I expression on the cell surface is a common mechanism by which tumor cells, including cervical carcinoma, can escape the T cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity. This downregulation represents an obstacle for the efficacy of anti-tumour vaccines," researchers in Praha, Czech Republic report. "In this study, we investigated the efficacy of prophylactic peptide and peptidepulsed dendritic cell-based vaccines in a murine model of experimental MHC class I-deficient tumours (TC-1/A9), expressing E6/E7 oncogenes derived from HPV16, and compared the efficacy of particular vaccination settings to anti-tumour protection against parental MHC class I-positive TC-1 tumours. Peptide vaccine based on the 'short' peptide E749-57 harbouring solely the CTL epitope and co-administered to the C57BL/6 mice with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) 1826 was effective against MHC class I-positive but not -deficient tumours, while the 'longer' peptide E744-62 (peptide 8Q, harbouring CTL and Th epitopes)-based vaccines were also effective against MHC class I-deficient tumours. We have compared the adjuvant efficacies of two CpG ODN, CpG ODN 1826 and CpG ODN 1585. The 8Q peptide immunisation combined with CpG ODN 1585 inhibited growth of the TC-1/A9 tumours more effectively as compared to CpG ODN 1826. Further, we investigated the efficacy of cellular vaccines based on ex vivo cultured dendritic cells pulsed with either E749-57 or E744-62 peptides and matured with CpG ODN 1826. Unlike in the peptide immunisation setting, treatment with dendritic cells pulsed with a 'short' peptide resulted in the tumor growth inhibition, albeit weaker as compared to the immunisation with the longer peptide," wrote M. Reinis and colleagues, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The researchers concluded: "Our data demonstrate that peptide and dendritic cellbased vaccines can be designed to elicit protective immunity against MHC class I-deficient tumours." Reinis and colleagues published their study in International Journal of Oncology (Induction of protective immunity against MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours with peptide and dendritic cell-based vaccines. International Journal of Oncology, 2010;36 (3):545-51). For additional information, contact M. Reinis, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha 4, Czech Republic. Keywords: City:Praha, Country:Czech Republic, Anticancer Therapy, Biological Therapy, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Cervical Cancer, Cervical Carcinoma, Immunization, Oncology, Peptide Vaccine, Treatment, Vaccination, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Study data from Mayo Clinic update understanding of german measles vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Rubella vaccine-induced cellular immunity: evidence of associations with polymorphisms in the Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors, and innate immune response genes,' are detailed in a study published in Human Genetics. According to a study from the United States, "Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors and other innate proteins participate in various immune functions. We determined whether innate gene-sequence variations are associated with rubella vaccine-induced cytokine immune responses." "We genotyped 714 healthy children (11-19 years of age) after two doses of rubellacontaining vaccine for 148 candidate SNP markers. Rubella virus-induced cytokines were measured by ELISA. Twenty-two significant associations (range of P values 0.002-0.048) were found between SNPs in the vitamin A receptor family (RARA, RARB, TOP2B and RARG), vitamin D receptor and downstream mediator of vitamin D signaling (RXRA) genes and rubella virus-specific (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF) cytokine immune responses. A TLR3 gene promoter region SNP (rs5743305, -8441A >T) was associated with rubellaspecific GM-CSF secretion. Importantly, SNPs in the TRIM5 gene coding regions, rs3740996 (His43Tyr) and rs10838525 (Gln136Arg), were associated with an allele dose-related secretion of rubella virus-specific TNF-alpha and IL-2/GM-CSF, respectively, and have been previously shown to have functional consequences regarding the antiviral activity and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. We identified associations between individual SNPs and haplotypes in, or involving, the RIG-I (DDX58) gene and rubella-specific TNF-alpha secretion," wrote I.G. Ovsyannikova and colleagues, Mayo Clinic. The researchers concluded: "This is the first paper to present evidence that polymorphisms in the TLR, vitamin A, vitamin D receptor, and innate immunity genes can influence adaptive cytokine responses to rubella vaccination." Ovsyannikova and colleagues published the results of their research in Human Genetics (Rubella vaccine-induced cellular immunity: evidence of associations with polymorphisms in the Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors, and innate immune response genes. Human Genetics, 2010;127(2):207-21). For additional information, contact I.G. Ovsyannikova, Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Guggenheim 611C, Rochester, MN 55905 USA. The publisher of the journal Human Genetics can be contacted at: Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA. Keywords: City:Rochester, State:MN, Country:United States, German Measles Vaccines, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Antiacne, Biotechnology, Cytokines, HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Pediatrics, Rubella, Vaccines, Viral, Virology, Vitamin A, Vitamins (Vitamin A). This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from R. van Houdt et al have provided new data on hepatitis B virus

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on hepatitis B virus are presented in the report 'Ongoing transmission of a single hepatitis B virus strain among men having sex with men in Amsterdam.' "For the past decade, a specific hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A strain has been prevalent among men having sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. At what point in time this strain was introduced in the MSM population, and why only this specific strain continues to be transmitted, remains unclear," scientists writing in the Journal of Viral Hepatitis report. "Between 1984 and 2003, sera of 1862 MSM were retrospectively screened for antiHBc in the context of the Amsterdam Cohort studies. After 2003, most MSM participating in this study were vaccinated, making further testing less useful. HBV DNA from anti-HBc seroconverters was amplified and sequenced. Poisson regression was used to test for temporal trends in HBV and HIV incidence. Of the 1042 MSM who were negative for anti-HBc at entry, 64 had seroconverted during follow-up at a median age of 32. At the point of seroconversion, 31 MSM were HIV positive. HBV incidence declined dramatically in the first years and then remained stable throughout the study period. The HBV and HIV incidence ran almost in parallel. With the exception of three MSM, all were infected with genotype A. Fifteen of these (41%) were infected with an identical genotype A strain. For the past two decades, an identical genotype A strain has been circulating among MSM in the Netherlands," wrote Houdt R. van and colleagues, . The researchers concluded: "Although HBV is generally considered more infectious than HIV, this study shows that the trend and magnitude in HBV and HIV incidence among MSM are similar." van and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Viral Hepatitis (Ongoing transmission of a single hepatitis B virus strain among men having sex with men in Amsterdam. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 2010;17(2):108-14). Additional information can be obtained by contacting R. van Houdt, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Keywords: City:Amsterdam, Country:Netherlands, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Clinical Trial Research, Gastroenterology, HBV, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatology, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Infectious Disease, Vaccines, Viral Hepatitis, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Researchers from University of Chicago, Center for Liver Diseases detail new studies and findings in the area of hepatitis B virus epidemiology

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses: a global overview,' is the subject of a report. "This article reviews the prevalence,

disease burden, genotype distribution, and transmission patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus in the 6 World Health Organization regions. The global epidemiology of hepatitis B and C demonstrates a predominantly declining prevalence of the diseases," scientists in the United States report. "Improvement in the control of hepatitis B has been largely achieved with implementation of a more universal HBV vaccine program, although a large gap still remains in the effort toward global prevention of hepatitis B. The transmission of hepatitis C has been greatly impacted by mandatory screening of blood donors in most countries in the world, although intravenous drug use continues to be a major source of infection," wrote H.S. Te and colleagues, University of Chicago, Center for Liver Diseases. The researchers concluded: "Public education regarding the risks of exposure to infected paraphernalia as well as household items such as razors is necessary in the continuing effort to curb this disease." Te and colleagues published their study in Clinics In Liver Disease (Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses: a global overview. Clinics In Liver Disease, 2010;14(1):1-21, vii). For more information, contact H.S. Te, University of Chicago Medical Center, University of Chicago Medical Center, Center for Liver Diseases, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 7120, Chicago, IL 60637 USA. Keywords: City:Chicago, State:IL, Country:United States, Hepatitis B Virus Epidemiology, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, Gastroenterology, Genetics, Genomics, Genotyping, HBV Vaccines, HCV, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatology, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Liver Disease, Vaccination, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New findings reported from M.L Shiffman and co-authors describe advances in hepatitis B virus vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Fresh data on hepatitis B virus are presented in the report 'Management of acute hepatitis B.' According to recent research from the United States, "Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of acute icteric hepatitis in adults. The vast majority of these patients resolve this acute infection and develop long-lasting immunity." "In contrast, the vast majority of patients who develop chronic HBV have minimal symptoms and do not develop jaundice after becoming infected with HBV. These patients will frequently remain undiagnosed for years or decades. Approximately 1% of persons with acute HBV develop acute liver failure. Preventing acute HBV with vaccination is the best treatment. Although universal vaccination is now administered to newborns in many countries, the majority of adults have not been vaccinated and remain at risk. Because the majority of patients with acute HBV resolve this infection spontaneously, treatment with an oral anti-HBV agent is not necessary," wrote M.L Shiffman and colleagues, . The researchers concluded: "However, the use of an oral anti-HBV agent is not unreasonable to use in a patient who is developing acute liver failure from severe acute HBV." Shiffman and colleagues published their study in Clinics In Liver Disease (Management of acute hepatitis B. Clinics In Liver Disease, 2010;14(1):75-91; viii-ix). For additional information, contact M.L. Shiffman, Bon Secours Health System,

Liver Institute of Virginia, Richmond, VA USA. Keywords: City:Richmond, State:VA, Country:United States, Hepatitis B Virus Vaccines, Acute Hepatitis, Acute Liver Failure, Biotechnology, Gastroenterology, HBV, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatology, Infectious Disease, Jaundice, Liver Disease, Liver Failure, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Data on HIV/AIDS vaccine discussed by researchers at University of Iowa

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Viruses within the Flaviviridae decrease CD4 expression and inhibit HIV replication in human CD4+ cells,' have been published. According to recent research from the United States, "Viral infections alter host cell homeostasis and this may lead to immune evasion and/or interfere with the replication of other microbes in coinfected hosts. Two flaviviruses are associated with a reduction in HIV replication or improved survival in HIV-infected people (dengue virus (DV) and GB virus type C (GBV-C))." "GBV-C infection and expression of the GBV-C nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and the DV NS5 protein in CD4(+) T cells inhibit HIV replication in vitro. To determine whether the inhibitory effect on HIV replication is conserved among other flaviviruses and to characterize mechanism(s) of HIV inhibition, the NS5 proteins of GBV-C, DV, hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus (YFV; vaccine strain 17D) were expressed in CD4(+) T cells. All NS5 proteins inhibited HIV replication. This correlated with decreased steady-state CD4 mRNA levels and reduced cell surface CD4 protein expression. Infection of CD4(+) T cells and macrophages with YFV (17D vaccine strain) also inhibited HIV replication and decreased CD4 gene expression. In contrast, mumps virus was not inhibited by the expression of flavivirus NS5 protein or by YFV infection, and mumps infection did not alter CD4 mRNA or protein levels. In summary, CD4 gene expression is decreased by all human flavivirus NS5 proteins studied. CD4 regulation by flaviviruses may interfere with innate and adaptive immunity and contribute to in vitro HIV replication inhibition," wrote J. Xiang and colleagues, University of Iowa. The researchers concluded: "Characterization of the mechanisms by which flaviviruses regulate CD4 expression may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for HIV and immunological diseases." Xiang and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Viruses within the Flaviviridae decrease CD4 expression and inhibit HIV replication in human CD4+ cells. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7860-9). For additional information, contact J. Xiang, Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Iowa, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA. Keywords: City:Iowa City, State:IA, Country:United States, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, Dengue Fever, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Gastroenterology, HCV, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatology, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Infectious Disease, Parasitic Disease, Vaccines, Vectors, Viral, Virology, West Nile Fever, West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever, Zoonoses.

This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New HIV/AIDS vaccine findings from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center described

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Research findings, 'HIV-1 vaccine development after STEP,' are discussed in a new report. "Despite more than 25 years of concerted worldwide research, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive. Prototype antibody-based and T cell-based HIV-1 vaccines have failed to show efficacy in clinical trials to date," researchers in the United States report. "Next-generation HIV-1 vaccine candidates are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development, but key scientific obstacles pose major challenges for the field. Critical hurdles include the enormous global diversity of the virus and the challenges associated with generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses," wrote D.H. Barouch and colleagues, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The researchers concluded: "We review the current state of the HIV-1 vaccine field and outline strategies that are being explored to overcome these roadblocks." Barouch and colleagues published their study in Annual Review of Medicine (HIV-1 vaccine development after STEP. Annual Review of Medicine, 2010;61():153-67). For additional information, contact D.H. Barouch, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Vaccine Research, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA. Keywords: City:Boston, State:Massachusetts, Country:United States, HIV/AIDS Vaccine, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Clinical Trials, Drug Development, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Medical Device, Pre-Trials Research, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccine Development, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research results from University of Bologna update knowledge of HIV/AIDS vaccine therapy

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A report, 'Coding of amino acids by texture descriptors,' is newly published data in Artificial Intelligence In Medicine. According to recent research from Cesena, Italy, "In this paper we propose a new feature extractor for peptide/protein classification based on the calculation of texture descriptors. Representing a peptide/protein using a matrix descriptor, instead of a vector, allows to deal with the peptide/protein as an image and to use texture descriptors for representation purposes." "A matrix descriptor, which is a squared matrix of the dimension of the peptide/protein, is obtained considering a partial ordering of the amino acids of the peptide/protein according to their value of a given physicochemical property. Each matrix descriptor is considered as a texture image and several texture descriptors are considered to

obtain a compact representation which is scale invariant (i.e. independent on the length of the peptide\protein). The texture descriptors tested in this work are: local binary patterns (LBP), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and Daubechies wavelets. The experimental section reports several tests, aimed at supporting our ideas, performed on the following datasets: vaccine dataset for the predictions of peptides that bind human leukocyte antigens; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease cleavage site prediction dataset and membrane proteins type dataset. The experimental results confirm the usefulness of the novel descriptors: the performance obtained by our system on the three difficult datasets is quite high, indicating that the proposed method is a feasible system for extracting information from peptides and proteins. The performance obtained by each of the three texture descriptors calculated from the matrix-based representation, and coupled to a support vector machine classifier, is lower than the performance obtained by other vector-based descriptors based on physicochemical properties proposed in the literature. Anyway the new descriptors bring different information and our tests show that the texture descriptors and the vector-based descriptors can be combined to improve the overall performance of the system," wrote L. Nanni and colleagues, University of Bologna. The researchers concluded: "In particular the proposed approach improves the stateof-the-art results in two out of three tested problems (HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction dataset and membrane proteins type dataset)." Nanni and colleagues published their study in Artificial Intelligence In Medicine (Coding of amino acids by texture descriptors. Artificial Intelligence In Medicine, 2010;48 (1):43-50). For additional information, contact L. Nanni, Informatics and Systems, Dept. of Electronic, Universita di Bologna, Cesena, Italy. Keywords: City:Cesena, Country:Italy, HIV/AIDS Vaccine Therapy, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Amino Acids, Biotechnology, Drugs, HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from University of Melbourne, Department of General Practice describe new findings in human papillomavirus vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A report, 'Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among first year female university students in Hong Kong,' is newly published data in Sexual Health. "The present study assessed sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes among first year university students in order to identify factors that may affect their acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in August 2006," investigators in Carlton, Australia report. "The survey was a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions regarding general health, sexual behaviour, knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, and attitudes towards vaccination. chi2, anova and logistic regression tests were used to identify associations between categories. Of 992 students, 63 (6.5%) reported having had sexual intercourse, 22.4% of whom had had more than one sexual partner and 36.5% had had unprotected sexual intercourse. A total of 70.8% of participants were willing to accept the HPV vaccine, with 'willingness' independently associated with age, having had sexual intercourse and beliefs

regarding the effectiveness of vaccination (p <0.05)," wrote W.C. Wong and colleagues, University of Melbourne, Department of General Practice. The researchers concluded: "Understanding the role of these influences can aid in the design of successful HPV education, prevention and vaccination programs." Wong and colleagues published their study in Sexual Health (Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among first year female university students in Hong Kong. Sexual Health, 2009;6(4):264-71). For additional information, contact W.C. Wong, University of Melbourne, Dept. of General Practice, School of Medicine, 200 Berkeley Street, Carlton, Vic 3053, Australia. Keywords: City:Carlton, Country:Australia, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Cervical Cancer, Cervical Carcinoma, HPV Vaccines, Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccines, Immunization, Oncology, Vaccination, Women's Health. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research on immunization described by scientists at China Agricultural University, College of Biological Science

