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Netta Avineri, University of California, Los Angeles Shushan Karapetian, University of California, Los Angeles Katya Moore, University of California, Los Angeles Afaf Nash, University of California, Los Angeles Heritage Learners' `Lingual Life Histories': An Invaluable Resource for Pedagogical Development How can heritage learners' voices inform pedagogical practices? Complementing heritage learner data including surveys, demographic research, and ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews of heritage learners can provide valuable insights into the complexities of heritage learners' life trajectories. This set of four posters will discuss U.S. heritage learner interview results from four Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL's): Arabic, Armenian, Russian, and Yiddish. LCTL's are in a unique position in the heritage language landscape since they frequently have a dearth of curricular options. Heritage learners' "lingual life histories" (Kroskrity 1993) across the life cycle can provide an invaluable source for LCTL material development. Netta Avineri: Yiddish (meaning "Jewish" in Yiddish) is a High Germanic language that has been spoken, written, and read by millions of Ashkenazic (Western, Central, and Eastern European) Jews since approximately 1000 C.E. During the last two centuries the number of secular Yiddish speakers has diminished. In fact, in 2006 the Modern Language Association stated that only 969 students were enrolled in Yiddish courses in the U.S. (Berger 2010). This presentation focuses on university-age and older adult students' affective and instrumental motivations for taking Yiddish courses, (lack of) previous experience with Yiddish language and culture and Yiddish source languages, and ideologies about language learning as central to their language learning experiences. Shushan Karapetian: Armenian is a pluricentric Indo-European language with two modern standards that are both represented in the Armenian Diaspora. The United States, particularly Los Angeles County, is home to the largest Armenian Community outside of the Republic of Armenia. This presentation focuses on university-age learners' demographic backgrounds, education/exposure to Armenian, language use, language attitude, and finally an analysis of the linguistic features of their HL.

