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OXFORD CAMBRIDGE AND RSA EXAMINATIONS WELSH JOINT EDUCATION COMMITTEE General Certificate of Secondary Education

GEOGRAPHY SPECIFICATION B (Avery Hill)

PAPER 2 HIGHER TIER

Monday

1987/2

1 hour 30 minutes

7 JUNE 2004

Morning

Additional materials: Resource Booklet (1987/1/2/RS) ­ inserted OS Map Extract (1987/1,2/M) Scale 1 : 50 000 ­ inserted 12 or 16 page Answer Booklet to be provided by the centre

TIME

1 hour 30 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of the separate Answer Booklet. This question paper is in three sections (Sections A, B and C). Each section contains two questions. Answer only one question from each section. Answer all parts of the question in your Answer Booklet. Make sure each answer is clearly numbered. At the end of the examination complete the grid on the front of your Answer Booklet. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES You are strongly advised to read through each section carefully before answering a question. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. You will be awarded marks for the quality of written communication.

This question paper consists of 20 printed pages.

SP (CW/DR) S59331/5 © OCR 2004 [100/1162/6] Registered Charity Number: 1066969

[Turn over

Average Annual Population Growth Rate in 2001

More economically developed countries

United Kingdom Europe

North America

andt L The Br ine

N Asia Africa Pakistan 2

1987/2 Jun04

Equator South America Namibia Australasia

Key:

above 3.5%

2.6 ­ 3.5%

1.6 ­ 2.5%

Less economically developed countries

0.5 ­ 1.5%

below 0.5%

3 SECTION A PEOPLE AND PLACE Answer EITHER Question A1 OR Question A2. Question A1 (a) Study the map opposite. (i) (ii) What was the annual population growth rate in Pakistan in 2001? Compare the annual population growth rate in Pakistan with that in: · · Namibia United Kingdom [2] [1]

Refer to figures in your answer. (iii)

From the map describe the distribution of areas where the annual population growth rate is between 2.6% and 3.5%. [3]

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4 (b) Study the graph and the map below. Population Growth in Pakistan (1901- 2001) 150 125 100 Population 75 (millions) 50 25 0 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Year Urban Centres in Pakistan

N

0 km 340

A F G H A N I S TA N

Peshawar Rawalpindi

ISLAMABAD

Sialkot Lahore

Gujranwala Faisalabad Multan

INDIA IRAN

Karachi

Arabian Sea

Hyderabad

Key: City population Over 1000000 Over 500000 Over 100000 Capital Border

Karachi is a large city in Pakistan. Many people live in squatter settlements there. (i) (ii) Describe how Pakistan's population changed between 1951 and 2001. Refer to figures from the graph. [2] How does the population size of Karachi compare to other cities in Pakistan? Refer to figures in your answer. [2]

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5 (c) Study Map 1 in the separate Resource Booklet. (i) (ii) How is "quality of life" different from "standard of living"? [2]

Find the Mohammed Nagar squatter settlement on Map 1. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of this location for the people living there. Give a reason for each answer. [4]

(d) Study Photographs 1 and 2 in the separate Resource Booklet. They show life in the Mohammed Nagar squatter settlement. Suggest one scheme that could be used to tackle the problems of squatter settlements that does not involve forcing people to leave. Explain how the scheme would work. (You may refer to places you have studied if you wish.) [6] (e) CASE STUDY: A place that people have migrated away from. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name a place that people have migrated away from. State whether this place is urban (town or city) or rural (village or countryside). Describe the factors that caused people to migrate. Refer to push and pull factors. Explain how the area they migrated away from was affected. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question A1

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6 Question A2 (a) Study the map below. Percentage of Housing Rented from Borough Councils in London

N ENFIELD BARNET HARROW HARROW HARINGEY

ON GTO L NG ISLI

WALTHAM FOREST

REDBRIDGE HAVERING BARKING

HILLINGDON

BRENT

CAMDEN

WE ST MI NS TE R

HACKNEY NEWHAM

EALING

HA M M MM

TOWER CITY HAMLETS

ARK H A THW S U SOU

O ON TO N NG EA H SIIIN LS L L IT E H EN HE KE CH SM S S & ER

HOUNSLOW RICHMOND UPON THAMES KINGSTON UPON THAMES

GREENWICH BEXLEY LEWISHAM

R.

