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úoHdj

.=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh

m<uq jdrh

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

6 fY%aKsh 2007

úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

úoHdj

6 fY%aKsh m<uq jdrh 2007

cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh ISBN Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

uqøKh( uqøKd,h" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" uyr.u'

i

wOHË ckrd,a ;=ud f.a mKsjqvh

kj iyY%lfha m<uq úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh" j¾;udk mdi,a wOHdmk l%ufha mj;sk .eg¨ lsysmhla uÕ yrjd .ekSu uq,a fldg l%shd;aul fõ' is;Sfï yelshd" iudc yelshd yd mqoa., yelshd ÿ¾j, ùu ksid wo ;reK msßia uqyqK mdk m%Yak y÷kd .ksñka o" ta i|yd fya;= mdol jk lreKq mshjfrka mshjr fidhd n,ñka o" tu ;;a;ajhka ch .ekSug wjYH miqìu iliñka o" fuu úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh ie,iqï lr ;sfí' wdishd;sl l,dmfha rgj,a yd ii|k l, óg fmr wm rfÜ wOHdmkh m%uqL ia:dkhl mej;sKs' tfy;a wo fuu l,dmfha fndfyda rgj,a Y%S ,xldj wNsnjd wOHdmksl jYfhka bÈßhg f.dia ;sfí' okakd foa ixialrKhg" mQ¾jfhka ;SrKh lrk ,o foa bf.kqug yd mj;akd foa ta wdldrfhka u kej; f.dv ke.Sug" wOHdmksl wdh;k ld,hla ;=< wLKav j lghq;= lsÍu fï miqnEu i|yd n,mdk fya;= lsysmhla fõ' fï ish¨ lreKq i,ld n,d meyeÈ,s o¾Ykhla Tiafia kj úIhud,d iïmdokh lsÍug cd;sl wOJdmk wdh;kfha ks,OdÍka W;aidy ord we;' okakd foa fjkia lrñka o" w,q;a foa .fõIKh lrñka o" wkd.;hg wjYH foa f.dv kxjñka o" fyg ojfia id¾:l;ajh i|yd iQodku m%o¾Ykh l< yels isiq msßila ìys lsÍu fuys uQ,sl wruqK fõ' tfy;a fï ;;a;aj idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila wjYH nj wuq;=fjka lsj hq;= fkd fõ' fuf;la l,a wfma mka;s ldurj, lemS fmkqKq iïfm%aIK yd .kqfokq .=re N+ñld fjkqjg YsIH flakaøSh" ksmqK;d mdol yd l%shdldrlï fmrgq lr .;a mßKduk .=re N+ñldfõ iajrEmh uekúka jgyd f.k tu N+ñldjg yqre ùug fï wkqj Y%S ,dxlSh mdi,a .=rejrekag isÿ fõ' kj ;;a;ajhkag wkq.; ùu i|yd wjYH Wmfoia rdYshla u we;=<;a fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh" kj iyY%lfha M,odhS .=rejrhl= ùug Tng w;aje, imhkq we;e hs wms Wola u úYajdi lruq' fuu Wmfoia mßYS,kfhka Tfí ffoksl b.ekaùfï lghq;= fuka u we.hSï lghq;= o myiq lr .ekSug Tng wjldY ie,fikq we;' isiqka fjkqfjka bÈßm;a jk .fõIK Wmfoia yd fjk;a .= K d;a u l fhojq ï o .= r e ld¾hh myiq lrùug fya ; = jkq ks i el h' tfia u ld,igykalrKfha §" iSñ; iïm;a fnod §fï § yd wNHka;r wëlaIKj, § m%fhdackj;a úh yels jákd f;dr;=re /ila úÿy,am;sjreka fj; f.k hdug o .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh iydh fõ' mdi,a uÜgfï by; i|yka md¾Yj yereKq úg wdrïNl fyda wLKav .=re wOHdmk lghq;=j, kshef<k .=re wOHdmk{hskag yd .=re WmfoaYljrekag;a" ndysr wëlaIK yd kshduk jev igyka fufyhjk OQrdj,sfha úúO uÜgïj, ks,OdÍkag;a" m%fhdackj;a jk mßÈ fuu ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh ilia lsÍug Rcq j u odhl jQ cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kfha úoHd yd ;dlaIK wOHdmk mSGfha iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a wdpd¾h whs't,a'.sksf.a uy;añh m%Odk wksl=;a ks,OdÍkag yd kka whqßka iïm;a odhl;ajh iemhQ ndysr úoaj;=ka ish¨ fokdg;a" uf.a m%Kduh ysñ fõ'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

uydpd¾h fÃ' ví' úl%uisxy wOHË ckrd,a cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

