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Bhu-Abhilekh : E-Governance In Land Records For Madhya Pradesh

In a predominantly agrarian economy, records of land ownership and use are of great importance. However, most of these records are legacy data. Often, retrieval of a particular record requires a landowner to run from pillar to post and to waste precious time and money for a task that should not be so difficult. The Madhya Pradesh government's BhuAbhilekh has come as a godsend to the landowners of the state. State of Madhya Pradesh has prepared a largest database of Land records in the country. In the State of M.P. the Land Records of all revenue villages have been computerized, i.e. the textual data of land records are 100% converted into electronic form. Computerized land records are modified on regular basis with the facility of automatic weekly backup. Thirty Five million Khasra (Plot/Survey) numbers comprising of Eleven million Landowners have been computerized. Bhu-Abhilekh is a G2C (Government to Consumer) and G2G (Government to Government) application software product designed and developed by NIC for the Office of the Commissioner, Land Records and Settlement, Department of Revenue in the Madhya Pradesh government, to deliver excellent grass root governance within the domain of Land Management.. Bhu-Abhilekh comprises a computerized master database of land records that stores plot-wise and owner-wise details on land, crops, revenue, irrigation, demand, collection, land type, tenancy, and so on. This data can be retrieved, changed and updated. The system also allows periodic reports to be generated and issued to landowners including the two important documents Khasra -the record of Rights (ROR)- and Khatauni.

Objectives & Goals:Bhu-Abhilekh aims at facilitating delivery of citizen services as well as Computerisation of Land record management. The prime objectives of the scheme include, inter alia, the following:Bhu-Abhilekh is primarily focused on entry of legacy data and creating a repository of ownership and land use information. Computerized recording, storage, and retrieval of attribute (non-spatial) data, comprising ownership and land use


information Creation of Master database storing plot wise and owner wise details on land, crop, revenue, irrigation, demand, collection, land type, tenancy etc. to computerize the 2 major documents Khasra & Khatauni. Generation and issue of periodic reports including a copy of the Record of Rights (ROR), Khatauni etc. to the land owners through the computerized system. Land Owner Satisfaction. Improved and efficient public service delivery. Easy maintenance and updates. Reliability Transparency Citizen-Centric Governance Providing SMART (Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsible, and Transparent) Land Administration. Information retrieval via user-friendly screens and customized reports.

Challenges/ Learning from the Project:Uniform Coding ISO Quality Certification Security (Role Based, User Rights, Backups, Reports with Barcode, Preventing back dated data entry, User Log & Password Log, Tehsildar Role, Audit Trial, Bio Metric, Password encryption) SQL Data Base Administration Utilities for DSN Creation, Patch/Script run, Database integrity check & Repair. Programming level learnings (eg. Alphabetic sorting of Hindi data, More than 350 owners in a single Khasra)

Beneficiaries:Farmers/Land owners :Immediate delivery of Record of Rights (Khasra)/ B1, protection from harassment. Documents with legal implications can be generated to enable needy landholders, for use as a proof of title, to secure loans and subsidies under various development programs. Administrators:2

Data Integrity, accuracy and timeliness in Land Records Information Processing is ensured. Allows more time to the village functionary to engage in development activities since maintenance of registers is automatic due to BHU-ABHILEKH. As correct and reliable data is always available, it proves useful for planning and decision-making providing speedier social justice. Retrieval of land records information in useful formats for decision making and planning at the Revenue Village/ Tahsil/ Revenue Circle/ Sub Division / District/ State level. Helps to settle land disputes by providing accurate and effective information. Contributes to Agriculture Census work with up to date Crop information. The land reforms can be implemented effectively. Data Safety by using storage devices such as Tape Cartridges, CD-ROMS, thereby eluding data loss and data corruption. Convenient and comprehensive means of maintaining annual information like revenue, cess, Govt. land under encroachment etc. useful for initiating development programmes Financial Institutions Credible evidence to provide loans on mortgage etc Judiciary Credibility of ownership of land available for the purpose of litigation Land Planners Land use, classification and ownership towards sustainable development

Technicalities Involved in the Project:Conversion of DOS based (FoxBASE) Software into Visual Basic Porting of DOS (FoxBASE) data into SQL Hindi support from GIST card to GIST SDK Fox Base Reports converted to Crystal Report Client Server Architecture Codes Standardization