Th

am

es

AM LAM TH E T BER

WANDSWORTH

Key:

m ha es

MERTON BROMLEY SUTTON CROYDON CROYDEN CITY

R.

T

43 ­ 100% 27 ­ 42% 20 ­ 26% 0 ­ 19% Centre of London

0

5 Km

10

(i) (ii) (iii)

What percentage of housing is rented from the borough council in Greenwich?

[1]

Explain one advantage OR one disadvantage of renting a property from the borough council. [2] Compare the distribution of areas with 43% or more rented with areas with 19% or less rented. [3]

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7 (b) Study Photograph 3 in the separate Resource Booklet. It shows land-use in the Greenwich area of London. (i) (ii) (iii) List two pieces of evidence from the Photograph to show why inner city areas like Greenwich are known as areas of "mixed land-use". [2] List two different housing types shown in Photograph 3. Describe their location from the photograph. [4] Choose one type of housing area on the Photograph. Describe advantages and disadvantages of living in this type of housing area. [4]

(c) Read the passage below. FROM STREETS IN THE SKY TO VERTICAL VILLAGES Many high-rise tower blocks are being demolished. However the government estimates that over 4 million new houses will be needed by 2010. We think that, instead of building in the countryside, tower blocks should be improved to provide sustainable housing in the 21st century.

Adapted from First Report of the National Sustainable Tower Blocks Initiative (NSTBI)-Feb 2000

(i) (ii)

Many tower blocks are being demolished. However improving tower blocks has several advantages. Suggest two advantages. [2] Suggest two ways in which tower blocks could be made sustainable for people to live in for years to come. (Refer to examples from places you have studied if you wish). [4]

(d) CASE STUDY: Improving services (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name a place where services have been improved. State whether this place is in an urban (town or city) or rural (village or countryside) area. Describe how the services have been improved. Explain how these improvements affected different groups of people. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question A2

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8 SECTION B CLIMATE, THE ENVIRONMENT AND PEOPLE Answer EITHER Question B3 OR Question B4. Question B3 (a) Study the graph and information below. Wetland Area in the United Kingdom (UK) 3000 2500 2000 Thousand 1500 hectares 1000 500 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year (i) (ii) Describe what has happened to wetland ecosystems in the UK between 1900 and 1980. Refer to evidence from the graph. [2] What has happened to the area of wetland ecosystems since 1980? Explain why. [2]

Grants available in the UK since 1976 for creating wetlands.

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9 (b) Study the information below. Lincoln N

The North Sea

R.

R . Ous

d

e ll

W W

i th a

m m

Boston

The Wash

Spalding

e

King's King Lynn

an

R. W

Wisbech

e R. Ne n

The location of The Fens in the United Kingdom

March

Key:

Ely Needingworth

0 0 Km miles 10 20

R . Ou s e

The Fens land below sea level settlements

Cambridge

A Climate Graph for The Fens near Cambridge 20

oC 10

6 Growing season temperature

Temperature (oC)

20 10 oC 0

0 75 50 mm 25 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Months Precipitation (mm) Total precipitation = 505 mm

75 50 mm 25 0

The Fens used to be the largest wetland area in England. Wetlands are areas of marsh, peat, fen or water that is static or flowing. But, over hundreds of years, the water has been drained away. The flat land left is the most fertile in Britain. Over 80% is used for growing crops. This is known as arable farming. (i) (ii) Arable farming takes place around Needingworth village in the Fens. Describe the location of the village. [3] Use evidence from the resources to suggest two reasons why the Fens is one of the best areas in England for arable farming. Explain each reason. [4] [Turn over 1987/2 Jun04

10 (c) Study Photograph 4 in the separate Resource Booklet. Identify two different ways in which the natural landscape has been changed by human activity. Suggest reasons for each change. [4] (d) Study the map and information below, together with Image 1 in the separate Resource Booklet.

Bluntisham

Haddenham

Gre at O use

Huntingdon

Hemingford Grey

Needingworth St Ives

Willingham

Fen wetland area to be re-flooded

A1 4

N

Cottenham

Bar Hill

A1

0

Madingley

A428

M11

2 4 6 8 Km 5 miles

Cambridge

0 0

4 square Km

MINING COMPANY AND RSPB TO RECREATE FEN WETLANDS Hanson Aggregates, the mining company, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) are working together to create the largest wetland project in Europe. Hanson has permission to mine sand and gravel for the next 27 years around Needingworth. In return the company will pay £1 million to create the wetland. After one million tons is mined out each year, the company will use the waste to create a landform, with wetland and lakes. These will be managed by the RSPB and open to the public as a nature reserve. People say this is the perfect win-win project. The company gets sand and gravel, there are no houses to destroy, and it helps the government reach its biodiversity target. But existing farmland and its ecosystems will be destroyed over the next 27 years. How do we know that sand and gravel will still be needed up to 2030? After all we can recycle concrete and building materials already.