iii

fmr jok

kj Y%S ,xldjla i|yd Yla;su;a mokula ilia lsÍfï wruqKska l%shd;aul jk kj iyY%lfha m<uq jk úIh ud,d m%;sixialrKh" .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila wfmalaId lrhs' fï i|yd wjYH iydh Wmßu uÜgfuka .=rejrekag ,nd §u i|yd iïmdokh lr ;sfnk fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yhg my; i|yka m%Odk fldgia wh;a fõ' · úia;rd;aul úIh ks¾foaYh · úIh ks¾foaYh ls%hd;aul lsÍug iydh jk l%shdldrlï ika;;sh · bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh §¾> lsÍfï WmlrK úIh ud;Dldj,ska yd wkqud;Dldj,ska Tíng hk iúia;r úIh ks¾foaYh" úIhud,dj iïmdokh lsÍfï È i,ld n,d ;sfnk uQ,sl ldrKd lsysmhla wjfndaO lr .ekSug .=rejrekag wjia:dj i,id fohs' kj úIh ks¾foaYhg mokï jQ idOl" úIh wruqKq y÷kajd §ulska wdrïN jk fuu fldgig úIh ksmqK;d wkqj fm< .iajk ,o ksmqK;d uÜgï we;=<;a lr ;sfí' isiqka úiska ixj¾Okh lr .; hq;= ta ta ksmqK;d uÜgu hgf;a ;SrKh lrk ,o oekqï moku úIh ikaOdrh jYfhka y÷kajd § we;s w;r tu úIh fldgia isiqkg mjrd §ug fhdod .kq ,nk nyqúO bf.kqï yd b.ekaùï l%u o i,ld n,d ta ta ksmqK;d uÜgu i|yd .; jk ld, jljdkq ;SrKh lr ;sîu fuu fldgfia úfYaI;ajh fõ' mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jev igyka hk uefhka bÈßm;a lr we;s iúia;r úIh ks¾foaYfha wjidk fldgi iEu WmfoaYl kdhlhl= u uekúka lshjd n,d f;areï .; hq;a;ls' úIh b.ekaùu i|yd ld,h fjka lsÍfï §" b.ekaùï lghq;= .=rejrekag mejÍfï §" úIh iu.dó jev igyk l%shd;aul lsÍfï §" fuka u .=re ld¾hh wëlaIKh lsÍfï § o w;aje, imhk jákd Wmfoia iuQyhla fuu fldgi uÕska mdi,a l<ukdlrejka fj; iemfha' .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha fo jk fldgi fhdað; bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh ms<sn| j meyeÈ,s wjfndaOhla .=rejrekag ,nd §u wruqKq fldg ilia lr ;sfí' .=re N+ñldfõ wfmalaIs; fjki fuka u ksmqK;d mdol wOHdmkhla hgf;a l%shdldrlï ie,iqï lsÍfï ms<sfj;a .=rejrekag y÷kajd §fuka fï fldgi wdrïN fõ' úIhud,dj l%shd;aul lsÍug wjYH l%shdldrlï ika;;sh B <Õg bÈßm;a lr we;;a fhdað; l%shdldrlï ta whqßka u l%shd;aul lsÍu .=rejreka f.ka wfmalaId fkd flf¾' ta ta .=reNj;d i;= ks¾udKYS,S yd úpdrd;aul Ñka;k yelshd fhdod .ksñka tu l%shdldrlï ;u mka;shg .e,fmk mßÈ wkqj¾;kh lr .ekSug .=rejreka fhduq úh hq;= hs' .fõIKhg ,la jk .eg¨fõ me;s wkqj lKavdhï ilia lsÍfï Wmfoia ,nd § ;snqK o mka;sfha YsIH ixLHdj u; lKavdhï ixLHdj nqoaêu;a j ;SrKh lr .ekSu .=rejrhd f.ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= fõ' l%shdldrlïj,g ld,h fjka lr we;af;a wod< ksmqK;d uÜgï idlaId;a lr .; yels mßoafoks' ta wkqj ñks;a;= y;<syl ld,fþofhka neyer ùug .=rejrekag isÿ fõ' ta ta ksmqK;d uÜgu idlaId;a lr .ekSug m%udKj;a ld,hla ta ta l%shdldrlu i|yd ,nd § ;sfnk w;r" ld, igyfka ;ks yd oaú;aj ld,fþo m%fhdackhg .ksñka fuu l%shdldrlï iqÿiq mßÈ fldgia lr l%shd;aul lsÍu .=rejreka f.ka wfmalaId flf¾' fmr Èkl wdrïN lrk ,o l%shdldrlula bÈßhg f.k hk iEu wjia:djl § u t f;la ksu lr we;s l%shdldrlï fldgia mka;shg ieflúka y÷kajd §u fï ms<sfjf;a id¾:l;ajh i|yd wjYH fõ' t fia u .=rejreka ksjdvq ,nd .kakd wjia:dj, § isiqka M,odhS bf.kqul fhoùug o fï ;SrKh mdi,a msßiaj,g wjia:dj i,id fohs' úIh bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu iuia;hla f,i i,ld tys .=Kd;aul nj wdrlaId lr .ekSu i|yd wjYH jk .=Kd;aul fhojqï ,ehsia;=jla fï fldgfia wjidk wx.h f,i bÈßm;a lr we;' wjYH bf.kqï - b.ekaùï øjH l,a we;s j weKjqï lr iqodkï lr ;eîug fï wkqj .=rejrekag yelshdj ,efí'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iv

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

úIh ks¾foaYfhka wfmalaIs; M, fk,d .ekSu ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd jeo.;a jk bÕs rdYshla u ;lafiarej yd we.hSu kï jQ .=reud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha ;=ka jk fldgig we;=<;a h' ta ta l%shdldrlu hgf;a isÿ úh hq;= ;lafiarej yd we.hSu" l%shdldrlï ldKavhla mokï lr isÿ jk bf.kqu b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍu yd fmdÿ úNd.j, § n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh yels m%Yakj, iajNdjh hk ldrKd y÷kajd §ug fuu fldgi ieliS ;sfí' ta ta l%shdldrlu ;=< ;lafiarefõ yd we.hSfï fhÈh yels wjia:d y÷kd f.k fmdÿ ks¾Kdhl fm<la weiqßka fï ld¾hhka id¾:l lr .ekSu .=rejreka f.a uQ,sl j.lSu f,i y÷kajd Èh yels h' l%shdldrlï iuQyhla b,lal fldg bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍu i|yd bÈßm;a jk WmlrK lÜg,h ks¾foaYs; mka;s ldur ieisj,ska neyer j wLKav bf.kqul fh§ug isiqkag wjldY i,id fohs' tu WmlrK weiqßka isiqka ,nk bf.kqu ksr;=re j mÍlaId lrñka Tjqka Èßu;a lsÍu .=re ld¾hh jk w;r" l%shdldrlï yd iïnkaO wjika M, ms<sn| j ie,ls,su;a fjñka ksjerÈ úksYaphkag t<öu o" tu úksYaphka wod< md¾Yajhka fj; ikaksfõokh o" .=rejreka f.ka wfmalaId flf¾' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sfha id¾:l;ajh i|yd fmdÿ úNd.j, o lemS fmfkk fjkila wksjd¾hfhka u isÿ úh hq;= hs' fu jeks úNd.j,ska wjidk jk wOHdmksl uÜgï i|yd uQ,dlD;s m%Yak lsysmhla y÷kajd §ug Y%S ,xld úNd. fomd¾;fïka;=fõ iydh we;sj cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh lghq;= lr ;sfí' jkfmd;a lsÍu" wdo¾Y m%Yakj,g ms<s;=re iemhSu jeks hdka;%sl l%uj,ska bf.kSu fjkqjg" l%shdfjka yd w;aoelSï wdY%fhka bf.kSug isiqka fhduq lr .ekSu i|yd úNd. m%Yakj, fï fjki fhdackd lr ;sfnk ksid ta ms<sn| j mdi,a isiqka yd foudmshka oekqj;a lsÍug o wdrïNfha § u isÿ úh hq;= fõ' lsishï ksmqK;d uÜgula idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd úúO l%shdldrlï ilia l< yels nj ish¨ u .=rejreka f;areï .; hq;= h' ta wkqj fhdað; l%shdldrlï ta wdldrfhka u l%shd;aul lsÍu fjkqjg jvd fyd| m%fõY" .fõIK fuka u bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍfï úúO WmlrK o fhdod .ksñka jvd id¾:l b.ekaùula i|yd Tjqka iQodkï úh hq;= hs' kj m%fõY yuqfõ .=rejreka wl¾uKH ùu j<lajd .ksñka .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila rg mqrd .=rejreka ;=< we;s lsÍug fuu ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh .=rejrekag ffO¾hh imhkq we;' t fia u fï l%shdldrlïj,ska Tíng hñka kj ks¾udKj, fhfok .=re Nj;=ka Èß .ekaùug iy;sl yd úúO ixj¾Ok wjia:d ,nd §ug wms wfmalaId lruq' tu ;s,sK i|yd iqÿiqlï ,nkq jia .=rejreka l< hq;af;a fhdað; l%shdldrlï ks¾udKYS,S Ñka;kh fhdod jeä ÈhqKq lr bÈßm;a lsÍu hs' uQ,sl l%shdldrlï ie,iqfuka neyer j fufia ilia lrkq ,nk bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ie,iqï" iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ^úIhud,d ixj¾Ok&" úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" uyr.u hk ,smskhg fhduq l< hq;= h' ta ta úIh lñgq ,jd tu l%shdldrlï wOHhkh lrjd fï i|yd iqÿiaika f;aÍu isÿ lrkq we;' kj l%ufõo uÕska bf.kqu" b.ekaùu" ;lafiarej yd we.hSu tl u fõÈldjg f.k taug fu fia wms W;aidy ord we;af;uq' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh" mdi,a mdol we.hSu fuka u f.or jev mejreï o w¾:j;a j yiqrejd .ekSug fï wkqj .=rejrekag ´kE ;rï bv m%ia:d ,efnkq we;' fuu w;ajef,ka Wmßu m%fhdack ,nñka .;dkq.;sl bf.kqï yd b.ekaùï m%fõYj,ska neyer ù oefha ¥ mq;=ka f.a Ñka;k yelshd" iudc yelshd fuka u mqoa., yelshd o jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug Y%S ,dxlSh mdi,a wOHdmkh l%shd;aul jkq we;ehs hkak wfma taldhk úYajdih hs' wdpd¾h bkaÈrd ,s,dukS .sksf.a iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ^úIhud,d ixj¾Ok& úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