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'FK506 as an adjuvant of tolerogenic DNA vaccination for the prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,' is the subject of a report. "DNA vaccination is a strategy that has been developed primarily to elicit protective immunity against infection and cancer. DNA vaccine was used, in conjunction with an immunosuppressant, to tolerize harmful autoimmunity," researchers in Beijing, People's Republic of China report. "Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with MOG(35-55), a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-derived peptide, and FK506 (Tacrolimus) as a tolerogenic adjuvant stimulated regulatory dendritic cells, induced antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg), and protected the animals from subsequent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). After EAE induction, there were fewer lymphocytes, including fewer T helper 17 cells, and more Treg infiltrating the spinal cord in the immunized mice compared to in control mice. Furthermore, at the peak of the EAE manifestation, CD4 T cells in the immunized mice showed decreased expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-17, but not IL-4, in treated mice," wrote Y. Kang and colleagues, China Agricultural University, College of Biological Science. The researchers concluded: "DNA vaccination, when applied with an immunosuppressant as adjuvant, can induce antigen-specific tolerance and prevent autoimmune disease." Kang and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Gene Medicine - Gene Therapy Clinical Trial Database (FK506 as an adjuvant of tolerogenic DNA vaccination for the prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Journal of Gene Medicine - Gene Therapy Clinical Trial Database, 2009;11(11):1064-70). For additional information, contact Y. Kang, State Key Laboratory for AgroBiotechnology, College of Biological Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China. Keywords: City:Beijing, Country:People's Republic of China, Autoimmune Disease, Autoimmune Disorder, Biotechnology, Cancer Gene Therapy, Cancer Vaccines, Central

Nervous System Disease, Clinical Trial Research, DNA Research, DNA Vaccines, Drugs, Encephalomyelitis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, FK506, Immunization, Immunology, Medical Device, Oncology, Pharmaceuticals, Tacrolimus, Treatment, Vaccination. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Investigators at Nagoya University target life sciences

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New research, 'In vitro generation of anti-hepatitis B monoclonal antibodies from a single plasma cell using single-cell RT-PCR and cell-free protein synthesis,' is the subject of a report. "Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an effective tool in therapeutics and diagnostics. A novel approach called the single-cell RT-PCR-linked in vitro expression system (SICREX) enables the high-throughput generation and screening of mAbs from single B cells," scientists writing in the Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering report. "In this paper, instead of using B cells, cDNAs were synthesized from single plasma cells of an immunized mouse spleen. The light chain (Lc) and the Fd portion of the heavy chain (Hc) genes of each cell were amplified separately and followed by overlapping PCR to add a T7 promoter, a ribosome-binding site, and a T7 terminator. The paired Lc and Hc genes were simultaneously expressed by an Escherichia coli in vitro transcription and translation system followed by ELISA to measure their affinity for the antigen," wrote Y. Sabrina and colleagues, Nagoya University. The researchers concluded: "A Fab fragment with affinity against the antigen was obtained from plasma cells of an immunized mouse with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)." Sabrina and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (In vitro generation of anti-hepatitis B monoclonal antibodies from a single plasma cell using single-cell RT-PCR and cell-free protein synthesis. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2010;109(1):75-82). Additional information can be obtained by contacting Y. Sabrina, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Japan. Keywords: Country:Japan, Life Sciences, Gastroenterology, Infectious Disease, Hepatitis, Monoclonal Antibodies, Biotechnology, Protein Synthesis, Proteomics, Medical Device, Pharmaceuticals, Drug Development, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Diagnostics, Bioengineering, Biosciences. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from San Raffaele Scientific Institute provides new data about life sciences

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'IL-7 is superior to IL-2 for ex vivo expansion of tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells,' have been published. According to recent research published in the European Journal of Immunology, "It is well established that tumours hinder both natural and vaccine-induced tumour-specific CD4(+) T-cell

responses. Adoptive T-cell therapy has the potential to circumvent functional tolerance and enhance anti-tumour protective responses." "While protocols suitable for the expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are currently available, data on tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells remain scarce. We report here that CD4(+) T cells sensitized to tumour-associated Ag in vivo, proliferate in vitro in response to IL-7 without the need for exogenous Ag stimulation and accumulate several folds while preserving a memory-like phenotype. Both cell proliferation and survival accounts for the outgrowth of tumour-sensitized T cells among other memory and naive lymphocytes following exposure to IL-7. Also IL-2, previously used to expand anti-tumour CTL, promotes tumour-specific CD4(+) T-cell accumulation. However, IL-7 is superior to IL-2 at preserving lymphocyte viability, in vitro and in vivo, maintaining those properties, that are required by helper CD4(+) T cells to confer therapeutic efficacy upon transplantation in tumour-bearing hosts," wrote S. Caserta and colleagues, San Raffaele Scientific Institute. The researchers concluded: "Together our data support a unique role for IL-7 in retrieving memory-like CD4(+) T cells suitable for adoptive T-cell therapy." Caserta and colleagues published their study in European Journal of Immunology (IL-7 is superior to IL-2 for ex vivo expansion of tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells. European Journal of Immunology, 2010;40(2):470-9). For additional information, contact S. Caserta, Program in Immunology and BioImmuno-gene therapy of Cancer (PIBIC), Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Keywords: City:Milan, Country:Italy, Life Sciences, Cell Therapy, Treatment, Biotherapy, Biotechnology, Medical Device, Anticancer Therapy, Vaccines, Immunology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New measles vaccines research from D. Schmid and colleagues discussed

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Measles outbreak linked to a minority group in Austria, 2008,' are detailed in a study published in Epidemiology and Infection. "We report on a measles outbreak originating in an anthroposophic community in Austria, 2008. A total of 394 (94.9%) cases fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 168 cases affiliated to the anthroposophic community," scientists in Vienna, Austria report. "The source case was a school pupil from Switzerland. The Austrian outbreak strain was genotype D5, indistinguishable from the Swiss outbreak strain. A school-based retrospective cohort study in the anthroposophic school demonstrated a vaccine effectiveness of 97.3% in pupils who had received a single dose of measles-containing vaccine and 100% in those who had received two doses. The vaccination coverage of the cases in the anthroposophic community was 0.6%. Of the 226 outbreak cases not belonging to the anthroposophic community, the 10-24 years age group was the most affected. Our findings underline the epidemiological significance of suboptimal vaccination coverage in anthroposophic communities and in older age groups of the general population in facilitating measles virus circulation," wrote D. Schmid and colleagues, . The researchers concluded: "The findings of this outbreak investigation suggest that

the WHO European Region is unlikely to achieve its 2010 target for measles and rubella elimination." Schmid and colleagues published their study in Epidemiology and Infection (Measles outbreak linked to a minority group in Austria, 2008. Epidemiology and Infection, 2010;138 (3):415-25). For more information, contact D. Schmid, Osterreichische Agentur fur Gesundheit und Ernahrungssicherheit (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, AGES), Vienna, Austria. Publisher contact information for the journal Epidemiology and Infection is: Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473. Keywords: City:Vienna, Country:Austria, Measles Vaccines, Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Epidemiology, Measles, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Findings from University of Pennsylvania broaden understanding of simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Vector-mediated gene transfer engenders long-lived neutralizing activity and protection against SIV infection in monkeys,' are detailed in a study published in Nature Medicine. "The key to an effective HIV vaccine is development of an immunogen that elicits persisting antibodies with broad neutralizing activity against field strains of the virus. Unfortunately, very little progress has been made in finding or designing such immunogens," scientists in the United States report. "Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model, we have taken a markedly different approach: delivery to muscle of an adeno-associated virus gene transfer vector expressing antibodies or antibody-like immunoadhesins having predetermined SIV specificity. With this approach, SIV-specific molecules are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. Using such an approach in monkeys, we have now generated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum and have observed complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent SIV," wrote P.R. Johnson and colleagues, University of Pennsylvania. The researchers concluded: "In essence, this strategy bypasses the adaptive immune system and holds considerable promise as a unique approach to an effective HIV vaccine." Johnson and colleagues published their study in Nature Medicine (Vector-mediated gene transfer engenders long-lived neutralizing activity and protection against SIV infection in monkeys. Nature Medicine, 2009;15(8):901-6). For more information, contact P.R. Johnson, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA. Keywords: City:Philadelphia, State:Pennsylvania, Country:United States, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccines, AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AdenoAssociated Virus, Biotechnology, Gene Therapy, Genetics, Genomics, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunology, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Vaccines, Viral Research, Virology. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports.

Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New vaccines research from Jawaharlal Nehru University discussed

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Data detailed in 'Ubiquitin conjugation of open reading frame F DNA vaccine leads to enhanced cell-mediated immune response and induces protection against both antimony-susceptible and -resistant strains of Leishmania donovani' have been presented. According to recent research from New Delhi, India, "Resistance of Leishmania donovani to sodium antimony gluconate has become a critical issue in the current, prolonged epidemic in India. Hence, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that is protective against both antimony-susceptible and -resistant strains of L. donovani." "The multigene LD1 locus located on chromosome 35 of Leishmania is amplified in approximately 15% of the isolates examined. The open reading frame F (ORFF), a potential vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis, is part of the multigene LD1 locus. ORFF was expressed as a chimeric conjugate of ubiquitin to elicit an Ag-specific cell-mediated immune response. Analysis of the cellular immune responses of ubiquitin-conjugated ORFF (UBQORFF) DNA-immunized, uninfected BALB/c mice demonstrated that the vaccine induced enhanced IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells compared with nonubiquitinated ORFF DNA vaccine. Higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma and the low levels of IL-4 and IL10 further indicated that the immune responses with UBQ-ORFF were mediated toward the Th1 rather than Th2 type. Infection of immunized mice with either the antimony-susceptible (AG83) or -resistant (GE1F8R) L. donovani strain showed that UBQ-ORFF DNA vaccine induced higher protection when compared with ORFF DNA. UBQ-ORFF DNA-immunized and infected mice showed a significant increase in IL-12 and IFN-gamma and significant downregulation of IL-10. High levels of production of nitrite and superoxide, two macrophagederived oxidants that are critical in controlling Leishmania infection, were observed in protected mice," wrote A. Sharma and colleagues, Jawaharlal Nehru University. The researchers concluded: "The feasibility of using ubiquitinated-conjugated ORFF DNA vaccine as a promising immune enhancer for vaccination against both antimonysusceptible and -resistant strains of L. donovani is reported." Sharma and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Ubiquitin conjugation of open reading frame F DNA vaccine leads to enhanced cell-mediated immune response and induces protection against both antimony-susceptible and -resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7719-31). For additional information, contact A. Sharma, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Keywords: City:New Delhi, Country:India, Biotechnology, DNA Research, DNA Vaccines, Drug Development, Epidemics, Immunization, Immunology, Leishmaniasis, Medical Device, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Visceral Leishmaniasis. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New vaccines study findings recently were published by investigators at Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Current study results from the report, 'Survival of secondary lethal systemic Francisella LVS challenge depends largely on interferon gamma,' have been published. "Although survival of primary infection with the live vaccine strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis depends on interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), the relative importance of IFN-gamma to secondary protective immunity in vivo has not been clearly established. Here we examine the role of IFN-gamma in T cell priming and expression of vaccine-induced protection against lethal intraperitoneal challenge of mice," scientists in the United States report. "Large amounts of IFN-gamma were detected between days 3 and 7 in the sera of LVS-immunized mice, while relatively small amounts were found transiently after secondary LVS challenge. Consistent with the production of this cytokine, mice lacking IFN-gamma (gamma interferon knockout, GKO, mice) could not be successfully vaccinated with LVS or an attenuated mglA mutant of F. novicida to withstand secondary Francisella LVS challenge. Further, splenocytes from such primed mice did not adoptively transfer protection to naive GKO recipient mice in vivo, nor control the intramacrophage growth of LVS in vitro. Finally, LVSimmune WT mice depleted of IFN-gamma prior to intraperitoneal challenge survived only the lowest doses of challenge," wrote K.L. Elkins and colleagues, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. The researchers concluded: "Thus successful priming of protective LVS-immune T cells, as well as complete expression of protection against Francisella during secondary challenge, depends heavily on IFN-gamma." Elkins and colleagues published their study in Microbes and Infection (Survival of secondary lethal systemic Francisella LVS challenge depends largely on interferon gamma. Microbes and Infection, 2010;12(1):28-36). For additional information, contact K.L. Elkins, Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, CBER, FDA, HFM 431, Rockville, MD 20852 USA. Keywords: City:Rockville, State:MD, Country:United States, Biologics, Biotechnology, Cytokines, Immunology, Interferon, Interferon Gamma, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Reports outline vaccines study results from University of Iowa, Department of Pathology

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Investigators publish new data in the report 'Tracking the total CD8 T cell response to infection reveals substantial discordance in magnitude and kinetics between inbred and outbred hosts.' "Determining the magnitude and kinetics, together with the phenotypic and functional characteristics of responding CD8 T cells, is critical for understanding the regulation of adaptive immunity as well as in evaluating vaccine

candidates. Recent technical advances have allowed tracking of some CD8 T cells responding to infection, and a body of information now exists describing phenotypic changes that occur in CD8 T cells of known Ag-specificity during their activation, expansion, and memory generation in inbred mice," scientists writing in the Journal of Immunology report. "In this study, we demonstrate that Ag but not inflammation-driven changes in expression of CD11a and CD8alpha can be used to distinguish naive from Ag-experienced (effector and memory) CD8 T cells after infection or vaccination. Interestingly and in contrast to inbred mice, tracking polyclonal CD8 T cell responses with this approach after bacterial and viral infections revealed substantial discordance in the magnitude and kinetics of CD8 T cell responses in outbred hosts. These data reveal limitations to the use of inbred mouse strains as preclinical models at vaccine development and suggest the same dose of infection or vaccination can lead to substantial differences in the magnitude and timing of Ag-specific CD8 expansion as well in differences in protective memory CD8 T cell numbers in outbred individuals," wrote D. Rai and colleagues, University of Iowa, Department of Pathology. The researchers concluded: "This concept has direct relevance to development of vaccines in outbred humans." Rai and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Immunology (Tracking the total CD8 T cell response to infection reveals substantial discordance in magnitude and kinetics between inbred and outbred hosts. Journal of Immunology, 2009;183(12):7672-81). Additional information can be obtained by contacting D. Rai, University of Iowa, Dept. of Pathology, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA. Keywords: City:Iowa City, State:IA, Country:United States, Biotechnology, Drug Development, Immunology, Inflammation, Pathology, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Research from Wuhan University reveals new findings on vaccines