Katya Moore: Russian belongs to the Slavic branch of an Indo-European language family. According to the 2000 Census, about three million Americans describe themselves as being of Russian descent. The present study focuses on issues of social identity construction in young learners (6 ­ 9 years old) attending a Russian Heritage Language school in California. It examines language ideologies and motivations for studying Russian in these students in relation to ideologies and motivations of their parents, teachers and the clergy of the parish where the school is based. Afaf Nash: Arabic is a diglossic Central Semitic language with a standard form and many regional dialects. It became the fastest growing foreign language in the U.S. in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 events (Shiri 2010: 212). According to the 2005 American Community Survey, there are over 125,000 speakers in California. This presentation investigates university-age students' profiles and motivations for studying their heritage language, focusing on social/family identity and the effects of political/current events. This set of posters aims to provide instructors and curriculum developers with tools for engaging their students in reflective and reflexive practices related to their language learning experiences, in order to broaden the base of materials for teaching students of LCTL's in the United States. WORKS CITED Berger, Z.S. "The Popular Language That Few Bother To Learn". Mendele Listserv. September 7, 2010. Kroskrity, P. V. (1993). Language, History, and Identity: Ethnolinguistic Studies of the Arizona Tewa. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Shiri, S. (2010). "Arabic in the USA". In K. Potowski (Ed.) Diversity in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Joan Chevalier, United States Naval Academy Discourse Coherence and Text Comprehension in HL and L2 The poster will outline a preliminary plan for a study investigating how heritage language learners and L2 learners of Russian process and comprehend connectives which play a key role in discourse coherence. The study is based on a cognitive linguistic approach to discourse. According to cognitive linguistic theory, coherence is a mental phenomenon, not an inherent property of texts (Sanders and Spooren 2007, 918-9). Text comprehension is a process whereby the reader constructs a cognitive representation of the content of the text. One of the key properties of this cognitive representation is that it is coherent (Sanders and Noordman 2000). Connectives play a key role in establishing discourse coherence. They signal the connection between segments of discourse, providing readers with critical cues about how to process and interpret text. The study focuses on the processing of causatives and linking constructions known as "vvodnye slova" (introductory words) in Russian language discourse. Causatives were selected for research in part because of all of the types of connectors they have been studied the most. Studies have shown that causally related events in discourse are recalled and are processed faster. "Vvodnye slova" were also selected for study because they can play a critical role in higher (academic) registers of discourse, signaling the rhetorical stance of the author. The goal of this study is to test how two populations of language learners that lack mastery of a full array of discourse connectives available to an educated native speaker process text. The study aims to answer three central questions: 1) Are HL incomplete acquirers better at processing discourse even when they lack knowledge of connectives that signal essential semantic relationships within the discourse? 2) Does early and prolonged heritage language exposure give HL advantages when reading written discourse? 3) Are HL better able to compensate for unfamiliarity of connectives, discerning meaning through context? Works Cited Sanders, Ted and L. G. M. Noordman. 2000. "The Role of Coherence Relations and Their Linguistic Markers in Text Processing." Discourse Processes 29 (1): 37-60 Sanders, Ted and W. Spooren. 2007. "Discourse and Text Structure." In Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, edited by D. Geeraerts and H. Cuyckens, 916-941. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elisa Duder, Auckland University of Technology Revitalization of the Mori language Te reo Mori (the Mori language) is the heritage language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Since official colonisation by the British in 1840, the impact of successive Government policies, post-WW2 urbanisation and English-language dominance, have all contributed to significant Mori-language loss. In the 1970s it was realised that Mori as a language would not survive into the next millennium with the decline of the number of native speakers and intergenerational language transmission. Since then, efforts have been made in the revitalisation of te reo Mori, pre-eminent among them the establishment of a Mori-medium schooling system; legal and political recognition of the Mori language; an increase in Mori language broadcasting; and successful marae-based (courtyard and building around the meeting house) and the and community-based movements aimed at teaching te reo Mori to adults. This project looks at one aspect of Mori language revitalisation: second language learning located in a Mori Development Faculty of an Auckland tertiary provider. The teaching and learning is based on the Te Whanake series written by Professor John Moorfield. The Te Whanake series illustrates the development of language-learning resources over the last thirty years, with the transition from textbooks, tapes and CDs to include a range of online digital tools. This research used a mixed-methods approach to explore both the learner and teacher experience of the digital tools in the second language learning of te reo Mori. The research supported the notion that the successful use of digital tools in educational contexts required a sound pedagogical knowledge of how digital resources can be used. The research highlighted the critical role teachers had in linking tikanga Mori (Mori customs and values), pedagogy and technology so that resources capitalised on students', and teachers', digital and cultural capital. The research process involved a non-Mori researcher in a Mori context. This experience was considered against the development of a Kaupapa Mori research methodology. Despite decades of literature and discussion on research methods in Mori contexts, there are only two major methodologies available to the New Zealand researcher. On the one hand is the Western tradition of objectivity and neutrality, with its assumptions about the access to knowledge. On the other hand there is the Kaupapa Mori (practices based on Mori customs and values) methodology based on Mori customs and values such as tapu (restriction and respect), koha (reciprocity and acknowledgement) and aroha (compassion and empathy). To avoid the dichotomous position of these two methodologies, a new research methodology is proposed. It is framed around the process of crafting tukutuku (ornamental lattice work) panels to illustrate how the Mori and western tradition could be "re-framed" for Pkeh undertaking research in Mori contexts, or indeed research based in New Zealand. The project concluded with observations about the combination of tikanga Mori, Mori pedagogies and an in depth knowledge of educational technologies, and the importance of these in learning te reo Mori. It

provides a model for learners of te reo Mori, based on those three elements called He Anga eWhakaako Reo. The Faculty's wider contribution to Mori language revitalisation was also considered. The learners, teachers and resources explored in this research project not only had to deliver academically-rigorous content, but must also maintain the integrity of a threatened indigenous language, which is nothing less than the culture's link between its past and future.