v

fufyhùu

(

uydpd¾h fÃ'ví,sõ' úl%uisxy - wOHlaI ckrd,a

WmfoaYl;ajh

(

wdpd¾h bkaosrd ,s,dukS .sksf.a - iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a

wëla I Kh

(

iS' tï' wd¾' weka;ks uhd - wOHlaI

úIh kdhl;ajh" iïnkaëlrKh yd ixialrKh

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iS' tï' wd¾' weka;ks uhd Ô' tÉ' f.!;uodi uhd ví' ta' ã' r;akiQßh uhd ví' ã' úfÃisxy uhd ví' ta' iqu;smd, uhd fÃ' wdoïf,ífí fuh ta' ã' ta' o is,ajd uhd t,a' fla' jvqf.a uhd mS' u,úm;srK uhd k§ wud chfialr ñh tÉ' tï' udmd.=Kr;ak fuh

- wOHlaI - m%'jHd'ks' - m%'jHd'ks' - m%'jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - jHd'ks' - i'jHd'ks'

Ñ;%(

hQ' ,lSId ksjka;s m%kdkaÿ fuh Ñ;% l,dj - .=re fiajh fld<U isßudfjda nKavdrkdhl úÿy,

mrs.Kl msgq ieliqu( ljrh yd mß.Kl Ñ;% ks¾udKlrKh(

wd¾ ta ã whs oikdhl ñh fld<U ;¾iagka úoHd,hfha 11jk fY%aKsfha bf.kqu ,nk fidrdà Okxch fldf,dkafka

vi

mgqk

msgqj · wOHCI ckrd,a ;=ud f.a mKsjqvh · fmrjok · odhl;ajh · mgqk · úia;rd;aul úIh ks¾foaYh

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iii iv-v vi vii

· ye¢kaùu · 6-11 fY%aKs i|yd úoHd mdGud,dfõ wNsu;d¾: · 6 fY%aKsh - úoHdj úIh ks¾foaYh · mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jevigyka · bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh · ye¢kaùu · .=Kd;aul fhojqï · l%shdldrlï ika;;sh · ;lafiarej yd we.hSu · ye¢kaùu · bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh §¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

1-2 3 4-11 12

13-15 16 17-67

68-69 70-75

vii

úia;rd;aul úIh ks¾foaYh

ye|skaùu

mdi,a úoHd úIhud,d m%;sixialrKfha moku

miq.sh jljdkqfõ l%shd;aul jq úIhud,d m%;sixialrK hgf;a 6 jk fY%aKsfha § mßir wOHhkh úIhh ;=<ska o" 7-11 fYa%Ksj, § úoHdj yd ;dCIKfõoh úIhh ;=<ska o" úoHdj úIhh b.ekaùug .;a W;aidyfhys my; oelafjk W!K;djka olakg ,eìKs' · · · wka;¾cd;sl jYfhka ms<sf.k ;sfnk úoHdfõ l%shdj,s yd l=i,;d isiqka ;=< j¾Okh ùu i|yd m%udKj;a bv m%ia;d fkd ,eî hdu úoHdfõ w;HdjYH uQ,sl ixl,am iuyrla mdGud,djg we;=<;a ù fkd ;sîu ksid úoHd;aul ixl,am l%udkql+, j idOkh lr .ekSug ndOd we;s ùu úoHd ixl,am ukd j idOkh jk wkaofï bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,shlg fhduq ùu i|yd ;snQ bv m%ia;d m%udKj;a fkdùu