Software for District Data Centre & Data base restoration with Tehsil name

Features at a Glance:System Workflow:Captures complete intervention Mutation:Provision for all possible types of Mutation Generation of notices in the prescribed formats Scanning of supporting documents for storage, retrieval and printing Restricts backdated data entry and manipulation Automated updation of revenue records Reports:Generation and issue of periodic reports including computerised copies of the Record of Rights (ROR) (P-II), Khatauni (B-1) etc. to the landowners on pre-printed, plain and A4 size stationary. Facility to extract exclusive data of diverted land and individual liability Data Entry:Local Language (Hindi) Interfaces Support for both GIST and Remington Key Board layout Data Security:Bio-metric authentication Password and role based authorization Menu-driven and modular Multi-user Client-Server Model Automatic DSN Creation Forced Backup (weekly) Restore Audit trail workflow with minimal human


AWARDS & CERTIFICATIONS:ISO Quality Certification:BHU-ABHILEKH Version 1.0 has been Product Certified (ISO 12119) for quality requirements and testing (ISO 9126-1 and 91262) for quality model by STQC Directorate, Department of Information Technology, Government of India.

CSI Excellence award in 2003 for best IT uses in state of MP:Land Records Information system has been awarded CSI Excellence Award (best IT uses in state) for promotion of Information Technology in Madhya Pradesh.


Microsoft E-Governance Award 2006. :BHU-ABHILEKH has been selected as a finalist for the prestigious Microsoft E-Governance Award 2006.

BHU-ABHILEKH Web site:All Fifty districts of Madhya Pradesh are hosted on the web with address ( for dissemination of Records of Rights (ROR) in local language. More reports such as B1 (Khatauni), ROR (Name wise Search) & ROR (for all khata numbers) are also available.


BHU-ABHILEKH Web site data Updation:As Land Records data was being maintained/updated at tehsil level it was very difficult to update the data hosted over web from CLR office. A utility has been developed to host Tehsil level data from NIC District Centres over NIC secure connection. Using this utility data is being updated on web every month.

Progress achieved in making available record of rightsDistribution of hand written ROR are banned in Madhya Pradesh. Hand written ROR are permitted only in unavoidable circumstances. Computerization process has also increased in the revenue of Madhya Pradesh government from the distribution of computerized copies of ROR (Khasra/ Khatauni) as per the following chart (growth rate is approx. 50 % ) and the progress is going on: Financial year 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-3004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 Total No. of copies of ROR & B1. 3,88,477 5,57,898 5,80,489 7,93,548 10,63,405 13,40,018 19,40,610 66,64,445 Revenue Collection (Rs.) 34,79,765 55,13,287 60,91,043 91,88,006 1,46,77,193 2,28,90,536 3,10,26,690 9,28,66,520


Videoconferencing Facility:NIC has extended VC facility to CLR office. Regular monthly meetings are conducted using this facility with District/Tehsils level authorities. As and when new version of the software are launched a VC session is conducted to train LR staff. Interactive sessions are also conducted for the improvement in the software.

Workshops and Trainings :To make a project self-reliant, it is necessary to train the working staff in computer basics, and as per directions of the Government of India, the State Government is engaged in training of the staff on regular basis, the number of computer trained officials/employees has reached 11000 which are highest in comparison to any other Government organization. Regular workshops, trainings and Video Conferencing sessions are being conduced for different level of officers time to time. Future Goals:Web based solution for land records system Local area network for CLR office Linking of spatial & non-spatial data Integration of spatial data with non-spatial data for visual representation of plots shape, size, type, boundaries, ownership etc. Integration of Land Records system (Bhu-Abhilekh ) with the property registration system and automatic mutation following registration. Web-based MIS / GIS for spatial & non-spatial data. Extending Citizen centric services of Bhu-Abhilekh through Kiosks PKI enabling of Bhu-Abhilekh Conversion of Patwari Basta into E-Basta Web-based monitoring system for various Statistical formats (reports) as required by Commissioner, Land Records Computerization of district grading system on various parameters. E- Land Card -*-*-*-*-*-*-*-




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