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New investigation results, 'Enhanced immunogenicity of an anti-caries vaccine encoding a cell-surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans by intranasal DNA prime-protein boost immunization,' are detailed in a study published in Journal of Gene Medicine - Gene Therapy Clinical Trial Database. According to a study from Hubei, People's Republic of China, "The present study aimed to enhance the specific anti-caries immunity induced by DNA prime-protein boost strategy for an A-P fragment of a cell-surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans (PAc). BALB/c mice were immunized with DNA prime-protein boost, DNA-DNA or protein-protein regimens by the intranasal route, using combinations of plasmid vector (pCIA-P) that express PAc protein and a pure secretec recombinant PAc protein (rPAc)." "Then, a gnotobiotic mouse model was constructed 2 weeks after the last immunization, and specific immune responses in vivo and their protection against dental caries were observed. The present study revealed stronger antibody responses in the DNA primeprotein boost group compared to those elicited by either DNA-DNA vaccination or proteinprotein vaccination. In particular, PAc-specific antibody concentrations were improved significantly after boosting the pCIA-P DNA-primed mice with rPAc. Moreover, protection against S. mutans challenge was obtained in the mice treated with the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in S. mutans colonization compared to

control mice and animals immunized with the DNA-DNA vaccination or protein-protein vaccination," wrote Y. Li and colleagues, Wuhan University. The researchers concluded: "The results obtained in the present study suggest that the intranasal DNA prime-protein boost vaccination regimen is a novel strategy for the practical application of DNA vaccine against dental caries." Li and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Gene Medicine - Gene Therapy Clinical Trial Database (Enhanced immunogenicity of an anti-caries vaccine encoding a cell-surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans by intranasal DNA prime-protein boost immunization. Journal of Gene Medicine - Gene Therapy Clinical Trial Database, 2009;11 (11):1039-47). For more information, contact Y. Li, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Hubei, China. Keywords: City:Hubei, Country:People's Republic of China, Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Dental Caries, Dental Cary, Dentistry, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Studies from University of Sydney in the area of whooping cough vaccines described

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Research findings, 'The utility of seroepidemiology for tracking trends in pertussis infection,' are discussed in a new report. According to a study from Australia, "Comparing pertussis epidemiology over time and between countries is confounded by differences in diagnostic and notification practices. Standardized serological methods applied to population-based samples enhance comparability." "Population prevalence of different levels of pertussis toxin IgG (PT IgG) antibody, measured by standardized methods, were compared by age group and region of Australia between 1997/1998 and 2002. The proportion of 5-to 9-year-olds with presumptive recent pertussis infection (based on IgG levels >or=62.5 ELISA units/ml) significantly decreased in 2002, consistent with notification data for the same period and improved uptake of booster vaccines following the schedule change from whole-cell to acellular vaccine. In contrast, recent presumptive infection significantly increased in adults aged 35-49 years," wrote H.E. Quinn and colleagues, University of Sydney. The researchers concluded: "Population-based serosurveillance using standardized PT IgG antibody assays has the potential to aid interpretation of trends in pertussis incidence in relation to vaccine programmes and between countries." Quinn and colleagues published their study in Epidemiology and Infection (The utility of seroepidemiology for tracking trends in pertussis infection. Epidemiology and Infection, 2010;138(3):426-33). For more information, contact H.E. Quinn, The Children's Hospital at Westmead and The University of Sydney, The National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Australia. Publisher contact information for the journal Epidemiology and Infection is: Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473.

Keywords: Country:Australia, Whooping Cough Vaccines, Biotechnology, Diagnostics, Epidemiology, Vaccines, Whooping Cough. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Accelovance Prepares for Continued Growth; Adds to Senior Management Team

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Accelovance, a CRO with a proven approach to reduce timelines and optimize productivity, announced two additions to its senior management team; Joseph W. Angle, Jr. has been appointed Chief Financial Officer and Lisa Beth Ferstenberg, MD has been appointed Chief Medical Officer (CMO). These additions come after another 12-month period of continued growth for Accelovance and recent recognition as "Best CRO" vaccine industry excellence award winner. "We are pleased with our continued growth in 2009 -- more than 35% versus the prior year top line results," commented President & CEO Stephen J. Trevisan. "Mr. Angle and I have worked together in the past to build successful companies. His leadership will strengthen our organization. Dr. Ferstenberg brings to the company great depth and experience in regulatory, biopharmaceutical and medical device development with over 25 years in the industry." Mr. Angle will lead the financial and administrative functions at Accelovance after serving as interim CFO for the last six months. He has recently been a consulting CFO to several Washington, DC-area companies, Mr. Angle has over 15 years of experience in the drug development industry. He previously co-founded several companies with Accelovance CEO, Stephen J. Trevisan, including TherImmune Research Corporation, CommSys Corporation and National Clinical Research Centers (NCRC). Mr. Angle helped manage each company to profitability and year-after-year double digit revenue growth. As CMO, Dr. Ferstenberg's clinical research experience and executive background enhances the capabilities of the CRO and Regulatory divisions of the company. Prior to joining Accelovance, Dr. Ferstenberg founded and served as CEO for Cellective Therapeutics, Inc., an immunology-focused biotech company which was later sold to MedImmune Corporation. Her balanced perspective of science, technology, regulatory and business provide valuable clinical development direction for Accelovance clients. Furthermore, she has in-depth experience in international regulatory affairs, manufacturing operations, quality assurance, business development, FDA submissions and IPO preparation. Therapeutic areas of expertise include vaccines, infectious diseases, oncology, immunology, drug delivery systems, devices and diagnostics, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Headquartered in Rockville, Maryland, Accelovance is a privately held company that has developed a unique operational approach for delivering quality, on time, and cost effective clinical studies. The company was recognized as "2009's Best CRO" with an Industry Excellence award. Accelovance offers six (6) wholly-owned, research-dedicated clinical sites to Sponsors and CROs that bring greater control, predictability, and quality assurance to vaccine programs. Additionally, the Company tailors its offering of full CRO, Clinical Sites, Patient Recruitment, and Call Center to present a clinical solution that meets a Sponsor's needs. Accelovance has a 100% owned subsidiary providing CRO services in China. These capabilities can assist clients with global development programs or product registration in China, the fastest

growing pharmaceutical market in the world. For more information, visit the company's website at http://www.accelovance.com/. Keywords: Asia, Biopharmaceuticals, Biotechnology, China, Clinical Research, Drug Development, Drugs, Finance, Financial, Investing, Investment, Pharmaceuticals, Psychiatric, Technology, Therapies, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Accelovance. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Advaxis Chairman/CEO Thomas A. Moore Issues Statement

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Chairman/CEO Thomas A. Moore of Advaxis, Incorporated (OTCBB: ADXS), the live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) immunotherapy company issued the following statement today. "Advaxis shares will trade today with an 'e' at the end of its ticker symbol, 'ADXSE.'" This temporary ticker symbol change is due to our inability to file our annual statement in a timely manner, under the US Securities and Exchange Commission's regulations. It does not however, affect any shareholder's total share position. "This temporary shortcoming is a product of the complex accounting required for the debt instruments we have implemented over the past nine months. "On or before 1330 EST today, we anticipate completing our annual statement, filing and being in compliance shortly thereafter. At such time, we will issue another press release confirming our compliance. "My executive staff and I remain committed to our shareholders. Today, there is an undeniable groundswell of interest in the scientific community surrounding our Listeria platform, as witnessed by the clinical trial funding support given by the National Cancer Institute and Cancer Research UK. To that end, we stand fast in finding new and innovative ways of furthering this promising science that we believe can someday make a major contribution in the battle against cancer." About Advaxis, Inc. Based in North Brunswick, New Jersey, Advaxis is developing proprietary Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) cancer vaccines based on technology developed by Dr. Yvonne Paterson, professor of microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and chairperson of Advaxis' scientific advisory board. Advaxis is developing attenuated live Lm vaccines that deliver engineered tumor antigens, which stimulate multiple simultaneous immunological mechanisms to fight cancer. Keywords: Banking, Cancer Vaccines, Conservation, Ecology, Engineered, Environment, Finance, Health, Immunotherapy, Microbiology, Oncology, Pharmaceutical, Professional Services, Technology, Treatment, Advaxis Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

AltraVax, Inc. Acquires Revolutionary Technology Platform for Vaccine Development

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- AltraVax, Inc., a new, privately-held biopharmaceutical company, has acquired a vaccine development technology package from Maxygen, Inc. (Nasdaq: MAXY) that gives AltraVax an exclusive license to develop vaccines for infectious diseases and is targeting influenza, a treatment for hepatitis B and HIV. Under the terms of the licensing agreement, AltraVax has exclusive rights to use Maxygen's proprietary MolecularBreedingTM technology platform in its infectious disease vaccine development programs, subject to rights retained by Maxygen. The technology can significantly compress vaccine development timelines, leading to new vaccine possibilities that have the potential to improve and protect human health globally. Arthur Ventures Growth Fund, LLC is the lead investor in AltraVax. "We're excited to be a part of something that can have such a tremendous impact," said James Burgum, managing director of Arthur Ventures. "The proprietary technology licensed from Maxygen will enable AltraVax to develop a new generation of vaccines in a shorter time period and with the promise of better protection." The proprietary MolecularBreedingTM technology is part of a broader technology platform of directed molecular evolution that can be applied to the development of new and improved vaccines. Vaccine candidates identified by this process can provide broad protection against many different strains of viruses responsible for a given disease. Dr. Robert Whalen, Chief Scientific Officer at AltraVax, is one of the leaders in the application of MolecularBreedingTM technology to vaccine discovery and development. "Some current vaccine development processes may not be suitable to today's environment of rapidly emerging, and in many cases mutating, viruses and other pathogens," said Dr. Whalen. "This robust technology can now be directly applied to the identification and development of both novel and improved products that meet the vaccine industry's current and future needs." Dr. Leonard Ruiz, who has 30 years of domestic and international experience in the biotechnology, biopharmaceutical and food industries, serves as CEO of AltraVax. "AltraVax plans to focus on key disease targets and to use the MolecularBreedingTM technology platform as part of a number of laboratory tools to accelerate vaccine development," said Dr. Ruiz. "We expect to be in human clinical trials within the next 12 to 18 months." About AltraVax, Inc. AltraVax, Inc. is a privately-held biopharmaceutical company with headquarters in Fargo, North Dakota and research laboratories in Sunnyvale, California. AltraVax was founded based on the strength of a proven technology that can accelerate nature's natural genetic diversity at a molecular level. About Arthur Ventures Growth Fund, LLC Arthur Ventures Growth Fund, LLC is a venture capital fund that seeks to identify and invest in well-managed businesses with potential for strong growth to yield significant return on investment for both business and investor. Keywords: AIDS/HIV, Biopharmaceuticals, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Drug Development, Drugs, Finance, Flu, Food, Food Industries, Gastroenterology, Health, Hepatitis, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Influenza, Investing, Investment, Marketing and Licensing Agreements, Maxygen Inc., Medical Device, Molecular Evolution, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Return On Investment, Technology, Therapies, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Vaccine Development, Vaccines, Venture Capital, AltraVax

Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Antigenics Reports Fourth Quarter and Year End 2009 Financial Results

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Antigenics Inc. (NASDAQ: AGEN) reported its results for the quarter and year ended December 31, 2009. The company reported net income attributable to common stockholders of $1.7 million, or $0.02 per share, basic and diluted, for the fourth quarter of 2009, compared with net income attributable to common stockholders in the fourth quarter of 2008 of $3.9 million, or $0.06 per share, basic and diluted. For the year ended December 31, 2009, the company incurred a net loss attributable to common stockholders of $31.1 million, or $0.39 per share, basic and diluted, compared with a net loss attributable to common stockholders of $31.6 million, or $0.50 per share, basic and diluted, for the year ended December 31, 2008. The company's net cash burn (cash used in operating activities plus capital expenditures and dividend payments) for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008 was $25.2 million and $29.9 million, respectively. The 2009 net cash burn primarily reflects the company's efforts to support Oncophage® (vitespen), the company's novel patient-specific cancer vaccine, in Russia, Europe, and other territories, while also executing cost containment efforts. Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments amounted to $30.1 million as of December 31, 2009. Corporate Update Under the direction of Andrew Parsa, MD, PhD, the Brain Tumor Research Center at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), continues to conduct two Phase 2 clinical trials testing Oncophage in recurrent and newly-diagnosed glioma patients. The investigator-sponsored studies will evaluate median overall survival, progression-free survival and immunologic response. This trial is sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and patient advocacy groups. Glioma is a difficult-to-treat type of brain tumor for which there are currently no curative treatment options. The first 20 Phase 2 recurrent glioma patients treated with Oncophage showed a median survival of 10.1 months, with at least six patients (30 percent) surviving 12 months or longer. These early clinical data appear to compare favorably with the long-established historical median survival of 6.5 months, and with the recently reported median survival of 9.2 months1 with Avastin® (bevacizumab) in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Further data updates are anticipated in the first half of 2010. Antigenics continues to explore government reimbursement and local partnerships for Oncophage in the treatment of intermediate-risk renal cell carcinoma (RCC), or kidney cancer, in Russia. Antigenics is also exploring the possibility of making Oncophage available to patients in various territories through named patient and similar programs. Last fall, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency issued a negative opinion on the marketing authorization application for Oncophage in early-stage, localized RCC. Antigenics continues to evaluate its options to determine its strategy for Oncophage in Europe. Approximately 15 vaccines containing Antigenics' QS-21 investigational adjuvant are in clinical-stage development by partners such as GlaxoSmithKline. Phase 3 programs include vaccines for malaria, melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Antigenics is entitled to receive milestone payments as these vaccine programs advance in development as well as royalties for at least 10 years after commercial launch. The cost of developing and marketing

these vaccines will be assumed entirely by the company's licensees. Keywords: Advertising, Biotechnology, Brain Cancer, Brain Carcinoma, Cancer Vaccines, Clinical Trial Research, Clinical Trials, Common Stock, Finance, Financial, Glioma, Health, Immunization, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Investing, Investment, Marketing, Oncology, Other Health, Pharmaceutical, Stock Market, Vaccination, Antigenics Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Dr. Peter Honig Brings FDA and Global Regulatory Expertise to Health & Life Sciences Team

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Dr. Peter Honig, a global leader in the strategic and tactical aspects of drug and vaccine development, has joined B&D Consulting as a senior advisor in the firm's health and life sciences practice. Before joining B&D Consulting, Dr. Honig served as a Senior Vice President at Merck & Co. where he was head of Worldwide Regulatory Affairs and Product Safety. He was responsible for Global Regulatory, Clinical Research Operations, including Data Management and Clinical Supplies; Toxicology and Safety Assessment and Quality Assurance; Medical and Regulatory Policy; Japan Development; and Over-the-Counter Development. "We are excited to have Peter join our firm," said Ed Dougherty who leads the firm's health and life science practice. "He is a recognized leader in the FDA regulatory and product development field. His expertise will greatly support our clients' innovation and commercialization efforts," Dougherty continued. Prior to Merck, Dr. Honig was a director in the Office of Drug Safety in the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). He joined the center as a medical officer in the Division of Oncology and Pulmonary Drug Products. Dr. Honig also served as the FDA representative to the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics' steering committee, CDER liaison to the Harvard Clinical Investigators fellowship training program and CDER representative to the MedDRA Management Board (MSSO) and the ICH E2B Expert Working Group. "By joining us he not only helps us reach our own goal of providing leading regulatory consulting services, but also a truly integrated offering that can meet the needs of the medical innovation community throughout the product lifecycle," said Dave Zook Chair of B&D Consulting. Dr. Honig is the latest addition to the regulatory services component of the firm's growing health and life sciences practice. In late 2009, Franson PharmAdvisors LLC led by Dr. Tim Franson merged with B&D Consulting to launch this capability alongside the firm's other disciplines. Dr. Franson, a former Vice President of Global Regulatory Affairs and Drug Safety at Eli Lilly and Company, will work closely with Dr. Honig to meet the regulatory needs of clients across the life sciences sector. Dr. Honig's expertise in drug and vaccine development includes clinical pharmacology, clinical program and clinical trial design, compliance, medical product safety and medical product regulation. His involvement and leadership were instrumental to many new product approvals at Merck, including EmendTM (aprepitant), VytorinTM/ZetiaTM (simvastatin/ezetimibe), JanuviaTM (sitagliptin), RotateqTM (rotavirus vaccine), ProquadTM