Alicia Gignoux, University of Montana Exploring identity with poetry: Classroom activities for heritage learners (HLs) The purpose of this presentation is to share activities and resources that encourage HLs to explore their cultural heritage and identity through poetry. Research findings indicate that HLs elect to study the heritage language because of a desire to maintain and learn about the heritage language, as well as their cultural and family background (Carriera 2004; Cho, Shin, Krashen 2004; Gignoux 2009). In addition, HLs face issues related to conflict of identity and an interest in connecting to a cultural identity (Carriera 2004; Gignoux 2009). Writing poems that allow the students to express their culture is a useful exercise for building identity (García 2008). Reading and writing poetry are both not only excellent vehicles for exploring culture and identity, but bringing poetry into the classroom is also valuable for teaching and learning about language including: vocabulary, grammar, figurative language, and self-expression. In addition, discussing and reading poetry prior to writing helps students engage in relevant themes, and cultures, as well as provide models for writing (Gardener, 2005; Alarcón, 2010). Several approaches will be presented during the presentation and an electronic document with links to useful articles and more activities will be provided through email. The examples will provide activities and themes including the following: lyrics and poetry in music, feelings, childhood, family, homeland, critical thinking skills, creativity, sharing emotions, learning about similes and metaphors, and stereotypes. Noethe (2010) who works with the Poet-in-Residence program in Montana states that what she loves about teaching poetry is the chance to see the minds of her students set free and realize that they are free say what they feel. Using poetry gives students the freedom to explore feelings, express respect and solidarity as well as conflict, identification, language, and culture while addressing the ever-changing concept of identity. In addition, the use of poetry in mixed classes with non HL students is appropriate as well and creates and atmosphere for sharing and discussing the concepts encompassing identity and culture. To conclude, this presentation will be given using a student-centered or participant-centered approach. An overview of the use of poetry to address identity and culture will be presented and will be followed by activities that encourage audience participation in small groups. A few poetry models will be presented and provided to the participants and they will be asked to write one poem to share with their colleagues in small groups. The groups can either be divided by specific language or use English as a common language in mixed language groups. Some poems that might be provided for the group activities follow: a cinquain, a bio-poem, an ode, a senses poem, and a poem that promotes reflection on common experiences. The

themes for the poems will encourage an exploration of identity, family, culture, or common experiences. Some examples of poetry by famous authors and students will be shared with the audience prior to the writing exercise as well. Some of the following examples might be included for the group activity. English is used for most of the examples. Ideally, the heritage languages are used for these exercises in class.

Bahar Otcu, Mercy College Manhattan Campus Three C's: Discourses of World Building in a Turkish Heritage School in the US Community-based heritage schools have an important role in the continuity of home languages and cultures of many ethnolinguistic communities in the US. While the mainstream education system fails to teach many of the languages spoken in the U.S. cities, community-based schools address this need by teaching the language and culture of their origin. The present paper discusses various Discourses in a community-based school founded and maintained by Turkish immigrants in New York. The paper is part of a larger case study that investigated the language and cultural practices of a community-based elementary-level Turkish school in New York. The school administrators', teachers', students', and parents' beliefs and practices were explored through an eclectic conceptual framework weaved of language maintenance and shift, language ideologies, and linguistic identity. The data collection method was linguistic ethnography, which included participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and a questionnaire. The data were analyzed following Gee's Discourse analysis framework that offers a method of analysis in six building blocks. The focus of the present paper - three C's referring to connection, collectivity and contentment - emerged as the essential cultural models within the school's Discourses of world building. The analyses revealed connection as one function of the Turkish school. It connects the Turkish American children to their heritage, especially via a focus on Turkish national history in the curriculum, and to the social and academic life in Turkey. The cultural model of collectivity occurred since the adults' Discourses frequently "other"ed the non-Turkish elements in their lives, while they collectively embraced Turkishness through the use of "we-code" versus "they-code." The last cultural model, contentment emerged as the adults frequently stated their satisfaction upon their expectations met by the students, general quality of the teachers and education, and the students' growing up with a balanced ethnic and cultural identity in the U.S.