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

tf,iu meje;=Kq mdi,a úIhud,dfõ úoHdj úIhfha .=Kd;aul nj msßySug my; i|yka lreKq o n,md we;' · m%d:ñl fY%aKsj, § mßirh wdY%s; l%shdldrlï úIhh ;=<ska uQ,sl úoHd ixl,am wfmaCIs; whqßka idOkh fkdùu' · úoHdfõ bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh m%dfhda.sl;ajfhka neyer fjñka fm< fmd; uQ,sl lr .;a oekqu iïfm%aIKh lsÍfï l%shdj,shla njg m;a ùu' · úNd. b,lal lr.;a bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,shlg keUqre ùu ksid .fõIKd;aul bf.kqfuka neyerj hdka;%sl bf.kqulg isiqka fhduq ùu' fulS W!K;d u. yrjd .ksñka w' fmd' i' id' fm< yd w' fmd' i' WÏfm< úoHd úIhud,d w;r mj;akd úIh mr;rh wju lsÍug mshjr .ekSu kj úIhud,d ixfYdaOkfha uQ,sl wruqK fõ' Wla; wruqK idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd úoHdfõ isoaOdka; yd m%dfhda.sl l%shdldrlï fjka fjkaj bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,shg ,la lsÍu neyer l< hq;= fõ' fï i|yd bv m%ia;d ie,fik wkaoñka kj m%fõYhla y÷kajd §u úIhud,d ixfYdaOkh ;=<ska bgq lsÍug wfmaCIs; h' kj l%ufõofha iqúfYaI;ajh jkqfha · ksmqK;d mdol jQ;a" · ls%hdldrlï uQ,sl jQ;a" · YsIH flakaøSh jQ;a" m%fõYhla wkqj úoHd úIhud,dj ixj¾Okh lr ;sîu hs' úoHdj úIhh 6-9 fYa%Ks i|yd fmdÿ úoHd úIhud,djla f,i o" 10-13 fY%aKs i|yd úIh - úIhud,djla f,i o" y÷kajd § we;' flfia jqj o 10-11 fY%aKs i|yd fN!;sl úoHdj" ridhk úoHdj yd Ôj úoHdj hk m%Odk úoHd úIh ;=k iu uÜgñka wdjrKh flfrk mßÈ ilia l< fudähq, ;=kla jYfhka w' fmd' i' id' fm< úoHd úIhud,dj bÈßm;a lr we;'

1

6-9 fYa%Ks i|yd úoHdj úIhud,dj" u;= i|yka mq`M,a f;aud my hgf;a i¾ms,dldr j úldYkh jk mßÈ f.dvk`.d we;' · · · · · úuis,af,ka msßlaish hq;= mßirh Ôùka yd Ôj l%shd øjH" øjHj, .=K yd wka;¾ l%shd mDÓúh yd wjldYh Yla;sh" n,h yd ld¾hh

fuys § isiqka ;=< fmdaIKh l< hq;= úIh ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï tl;=jlska o" tajd ixj¾Okh i|yd bv ie,fik wkaoñka ilia l< fhdað; l%shdldrlï ie,iqï ika;;shlska o" mka;s ldur bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,shg w;sf¾l j isiqka jeäÿr bf.kqug fhduq flfrk wkaoñka ie,iqï l< l%shdldrlï ika;;shlska o ixfYdaê; úIhud,dj iukaú; fõ'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

2

6-11 fYaKs i|yd úoHd mdGud,dfõ wNsu;d¾: a%

fuu mdGud,dj yeoEÍfuka YsIHhd" · wdiajdockl bf.kqï mßirhla ;=<ska úoHd;aul ixl,am yd uq,O¾u l%udkql+, j f.dvkÕd .kshs' · úoHdfõ l%shdj,s yd úoHd;aul l%uh WÑ; whqßka fhdod .ksñka .eg¨ úi£ug wjYH ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

·

mßir iïm;aj, úNjH;d wjfndaO lr .ksñka tu iïm;a m%{df.daprj l<ukdlrKh lsßug wjYH ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

·

YdÍßl yd udkisl jYfhka fi!LH iïmkak Ôjk rgdjla i|yd úoHd {dkh fhdod .ekSug wod< ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

·

foaYfha ixj¾Okhg odhl úh yels id¾:l mqrjeishl= f,i iduqyslj Ôj;a ùu i|yd o jeäÿr wOHdmkh yd wkd.; /lshd i|yd o wjYH ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

·

iajdNdúl ixisoaê yd úYajh ms<sn| úoHd;aul moku wjfndaO lr .ekSug wjYH ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

·

n,h yd Yla;sh Ndú;fha § M,odhS;dj yd ld¾hlaIu;dj m%Yia; uggulg j¾Okh lr .eksu i|yd WÑ; ;dlaIKh fhdod .ekSug W;aiql fjhs'

·

úoHdfõ .;sl iajNdjh iy iSudjka y÷kd f.k tÈfkod Ôú;fha w;aú¢k isÿùï iy úúO udOH Tiafia ,efnk f;dr;=re úoHd;aul ks¾Kdhl wkqj we.hSfï l=i,;d j¾Okh lr .kshs'

3

6 fY%Ksh - úoHdj úIh ks¾foaYh a

m<uq jdrh

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 1'0 úoHd{hl= f,i mßirh ksÍCIKh lrhs' 1'1 mßirfha wka;¾.;h ksÍCIKh lrhs' ikaOdrh ld,h ñks;a;=

· úoHd;aul ksÍCIKh · ksÍCIK ,nd .ekSug iydh jk bkaøshhka · ksÍCIK ,nd .ekSug iydh lr .kakd WmlrK · mßirfha wka;¾.;h · mßirfha ;sfnk oE · mßirfha isÿ jk oE · iajdNdúl$lD;%su · iÔj$wÔj · øjHuh$øjHuh fkd jk ^Yla;s&

120

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

1'2 mßirfha ;sfnk oE y÷kd .ekSug ksÍCIKfha fhfohs'

120

1'3 mßirfha ixisoaê y÷kd .ekSug ksÍCIKfha fhfohs'

· ixisoaê j¾. · mqkrdj¾;S$mqkrdj¾;S fkd jk · iajhxisoaO$iajhxisoaO fkd jk · Ôj mßirh yd iïnkaO$wÔj mßirh yd iïnkaO

120

2'0

mßirfha wka;¾.;h m%udKd;aul j i,ld n,hs' 2'1 mßirfha we;s jia;= úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj,§ È. ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs'

· uQ,sl fN!;sl rdYshla f,i" È. · È. uekSfï tall yd Wm tall · wNsu; · iïu; · È. uekSfï WmlrK yd Wml%u

120

2'2 mßirfha we;s øjH úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § ialkaOh ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs'

· uQ,sl fN!;sl rdYshla f,i" ialkaOh · ialkaOh uekSfï tall yd Wm tall · wNsu; · iïu; · ialkaOh uekSfï WmlrK yd Wml%u

120

2'3 mßirfha we;s ixisoaê úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § ld,h ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs'

· uQ,sl fN!;sl rdYshla f,i" ld,h · ld,h uekSfï tall yd Wm tall · wNsu; · iïu; · ld,h uekSfï WmlrK yd Wml%u