(MMR-Varicella quadrivalent vaccine), ZostavaxTM (shingles vaccine), GardasilTM (HPV vaccine) and IsentressTM (raltegravir), NulotanTM/PreminentTM (losartan/losartan-HCTZ) in Japan, TredaptiveTM (ex-U.S.) and a large number of global supplemental indications. Dr. Honig received his bachelor's, medical and public health degrees from Columbia University in New York City. He has post-graduate training and is board certified in internal medicine and clinical pharmacology. ABOUT B&D CONSULTING B&D Consulting is a national advisory and advocacy firm based in Washington, D.C. since 1985. The firm's professionals serve clients across key sectors, advancing their objectives within increasingly complex policy environments. Whether developing a business or advancing a mission, the B&D Consulting team has the multi-faceted skills to help clients succeed. B&D Consulting is a division of Baker & Daniels LLP, an international law firm with offices in Indiana, Chicago, Washington, D.C. and Beijing. For more information about B&D Consulting or Baker & Daniels, visit www.bakerdconsulting.com or www.bakerdaniels.com. Keywords: Acquisitions, Asia, Biotechnology, Clinical Research, Clinical Trial Research, Columbia University, Conservation, Data Management, Drug Development, Ecology, Environment, FDA, Food, Health, Healthcare Reform, Immunization, Information Technology, Japan, Medical Device, Mergers, Oncology, Pharmaceutical, Public Policy, Public Policy and Government, Regulatory Actions, Therapy, Toxicology, Treatment, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Vaccination, Vaccine Development, Vaccines, White House and Federal Government, B&D Consulting. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

BioCrossroads' Indiana Seed Fund Invests in Vaccine Biotech Company

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- BioCrossroads' Indiana Seed Fund has invested in Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. to accelerate the development of biologic materials, which may boost the effectiveness of a wide range of life-saving vaccines. Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. is developing and studying a novel technology for the development of vaccine supplements (adjuvants) that will hopefully increase the effectiveness of vaccines against illness caused by infectious diseases and epidemics - a hot topic and active area of investment this past year in the wake of the H1N1 influenza epidemic. BioCrossroads' Indiana Seed Fund I, Indiana's only targeted life sciences seed stage investment fund, is investing $400,000 to accelerate the company's product development and complete required studies to prepare the product for a Phase I human clinical trial. BioCrossroads' seed investment will also provide funds to begin studies for additional vaccine products for applications in cancer prevention. Bioscience Vaccines' adjuvant product is based upon Cook Biotech's proprietary extracellular matrix (ECM) technology that has been exclusively licensed to Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. Cook Biotech has developed numerous ECM products cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used for the repair of soft tissue in more than a million patient procedures. ECM is a complex material that helps the human body repair itself by attracting new cells and facilitating growth and tissue regeneration. "Cook's ECM technology represents a breakthrough for tissue regeneration. Through continued research, Cook Biotech discovered a special formulation of the ECM technology can be used for other life-saving purposes, such as whole cell vaccines," said David Johnson,

President and CEO of BioCrossroads. "Bioscience Vaccines is capturing those opportunities and is off to an impressive start - with real promise as a novel biotech company featuring an outstanding research team, a seasoned leadership team and a strong partnership with the University of Notre Dame." Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. has data showing that, when used as a vaccine additive (adjuvant), ECM can boost the potency of tetanus vaccine by 10 to 15 times in laboratory models. Bioscience has negotiated an advanced development agreement to be in an early stage clinical trial by the end of this year. Working in collaboration with Dr. Mark Suckow at the University of Notre Dame, the company has also studied ECM as a whole cell vaccine adjuvant to prevent and treat prostate cancer in pre-clinical research. Bioscience Vaccines' ECM adjuvant technology is an important development in the area of infectious disease and cancer vaccine development. "This major commitment from the Indiana Seed Fund makes it possible for us to move our research and ideas forward," said Paul Hall, President and CEO of Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. "This new funding starts us on the road to realizing great advancements in the prevention and treatment of a wide range of serious diseases, with life-improving and life-saving results." By 2012, human vaccines are expected to be a $24 billion market, and the veterinary vaccine market accounts for another $4 to $5 billion. One hundred million H1N1 doses were approximated to be given in the U.S. alone in 2009. Dr. Suckow, a founding scientist of Bioscience Vaccines, Inc. and associate research professor in the department of biological sciences at the University of Notre Dame, sees Bioscience Vaccines as an important opportunity for the ECM technology. "While a pathogen protein approach makes vaccines purer, safer and quicker to produce, it also increases the need for adjuvants to ensure efficacy. We believe that our ECM-based product can be formulated for use with vaccine products already being used for the prevention of specific human diseases. There is also potential for the product to be used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the prevention of animal diseases." "By having Bioscience Vaccines as an exclusive licensee, they will be able to focus their ECM research and development on the specialized area of vaccines," said Mark Bleyer, President, Cook Biotech and member of Bioscience Vaccines' Board of Directors. The company is currently in discussions to locate its headquarters at Innovation Park at Notre Dame in South Bend, IN. Keywords: Agricultural, Agriculture, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedicine, Bioscience, Biosciences, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Cancer Vaccines, Chemicals, Chemistry, Clinical Trial Research, Cook Biotech Inc., Epidemics, FDA, Finance, Food, H1N1 Virus, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Investing, Investment, Investment Funds, Mutual Funds, Oncology, Regulatory Actions, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, Technology, Tetanus, Tissue Regeneration, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Veterinary Research, BioCrossroads. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

BookIT: Finland Reduces Queues for Swine Flu with Mobile Solution

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- New mobile apps for smartphones are receiving a lot of attention these days, but a Finnish firm, BookIT, continues to develop SMS- based solutions that make lives easier for all of us, even those of us with un-stylish, out-of-date, candy-bar clunkers. Their latest application, iSMS® scheduling, allows medical centers to eliminate queues by scheduling and confirming appointments via text message. This service has already been launched in Finland and is ready for deployment in the U.S. The first medical center in Finland to use iSMS® appointment scheduling, Laakarikeskus, reported that the efficiency of BookIT iSMS® service exceeded expectations; in less than 24-hours more than 60% of patients used the text message service to schedule an H1N1 flu vaccination. Many replies came within just minutes. "The speed and ease of the booking process is very important to our customers. With the help of intelligent text messaging, booking appointments for swine-flu vaccination succeeded effortlessly and without queuing" says Doctor in Chief of Laakarikeskus, Mr. Sampo Harkonen, MD. "Intelligent text messaging service from BookIT also made the work easier for our staff. Bookings over the phone consume a lot of valuable time but due to iSMS® the capacity of our staff was released to attending the patients". BookIT iSMS® appointment scheduling service is based on ubiquitous SMS so it can be implemented anywhere in the world. BookIT is already able to offer appointment scheduling to medical centers in the U.S. and Canada. According to U.S. Account Manager, Bob Batz "we are just getting underway here, but we are already able to offer appointment scheduling services to U.S. clients. We are also looking to expand services to other important areas of healthcare such as prescription refills, compliance with medications, and senior services. With all the talk of improving healthcare and cutting costs, I believe these services will be in high demand". The inventor of iSMS® technology, Mr. Jukka Salonen founded BookIT ten years ago. "My dream was to develop a mobile service that would assist citizens in everyday tasks. We all become frustrated when we have to waste our time in queues. To overcome this problem I started working on an innovation that would eliminate it by using text-messaging." To pregnant women the world-over queuing-up in the cold of winter for flu vaccinations, Mr. Salonen's iSMS® is a welcome technology fix. For more information, please contact Bob Batz, U.S. Account Manager at [email protected] or visit www.bookit.net Keywords: Flu Vaccines, H1N1 Virus, Health, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Influenza Vaccines, Medical Supplies, Mobile and Wireless, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, Technology, Telecommunications, Vaccination, BookIT. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Celldex Receives $3 Million Sublicense Income Payment from TopoTarget

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: CLDX) announced that it has received a sublicense income payment of $3 million from TopoTarget A/S (NASDAQ-OMX: TOPO.CO) as a result of the recent co-development and commercialization agreement between TopoTarget and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: SPPI) for Belinostat, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor for the treatment of cancer. In this transaction, TopoTarget granted Spectrum a license for the co-development and commercialization of Belinostat in North America and India, with an option for the Chinese rights, in exchange for an upfront cash payment of $30 million. Based on an April 2008 agreement in which a Celldex-acquired company, CuraGen Corporation, sold the Belinostat rights to TopoTarget, Celldex is entitled to, among other provisions, 10% of any sublicense income received by TopoTarget for Belinostat up to $6 million in the aggregate. Celldex acquired CuraGen in October 2009. Under the April 2008 agreement, TopoTarget assumed all financial and operational responsibility for the clinical development of Belinostat. About Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. Celldex Therapeutics is the first antibody-based combination immunotherapy company. Celldex has a pipeline of drug candidates in development for the treatment of cancer and other difficult-to-treat diseases based on its antibody focused Precision Targeted Immunotherapy Platform. The PTI Platform is a complementary portfolio of monoclonal antibodies, antibody-targeted vaccines and immunomodulators used in optimal combinations to create novel disease-specific drug candidates. For more information, please visit http://www.celldextherapeutics.com. Safe Harbor Statement Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: This release contains "forward-looking statements" made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including those related to the Company's strategic focus and the future development and commercialization of our programs. Forward-looking statements reflect management's current knowledge, assumptions, judgment and expectations regarding future performance or events. Although management believes that the expectations reflected in such statements are reasonable, they give no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct and you should be aware that actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the uncertainties of any future payments with respect to Belinostat, as the development and commercialization of Belinostat is completely outside of the Celldex's control; the successful integration of the businesses, multiple technologies and programs of CuraGen and Celldex; our ability to adapt APC Targeting TechnologyTM to develop new, safe and effective vaccines against oncology and infectious disease indications; our ability to successfully complete product research and further development of our programs; the uncertainties inherent in clinical testing; our ability to manage research and development efforts for multiple products at varying stages of development; Pfizer's and our strategy and business plans concerning the continued development and commercialization of CDX-110; the timing, cost and uncertainty of obtaining regulatory approvals; the failure of the market for the Company's programs to continue to develop; the inability to obtain additional capital; the inability to protect the Company's intellectual property; the loss of any executive officers or key personnel or consultants; competition; changes in the regulatory landscape or the imposition of regulations that affect the Company's products; and other risks detailed from time to time in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange

Commission, including the Company's Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2008, and its Forms 10-Q and 8-K. Keywords: Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Drug Development, Finance, Financial, Health, Immunotherapy, India, Investing, Investment, Marketing and Licensing Agreements, Monoclonal Antibodies, Oncology, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, Celldex Therapeutics Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Convenient DR Walk-In Medical Center Opens in Chelsea, NYC

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- The physicians of New York Walk In Medical Group, PC, are opening the doors today at the fifth "DR Walk-In Medical Center" in a Duane Reade Pharmacy in New York City. The "Doctor on Premises" center will open at 10:00 a.m. at the new Duane Reade at 17th Street and Eighth Avenue in the Chelsea section of Manhattan. The "Doctor on Premises" center offers busy New Yorkers a better alternative to going to the emergency room for many urgent and non-urgent medical problems. All of the clinics are staffed by licensed physicians who can take care of most common ailments, minor injuries, lacerations, routine screenings, vaccinations, and referrals to specialists. The Chelsea clinic is open Monday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., with no appointment required. It accepts most insurance plans. "Walk in, neighborhood-based medical care is a growing trend in this country, and it's a very positive trend," said Dr. Maggie Bertisch, MD, Medical Director for New York WalkIn Medical Group PC. "It allows health care providers to offer a more convenient, affordable alternative to crowded emergency rooms, while delivering safe, quality medical care in a New York minute." After the patients are treated, the physicians refer them back to their local primary or specialty care physicians, maintaining the continuity of care. The clinics use electronic medical records to improve patient safety and communications with other health care professionals. The medical practice is managed by CHS and is also affiliated with Beth Israel Medical Center and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, giving the doctors and patients access to several of New York's top health care facilities. For more information about DR Walk-in Medical Care centers, including hours and locations, please visit www.drwalkin.com. The clinics are managed by Consumer Health Services, Inc. (CHS), the premier provider of on-site, physician-directed consumer health centers. The first four centers have been so successful that Duane Reade is planning to add more on-site clinics in 2010. Keywords: Consumer Health Services Inc., Immunization, Insurance, Lacerations, Pharmaceuticals, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Gentel Biosciences Powers Protein Research with New Proteomics Multi-System(TM)

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Gentel Biosciences, a leader in proteomics discovery tools, today launched the Gentel Proteomics Multi-SystemTM providing "scan-toanalysis" functionality for multiplex immunoassays, lysate and antigen arrays as well as Western Blot, ELISA and tissue imaging, delivering multi-application value to researchers worldwide. Alex Vodenlich, Gentel's CEO, said of the system, "The Gentel Proteomics MultiSystem is a game-changer in terms of functionality and affordability. It allows researchers with minimal proteomics experience or labs with limited budgets to play at a level never seen before. Gentel provides more than just an assay platform with hardware and software. We are enabling a proteomics-application workhorse that delivers reliable, reproducible results, gets you answers, and advances your research. The Proteomics Multi-System truly opens the gateway to proteomics for the non-protein researcher through its flexibility and ease of use." The integrated Proteomics Multi-System includes a high-resolution scanner along with a laptop computer preconfigured with image-capture and analysis software capable of data extraction and quantitation. In addition, the system allows the use of Gentel's flagship APiXTM chromogenic reagents and slides as well as non-fluorescent proteomics products from other leading vendors. Dr. Harry Partidos, Senior Scientist at Inviragen, Inc., and his research team leverage the Gentel Proteomics Multi-System in the development of their vaccines that protect against emerging infectious diseases. "We needed a fast and easy method for measuring cytokine levels in mouse models and the Gentel Proteomics Multi-System was a great fit for us," Dr. Partidos said. "Gentel's kits and system provide us with a quick profile of immune response from our precious, small-volume samples. It's a very practical way to measure 12 cytokines simultaneously," stated Partidos. To learn more about the power and flexibility of the new Proteomics Multi-System and to watch a short-summary presentation of how it can advance for your research, please visit www.proteomicsmultisystem.com. About Gentel Biosciences, Inc. Gentel's mission is to deliver cost-effective, easy-to-use and reliable proteomics products and services that enable researchers to perform faster discovery, validation and screening of protein biomarkers. Gentel's headquarters is located in Madison, Wisconsin. Please visit www.gentelbio.com for more information. About Inviragen, Inc. Inviragen is focused on developing life-saving vaccines to protect against emerging infectious diseases worldwide. Inviragen's lead product candidate is a vaccine to protect against dengue fever, a disease that threatens 3.6 billion people across the globe. Inviragen is also developing vaccines to protect against hand, foot and mouth disease and Japanese encephalitis, both of which affect millions of children in Asia. Vaccines in preclinical research stages include a chikungunya vaccine, a low-cost human papilloma virus vaccine, vaccines to protect against new forms of influenza and a vaccine to protect against West Nile for global health markets. Inviragen has offices in Fort Collins, Colorado, Madison, Wisconsin and Singapore. Please see www.inviragen.com for more details. Keywords: Asia, Bioscience, Biosciences, Biotechnology, Chemicals, Chemistry, China, Computers, Cytokines, Health, Immunoassay, Infectious Diseases, Pediatrics, Pharmaceutical, Proteomics, Singapore, Software, Vaccines, Gentel Biosciences Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