Maria Luisa Parra, Harvard Inside the beginning: The family ecology of heritage speakers This presentation focuses on my ongoing work with families of heritage speakers. I use the title "inside the beginning" to highlight the need to support families of Heritage speakers during early stages of child and linguistic development. Drawing on Uri Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and contemporary cultural psychology approaches to child development, as well as from my research with Latino families and several interviews with parents, I present a model that conceptualizes the "family ecologies" within which heritage speakers develop their languages. The model integrates child individual characteristics with family and social factors Among the aspects that shape the beginning of these ecologies, I highlight:1) parents' different cultural and linguistic backgrounds which include: parents from the same culture (living in the U.S.); couples from two different cultures; adoptive parents; and parents heritage speakers, themselves; 2) the negotiation process between couples to decide whether to speak or not their home language(s) to their children.; 3) The relationship between parents and teachers that can promote or hinder the decision of maintaining the home language; and finally, 4) changes over time in the child's own preference and proficiency in the home language. With this presentation I will argue that support for heritage speakers' parents and teachers is crucial and needed. Both groups are eager to receive current and reliable information about home language development and maintenance and it's interaction with English. Parents and teachers will have better chances to succeed developing and maintaining home languages if they have a holistic understanding of the beginnings of the process and the individual, family and overall social factors that shape the child's learning environment. As part of these efforts, I will present briefly my ongoing work developing a program for parents interested in maintain their home language (Languages for All) and a book project entitled "Becoming bilingual: Why parents and teachers matter."

Elke Stracke, University of Canberra The motivational profile of Australian community/heritage language learners In this poster presentation I will present my current research study into the motivational profile of Australian community/heritage language (CHL) learners. There are over 1,000 community language (CL) schools in Australia. They are non-profit, after-hours institutions, open to students regardless of their linguistic backgrounds. They provide language teaching and cultural maintenance programs in approximately 70 languages to more than 100,000 learners. These schools operate independently from and outside of normal schools and school hours, i.e. they are complementary providers of languages education to mainstream schools in Australia. Whereas in the 1970s CLs were incorporated into schools' curriculum, there has been a shift away from CLs and towards Asian languages in the 1990s. The recognition of the benefits of multilingualism - educational, cognitive, linguistic, cultural, social and economic ­ has decreased with the political emphasis given to languages considered of mainly economic relevance to Australia. It is therefore timely to take stock of the motivation of children learning CHLs in Australia. Some of the questions that I would like to explore are: What does their motivational profile look like? Do age, gender, or, possibly, the specific language that the children learn, have an impact on their motivation? Do CHL learners learn a CHL because of perceived economic benefits? In brief, the aim of this study is to profile the motivation of CHL learners using a multi-mixed method drawing on survey and interview data with students currently learning a CHL in Australia. Dörnyei's 'L2 Motivational Self System' serves as the theoretical framework for this study that applies this framework in a new, not yet researched context. It is expected that the research findings will be of vital interest for CHL schools, teachers, parents and other stakeholders who wish to enhance and nurture student motivation. Understanding their learners' motivational profile will allow them to align their educational practice with the learners' motivation. In this poster presentation I will present the two research instruments that I have developed for this study of Australian CHL learners. Depending on ethics clearance of this project, I will also present first results from a pilot study in the ACT (Australian Capital Territory) planned for May 2011.