4

120

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 2'4 mßirfha we;s ixisoaê úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § WIaK;ajh ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs'

ikaOdrh

· uQ,sl fN!;sl rdYshla f,i" WIaK;ajh · WIaK;ajh uekSfï tall yd Wm tall · wNsu; · iïu; · WIaK;ajh uekSfï WmlrK yd Wml% u · mßirh wdY%s; WIaK;aj ñkqï · wjia:d úm¾hdi · Ydl yd i;=ka f.a foay WIaK;aj

ld,h ñks;a;=

120

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

3'0

i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

3'1 Ôùka w;r we;s iudk;d yd wiudk;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· Ôùka f.a úúO;ajh y÷kd .ekSfï wjYH;dj · Ôùkag fmdÿ ,CIK · Ydlj,g fmdÿ ,CIK · i;=kg fmdÿ ,CIK · Ydl yd i;=ka w;r we;s fjkia lï

120

3'2 Ôj;a jk mßirh wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· Ôj;a jk mßirh wkqj i;a;aj ldKav · c,c · fN!ñl · relajeis · mdxY= · Ôj;a jk mßirh u; mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh

120

3'3 ndysr ,CIK wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· i;a;aj úúO;ajhg ;=vq fok ndysr ,CIK · j¾Kh · yevh · iuñ;sh · Wmdx. · ndysr ,CIK u; mokï jQ úúO;ajh i;a;aj

120

5

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 3'4 wdydrj, iajNdjh wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ikaOdrh · wdydrj, iajNdjh wkqj i;a;aj ldKav · YdlNCIl · udxYNCIl · i¾jNCIl · wdydrj, iajNdjh u; mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh · ixprKh wkqj i;a;aj ldKav · ixprKh l< yels · ixprKh l< fkd yels ^T;a& · i;=ka f.a ixprK l%u · mshdieÍu · nv.Eu · weú§u · msyskSu · ixprK l%u u; mokï jQ úúO;ajh i;a;aj

ld,h ñks;a;= 120

3'5 ixprK l%u wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

120

3'6 iqÿiq ks¾Kdhl yd l%u fhdod f.k i;=ka j¾.SlrKh lrhs'

· j¾.SlrK ks¾Kdhl · ndysr ,CIK · Ôj;a jk mßirh · ixprK ú,dYh · wdydrj, iajNdjh · fofnÿï iqÑ weiqßka j¾.SlrKh

120

fojk jdrh

4'0

Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' · Ydlj, rEmúoHd;aul ,CIK · l| · uq,a · m;% · mqIam · M, · îc · rEmúoHd;aul ,CIK u; mokï jQ Ydl úúO;ajh

6

120

4'1 rEmúoHd;aul ,CIK wkqj Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 4'2 jdiia:dk wkqj Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ikaOdrh · jdiia:dk wkqj Ydl ldKav · lfvd,dk · c,c · fjr<nv · Y=Ial · wmsYdl · jdiia:dk u; mokï jQ Ydl úúO;ajh

ld,h ñks;a;= 120

4'3

iqÿiq ks¾Kdhl yd l%u fhdod

· j¾.SlrK ks¾Kdhl · rEmúoHd;aul ,CIK · jdiia:dk · fofnÿï iqÑ weiqßka j¾.SlrKh

120

f.k Ydl j¾.SlrKh lrhs'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

5'0 mDÓúfha yd wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs' 5'1 iQ¾hhd f.a yd pkaøhd f.a p,s;h yd iïnkaO ixisoaê wkafõIKh lrhs' · oDYH p,s; ixl,amh · iQ¾hhd f.a oDYH p,s;h yd wdYs%; ixisoaê · pkaøhd f.a oDYH p,s;h yd wdYs%; ixisoaê · pkaø l,d · iQ¾h.%yK yd pkaø.%yK 5'2 mDÓúfha jHqyh y÷kd .ekSug wkafõIKfha fhfohss' · mDÓúfha jHqyhg wod< uQ,sl ixrpl · c,f.da,h · jdhqf.da,h · Ys,df.da,h · ixrplj, jHdma;sh yd ,CIK 5'3 c,f.da,fha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSug wkafõIKfha fhfohss' · c,f.da,h úia;r flfrk ks¾Kdhl · c,fha fN!;sl wjia:d · c, m%Nj · lrÈh ^id.r$uqyqÿ$l<mq& · ñßÈh ^jeiai$.x.d$c, W,am;a$jeõ$ú,a$c,dY$ fmdl=Kq$N+.; c,h$ .a,eishr& 120 120 120

7

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï

ikaOdrh · c,h m;kh jk wdldr · j¾Idj · óÿu · ;=Idr · whsia leg jeiai (slate) · u,a ;=ysk (frost) · ysu (snow)

ld,h ñks;a;=

5'4

c,f.da,fha meje;au úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· c, pl%h · wjia:d ^N+.; c,h" u;=msg c,h" Ôùka ;=< wka;¾.; c,h" c, jdIam" j,dl=MZ& · l%shdj,s · jdIamSNjkh yd W;aiafõokh · >kSNjkh · wjfYdaIKh · .,dhdu yd ldkaÿ ùu

120

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

5'5 Ôùka f.a meje;au i|yd c,fha odhl;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· Ydl ;=< wka;¾.; c, m%udK yd tys lD;H · i;=ka ;=< wka;¾.; c, m%udK yd tys lD;H · mdxY= c,h yd tys lD;H · jdhqf.da,Sh c, jdIam yd tys lD;H

120

5'6 úúO fCI;%hka ys § c,fha Ndú; yd tu.ska c, iïm; flfrys we;s jk n,mEï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

· c,h Ndú; flfrk úúO fCI;% · lDIsl¾uh · l¾udka; · m%jdyk · ridiajdoh$l%Svd · .Dyia: · c, iïm; flfrys udkj lghq;=j, n,mEu · hym;a n,mEï · whym;a n,mEï · c,fha ¥IKh msgq oelSfï l%fudamdhhka · tal mqoa., c, mßfNdackh · .Dyia: c, mßfNdackh · ksjfia c,h wmf;a hk wjia:d · ksjfia c,h ¥IKhg n÷ka jk wjia:d · ksjfia c, ixrCIK l%fudamdhhka

120

5'7 ksjfia c, mßfNdackh l<ukdlrKh lrhs'

120

8

f; jk jdrh

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 6'0 ø%jHj, .=K" wka;¾l%shd yd Ndú; ms<sn| j wkafõIKh lrhs' 6'1 fN!;sl .=K weiqßka øjH j¾.SlrKh lrhs' · øjHj, .+K · j¾Kh · jhkh · m%Ndj · oeä nj · Nx.=r nj · kefuk iq¨ nj · m%;Hia: nj · iqúld¾h nj · mdroDYH nj · ;dm ikakhkh · úoHq;a ikakhkh · pqïNl .=K · j¾.SlrK ks¾Kdhl · ;dm ikakdhl$;dm mßjdrl · úoHq;a ikakdhl$úoHq;a mßjdrl · mdroDYH nj$mdrNdIl nj$mdrdkaO nj · ;kH nj$wdykH nj$Nx.=r nj · m%;Hia: nj$iqúld¾h nj · Ndú;h wkqj øjH j¾. · f.dvke.s,s øjH · frÈms<s ;kk øjH · wdjqo$fuj,ï ;kk øjH · weiqreï øjH · wdNrK$úis;=re nvq ;kk øjH · msiSfï WmlrK ;kk øjH ikaOdrh ld,h ñks;a;=