GenVec Announces Contract With the Department of Homeland Security

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Today GenVec, Inc. (NASDAQ:GNVC) announced a new contract with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to continue the development of adenovector-based vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) based on research and development done in collaboration with USDA-ARS and DHS S&T scientists at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center. Under this new agreement, GenVec will receive $3.8 million in program funding the first year and an additional $0.7 million if DHS exercises its renewal option under the contract. Under this contract, GenVec will use its adenovector technology to develop additional FMD-serotype candidate vaccines. GenVec will also explore methods to increase the potency and simplify the production process of FMD vaccines developed under this contract as well as its previous contract with the DHS announced in 2007. "This contract expands our ongoing efforts to develop adenovector-based FMD vaccines," said Dr. Paul Fischer, GenVec's President and Chief Executive Officer. "This new contract with the DHS will support new vaccine discovery and technology improvement for this important threat." Keywords: Agricultural, Agriculture, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Emergency Preparedness, Foot and Mouth Disease, GenVec Inc., Homeland Security, Hoof and Mouth Disease, Marketing and Licensing Agreements, Technology, USDA, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Hard To Treat Diseases HTDS Ships First $1 Million USD Order to Chile

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Hard to Treat Diseases (HTDS; http://www.htdsmedical.com/) and its China subsidiary Mellow Hope announce that the company exported the first lot of H1N1 Vaccine to Chile. Mellow Hope exported the first shipment of H1N1 vaccine to Chile. The company values order to about $1 million USD. The company endured a lengthy regulatory approval for the H1N1 vaccine's export, but since the company established the export channel, HTDS doesn't expect any further setbacks with H1N1 vaccine exports to Chile. HTDS' CEO Terry Yuan said, "We encountered some routine complications with getting the shipping and import permits in order. These complications stalled our effort to ship our H1N1 vaccine ASAP. It's all taken care of now, we opened the channels and can schedule routine shipments of our H1N1 vaccine for Chile. This contract has been in the works for months. We were expecting to have shipped this order back in November - December 2009 however it took several additional months to clear all legal and administrative hurdles. In a medical industry this is the norm. We work hard to get our orders filled and secure more contracts with other countries, from which we've received previous inquiries about our H1N1 vaccine. Gaining government permissions often stretches, but that doesn't stop our success, or

determination." In other company news HTDS recently launched its new Melem Secrets cosmetics web site www.melemsecrets.com. A new CEO of that division will shortly be announced together with some of the impressive progresses made to date. HTDS brings attention to the January 22, 2010 news release. This is an unsolicited merger proposal from an obstetrician type medical company. This Middle East Company is engaged in a treatment of pre-term labor and induction of labor. Both companies are fine tuning the details and working out the logistics. More updates and details of the targeted merger will be released shortly. Moving forward, HTDS management foresees 4 unique and distinct operating subsidiaries operating under the HTDS umbrella in the health care and cosmetics - beauty aid sector. The company reminds our shareholders and followers to monitor PinkSheets.Com Filing Section and also our IR company web site section "CLIENT SUPPORT" TAB www.minamargroup.net or this direct link http://minamarmarketinggroup.helpserve.com/ for further updates on this and other business matters. Non-newsworthy events are not press released however posted on these two separate support sites to keep our followers advised of day-to-day events. For any matters relating to retail investor queries or to send us the company directly a message please click on the "INVESTOR SUPPORT" TAB or this direct link www.minamargroup.net/helpdesk. Filings for this event are currently being reviewed and will be filed with Pink Sheets and Client Support Section in due course. To be included in company's email database for press releases, industry updates, and non-weekly activity at the company that may or may not be news released, please subscribe or opt in mailer at www.minamargroup.com/updates. Keywords: Acquisitions, Asia, Biotechnology, China, H1N1 Virus, Infectious Disease, Mergers, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, Vaccines, Hard to Treat Diseases. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Immune Targeting Systems ITS Ltd. Secures an (GBP)8.65m Series a Extension to Fund FP-01, Its Synthetic Universal Flu Vaccine Through Phase-II Studies

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Immune Targeting Systems (ITS) Limited ("ITS"), one of the leading developers of synthetic vaccines for mutating viruses, announced it had secured a Series-A equity funding round extension for £8.65m which brings the total Series A financing to £13.15m. The company's key investors HealthCap (Sweden), London Technology Fund (UK), Novartis Venture Fund (US & Basel) and Truffle Capital (France) are all participating. The round will be kept open until mid-2010 for new potential investors to invest. This funding will progress ITS's lead candidate FP-01 through to the completion of phase-II proof of concept efficacy studies. This vaccine holds the promise of being able to target all potential seasonal and pandemic influenza strains and protect people from severe influenza disease. The synthetic and thermostable FP-01 vaccine would offer a new paradigm in flu vaccine supply and could represent a major breakthrough to Governments wishing to create long-term vaccine stockpiles. Carlton Brown, CEO of ITS, commented: "This round of financing will allow the

company to evaluate its flu vaccine product candidate in phase I and Phase II clinical trials and assess the vaccine safety and preliminary efficacy against multiple influenza virus strains". Ken Powell, ITS's Chairman commented: "This sound support of ITS and its exciting clinical programmes shows that there is funding available for high quality teams and projects in 2010 and should give encouragement to other UK biotechnology companies". Florent Gros, Managing Director at Novartis Venture Fund commented: "We believe strongly in the need to enhance T-cell immunity in vaccinology, and we are delighted that ITS is advancing its unique technology and lead program to clinical validation." Jacob Gunterberg Partner at HealthCap: "In the vaccine field this is a unique global problem solving vaccine technology and its potential to hit mutating viruses in their Achilles heel is a major breakthrough. We like management's philosophy of delivering milestones and managing risk." Philippe Pouletty, MD, General Partner of Truffle Capital added: "We strongly believe novel technologies can allow vaccine protection against multiple seasonal and pandemic flu viruses and ITS pursues a very promising approach". David McMeekin, Chairman of the London Technology Fund, said, "This further funding is an important endorsement of ITS's technology and we are delighted to see a Londonbased business like this continue to attract funding from such a strong group of investors". Keywords: Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Flu Vaccines, Health, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Influenza Vaccines, Medical Supplies, Novartis AG, Pandemics, Pharmaceutical Business, Pharmaceutical Company, Technology, Vaccination, Immune Targeting Systems. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Intezyne Announces Issuance of Seven Patents Covering Its IVECTTM Method

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Intezyne announced the issuance of new patents that cover multiple dimensions of the Company's revolutionary technology platform, the IVECTTM Method, in the major pharmaceutical markets of the United States, Europe, and Japan. All patents are wholly owned by Intezyne. United States, Europe, and Japan: Polymeric Micelles for Drug Delivery - Breitenkamp, K.; Sill, K.; Skaff, H.; Breitenkamp, R. - US Patent Number 7,638,558; European Patent Number EP190744; Japanese Patent Number 4390845 - Issued claims include composition of matter of drug-loaded micelles covering a wide range of best-in-class chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer "This fundamental patent family covers the design and use of the IVECT Method as a micelle-based platform for drug delivery," explained Habib Skaff, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of Intezyne. "Receiving these critical umbrella patents in three major markets marks a significant milestone for Intezyne and will facilitate the pending prosecution of this patent family in the global pharmaceutical markets." Additional United States Patents: Synthesis of Hybrid Block Copolymers and Uses Thereof - Breitenkamp, K.; Sill, K. - US Patent Number 7,601,796 - Issued claims are directed to composition of matter of key triblock copolymers

"Synthetic triblock copolymers are the fundamental building blocks for encapsulating drugs using the IVECT Method," stated Kevin Sill, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer of Intezyne. "This patent family covers the primary synthetic copolymers used to create Intezyne's lead product candidates. Intezyne also has claims to additional triblock copolymers pending in the US and major foreign markets." Poly(ethylene glycol) Containing Chemically Disparate Endgroups - Breitenkamp, K.; Sill, K.; Skaff, H. - US Patent Number 7,560,588 - Issued claims are directed to a specific range of bifunctional PEG derivatives "Using derivatives of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is common to drug delivery. Intezyne has created proprietary bifunctional PEG derivatives with chemically distinct endgroups that utilize Prof. K. Barry Sharpless' powerful 'click chemistry'," stated Dr. Skaff. "These endgroups allow for the addition of a variety of tumor-specific targeting groups to the surface of the IVECT Micelle. Under the protection offered by this patent family, Intezyne can generate a range of IVECT Micelles specific to individual cancers, as well as apply this advanced chemistry to other 'PEGylation' technologies." Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol) and Uses Thereof - Breitenkamp, K.; Sill, K.; Skaff, H. - US Patent Number 7,612,153 - Issued claims broadly encompass composition of matter of proprietary bifunctional PEG derivatives "Intezyne has taken a stronger and broader position in drug delivery and PEGylation technology through this patent family, which covers specific, functionally diverse PEG derivatives," stated Dr. Sill. "By exploiting the commonality of PEG in drug delivery and the versatility of click chemistry, Intezyne has extended its portfolio of proprietary PEG derivatives significantly, deepening the Company's pool of resources for creating new drug delivery solutions that can expand beyond the IVECT Method." Encapsulated Amyloid-Beta Peptides Breitenkamp, K.; Sill, K.; Skaff, H. - US Patent Number 7,618,944 - Issued claims are directed to composition of matter for a variety of beta-amyloid proteins encapsulated by IVECT copolymers "Issuance of this patent family protects Intezyne's efforts should the Company choose to pursue the development or licensing of its technology for the purpose of creating a vaccine for Alzheimer's disease," stated Dr. Skaff. "Since its inception, Intezyne has performed preclinical proof-of-concept studies to encapsulate numerous chemical and biological agents. The Company intends to continue prosecuting claims to those that demonstrate potential therapeutic value." Intezyne is very active in its efforts to prosecute these and additional patents in major global pharmaceutical markets. Currently, the above four US patents are in various stages of prosecution in Europe and Japan, and several are in various stages of prosecution in additional territories, including Australia, Canada, India, Israel, Mexico, and New Zealand. About Intezyne Intezyne is dedicated to treating cancer better by offering a new solution to oncologists, who must balance the anti-tumor activity of best-in-class chemotherapeutics with their severe toxicities. Drawing from their expertise in polymer chemistry, the Company's founders created the IVECT Method to limit chemotherapeutics' anti-tumor activity to within the tumor itself, thereby sparing healthy tissues. To date, the IVECT Method has shown positive preclinical efficacy and safety profiles in multiple cancer models versus best-in-class chemotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, the IVECT Method has demonstrated preclinical proof-of-concept in a number of therapeutic and diagnostic categories, giving the Company the opportunity to monetize this asset through licensing agreements outside of Intezyne's primary oncology focus.

About the IVECT Method Intezyne's IVECT Method is a unique and remarkably safe platform that has the potential to raise the bar in terms of what patients and oncologists can expect from chemotherapy. The key to this breakthrough technology is the Company's multi-disciplinary approach, integrating polymer physics and materials science with organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. Intezyne can improve patient outcomes significantly by amplifying the efficacy and safety profiles of best-in-class cancer drugs, whose potency often is handicapped by nonspecific delivery outside of the tumor site, requiring higher dosing and resulting in severe toxicities. The IVECT Method has proven to be extraordinarily versatile, in terms of the diversity of materials that can be encapsulated securely, and its unique modular design confers unmatched adaptability at a minimal cost. Beyond chemotherapy, the Company has proven the IVECT Method can deliver many classes of small molecules, in addition to nucleic acids, oligopeptides, and diagnostic imaging agents. Keywords: Asia, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Chemicals, Chemistry, Chemotherapy, Drug Delivery, Drug Therapy, Health, India, Japan, Oncology, Organic Chemistry, Patents Actions, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Physics, Polymer Physics, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, Intezyne. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

In Phase III Data Merck's GARDASIL(R) Was Efficacious Against Anal Disease Caused by HPV-6,11,16 and 18

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Merck & Co., Inc. announced that in new Phase III data, GARDASIL® [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] was 77.5 percent (95 percent CI: 39.6, 93.3) efficacious against anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in 16-to-26 year-old men who have sex with men. The data were presented at the European Research Organization on Genital Infection and Neoplasia (EUROGIN) conference in Monte Carlo, Monaco. "We are excited to learn more about the potential of GARDASIL to help prevent HPV and HPV-related cancers and diseases in both men and women," said Richard M. Haupt, M.D., MPH, executive director, Merck Research Laboratories. GARDASIL is approved in the U.S. for use in girls and young women 9 through 26 years of age for the prevention of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18; genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11; and precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. GARDASIL is also approved in the U.S. for use in boys and men ages 9 through 26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts (condylomata acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11. It is estimated that HPV types 16 and 18 account for 70 percent of cervical and vaginal cancer cases, and up to 50 percent of vulvar cancer cases and 85 percent of anal cancer cases. Types 6 and 11 cause approximately 90 percent of all genital warts cases. Data on efficacy against intra anal disease The ability of GARDASIL to prevent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18AIN and anal cancer in males was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 598 16- to 26- year old men who have sex with men received at least one dose of GARDASIL or placebo at the time of enrollment, and then again at two and six months. This evaluation of efficacy of GARDASIL against HPV-related anal disease was

conducted in a population of men having sex with men because of the known high risk of anal infection that occurs in this group. The per-protocol efficacy (PPE) population was the pre-defined primary population for this study. As defined, this group included men who were not infected with the relevant HPV vaccine type at the start of the study, and who did not become infected with that HPV vaccine type during the course of the vaccination series (seronegative and HPV DNA-negative to the relevant HPV vaccine type at day one, and HPV DNA-negative through the vaccination series to month seven). The cases of the primary endpoint of AIN and anal cancer were counted starting after month seven with an average follow up of 2.5 years. In this PPE analysis, GARDASIL prevented 77.5 percent (95 percent CI: 39.6, 93.3) of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18-related AIN and anal cancer. A total of 29 men were diagnosed with HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18-related AIN during the study, with 24 cases in the placebo group and five in the vaccine group. No cases of HPV 11 or 18-related AIN were observed in the vaccine group. No cases of anal cancer were seen in either the placebo or vaccine group. In the study, 69 percent of the vaccine group and 64 percent of the placebo group reported one or more adverse events (AEs). These were predominantly injection-site AEs (60 percent of the vaccine group and 54 percent of the placebo group). Serious adverse events were reported rarely and occurred comparably in the vaccine (0.4 percent) and placebo (0.6 percent) groups, and none were deemed to be vaccine-related by the study investigators. 48 month end of study data for use of GARDASIL in women ages 24 through 45 also presented A separate, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of GARDASIL to prevent HPV 6,11,16,18-related persistent infection, cervical and genital disease in women ages 24 through 45. The study enrolled 3,817 women with no history of cervical disease, Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), hysterectomy or genital warts in the past five years. The women in the study received GARDASIL (n=1910) or placebo (n=1907) at day one and again at months two and six. HPV-related infection, cervical and genital disease was monitored every six months with Pap testing, genital inspection and cervicovaginal sampling. In this new end-of-study per protocol efficacy analysis of women naive to the respective vaccine types when they entered the study, GARDASIL was 88.7 percent (95 percent CI: 78.1.; 94.8) efficacious against persistent infection, CIN or EGL (including vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [VIN], vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia [VaIN] and condyloma) associated with HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. In this study, 87 percent of the vaccine group and 81 percent of the placebo group reported one or more AEs. These were predominantly injection-site AEs (77 percent of the vaccine group and 64 percent of the placebo group). Serious adverse events were reported rarely and occurred comparably in the vaccine (0.7 percent) and placebo (0.8 percent) groups, and none were deemed to be vaccine-related by the study investigators. HPV: a virus that affects both men and women HPV is a common virus. There are more than 40 types of HPV that are passed on through genital contact - most often during vaginal and anal sex. Most sexually active people, including more than half of American men, will have HPV at some time in their lives. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the U.S. alone, an estimated 20 million men and women are currently infected with HPV, and another 6.2 million people become newly infected each year. "For most people, HPV does not cause any long-term clinical problems, however for some women, certain types of HPV can cause cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer. In men and women these same types can also cause anal cancer and other types can lead to the development of genital warts. Nearly 5,000 people are diagnosed with anal cancer each year in the US," said Joel Palefsky, M.D. University of California San Francisco. In the US, it is