Tri Tran, University of California, Irvine Application of Prator's hierarchy of difficulty in predicting and correcting errors in the production of Vietnamese consonants in HL students The Hierarchy of Difficulty (Prator, 1967) is a classic methodology applicable in many aspects of language teaching, especially valuable in heritage language teaching to students whose first language is English. In the context of heritage language teaching, this hierarchy consists of six levels of difficulty as follows: Level 0 (Transfer--the same exact item exists in both languages); Level 1 (Coalescence--Two items in the source language as opposed to one in the heritage language); Level 2 (Under-differentiation--One item in the source language that does not have an equivalent in the heritage language); Level 3 (Reinterpretation--One item in the source language as opposed to the same item in the heritage language with modified feature(s)); Level 4 (Over-differentiation--No equivalent is found in the source language for an item in the heritage language); and Level 5 (Split--One item in the source language as opposed to two items in the heritage language). Based on this Hierarchy of Difficulty, a systematic overview of the consonants in English and Vietnamese will be presented, accompanied by their distinctive features as well as the differences on the phonemic and phonetic levels that affect the production of these consonants by heritage students of Vietnamese. This contrastive analysis will serve as a useful tool for instructors to predict, and to help correct, errors in the production of Vietnamese consonants by heritage students. The different levels of difficulty demonstrated through what we know as "negative transfer" from English to Vietnamese regarding consonants will be strategically and properly handled based on this analysis.

Nancy Ward, University of California, Los Angeles Babbling and bilingual infants In the second of the first year of life, infant speech production (like infant speech perception) begins to focus in on the native language. At around that time, speech production in monolingual infants begins to show language-specific prosody, in the form of syllable timing and intonation (Levitt & Utman, 1992; Levitt & Wang, 1991; Whalen et al., 1991). Segmental differences in babbling have not been shown until 12-months (monolinguals: de BoyssonBardies et al., 1984; bilinguals: Poulin-Dubois & Goodz, 2001). One previous longitudinal investigation suggests that bilingual infants may also show prosodic properties specific to their two languages within the first year of life. Specifically, Maneva & Genesee showed that the babbling of one French-English bilingual (aged 10-15-months) had more multisyllabic utterances, and smaller syllable shapes, when the infant was interacting with a French speaker than when he was interacting with an English speaker (Maneva & Genesee, 2002). This trend in the bilingual infant mirrors the patterns of monolinguals shown in Levitt & Utman (1992). Using a cross-sectional design, we seek to determine the robustness of the findings of Maneva & Genessee (2002). We collected babbling utterances from 10 bilingual English- and Spanishlearning 12-month-old infants. These infants participated in two half-hour babbling recording sessions, one in which the infants interacted with one (or both) of their parents, and another in which they interacted with a bilingual research assistant. The language of the parent session was determined based on how often the parent reported interacting with their infant in each language. For example, if the parent interacted with their infant more often in Spanish, then the session with the parent was conducted in Spanish and the session with the research assistant was conducted in English. All babbling utterances classified as canonical and marginal syllables (Oller, 1986; Rvachew et al., 2002) were analyzed. Canonical syllables were syllables that contained a non-glottal consonant (with transitions) and a normal-length fully-resonant vowel; marginal syllables were syllables with a consonant and fully-resonant vowel that fail to meet one part of the criteria for canonical syllables. To investigate the prosodic properties of babbling, two measures are being used. First, utterance length (in syllables) is analyzed. Corpus studies show that 80% of English words (Cutler and Carter, 1987) but only 28% of Spanish words are monosyllabic (Roark & Demuth, 2000). We hypothesize that in the Spanish session, the infants will produce significantly more multi-syllabic utterances. Second, we are comparing the syllable-type (open vs. closed) of infants' utterances in the two sessions. Coda consonants occur in 59.3% of syllables in English compared to 25.2% in Spanish (Roark & Demuth, 2000). We hypothesize that the infants in the Spanish session will produce more open syllables than in the English session. In summary, we test whether bilingual infants' babbling has languagespecific prosody depending on the language used by their conversational partner. Results will

be discussed in terms of the impact of learning a heritage language on an infants' bilingual linguistic system.

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