120

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

62 úúO Ndú; i|yd WÑ; øjH ' f;darhs'

120

6 øjHj, .=K fjkia ùï ' 3 wkafõIKh lrhs'

· øjHj, .+K fjkia ùu flfrys n,mdk idOl · fN!;sl idOl · ridhksl idOl · ffcj idOl · øjHj, .=K fjkia jk wjia:d · wjia:d úm¾hdi · f,day u,sk ùu · ftkaøsh øjH Èrdm;a ùu · mdIdK ÔrKh

9

120

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 6'4 hlv u, ne£ug ;=vq fok idOl fiùug mÍCIK fufyhjhs'

ikaOdrh · w;HdjYH idOl · c,h$c, jdIam · jd;h

ld,h ñks;a;= 120

6'5

hlv u, ne£fï YS>%;dj fjkia lrk idOl ms<sn| j wkafõIKh lrhs'

· CIdr" wï, yd ,jKj, n,mEu

120

6'6

u, ne£u md,kh lsÍug lghq;= lrhs'

· md,kh lsÍfï l%fudamdhhka · ;Ska; wdf,am lsÍu · f;,aj, nyd ;eîu yd .%Sia wdf,am lsÍu · fjk;a f,day wdf,am lsÍu

120

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

7'0 Yla;sh" ld¾hh yd n,h iïnkaO ixl,am" uQ,O¾u yd isoaOdka; M,odhS whqßka Ndú; lrhs' 7'1 ffoksl Ôú; lghq;= yeisrùug n,h fhdod .kshs' · n,h ms<sn| ixl,amh · we§u · ;,a¨ lsÍu · n,h fhfok wjia:d · ksYap, jia;=jla p,kh lsÍu · p,kh jk jia;=jla ksYap, lsÍu · p,kh jk jia;=jl p,s; ÈYdj fjkia lsÍu · p,kh jk jia;=jl fõ.h fjkia lsÍu · jia;=jl yevh fjkia lsÍu 7'2 udkj wjYH;d imqrd ,Sug Yla;sh Ndú; lrhs' · Yla;s m%Nj · iQ¾hhd · iq<`. · bkaOk · kHIaál Yla;sh · c,fha úNj Yla;sh · úoHq;a ridhksl fldaI · Yla;s m%Njj, Ndú; wjia:d

10

120

120

ksmqK;dj yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 7'3 Yla;s mßj¾;k úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ikaOdrh · Yla;s mßj¾;k

· pd,l Yla;sh · úoHq;a Yla;h s · úoHq;a Yla;h s · ridhksl Yla;sh · ridhksl Yla;sh · úoHq;a Yla;h s · wdf,dal Yla;sh úoHq;a Yla;sh pd,l Yla;sh ;dmh úoHq;a Yla;h s ;dmh wdf,dal Yla;sh úoHq;a Yla;sh

ld,h ñks;a;=

120

7'4 Yla;s mßj¾;k fhdod.ksñka ir, WmlrK ks¾udKh lrhs'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· Yla;s mßj¾;k mokï lr ksmojk ir, WmlrK

120

8'0 iajdNdúl úm;a yd tajd wdY%s; wjodkï ;;a;aj l<ukdlrKh i|yd iQodku m%o¾Ykh lrhs' 8'1 Y%S ,xldj uqyqK mdk iajdNdúl úm;a yd ta wdY%s; úoHd;aul miqìu wkafõIKh lrhs' · Y%S ,xldj uqyqK md we;s iajdNdúl úm;a · · · · · · .x j;=r ksh`. kdh hdï iq<s iq<x wl=Kq iqkdñ

120

· iajdNdúl úm;aj, úoHd;aul moku 8'2 iajdNdúl úm;aj, n,mEu wju lr .ekSu i|yd úoHd{hl= f,i odhl fjhs' · ld,.=Ksl fjkia ùï ks¾Kh lsÍfï ir, WmlrK · ld,.=Ksl o;a; wdY%s; j fm/hSu

