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NCHRP 20-7 Task 230 Workshop on Safety and Security in Roadway Tunnels

Regulations, Standards and Guidelines

November 28 - 29, 2007 Irvine, California

Bill Connell

Parsons Brinckerhoff Parsons Brinckerhoff

Chairman - NFPA Technical Committee

NFPA 502 - Road Tunnels Bridges and Other Limited Access Highways -

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Presentation Outline

Document Definition Issuing Entities Key Documents A Comparison Conclusions

Problem Statement

We don't have one of these !! >>>

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Document Definition

Regulation - a document containing specific mandatory requirements adopted and enforced by a legal government entity. Standard - a document containing mandatory language, usually produced by a technical entity such as an association or society. These documents by themselves have no legal standing except where they have been adopted by or on behalf of a government agency by legislative action. Guideline - a document providing recommended practices in the design, construction, installation, and operation for the fire life safety and fire protection systems in road tunnels. These documents have been typically prepared by technical associations as well as some governmental agencies.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Issuing Entities

UNECE - Transport Division European Union Commission PIARC NFPA ASHRAE ITA Individual Nations

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

United Nations Economic and Social Council

Inland Transport Division ­ Recommendations of the Group of Experts on Safety in Road Tunnels ­ Final Report 2001

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

European Union Commission

Directive 2004/54/EC Minimum Safety Requirements for Tunnels in the Trans-European Road Network - 2004

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

PIARC Technical Committees

Technical Committee on Road Tunnel Operation (C5)

· · · · · ·

Operational Human Factors of Safety Pollution, Ventilation, Environment Communication Systems Dangerous Goods Transport Fire and Smoke Control -1999

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

National Fire Protection Association

NFPA 502 ­

Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and Other Limited Access Highways - 2008

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

ASHRAE

Technical Committee TC 5.09

Applications Handbook Chapter 13 - Enclosed Vehicular Facilities

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

International Tunneling Association

Maintenance and Repair (WG6) Guidelines for Structural Fire Resistance for Road Tunnels - 2004

Regulations, Standards and Guidelines

Individual Nations

Australia Australasian Fire Authorities Council Netherlands Recommendations Ventilation of

Road Tunnels, RWS Bouwdienst, Steunpunt Tunnelveiligheid, 2005 Public Roads Administration, Norway, 1990

Fire Safety Guidelines for Road Tunnels 2001 9261:9262, Austria, 1997

Austria Design Guidelines Tunnel Ventilation, RVS Croatia Regulations on technical Standards and

Conditions for Design and Construction of Tunnels on Roads, Croatia, 1991

Norway Norwegian Design Guide--Road Tunnels, Nordic Countries Ventilation of Road Tunnels, Sweden Tunnel 2004--General Technical

Sub-Committee 61, Nordisk Vejteknisk Forbund (NVF), Report No. 6, 1993 Specification for new tunnels and upgrading of old tunnels, Swedish National Road Administration, Pub. 2004,124, Sweden 2004 Federal Roads Authority (FEDRO),

Czech Republic Design of road tunnels,

Standard CSN 73 7507 Road tunnel equipment ­ technical specifications - Guideline TP 98 in the Tunnels of the National Highways Network, Ministry of the Establishment, Transport and Housing, France, 2000

France Inter-Ministry Circular No. 2000-63--Safety

Switzerland Ventilation for Road Tunnels, Swiss United Kingdom Design Manual for Roads and

Bridges, Part 9, BD 78/99, Design of Road Tunnels, 1999

Germany Forschungsgesellschaft für Strassen-

and Verkehrswesen, Richtlinien fuer Ausstattung und Betrieb von Strassentunneln (RABT), Germany, 2006

Japan National Safety Standard of Emergency

Facilities on Road Tunnel, Japan Road Association, Japan, 2001

United States Road Tunnel Design Guidelines,

Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-IF05-023, 2004

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison of Documents

Three specific documents will be compared: Regulation­ (EU Directive)

· "Directive 2004/54/EC of The European Parliament and of the Council on Minimum Safety Requirements for Tunnels in the TransEuropean Road Network" · "Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and Other Limited Access Highways" · "Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels"

Standard - (NFPA 502)

Guideline - (PIARC 1999)

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Regulation Document ­ EU Directive

Directive 2004/54/EC Developed by the European Parliament and the Council as the listing of minimum safety requirements for all tunnels belonging to the trans-European road network. The directive as adopted is dated 29 April 2004.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Regulation Document ­ EU Directive

The EU Directive introduction states in part that: "International bodies such as the World Road Association and the UNECE have for a long time been making invaluable recommendations to help improve and harmonise safety equipment and traffic rules in road tunnels. However, as these recommendations are not binding, their full potential can only be maximized if the requirements they identify are made mandatory through legislation."