Spokesperson for an Environmental Group (i) (ii) Estimate the size (in square kilometres) of the wetland area to be created. [1]

Give one view for the project and one view against this project taking place. Explain each view. [6]

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11 (e) CASE STUDY: An ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name a place where you have studied an ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way by people or organisations. Name the type of ecosystem you have studied. Describe how people or organisations are using this ecosystem. Explain why this makes the ecosystem unsustainable. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question B3

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12 Question B4 (a) Study the map opposite. `Tropical storms develop in regions where the sea temperature reaches at least 27 °C. Tropical storms are also called typhoons, hurricanes or cyclones in different regions of the world.' (i) (ii) Describe the location of regions where tropical storms form. Suggest why tropical storms develop in the regions shown on the map. [2] [3]

(b) Study Photograph 5 in the separate Resource Booklet. Typhoon Olga is marked at A. This severe weather event took place during late July and August 1999. (i) (ii) Describe the location of Typhoon Olga (A on the Photograph) [2]

Another tropical storm can be identified at location B on the photograph. Suggest why the weather activity at location B did not feature in world news whereas Typhoon Olga did. [2]

1987/2 Jun04

N

Arctic Circle

Europe Asia

PA C I F I C OCEAN Tropic of Cancer

North America

AT L A N T I C OCEAN

Africa Typhoons

Equator

13

Where tropical storms form

Hurricanes

1987/2 Jun04

INDIAN OCEAN Tropic of Capricorn

Cyclones Australasia

South America

Key: 0 2000 Km 4000

Main tracks of tropical storms

Main areas where tropical storms form

[Turn over

14 (c) Study the map below.

120°E 125°E 130°E

North Korea South Korea Japan

135°E

140°E

145°E

04 August

40°N 40°N

35°N

03 August

35°N

30°N

China

30°N

02 August

25°N

Taiwan

01 August

Tropic of Cancer

25°N

The route taken by Typhoon Olga as it moved north in July/August 1999.

31 July

20°N 0 400 Km 15°N 800

20°N

30 July

15°N

Philippines

29 July 28 July 27 July 26 July

120°E 125°E 130°E 135°E 140°E 145°E

Key:

10°N

10°N

Tropical depression Tropical storm Typhoon Olga

5°N

5°N

(i) (ii)

Describe the location of Typhoon Olga on 2nd August 1999. Describe the route of Typhoon Olga after 2nd August 1999.

[2] [3]

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15 (d) Some countries in this region were also affected by other severe weather events. Study the table below. Severe Weather Events in Asia

Date 29 July 1999 30 July 1999

Country Philippines Thailand

Reported effects of severe weather events 90 dead in capital, Manila. Farmland and houses at risk. Landslides taking place. Minor flooding. No deaths reported but 32000 evacuated. Rice flooded in north. Heavy rains from Olga plus monsoon rain causes Mekong River to flood. Mudslides common. 63 dead/missing. Heavy rain for 5 days means 29000 homeless. 40000 hectares of farmland lost. 400 dead, 1.8 million homeless. Heavy rains from west of Typhoon Olga plus monsoon rain causes Yangtze River to flood.

3 August 1999 South Korea 4 August 1999 China

(i) (ii)

Which country was affected most by the severe weather events mentioned in the table? Explain your choice. [2] Many of the countries damaged by severe weather events are Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). Suggest why LEDCs find it difficult to avoid serious damage and loss of life from severe weather events. [6]

(e) CASE STUDY: A type of climate (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name a type of climate you have studied. Name a place where this type of climate can be found. Describe the main features of this type of climate. Refer to the whole year. Explain how plants and wildlife OR different groups of people are affected by this type of climate. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question B4

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16 SECTION C PEOPLE, WORK AND DEVELOPMENT Answer EITHER Question C5 OR Question C6. Question C5 (a) Study the graph below. National Forecasts for Air Passengers in the United Kingdom (UK) 600 500 400 Million passengers 300 per year 200 100 0 2000

2005

2010

2015 Year

2020

2025

2030

(i) (ii) (iii)

How many airline passengers were there in the UK in 2000?