estimated in 2009, that approximately 11,200 new cases of invasive cervical cancer were expected to be diagnosed, in addition to 2,100 new cases of vaginal cancer and 3,500 new cases of vulvar cancer. Important information about GARDASIL[Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] GARDASIL is approved in the U.S. for use in girls and young women 9 through 26 years of age for the prevention of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18; genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11; and precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. GARDASIL is also approved in the U.S. for use in boys and men ages 9 through 26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts (condylomata acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11. GARDASIL does not eliminate the necessity for women to continue to undergo recommended cervical cancer screening. GARDASIL [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] has not been demonstrated to provide protection against diseases from vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types to which a person has previously been exposed through sexual activity. GARDASIL is not intended to be used for treatment of active external genital lesions; cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. GARDASIL has not been demonstrated to protect against disease due to HPV types not contained in the vaccine. Not all vulvar and vaginal cancers are caused by HPV, and GARDASIL protects only against those vulvar and vaginal cancers caused by HPV Types 16 and 18. Select safety information GARDASIL is contraindicated in individuals with hypersensitivity, including severe allergic reactions to yeast, or after a previous dose of GARDASIL. Because vaccines may develop syncope, sometimes resulting in falling with injury, observation for 15 minutes after administration is recommended. Syncope, sometimes associated with tonic-clonic movements and other seizure-like activity, has been reported following vaccination with GARDASIL. When syncope is associated with tonic-clonic movements, the activity is usually transient and typically responds to restoring cerebral perfusion. GARDASIL is not recommended for use in pregnant women. Keywords: Adolescent Medicine, Anal Cancer, Anal Carcinoma, Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Cervical Disease, Clinical Trial Research, Clinical Trials, Condylomata Acuminata, DNA, Dermatology, General Health, Genital Warts, Gynecology, HPV Vaccines, Health, Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccines, Hysterectomy, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Neoplasia, Oncology, Other Health, Pharmaceutical, Surgery, Urology, Vaccination, Warts, Women's Health, Merck & Co. Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

MERIAL Receives Full License Approval for ONCEPT Canine Melanoma Vaccine

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Merial, a world-leading animal health company, has gained full-licensure from the U.S. Department of Agriculture for ONCEPTTM Canine

Melanoma Vaccine, DNA. ONCEPT is a breakthrough vaccine indicated for aiding in extending survival of dogs with stage II or stage III oral canine melanoma, a common yet deadly form of cancer in dogs. ONCEPT is the first and only USDA-approved, therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of cancer - in either animals or humans. Traditionally, dogs with stage II or stage III malignant melanoma survive less than five to six months when treated with surgery alone.(1) Clinical studies of ONCEPT demonstrated significantly longer life spans even in dogs with stage II or stage III of oral melanoma. In fact, median survival time of dogs treated with ONCEPT could not be determined because more than 50 percent of the treated dogs were still living melanoma-free at the conclusion of the study or died of unrelated illness.(2) Canine oral melanoma is a common type of cancer in dogs and is the most common malignant tumor of the dog's mouth. It can also be seen in the nail and footpad.(3) Canine melanoma may be seen in any breed and is a highly aggressive cancer that frequently spreads throughout the body, including the lymph nodes, liver, lungs and kidneys.(4) To date, the most common treatments for this form of cancer have been radiation and surgery to establish local tumor control. Canine oral melanoma, however, has a high propensity to metastasize to other parts of the body and is often resistant to chemotherapy.(2,3) "Canine melanoma spreads readily, and, unfortunately, existing treatments have not succeeded in controlling the disease," said Dr. Bob Menardi, a veterinarian and spokesperson for Merial. "ONCEPT is a new adjunct treatment option for dogs that have been diagnosed with this often fatal disease." The vaccine was developed through a partnership between Merial and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. While Memorial Sloan-Kettering was testing a human melanoma vaccine, they received an inquiry from Dr. Philip Bergman - who at the time was with Animal Medical Center, and currently with Brightheart Veterinary Center - seeking novel treatments for canine melanoma. The discussions resulted in clinical trials of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering melanoma vaccine, and subsequent parallel trials by Dr. Bergman and Memorial Sloan-Kettering refined the dosage and protocol to the current therapeutic regimen for dogs. Dr. Bergman completed the initial clinical work on ONCEPT at Animal Medical Center in New York. "We're very excited about continuing research into this vaccine to explore the potential implications it has for humans. We hope this will result in improved cancer treatment for all," explained Jedd D. Wolchok, MD, PhD, a medical oncologist who specializes in immunotherapy on the Melanoma and Sarcoma Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering and also Associate Director of the Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy. The USDA issued a conditional U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License for ONCEPT in 2007. During the period of conditional licensure, ONCEPT was available to veterinary oncologists as Merial conducted additional research to further support the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. The results of that research led to the full licensure of ONCEPT. Merial obtained licensing rights from Memorial Sloan-Kettering and Dr. Philip Bergman, and, using their access to and experience with DNA vaccine technology licensed from Vical Incorporated (NASDAQ:VICL), completed the industrialization and regulatory requirements for full licensure. The vaccine will be administered via a Canine Transdermal Device, which delivers the vaccine without the use of a needle.(5) The device was developed in conjunction with Bioject, Inc., a Portland-based drug delivery company (OTC Bulletin Board: BJCT). "The Canine Transdermal Device makes administration of the vaccine easy and

quick for oncologists and their patients, leaving one less worry for dog owners dealing with their pet's cancer treatment" said Dr. Richard Stout, executive vice president and chief medical officer of Bioject. "We are proud to work with Merial in bringing this breakthrough product to market." "The approval of ONCEPT is a milestone in the cancer vaccine field and a significant advancement for our DNA delivery technology platform," said Vijay B. Samant, Vical's President and Chief Executive Officer. "Therapeutic vaccines -- the holy grail of vaccinology -- are delivered after disease onset to impede disease progress for the patient's benefit. We believe this achievement is a major step toward the initial approvals of therapeutic vaccines for humans." ONCEPT is available for use by specialists practicing veterinary oncology, so pet owners will want to ask their veterinarians about how best to access this treatment option. Merial is a world-leading, innovation-driven animal health company, providing a comprehensive range of products to enhance the health, well-being and performance of a wide range of animals. Merial employs approximately 5,700 people and operates in more than 150 countries worldwide. Its 2009 sales were $2.6 billion. Merial is the Animal Health subsidiary of sanofi-aventis. For more information, please see www.merial.com. Bioject Medical Technologies Inc., based in Portland, Oregon, is an innovative developer and manufacturer of needle-free injection therapy systems (NFITS). NFITS provide an empowering technology and work by forcing medication at high speed through a tiny orifice held against the skin. This creates a fine stream of high-pressure fluid penetrating the skin and depositing medication in the tissue beneath. The Company is focused on developing mutually beneficial agreements with leading pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and veterinary companies. For more information about Bioject, visit www.bioject.com. Vical researches and develops biopharmaceutical products based on its patented DNA delivery technologies for the prevention and treatment of serious or life-threatening diseases. Potential applications of the company's DNA delivery technology include DNA vaccines for infectious diseases or cancer, in which the expressed protein is an immunogen; cancer immunotherapeutics, in which the expressed protein is an immune system stimulant; and cardiovascular therapies, in which the expressed protein is an angiogenic growth factor. Additional information on Vical is available at www.vical.com. (1) Bergman PJ, Wolchok JD. Of Mice and Men (and Dogs): development of a xenogeneic DNA vaccine program for canine malignant melanoma. Cancer Therapy 2008;6:817-826. (2) Data on file at Merial. Study 05-171. 2009. (3) Bergman PJ, et al. Development of a xenogeneic DNA vaccine program for canine malignant melanoma at the Animal Medical Center. Vaccine 2006;24:4582-4585. (4) Liao JCF, et al. Vaccination with human tyrosinase DNA induces antibody responses in dogs with advanced melanoma. Cancer Immunity 2006;6:8-17. Keywords: Agricultural, Agriculture, Animal Health, Animal Medical Center, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, Cancer Vaccines, Chemotherapy, Clinical Trial Research, DNA Research, DNA Vaccines, Drug Development, Drug Therapy, Immunization, Immunotherapy, Medical Device, Melanoma, Oncology, Pharmaceuticals, Sarcoma, Surgery, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, USDA, Vaccination, Veterinarians, Veterinary Research, Vical, Merial. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

NOVAVAX Presents Positive Clinical Results at the World Health Organization Conference, Geneva, Switzerland

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Novavax, Inc. (NASDAQ: NVAX) today presented to the world's leading pandemic influenza vaccine experts a summary of the recent preliminary safety and immunogenicity data from its Pivotal 2009 A/H1N1 VLP pandemic influenza vaccine study in Mexico. The presentation of the results were made by Maria Allende, M.D., at the invitation-only 6th World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Evaluation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines in Clinical Trials, held at the WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation is available at www.novavax.com under the Investors/Events tab. In this study, 1,000 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 64 years old were enrolled to receive two doses of 5 mcg, 15 mcg or 45 mcg of Novavax's 2009 H1N1 influenza VLP or a placebo to determine the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. Preliminary results at Day 14 after a single dose of Novavax's 2009 H1N1 VLP pandemic influenza vaccine from approximately 500 subjects showed that the vaccine was well tolerated at all three dose levels and exhibited no systemic side effects and mostly mild local site reactions, similar to placebo. After only one dose of either 5 mcg, 15 mcg or 45 mcg in these volunteers, the vaccine achieved robust serological immune responses that are considered protective. These preliminary data indicate that a single dose of 15 mcg appears to be optimal to induce robust immune responses in broader age populations with a highly satisfactory safety profile. This dose has been selected for continuation into the second stage or Stage B of this trial. The trial's Stage B of testing, which will enroll approximately 3,000 subjects, is currently ongoing and more than fifty percent of the subjects have now been enrolled in this expanded safety phase. Subjects enrolled in this stage of the study receive a single dose of 15 mcg of Novavax's 2009 H1N1 VLP pandemic vaccine. Currently, an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) is reviewing the safety and immunogenicity data from all 1,000 subjects of Stage A of the study and will provide an update in the near future. Dr. Rahul Singhvi, President and Chief Executive Officer of Novavax, stated: "The data presented today suggest that our H1N1 VLP vaccine is well tolerated and has a robust immune response even at a low dose of 5 mcg. This is remarkable given that our vaccine does not contain any adjuvant. Stage B enrollment of 3,000 subjects, which is more than fifty percent complete, coupled with subjects previously enrolled in Stage A of this trial and other clinical trials should provide us with a sizeable database of safety information that is key to progressing our vaccine to ultimate regulatory approval and commercialization worldwide." Keywords: Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Flu Vaccines, H1N1 Virus, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Influenza Vaccines, Pandemics, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, Vaccination, World Health Organization, Novavax Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Stanley Erck Elected as Executive Chairman

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Novavax, Inc. (NASDAQ: NVAX) The Board of Directors of Novavax, Inc., announced the election of Stanley Erck as Executive Chairman. The effective date of this leadership change is immediately. Previously, Mr. Erck served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Iomai Corporation, leading the company through an initial public offering and a merger with Intercell, an Austrian vaccine company, and through the development of a late-stage infectious disease product candidate. Prior to Iomai, Mr. Erck served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Procept, a publicly traded immunology company; as Vice President of Corporate Development at Integrated Genetics (now Genzyme), and in management positions at Baxter International. Mr. Erck currently sits on the Board of Directors of BioCryst, MacCyte, MdBio Foundation and Novavax. "We are very pleased to announce the appointment of Stan to the position of Executive Chairman of the Board," stated Gary C. Evans, Lead Director of Novavax. "Stan's business experience in guiding successful infectious disease and vaccine based biotech companies should prove invaluable to Novavax as we advance our VLP pipeline into late-stage development and commercialization." "Novavax has a broad vaccine pipeline of cutting edge recombinant technology coupled with a strong management team and an excellent shareholder base," said Stan Erck. "I look forward to sharing my experience in advancing its late-stage VLP influenza vaccine towards commercialization and progressing its preclinical pipeline into human trials." "All board members of Novavax would like to thank John Lambert for his three years of service as Executive Chairman and look forward to his continuing support as a Director of the company. John's oversight during this period has helped our organization evolve our VLP technology from an early-stage idea to an innovative vaccine that has now been successfully tested in over 1,800 subjects," said Mr. Evans. Keywords: Biotechnology, Genzyme Corporation, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Novavax Inc., Pharmaceutical Business, Pharmaceutical Company, Technology, Vaccines This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

VetCentric Announces Partnership With Pfizer Animal Health

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- VetCentric, Inc., the nation's largest practice-tohome delivery provider of prescription medications and veterinary therapeutic and wellness diets, announced a partnership with Pfizer Animal Health, opening up the full suite of Pfizer products to VetCentric's partner clinics for home delivery. Pfizer Animal Health is the world's leader in the discovery, development and manufacture of veterinary-prescription vaccines and medicines for livestock and companion animals worldwide. "We are excited about this agreement and what it means for our partner clinics," says Ted Root, President and CEO of VetCentric. "In addition to expanding access to the complete Pfizer product line, we are pleased that our clinics now can be assured of the full-manufacturer's

guarantee for all of their home delivery products fulfilled by VetCentric." Veterinarians partner with VetCentric for many reasons, including the company's ability to increase patient compliance on average over 200%. This increased compliance results in more successful therapeutic results. This partnership further substantiates VetCentric's commitment to supporting the veterinary industry and its recognition that VetCentric only deals with partner veterinarians where there is a validated Vet-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR). Keywords: Biotechnology, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical Business, Pharmaceutical Company, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Wellness, VetCentric Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Pipeline Insight: Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines - Prospect of First Approval Set to Reinvigorate Interest from Major Companies in the Multi-Billion Dollar Market