As such, the EU Directive establishes specific minimum requirements for fire protection and fire safety systems requirements for all tunnels on the trans-European road network that equal or exceed 500 meters in length.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Regulation Document ­ EU Directive

SUMMARY OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS Traffic 2 000 Traffic > 2 000 Traffic 2 000 Traffic > 2 000 vehicles per lane vehicles per lane Additional conditions for implementation to be mandatory, vehicles per lane vehicles per lane Additional conditions for implementation to be mandatory, 500 -- 1 000 m> 1 000 500 - 1 000 1 000 - 3 000 m 500 1 000 m> 1 000 500 - 1 000 1 000 - 3 000 m

> 3 000 m > 3 000 m

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Regulation Document ­ EU Directive

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Standard Document ­ NFPA 502

Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and Other Limited Access Highways NFPA 502, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and Other Limited Access Highways establishes minimum fire and fire life safety requirements for road tunnels, bridges and other roadways where access by emergency responders is physically limited. 2008 Edition

NFPA 502 Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways 2008 Edition

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Standard Document ­ NFPA 502

The 2008 edition of NFPA 502 includes revisions that further clarify the categorization of road tunnels and provides broad reconsideration of the requirements and recommendations for the following areas: Application of fixed water-based fire suppression systems Protection of structure and structural elements Maintaining a tenable environment Transport of regulated and unregulated cargos Several other modifications have been made throughout the Standard that are intended to capture the latest thinking on the best practices for fire and life safety provisions. Annex material has been added and expanded to share relevant information and source material related to specific provisions.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Standard Document ­ NFPA 502

The 2008 Edition of NFPA 502 has added Table 7.2, Road Tunnel Protection Reference, which clearly defines the minimum Fire Life Safety elements required based on tunnel length

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines Guideline Document ­ PIARC 1999

"Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels" A technical guideline published in 1999 in conjunction with the XXIst World Road Congress in Kuala Lumpur.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Guideline Document ­ PIARC 1999

This 1999 report was prepared by the PIARC Technical Committee C5 (now C3.3) and its Working Group 6 as an effort to present a "state-of-the-art" assessment on the issues and methodologies for fire and smoke control in road tunnels. It was intended for those interested in road tunnel planning, design, construction, operation and safety including owners, consultants, operators, researchers, regulators and emergency responders. The document provides an overview on the key issues related to fire emergencies in road tunnels and offers background information and recommendations on the means and methods to provide reasonably efficient and cost-effective systems to protect against fire and smoke in road tunnels. For each subject addressed, references for obtaining further technical detail are provided. This report has become one of the "best selling" publications in PIARC history and went into its second printing in 2004.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Guideline Document ­ PIARC 1999

Table of Contents for this guideline document, the technical report titled: "Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels" (PIARC 1999)

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison of Requirements

Water Supply System Fire Detection System Emergency Exits Emergency Ventilation System Hydrants/Hose Connections Portable Fire Extinguishers Fixed Fire Fighting System

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Water Supply Requirements

EU Directive · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 500 meters · Required Capacity Not Addressed NFPA 502 · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 90 meters · Required Capacity I hour at 1,920 L/min

PIARC 1999 · Application Criterion Recommended · Recommended Capacity 1,000 L/min at 0.5 mPa

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Fire Detection Requirements

EU Directive · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 500 meters. Incident detection may be used in place. NFPA 502 · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 300 meters Two means required ­ one must be manual. PIARC 1999 · Application Criterion Recommends either automatic detection or surveillance

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Emergency Exit Requirements

EU Directive

· Application Criteria Required in all tunnels longer than 500 meters and Tunnel Traffic is greater than 2,000 vpl (vehicles per lane) Required Spacing Spacing shall not exceed 500 meters

·

NFPA 502

· · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 300 meters Required Spacing Spacing shall not exceed 300 meters. Cross-passageways spaced at 200m permitted in lieu of emergency exits

PIARC 1999

· · Application Criterion Recommended Recommended Spacing Spacing should be 100 meters to 200 meters

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Emergency Ventilation Requirements

EU Directive · Emergency ventilation required when: Tunnel length is 1,000 meters or greater and Tunnel Traffic is greater than 2,000 vehicles/lane/day NFPA 502 · Emergency ventilation required Tunnel length is 300 meters* or greater PIARC 1999 · Emergency ventilation recommended No specific application criteria specified