120

11

mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jev igyka

· · ·

fhdacs; úIhud,d m%;sixialrKj,g wkqj 6 jk fY%aKsfha isg 11 jk fY%aKsh f;la úoHdj úIhh b.ekaùu i|yd i;shlg ld,fþo yhla ne.ska fjka lr we;' l%shdldrlï mdol m%fõYhla Tiafia bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ie,iqï lr we;' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh mßKduk .=re N+ñldj ^ Transformation Role & wod< j isÿ lsÍug wfmalaIs; h' mßKduk .=re N+ñldj mka;s ldur uÜgñka l%shd;aul lsÍug 5 - E wdlD;shg ^ 5 - E Model & wkqj ie,iqï l< l%shdldrlï .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh uÕska imhd we;' tla ls%hdldrlula mka;s ldur uÜgñka isÿ lsÍu i|yd tla ld,fþohlg jvd jeä ld,hla .; fõ' tneúka ld,igyka ilia lsÍfï § hdno ld,fþo fol ne.ska mdi,a ld,h fjka lsÍfï jeo.;a lu ms<sn| j wxY Ndr m%OdkSka yd mdi,a l<ukdlrKh oekqj;a j isáh hq;= fõ' l%shdldrlï id¾:l j isÿ lsÍu i|yd fY%aKs uÜgñka ukd ie<iqïlrKhl wjYH;dj wjOdrKh flf¾' fï i|yd tla tla fY%aKsfha iudka;r mka;sj, úoHd úIhh W.kajk .=re Nj;=ka ish¨fokd tluq;= j l%shdldrlï ie,iqï ixúOdkh lr .ekSu {dkdkaú; fõ' iEu mdi,a jdrhlg u fmr tu jdrh ;=< È l%shd;aul lsÍug wfmalaIs; l%shdldrlï i|yd wjYH .=Kd;aul fhojqï y÷kd f.k tajd imhd .ekSug iy Ndú; lsÍug fhda.H ie,iqï ilia lsÍu i|yd úÿy,am;sjreka$wxY Ndr m%OdkSka úiska .=re Nj;=kag WmfoaYd;aul kdhl;ajhla ,nd §u o wfmalaId flf¾' we;eï l%shdldrlï i|yd ukd fmr iQodkula ;sìu w;HdjYH jk neúka tla tla fY%aKsfha iudka;r mka;sj, W.kajk .=re Nj;=ka tluq;= j l%shdldrlïj,g wjYH jk wegjqï iy uqøs; øjH ixÑ;hla f,i ;nd .ksñka Ndú;hg .ekSu" bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ld¾hlaIu j isÿ lr .eksug bjy,a jkq fkd wkqudk h' kj m%fõYh hgf;a úoHdfõ isoaOdka; b.ekaùu yd m%dfhda.sl l%shdldrlïj, ksr; lrùu fjka j isÿ fkdflf¾' fhdað; l%shdldrlï ;=<ska m%dfhda.sl w;aoelSï mokï lr .ksñka ixl,am" uQ,O¾u yd isoaOdka; idOkh lr .ekSu wfmalaId flf¾' fhdað; l%shdldrlï isÿ lsÍu i|yd úoHd.dr WmlrK fuka u wkqfhda.S WmlrK o" wkqj¾;kh lr .; hq;= wegjqï o" fhdod .ekSu wjYH fõ' fï i|yd mdi, ;=< fuka u" bka mßndysr iïm;a odhlhska f.a fiajdjka ,nd .ekSug wjYH jk wjia:d o" we;s neúka ta i|yd myiqlï ie,iSu mdi,a l<ukdldÍ;ajfha j.lSu fõ' fhdað; l%shdldrlïj, ksr; jk isiq ore oeßhka úiska isÿ lrk ks¾udK w.h lsÍu i|yd jdrdjidk fyda j¾Idjidk m%o¾Yk wdÈh meje;aùu ks¾foaY flf¾' t uÕska kj ks¾udK ìys lsÍug isiq ore oeßhka ;=< we;s WfoHda.h jeäÈhqKq jkq we;' fhdað; l%shdldrlïj,g iu.dó j bf.kqu jvd;a mq`M,a flfrk yd isiqka f.a iqúfYaI l=i,;d Tma kexfjk wkaofï újdo" ì;a;s mqj;a m;a" iÕrd" mdi,a úoHd iudc$ix.ï" úoHd Èk" úoHd m%o¾Yk wd§ úIh iu.dó l%shdldrlï i|yd fhduq lsÍu o" wfmalaId flf¾'

·

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

12

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh

ye¢kaùu

fuu mdGud,jg wod< bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh ;SrKh lsÍfï § .fõIKh mokï lr f.k isiq ksmqK;d f.dvke`.Sug yels jk mßÈ bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï ie,iqï lsÍu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' ksmqK;d mdol wOHdmkh i|yd fufia iQodkï ùfï § .=re N+ñldfõ o meyeÈ,s fjkila wfmalaId flf¾' wE; w;S;fha isg wfma mka;s ldurj, nyq, j l%shd;aul jQ idïm%odhsl iïfm%aIK .=re N+ñldj ^TRANSMISSION ROLE& yd miq ld,Sk j y÷kajd fokq ,enQ .kqfokq .=re N+ñldj ^TRANSACTION ROLE& j¾;udk mka;sldur ;=< ;j u;a lemS fmfka' mdi,a yer hk oreoeßhka f.a Ñka;k l=i,;d" mqoa., l=i,;d yd iudc l=i,;dj, wo olakg ,efnk msßySu ms<sn| i,ld n,k úg bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh ixj¾Okh úh hq;= nj;a" th isÿ úh hq;= wdldrh;a" y÷kd .ekSu wmyiq fkd fõ'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iïfm%IK .=re N+ñldfõ § isika W.; hq;= ish,a, okakd whl= f,i .=rejrhd ms<.efkk a q s w;r isiqka ta lsisjla fkd okakd wh f,i i,ld Tjqka fj; oekqu iïfm%aIKh lsÍu .=re ld¾hh njg m;a ù ;sfí' .=rejrhd f.ka isiqkg oekqu .,d hdug muKla iSud jk foaYk uqyqKqjrla .kakd fuu bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh isiq Ñka;kh wjÈ lsÍug fyda isiqka f.a fm!oa.,sl yd iudc l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍug fyda m%udKj;A j odhl fkd fõ' .=rejrhd mka;sh iu. we;s lr .kakd foni .kqfokq N+ñldfõ wdrïNl wjia:dj hs' .=rejrhd f.ka mka;shg yd mka;sfhka .=rejrhdg .,d hk woyiaj,g wu;r j isiq isiq wka;¾ l%shd o miq j we;s ùu ksid fuu foni l%ufhka ixjdohlg fmrf<a' okakd fohska fkd okakd fohg" ir, fohska ixlS¾K fohg fuka u ixhqla; fohska úhqla; fohg isiqka f.k hdu i|yd .=rejrhd È.ska È.g u m%YaklrKfha ksr; fõ' ksmqK;d mdol wOHdmkfha § YsIH ld¾hhka m%n, ia:dkhla .kakd w;r mka;sfha iEu <uhl= u ta ta ksmqK;dj iïnkaO j wvq ;rñka wdikak m%ùK;djg fyda f.k taug ueÈy;a jk iïm;a odhlhl= f.a ^RESOURCE PERSON& ;;a;ajhg .=rejrhd m;a fõ' is;a .kakd iq¨ wdrïNhla iys; j ls%hdldrlug m%fõY ùu bf.kqug wjYH WmlrK yd wfkl=;a myiqlï iys; bf.kqï mßirhla ie,iqï lsÍu" isiqka bf.k .kakd whqre ióm j ksÍlaIKh lsÍu" YsIH yelshd yd fkd yelshd y÷kd .ksñka o" wjYH bosß fmdaIK yd m%;sfmdaIK ,nd foñka o isiqkaf.a bf.kqu m%j¾Okh lsÍu fuka u" mka;s ldurfhka neyerg bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍu i|yd isiqka bÈßm;a lsßïj,g yd idlÉPdj,g fhduq jk wjia:djkays § Tjqkag uekúka ijka §u yd we.hSu fukau" mka;s ldurfhka neyerg bf.kqu yd b.ekajSu oS¾> lsÍu i|yd iqÿiq WmlrK ilia lsÍu o fuys § .=rejrhd f.ka bgq úh hq;= uQ,sl ld¾hhka fõ' hf:dala; .=re ld¾hNdrh weiqre fldg .;a .=re N+ñldj mßKduk N+ñldj ^TRANSFORMATION ROLE& f,i kï lr ;sfí' fuu .=reud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha m<uq fldgi uÕska y÷kajd fokq ,nk úia;rd;aul úIhud,dj l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd fhdod .; yels l%hdldrlï ika;;sh tys fo jeks fldgig s s we;=<;a lr we;' fï iEu l%shdldrlula u wvq ;rñka mshjr ;=kla we;=<;a jk mßÈ