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/e68ae4/pipeline_insight) has announced the addition of the "Pipeline Insight: Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines - Prospect of First Approval Set to Reinvigorate Interest from Major Companies" report to their offering. No therapeutic cancer vaccine has received approval in any of the seven major pharmaceutical markets, despite extensive research efforts. However, with one product in preregistration in the US, the prospect of the first marketed therapeutic cancer vaccine in the seven major markets is now closer to reality. Scope Forecast sales of the therapeutic cancer vaccines in late-phase development in the seven major markets over the period 2009 to 2018 In-depth profiles and analysis for all vaccines in late-phase development, including trial data, SWOT analysis and clinical and commercial potential Segmentation and analysis of the therapeutic cancer vaccine pipeline by developmental phase, class, indication and technology platform Insight and analysis of market potential for therapeutic cancer vaccines including commercial opportunity, unmet needs and patient potential Highlights of this title The theoretical market potential for therapeutic cancer vaccines in the seven major markets totals over $4.7 billion. Due to the limitations associated with the first generation of cancer vaccines, Datamonitor forecasts the current late-phase therapeutic cancer vaccines to achieve lower sales of $1.3 billion by 2018. High risk and uncertain rewards have limited larger companies' involvement in the therapeutic cancer vaccines. Of the larger companies, GlaxoSmithKline and Merck KGaA have made the greatest commitment. The prospect of the first therapeutic vaccine approval in the US could stimulate renewed interest in this therapy class from further key players. Of the 13 vaccines in late-phase development, Provenge (Dendreon), Stimuvax (Merck KGaA/Oncothyreon) and MAGE-A3 ASCI (GlaxoSmithKline) have the highest clinical and commercial potential. Provenge is likely to be the first therapeutic cancer vaccine to market,

having shown a statistically significant overall survival advantage in prostate cancer. Key reasons to purchase this title Justify go/no-go decisions on the basis of potential return on investment Identifying licensing opportunities based on company portfolio and market needs Use product profiles to aid pricing and reimbursement decisions Key Topics Covered: 1. Pipeline Overview and Dynamics 2. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines - Market Potential 3. R&D Approach 4. Pipeline Analysis & Forecasts: Personalized Vaccines 5. Pipeline Analysis & Forecasts: Standardized Vaccines For more information visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/e68ae4/pipeline_insight Source: Datamonitor Keywords: Biotechnology, Cancer Vaccines, Finance, General Health, Health, Immunization, Investing, Investment, Oncology, Pharmaceuticals, Return On Investment, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Research and Markets. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

GeoVax Labs, Inc. Reports Data on Prototype Adjuvant - Supplemented HIV Vaccine Tested in Preclinical Animal Studies

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- GeoVax Labs, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: GOVX) (the "Company"), an Atlanta-based, biopharmaceutical company developing vaccines for diseases caused by HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), announced that it presented the results of a preclinical study on a prototype HIV/AIDS vaccine at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in San Francisco. The oral presentation, "Preclinical Studies on DNA/MVA Vaccines: Co-expressed GM-CSF, a Strong Adjuvant for Prevention of Infection," was presented by Dr. Harriet Robinson, Chief Scientific Officer for GeoVax and developer of the Company's vaccines. The study investigated the use of GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) as an adjuvant with the DNA prime for the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine for prevention of HIV/AIDS. Adjuvants are agents that can increase the potency and effectiveness of a vaccine. GeoVax's work on adjuvants started in 2007. At that time, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) granted the company $15 million over five years to fund the search for any benefit derived from the use of adjuvants. Results using GM-CSF showed protection from infection from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-monkey version of the HIV virus) in 70% of the seven exposed animals after 12 weekly exposures to the SIV virus. "This is the highest level for prevention of an immunodeficiency virus infection ever reported in a non-human primate model," said Dr. Robinson. "We and other scientists originally thought it very difficult, even impossible, to completely prevent SIV infections. But based on the results from this study, we are now hopeful that our DNA/MVA vaccine supplemented with GM-CSF could actually prevent, not just control, HIV infections in humans." The GM-CSF results were produced in a study using repeated rectal challenges with

a dose of SIV that is 40 to 400 times the estimated typical dose of HIV associated with infections in humans. Following 12 weekly infection attempts, all nine of the unvaccinated animals became infected, whereas only two of the seven animals vaccinated with the adjuvantsupplemented vaccine became infected. "An ideal vaccine does not need an adjuvant and our vaccine currently in Phase 2a testing for prevention of HIV/AIDS does not contain one. However, with this recent success, we believe we have the data needed to support the design of an alternative HIV vaccine for GeoVax's product pipeline if our current vaccine does not provide good success," added Dr. Robinson. GeoVax's mission is to develop both a preventative and therapeutic vaccine to combat HIV/AIDS. Robert McNally, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer, explained, "We are currently in a Phase 2a clinical trial with a vaccine that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 testing. We are and continue to be optimistic about this product. The results from the adjuvant-supplemented product test suggest that we may have an effective alternative product should our non-adjuvanted vaccine prove suboptimal in expanded human clinical trials. This vaccine is being added to the patent portfolio of the company." The work identifying the adjuvant activity of GM-CSF is supported by an NIH funded Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development program. Animal studies were completed at the Yerkes Primate Research Center in close collaboration with Drs. Lilin Lai and Rama Rao Amara. Investigators at Louisiana State University and Duke University also participated in the project. Keywords: AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biopharmaceuticals, Biotechnology, Clinical Trials, Drugs, HIV, AIDS/HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Opportunistic Infections, Pharmaceuticals, Pre-Trials Research, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Therapies, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Viral Research, Virology, GeoVax Labs Inc. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Sinovac Completes Acquisition Aimed at Expanding Production Capacity

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (NASDAQ:SVA), a leading China-based vaccine manufacturer, announced the completion by its subsidiary, Sinovac Beijing, of the acquisition of buildings and land use rights. The total consideration for the purchase is approximately RMB120 million ($17.6 million), which will be financed from working capital. The initial payment of RMB56.5 million ($8.3 million) will be paid before February 20, 2010 and the balance of the purchase price will be paid in three installments within three years. Sinovac Beijing is acquiring five existing buildings with a total built- out area of 32,322.66 square meters on 29,021.61 square meters of land, located in Changping District, Beijing, about half hour driving away from our headquarter. The site was previously used to manufacture medicinal products. Sinovac plans to set up two new production lines with a combined annual production capacity of approximately 40 million doses, a filling and packaging line, a warehouse and an animal house. At the site, the Company will manufacture the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, which causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and its

other currently marketed flu vaccines. Mr. Weidong Yin, Chairman, President and CEO of Sinovac, commented, "We are pleased to complete the acquisition of this previously announced transaction, which supports our growth strategy. The Changping site will enable us to expand our production capacity, as the site will house two state- of-the-art production lines and other necessary supporting functions. We anticipate that it will take approximately two to three years for the lines to be set up and production of our commercialized flu vaccines to commence. These facilities will also support our growth objectives though the introduction of novel products by housing the production lines for our EV71 vaccine, which is currently being studied under the first clinical trial application for an HFMD vaccine submitted in China. If approved, it will be the first vaccine or antiviral treatment available for HFMD worldwide." Keywords: And Mouth Disease, Asia, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Business, Biotechnology Company, China, Foot, Hand, Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease, Sinovac Biotech Co. Ltd., Vaccines, Sinovac Biotech Ltd. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Prepared Remarks: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Thank you, Tom. I also want to thank NACCHO for hosting this important conference and for inviting me to speak here today. Public health is a top priority for this administration. So is strengthening our partnerships across government. So I'm glad I could come talk with you about how we can work together to keep Americans healthy and safe. Before I get to our H1N1 response and some of the lessons we've learned, I want to acknowledge a couple members of our terrific public health team who are here today. Many of you knew Tom Frieden from his trailblazing work as New York City Health Commissioner. Since then, many of you have gotten to know him as one of the key leaders of our H1N1 response. We're very fortunate to have him as our CDC director. You're also going to hear later today from Dr. Nicki Lurie, our terrific Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Like Tom, she plays a key role in almost all our public health activities. And over the last year, those efforts have greatly benefited from her extraordinary experience, not just in the federal government, but in the private sector, academia, and state government. So we're very lucky to have her, too. And last, I want to mention one member of our team who isn't here today. A few weeks ago, we lost one of our own, Diane Caves, in the Haiti earthquake. Diane joined CDC's Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response in 2007, and I'm told she immediately impressed her colleagues with her deep caring and adventurous spirit. So no one was surprised when she volunteered to go to Haiti to strengthen our HIV/AIDS programs there. She was working on those programs when the earthquake hit. Our thoughts and prayers are with Diane's family and with all families who have lost loved ones in the earthquake. Like so many of you here today, Diane's passion was building safer, healthier communities. And that job has never been more challenging than it is today. We face a wider range of public health threats than ever before in our history. It could be a dirty bomb set off in a subway car, or a contaminated food outbreak that originates outside our borders. Or we could

face a new strain of flu that targets our children, like the novel H1N1 virus. America's families are counting on us to prepare for all of these threats - and to be as prepared as possible even when we face a new threat that we haven't seen before. Because you're on the front lines of response, you know better than anyone that these health emergencies can test our entire public health system. How well we respond depends on the strength and numbers of our health workforce. It depends on the effectiveness and reliability of our countermeasures. Our response depends on how diligently we plan and practice in local communities, and on whether we have enough hospital beds and working emergency rooms. Can we execute a national response strategy on the local level and inform the national strategy with the best local data? And we know that no response can work unless we're also able to reach the public to educate them about the threat - and how to prevent it. The 2009-10 H1N1 flu was one of those crises that put every aspect of our public health system to the test. I was sworn in as Secretary just as we were recognizing the first wave of the disease. Less than an hour after I became Secretary, I was taken to the White House Situation Room to get briefed. I've been involved in the H1N1 response from my first day on the job. And what's been striking about this flu is that like so many public health crises, it hasn't evolved the way we planned. We had planned for a pandemic that was more deadly and emerged far away from our shores. The flu that presented was less lethal - thank heavens - and already present in several states. This confirmed the wisdom of our flexible, "all hazards" approach to public health preparation. The most dangerous public health threat is often the one you're least prepared for, so we tried to be prepared for everything. When the H1N1 flu hit in April, these preparations paid off. One of the first steps we took after identifying the flu was to release 11 million antiviral doses, 13.5 million surgical masks, and more than 25 million respirators from our Strategic National Stockpile. Having these countermeasures on hand allowed us to ensure that commercial shortages didn't slow our response. Another example of preparation paying off is our Hospital Preparedness Program. Since 2002, we've sent more than $3 billion to state, local, and territorial public health departments, which have been invested in strengthening our medical surge capacity. Because of this investment, many of our hospitals had actually conducted pandemic flu exercises before H1N1 hit, so they knew what to do when their emergency rooms and ICU beds started filling up. Steps like these allowed our public health response to hit the ground running. Working with partners in government, industry, and around the world, we rapidly characterized the virus, developed a candidate vaccine, made sure it was safe, and began production. By acting quickly, we made the first doses of the vaccine available in October, less than six months after the flu was identified. At the same time, we launched an unprecedented multimedia communications campaign, first to educate Americans about how to recognize the flu and how to prevent it from spreading and then to encourage them to get vaccinated. We taught an entire generation of kids how to sneeze and built an incredibly powerful one-stop web site called flu.gov that served as a resource for millions of people. All these successes had one thing in common: they were made possible by our unified public health response. In some cases, that meant partnerships between agencies within our own department, for example when the CDC, NIH, FDA and others worked to develop a safe vaccine. In other cases, it meant partnership with other departments in the federal government, like when we worked with the Education Department to develop a school closing plan that balanced health risks with the value of time in the classroom.

Most often, it meant partnership with state, local, tribal and territorial public health officials like all of you. In any public health emergency, you are both our eyes and ears on the ground and our first line of defense. That was certainly true with the H1N1 flu. And what we also saw with H1N1 was that these partnerships pay off. When we spoke with one voice, our message was clearer. When we responded together, our efforts were more effective. One good example was our vaccine locator tool on flu.gov, which used information you collected about clinics in your neighborhoods to make it incredibly easy for any family to find the nearest vaccine site. Another example were the ASTHO and NACCHO liaisons we embedded in our CDC Emergency Operations Center. Having these liaisons made it incredibly easy to share information and ideas. It helped us get feedback on whether the flu was stressing local health departments and allowed us to identify innovative approaches in local communities that we could then spread throughout the country. We also got invaluable input from our vaccine implementation steering committee, which brought state, local, territorial, and community organizations together to assist our CDC vaccine task force. Being able to incorporate these field perspectives was a huge advantage. This combination of preparation and partnership has allowed us to have a successful response to the H1N1 flu so far. Today, we have filled, finished, and released more than 155 million doses of the H1N1 vaccine and more than 70 million Americans have been vaccinated. But I want to stress that the H1N1 flu is still circulating and is still a dangerous disease. The one thing we know for certain about the flu is that it's unpredictable. The level of H1N1 disease has declined over the past couple of months, but there's no guarantee that trend will continue. So we need to continue to watch for an uptick in disease. And we need to continue to encourage Americans to get vaccinated, especially health care workers and those who are at high risk of complications. Like the cross country racers competing in Vancouver, we need to lean into the finish line and make sure we finish the job. We'll continue to work with you to keep Americans safe this flu season. But as we monitor this dangerous disease and the seasonal flu, we must also always look ahead to the next public health crisis. And that means taking a hard look at our H1N1 flu response for lessons that will allow us to do our jobs better next time, when the threat could be more dangerous or unexpected, and when we may have even less time to respond. Our department is currently conducting a rigorous review of our flu response to identify lessons that can be applied to future threats. But we already have a few insights that I can share this afternoon. For example, we've learned about the importance of partnerships outside the public health community. There was a very interesting survey recently of parents who had gotten their children vaccinated against H1N1. Almost one out of every three parents said that at least one of their children had gotten vaccinated at school. So one of the things we're going to change is we're going to look for new ways to work with outside partners to further public health goals, whether it's with our public school system or universities or businesses. Keywords: AIDS/HIV, Antiviral, Child Immunization, Federal Government, General Health, Government, H1N1 Virus, Health, Healthcare Reform, Hospitals, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Infectious Diseases, Law Enforcement and Emergency Services, Other Policy Issues, Pandemics, Pediatrics, Politics, Public Health, Public Policy, Public Policy and Government, State Government, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, The White House, Treatment, Vaccination, Viral Inhibition, Viral Therapy, Virology, White House and Federal Government, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