* 240 m when the maximum distance from any point within the tunnel to a point of safety exceeds 120 m

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

EU Directive

·

Comparison ­ Hydrant/Hose Valve Requirements

Application Criterion

Required in all tunnels longer than 500 meters · Required Spacing Spacing shall not exceed 250 meters

NFPA 502

· · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 90 meters Required Spacing Spacing shall not exceed 85 meters* Application Criterion Recommended Recommended Spacing Spacing should be 100 meters to 200 meters

PIARC 1999

· ·

*No location on the protected roadway shall be more than 45 m from the hydrant

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Portable Fire Extinguishers

EU Directive

· · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer than 500 meters Required Spacing Existing tunnels - spacing shall not exceed 250 meters New tunnels - spacing shall not exceed 150 meters

NFPA 502

· · Application Criterion Required in all tunnels longer that 300 meters* Required Spacing Spacing shall not exceed 90 meters

PIARC 1999

· · Application Criterion Recommended Recommended Spacing Spacing should be 100 meters to 200 meters

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison ­ Fixed Fire Fighting System

The application of fixed fire fighting systems to road tunnels is still evolving. These systems are not yet universally accepted as a legitimate fire protection and fire safety system in road tunnels by the industry. EU Directive

· Application Criterion

Not addressed

NFPA 502

· Application Criterion

Permitted but not mandatory

PIARC 1999

· Application Criterion

Optional

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Comparison Table

A tabular comparison of the fire and life safety system requirements of the three different documents examined.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

Reference Table

A tabular reference to the fire protection and life safety system requirements contained in each of the three documents compared.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

SUMMARY STATEMENT

It may be summarized that each of the document types examined: Do not uniformly recognize nor address the same fire and life safety hazards, issues and concerns unique to road tunnels. Provide differing - albeit typically small differences - in the setting or suggesting of requirements for many of the fire safety systems and features. None of these documents are considered incorrect - as each have each been developed from a different vantage point. Standard and Regulation documents are developed to set a minimum level of fire safety making it incumbent on the AHJ, engineers and tunnel operators to ensure a safe facility design. Guideline documents provide a invaluable compendium of information that allows the AHJ, engineers and road tunnel operators to make fire and life safety design decisions based on best industry knowledge and generally accepted practices.

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines

The Thematic Network FIT `Fire in Tunnels' `Fire Tunnels'

Technical Report Part 2 `Fire Safe Design' `Fire Design'

Thank you for your Kind Attention

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines Fixed Fire Fighting Systems

PIARC Position (1999) · "... sprinklers (FFFS) are generally not considered as cost-effective and are not recommended in usual road tunnels." NFPA Position (2004) · "... the use of sprinklers (FFFS) in road tunnels generally is not recommended."

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines Future Issues ­ NFPA 502

The 2007 Edition of NFPA 502 is currently being prepared and should be available to the industry in the fall of 2007.

National Regulations

Austria Australia France Germany Italy Japan Netherlands Norway Sweden United Kingdom United States

Regulations, Standards and Guidelines

International Organizations

NFPA

NFPA 502, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004 Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels, World Road Association (PIARC), Paris, 1999 Directive 2004/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network, 2004

PIARC

European Union

United Nations

Economic Council, Economic Commission for Europe, Inland Transport Committee, Recommendations of the Group of Experts on Safety in Road Tunnels, 10 December 2001

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines Comparison ­ Critical Systems

Fire Detection System Portable Fire Extinguishers Water Supply System Standpipe Hydrants/Hose Connections Fire Department Connections Fixed Fire Fighting System Drainage System Communications System Emergency Exits Emergency Ventilation System Structure resistance to fire

Regulations, Standards & Guidelines Future Issues

The two most significant future issues most likely to be considered by both the PIARC and NFPA Technical Committees related to road tunnels the issue of the installation of automatic fire fighting systems (FFFS) in road tunnels and the determination of the proper size of the vehicle fire to be employed in the road tunnel safety design process.

Impact on tunnel ventilation from alternate field vehicles such as hydrogen fueled cars. Detection system (still not reliable) Effect of fire protection system on tunnel ventilation (still not clear about it) not Human factor in evacuation. Integration of BCR with tunnel ventilation Possible implementing one hour fire rating for cargo containers

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Microsoft PowerPoint - RegsStdsGuidlines2007.ppt