[1]

Describe the estimated growth of airline passengers between 2000 and 2030. Refer to the graph. [2] The airline industry is a tertiary economic activity. What is meant by a tertiary economic activity? [1]

1987/2 Jun04

17 (b) Study the separate Ordnance Survey map and read the article below. One proposed location for a new airport is in the East Midlands between Coventry and Rugby.

LOCATION IS "PERFECT" FOR NEW AIRPORT? The site is in the centre of England close to major motorways. The M1 motorway is 10 miles to the east of the site and the M6 motorway is to the north. The West Coast main rail line to London also runs north of the site. Seven farms will be affected. Two small villages, Church Lawford (125 properties) and Kings Newnham (13 properties) will be destroyed. The new airport will allow Birmingham Airport to be closed, creating open space there for other uses.

(i) (ii)

The proposed site is shown on the separate Ordnance Survey map. Estimate the area to the nearest square kilometre covered by the airport. [1] Choose any two reasons why this is a "perfect" location for a new airport. Explain why you chose these reasons, using evidence from the OS map. [4]

(c) Study Photograph 6 in the separate Resource Booklet. The group opposed to the airport produced this computer-generated image. (i) (ii) Use the OS map to give a 6-figure grid reference for the church at Church Lawford. [2] Suggest two ways in which the new airport may affect the environment. Explain your choice. [4]

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18 (d) Read what a spokesperson for the Ministry of Transport said below.

In 2001 half of the UK population made at least one journey by air and this will increase. Tourist flights alone brought in £13 billion to the UK economy last year. The new airport near Rugby will create 15000 direct jobs at the airport and 45000 other jobs because of the multiplier effect.

(i) (ii)

What is meant by the "multiplier effect?" Explain how the building of a new airport can bring economic benefits to a region.

[1] [6]

(e) CASE STUDY: The location of an economic activity (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Name a primary or secondary or tertiary economic activity you have studied. Name the place where this economic activity can be found. Draw a labelled map to show the location of this economic activity. Explain how this economic activity affects different groups of people and the environment in the area around its location. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question C5

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19 Question C6 (a) Study the maps below.

0 Km 400 SWEDEN

The location of Tunisia

DENMARK REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

NETHERLANDS

Key:

POLAND

UNITED KINGDOM

BEL GIU M

EU members at end of 2001 EU = European Union

GERMANY

CZECH REP.

The A t l a n tic Ocean

LUXEMBOURG

FRANCE

AUSTRIA HUNGARY

SWITZERLAND

V SLO ENIA CROATIA

Tunisia

ITALY

BOSNIA

PORTU

GAL

SPAIN

t Line Brand The

TUNISI

The Medi terranean S ea

N

MOROCCO

ALGERIA

A

LIBYA

Tunisia in Africa [2]

(i) (ii) (iii)

Describe the location of Tunisia.

State whether Tunisia is a Less Economically Developed Country (LEDC) or a More Economically Developed Country (MEDC). Explain your answer. [2] Suggest one advantage that the location of Tunisia has for trading with countries in the European Union (EU). Explain your choice. [2]

(b) Look at Photographs 7-10 in the separate Resource Booklet (i) (ii) For each Photograph, state whether it shows primary, secondary or tertiary economic activity. [2] Choose ONE of the activities shown in the photographs that is a new economic activity in Tunisia. Explain your choice. [2]

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20 (c) Study the pie chart and the table below. Employment structure in 1961 (% employed) 0% Type of activity Primary Secondary 75% 25% Tertiary Tunisia 20 25 55 Employment structure in 2001 (% employed)

50% 1961 (i) (ii) Describe two changes in Tunisia's employment structure between 1961 and 2001. [2] Many tourists from the European Union (EU) now visit Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) such as Tunisia. Suggest reasons why. [3] What is a "multi-national company"? [1]

(d) (i) (ii)

Suggest and explain why a multinational company may bring disadvantages for the country it is located in. (You may refer to examples you have studied). [6]

(e) CASE STUDY: A country that trades with other countries (i) (ii) (iii) Name a country that trades with other countries. Describe this country's pattern of trade. Explain how this country is affected by this trade. [8] Total mark 30 End of Question C6

1987/2 Jun04

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