VIRxSYS Announces at CROI Promising Results from Its HIV Vaccine Study

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- VIRxSYS Corporation, a privately held company developing vaccines and RNA therapies for serious human diseases such as HIV and cardiovascular diseases, announced results from its prophylactic HIV vaccine (VRX1023) study in Rhesus Macaque monkeys during a presentation today at the 2010 Annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in San Francisco, CA. The study has demonstrated that the VIRXSYS vaccine, VRX1023, is capable of achieving significant control of viral load over the course of four months following a challenge with a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus found in non-human primates and similar to HIV. In addition, monkeys vaccinated with VRX1023 demonstrated an improved immune response. VIRxSYS is currently preparing an Investigational New Drug Application for the therapeutic use of their HIV vaccine candidate in HIV infected patients. "We are extremely encouraged by the results of this study. The combination of strong immune responses, viral control, and CD4 preservation is tremendous. In addition, contrary to most viral vectors currently in development, our lentiviral vector elicits nominal anti-vector responses and therefore can be successfully re-administered," said Dr. Franck Lemiale, Ph.D., Director of Immunology for VIRxSYS. "It will be very interesting to see how it performs as a therapeutic vaccine in humans." "Obviously, the HIV vaccine field has been hit with a number of disappointing trial results over the past several years," said Dr. Joep Lange, Head of the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Professor of Medicine at the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, President Emeritus of the International AIDS Society, and member of the VIRxSYS medical advisory board for HIV. "The results from this trial are very impressive and I believe could provide real excitement in the world of HIV vaccines." VIRxSYS' vaccine candidate differs from other HIV vaccine candidates in that it employs an engineered HIV-based lentiviral vector to deliver the vaccinating antigens. The study results demonstrate the VIRxSYS vaccine candidate achieves remarkably high levels of Tcell responses, resulting in a 95% reduction of viral load in Rhesus monkeys which received lentiviral vaccination, as compared to non-vaccinated control animals in this study. The investigators also observed a strong and durable immune response without the requirement of a DNA prime and a major preservation of CD4+ T cell compartment as measured by the percentage of CD4+ T cells to total lymphocytes. The lentiviral-based vaccine also elicited high levels of CD107a expression in T cells, which have recently been described as having an important role in the control of SIV/HIV. Importantly, no adverse reactions have been observed in any of the vaccinated animals following multiple infusions of the lentiviral vaccine. The Company described its intriguing data in Rhesus monkeys, which were divided into two groups receiving either the lentiviral vector vaccine or a mock vaccination as a control. Both groups were infected with a highly pathogenic SIV six months after the last immunization. "We could not have wished to achieve better results with our lentiviral-based HIV vaccines," said Gary McGarrity, PhD, Executive Vice President of Scientific and Clinical Affairs for VIRxSYS. "We believe that this lentiviral vector is an excellent HIV therapeutic vaccine candidate to move to human clinical trials. The potential impact of a series of simple injections to treat patients who are currently taking complex and often toxic multi-drug regimens, particularly in the developing world, is enormous. VRX1023 is designed to work

against all clades of HIV." Keywords: AIDS, AIDS/HIV, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Biotechnology, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Clinical Trials, Drug Development, Engineered, General Health, HIV, Health, Heart Disease, Hospitals, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Immunization, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Opportunistic Infections, Other Health, Other Science, Pharmaceutical, Research, Science, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccines, Viral Load, Viral Research, Virology, VIRxSYS Corporation. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Walgreens Named as One of Fast Company Magazine's Most Innovative Health Care Companies

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Walgreens (NYSE, NASDAQ: WAG) announced it has been selected by Fast Company Magazine as one of the health care industry's most innovative companies as part of the magazine's "Fast 50" issue which celebrates the world's most innovative companies. Walgreens was highlighted alongside other health care innovators including leading health system Kaiser Permanente, patient-community network Patients Like Me, robotic surgery leader Intuitive Surgical and technology providers GE and Cisco. Walgreens was recognized for leadership in health care services, from its national network of Take Care Clinics at select Walgreens stores to its burgeoning efforts in health and wellness services and chronic care management, including its recently unveiled Walgreens Optimal Wellness initiative, a program designed to educate and treat patients suffering from chronic disease conditions such as diabetes. "We are thrilled to be named in the pages of Fast Company among the world's most innovative organizations," said Colin Watts, Walgreen chief innovation officer. "To be recognized for our innovation in health care is especially gratifying as it validates the significant investment and progress we are making toward our goal of truly becoming a trusted community health provider and in making a measurable and important difference in our customers' and patients' lives." Hal Rosenbluth, Walgreen senior vice president and president of the Health and Wellness division, said, "Whether through our in-store health clinics or by revolutionizing employer health care offerings, Walgreens has big ideas about the state of health care in America, as well as the commitment, people and presence to deliver on the promise of more convenient, affordable care to both patients and corporations across the country." Walgreens is transforming itself from a pure dispenser of drugs to a community health provider. Take Care Clinics, located at 357 Walgreens stores in 19 states, have delivered care to nearly 3 million Americans since its 2005 launch. Walgreens Take Care Health Systems counts more than 700 in-store health clinics and employer-based health and wellness locations across the country. Through Take Care Health Systems, Walgreens delivers employer health care services, including on-site health, wellness, fitness and pharmacy solutions for a client's employee population, combined with cutting-edge programs for managing drug spend. Walgreens launched Pharmacy Management Excellence, a direct to employer,

transparent prescription drug pricing program, with Caterpillar Inc. as its initial client. PME utilizes Walgreens national drugstore footprint to provide pharmaceuticals to a company's workforce anywhere they're located. Walgreens and Take Care Clinics administered more than 7 million seasonal and H1N1 flu vaccines this season. Walgreens is on the frontlines of delivering accessible health care, with nearly 70,000 health care providers, including pharmacists, physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, fitness and health coaches and more. Walgreens focuses on disease prevention and health education, recently announcing a limited-time offer for free blood glucose testing at its pharmacies and Take Care Clinics. Walgreens launched Optimal Wellness, a self-care educational program for people with chronic conditions (initially type 2 diabetes) that capitalizes on the power of face-to-face interaction with the community pharmacist and nurse practitioner. Walgreens unveiled its 90-day at retail program in late 2009, encouraging the delivery of maintenance and chronic care medication through its national network of community pharmacies. More consistent and regular visits with Walgreens pharmacists will lead to greater adherence to chronic medications and improved health for patients. "We are creating an environment in which our nearly 70,000-strong health care providers can deliver the full extent of care their training and capabilities allow," said Kermit R. Crawford, Walgreens executive vice president of pharmacy. "In doing so, we are truly transforming Walgreens into a trusted health care provider to our customers and patients. Within pharmacy, this includes pharmacists interacting and counseling patients in new ways. Whether taking an active role in diabetes care or other chronic conditions, Walgreens will continue to lead the way in introducing new programs to care for customers and patients." Fast Company Magazine chronicled some of Walgreens health care ambitions in July 2009 under the banner, "Why Walgreens Is Building Its Own Universal Health-Care System," available at: http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/137/not-a-mickey-mouse-operation.html. To create this year's Most Innovative Companies issue, Fast Company's editorial team analyzed information on thousands of businesses across the globe. The result is a package unlike that of any other business media. It's not just about revenue growth and profit margins; it's about identifying creative models and progressive cultures - to define the many forms of innovation that exist across the business landscape. The complete list and related stories appear in the March 2010 issue of Fast Company magazine currently on newsstands and online at www.fastcompany.com/MIC. About Walgreens Walgreens (www.walgreens.com) is the nation's largest drugstore chain with fiscal 2009 sales of $63 billion. The company operates 7,162 drugstores in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Walgreens provides the most convenient access to consumer goods and services and cost-effective pharmacy, health and wellness services in America through its retail drugstores, Walgreens Health Services division and Walgreens Health and Wellness division. Walgreens Health Services assists pharmacy patients and prescription drug and medical plans through Walgreens Health Initiatives Inc. (a pharmacy benefit manager), Walgreens Mail Service Inc., Walgreens Home Care Inc., Walgreens Specialty Pharmacy LLC and Walgreens Long-Term Care Pharmacy LLC. Walgreens Health and Wellness division includes Take Care Health Systems, the largest and most comprehensive manager of worksite health and wellness centers and in-store clinics, with more than 700 locations throughout the country. Keywords: Biotechnology, Chronic Disease, Communications, Community Health, Convenience Store, Diabetes, Discount and Variety, Emerging Technologies, Flu Vaccines,

General Health, H1N1 Virus, Health, Immunization, Infectious Disease, Influenza Vaccines, Machine Learning, Medical Supplies, Other Health, Other Retail, Pharmaceutical, Pharmaceuticals, Publishing, Retail, Robot, Robotics, Robots, Surgery, Swine Flu, Swine Influenza, Technology, Therapy, Treatment, Vaccination, Wellness, Walgreens. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Flu vaccination rate at large, Midwest health system rises dramatically due to mandatory policy

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Making flu shots mandatory in 2008 dramatically increased the vaccination rate among St. Louis-based BJC HealthCare's nearly 26,000 employees to more than 98 percent, according to a report now online in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. The study's lead author, infectious disease specialist Hilary Babcock, M.D., says the success of the mandatory program demonstrates it is possible to implement a vaccination campaign on a large scale in a health-care setting. "As a patient safety initiative, we knew the flu shot was safe and effective, and the best way to protect patients was to be sure that employees were vaccinated," she says. For 10 years, BJC - affiliated with Washington University School of Medicine offered the influenza vaccine free of charge to its employees, conducted extensive education campaigns about the benefits of the shot and provided incentives to employees. While vaccination rates were consistently above the national average, they remained below BJC's target of 80 percent. The nonprofit health care organization includes 13 hospitals in St. Louis, southern Illinois and mid-Missouri. In 2006, 54 percent of BJC employees received the influenza vaccine, only slightly above average for health-care workers nationwide. In 2007, BJC employees who declined to get a flu shot were asked to sign a statement saying they understood the risk to themselves, their patients and their families. That year, the vaccination rose to 71 percent, still below BJC's target rate. Then in 2008, with a focus on patient safety, BJC made the influenza vaccine mandatory for all its employees, regardless of whether they worked directly with patients. Again, the health system provided educational programs about the benefits of the vaccine and made the shot available at no charge to employees at multiple times and locations. Employees could request religious or medical exemptions, which were reviewed by human resources and occupational health nurses, respectively. Interestingly, many fewer employees sought medical or religious exemptions than had signed declination statements in the previous year. Overall, 25,561 (98.4 percent) of BJC employees received an influenza vaccine in 2008. In addition, 90 employees (.3 percent) received religious exemptions, and 321 (1.2 percent) received medical exemptions. Medical exemptions included severe allergy to eggs, prior allergic reactions to the flu vaccine and a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome. "Some of the requests for medical exemptions reflected misinformation about the vaccine and influenza," says Babcock, an associate professor of medicine, who conducted the study with senior author Keith Woeltje, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of medicine. For

example, some requests cited asthma, cancer or a suppressed immune system, even though these conditions increase the risk of flu-related complications and are reasons to get vaccinated. In all, eight employees were terminated because they were not vaccinated or granted an exemption. Most of these employees did not submit an exemption request. Babcock attributes success of the program to the support of hospital leadership and consistent communication from BJC staff that emphasized patient safety. "Overall, the program went very smoothly," she says. "We were able to talk with the people who had concerns about the vaccine and allay their fears. A large number of employees were really glad that we had made it mandatory and that co-workers were being vaccinated." At the two teaching hospitals that are part of BJC HealthCare, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children's Hospital, all 907 medical residents and fellows complied with the mandatory policy; five received medical or religious exemptions. Although physicians employed by BJC were required to get the flu shot, most physicians affiliated with BJC HealthCare are in private practice or are employed by Washington University School of Medicine and are not covered by the mandatory policy. In the United States, influenza is associated with 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations each year, and it is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death. Other vaccines, including those for the measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox, already are required by many health-care organizations, including BJC. Babcock says she now plans to collect data for the 2009 flu season, when employees have been required to get both the seasonal flu vaccine and the H1N1 vaccine. Keywords: Biotechnology, Flu Vaccines, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Influenza Vaccines, Occupational Health, Vaccination, Washington University School of Medicine. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

New method makes vaccines stable at tropical temperatures

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- A simple and cheap way of making vaccines stable - even at tropical temperatures - has been developed by scientists at Oxford University and Nova Bio-Pharma Technologies. The British technology has the potential to revolutionise vaccination efforts, particularly in the developing world where infectious diseases kill millions of people every year, by removing the need for fridges, freezers and associated health infrastructure. The work, funded by the Grand Challenges in Global Health partnership with other funds from the Wellcome Trust, is published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. Preparing vaccines that do not need refrigeration has been identified as one of the major unsolved problems in global health. 'Currently vaccines need to be stored in a fridge or freezer,' explains lead author Dr Matt Cottingham of the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford. 'That means you need a clinic with a nurse, a fridge and an electricity supply, and refrigeration lorries for distribution. 'If you could ship vaccines at normal temperatures, you would greatly reduce cost and hugely improve access to vaccines,' he says. 'You could even picture someone with a backpack taking vaccine doses on a bike into remote villages.'

In the proof-of-concept study, the team showed it was possible to store two different virus-based vaccines on sugar-stabilised membranes for 4 months at 45°C without any degradation. The vaccines could be kept for a year and more at 37°C with only tiny losses in the amount of viral vaccine re-obtained from the membrane. 'We've developed a very simple way of heat-stabilising vaccines and shown it works for two viruses that are being used as the basis for novel vaccines in development,' says principal investigator Professor Adrian Hill of Oxford University. 'This is so exciting scientifically because these viruses are fragile. If we are able to stabilise these, other vaccines are likely to be easier.' The team's method involves mixing the vaccine with the sugars trehalose and sucrose. The mixture is then left to slowly dry out on a simple filter or membrane. As it dries and the water evaporates the vaccine mixture turns into a syrup and then fully solidifies on the membrane. The thin sugary film that forms on the membrane preserves the active part of the vaccine in a kind of suspended animation, protected from degradation even at high temperature. Flushing the membrane with water rehydrates the vaccine from the membrane in an instant. 'The beauty of this approach is that a simple plastic cartridge, containing the membrane with vaccine dried on, can be placed on the end of a syringe,' explains Dr Cottingham. 'Pushing a liquid solution from the syringe over the membrane would then release the vaccine and inject it into the patient.' The process is general and could be used for many types of vaccines and sensitive biological agents. Professor Hill adds: 'The World Health Organisation's immunisation program vaccinates nearly 80% of the children born today against six killer diseases: polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles and tetanus. One of the biggest costs is maintaining what's called the cold chain - making sure vaccines are refrigerated all the way from the manufacturer to the child, whether they are in the Western world or the remotest village in Africa. If most or all of the vaccines could be stabilised at high temperatures, it would not only remove cost, more children would be vaccinated.' Keywords: Biopharmaceuticals, Biotechnology, Drugs, Immunization, Infectious Diseases, Pediatrics, Pharmaceuticals, Technology, Therapies, Therapy, Treatment, University of Oxford, Vaccination, Vaccines, Wellcome Trust. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

Influenza vaccines: Poor evidence for effectiveness in elderly

2010 MAR 3 - (NewsRx.com) -- Evidence for the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines in the over 65s is poor, despite the fact that vaccination has been recommended for the prevention of influenza in older people for the past 40 years. These are the conclusions of a new Cochrane Systematic Review. Adults aged 65 and over are some of the most vulnerable during influenza season and a priority for vaccination programmes. However, very few systematic reviews of the effectiveness of vaccines in this group have ever been carried out. The researchers conducted a thorough search of studies based on previous vaccine

trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often considered the "gold standard", but of the 75 studies included in their review, the researchers were only able to identify one recent RCT with "real" outcomes. In other words, this was the only RCT that used influenza cases as an outcome, as opposed to surrogate outcomes such as measurements of influenza antibodies in the blood. All the other studies included in the review were deemed of low quality and open to bias. Limited reliable evidence from the studies suggests that the effectiveness of influenza vaccines is modest at best. "Our estimates are consistently below those usually quoted by economists and in decision making," says lead researcher Tom Jefferson of the Cochrane Collaboration in Rome, Italy. "But until we have all available evidence, it is hard to reach any clear conclusions about the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in older people." "As the evidence is so scarce at the moment, we should be looking at other strategies to complement vaccinations. Some of these are very simple things like personal hygiene, and adequate food and water," says Jefferson. "Meanwhile, we need to undertake a high quality, publicly funded trial that runs over several seasons to try to resolve some of the uncertainties we're currently facing." Jefferson is also one of the authors of a second review publishing this week, which focuses on the efficacy of influenza vaccinations in healthcare workers who work with the elderly. The results are also inconclusive, with each of the four trials included in the review being of inadequate quality and reaching implausible conclusions. The researchers were unable to draw any conclusions about whether vaccinating healthcare workers helps to prevent influenza symptoms and death in people aged over 60. Keywords: Biotechnology, Clinical Trial Research, Flu Vaccines, Immunization, Influenza Vaccines, Vaccination, Wiley-Blackwell. This article was prepared by Vaccine Weekly editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, Vaccine Weekly via NewsRx.com.

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