13

ixj¾Okh lr ;sfí' l%shdldrlïj, m<uq jk mshjr uÕska isiqka bf.kqug iïnkaO lr .ekSug wfmalaId lrkq ,efí' t neúka fuh kshqla;lrK mshjr ^ENGAGEMENT STEP& jYfhka kï lr ;sfí' fuys wdrïNhla f,i .=rejrhd .kqfokq N+ñldfõ ,laIK m%o¾Ykh lrñka isiqka iuÕ fonilg uq, mqrhs' miq j ixjdohlg mßj¾;kh úh yels fï foni hgf;a .fõIKfha fh§fuka isiqka ixj¾Okh lr .; hq;= uQ,sl ksmqK;d yd iïnkaO fmr oekqu isysm;a lr .ekSug;a" l%shdldrlïj, bÈßh ms<sn| bÕs ,nd .ekSug;a isiqkg wjia:dj ie,fia' fuu woyia yqjudrej i|yd fhdod .; yels Wml%u rdYshla .=rejrhd i;= j we;' m%Yak bÈßm;a lsÍu$ mska;+r" mqj;am;a oekaùï yd ieK m;a ^FLASH CARDS& jeks W;af;acl fhdod .ekSu$ .eg¨ m%fya,sld fyda isoaê wOHhk Ndú;h$ fonia" N+ñld rx.k" lú" .S; yd wdo¾Yk ^DEMONSTRATIONS& iDcq j fyda Y%jH mg fyda oDYH mg weiqfrka fhdod .ekSu fujka Wml%u lsysmhls' idrdxY jYfhka my; i|yka wruqKq ;=k idlaId;a lr .ekSu uq,a fldg l%shdldrlïj, m<uq jk mshjr l%shd;aul fõ'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · ·

mka;sfha wjOdkh Èkd .ekSu wjYH fmr oekqu isysm;a lr .ekSug isiqkg wjia:dj ,nd §u' l%shdldrlfï fojeks mshjr hgf;a isiqka fhduq lsÍug wfmalaId lrk .fõIKfha uQ,sldx. isiqkg y÷kajd §u'

l%shdldrlfï fo jk mshjr ie,iqï lr we;af;a .fõIKh (EXPLORATION) i|yd isiqkg wjia:dj ,nd§ug h' isiqka .fõIKfha fhfokafka ta i|yd iqúfYaI j ilia lrk ,o Wmfoia m;%sldjla mokï lr f.k h' .eg¨jg iïnkaO úúO me;s lKavdhï jYfhka .fõIKh lrñka iyfhda.S bf.kqfï fh§ug isiqkg yels jk mßÈ fuu .fõIKh ie,iqï lsÍug .=rejrhdg isÿ fõ' imhd we;s iïm;a øjH m%fhdackhg .ksñka" i;su;a nfjka hq;= j lKavdhï idlÉPd fufyhjñka isiqka .fõIKfha ksr; ùu fuu mshjf¾ jeo.;a ,laIKh fõ' ld,hla ;siafia t n÷ lKavdhï l%shdldrlïj, ksr; ùu ksid iajhx úkh" wkHhkag ijka §u" wkHhka iuÕ iyfhda.fhka jev lsÍu" Tjqkg Woõ ùu" ld, l<ukdlrKh" .=Kd;aul nfjka by< ksmehqï ,nd .ekSu" wjxl nj wd§ idudkH Ôú;hg wjYH jeo.;a l=i,;d /ila ixj¾Okh lr .ekSug o isiqkg yelshdj ,efí' isiqka .fõIKh i|yd fhduq lsÍfï § YsIH lKavdhïj, kdhl;ajh ms<sn| ;SrK .ekSfuka .=rjrhd je<lS isáh hq;= w;r isiqka w;ßka kdhlhka u;= ùug wjYH miqìu muKla uekeúka iQodkï l< hq;= h' ieÕejqKq yelshd mokï lr .ksñka wjia:dfjdaÑ; j kdhl;ajh .ekSfï jrm%idoh fï wkqj isiqkg ysñ fõ' l%shdldrlfï f; jk mshjf¾ § iEu lKavdhulg u ;u .fõIK m%;sM, wka wh f.a oek .ekSu i|yd bÈßm;a lsÍug wjia:dj ie,fia' fuys § .=rejrhd l< hq;af;a iuQy bÈßm;a lsÍï i|yd isiqka Èßu;a lsÍu h' iEu idudðlhl=g u j.lSï mejfrk mßÈ bÈßm;a lsÍï ie,iqï lsÍug isiqka fufyhùu o jevodhl h' isiq wkdjrK meyeÈ,s lsÍu"

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tkï újrKh (EXPLANATION) yd iïnkaO fuu mshjf¾ jeo.;a ,laIKhla jkafka wfma mka;s ldur ;=< ks;r wefik .=re l:kh fjkqjg isiq y~ u;= ùug wjia:d iïmdokh ù ;sîu hs' l%hdldrlïj, isõ jk mshjf¾ § fidhd .ekSï jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug ke;akï úia;drKhg s (ELABORATION) isiqka fhduq lsÍu wjYH fõ' tla tla lKavdhu Tjqka f.a bÈßm;a lsÍï wjika l< miq ta ms<sn| ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd u;= lsÍug bÈßm;a l< lKavdhfï isiqkag m<uq j o" wfkla lKavdhïj, isiqkag fojkq j o" wjia:dj ,nd §fuka fuh isÿ flf¾' fl fia fj;;a wjidk iudf,dapkh ndr jkafka .=rejrhdg h' isiqka ksr; jQ .fõIKhg wod< jeo.;a lreKq ish,a, meyeÈ,s jk fia;a" ixl,am yd kHdhhka ms<sn| ksjerÈ wjfndaOh isiqka ;=< ;yjqre jk fia;a" fuu iudf,dapkh isÿ lsÍu .=rejrhd f.ka wfmalaId flf¾'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mka;s ldur bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh wfmalaIs; wdldrfhka id¾:l j bgq jkafka oehs ksr;=re j fidhd ne,Su fuu bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh hgf;a .=rejreka i;= m%Odk j.lSuls' fï i|yd ;lafiarej yd we.hSu fhdod .; hq;= w;r ta i|yd m%udKj;a bvlv bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ;=< § u ,nd .ekSug ie,iqï.; l%shdldrlï .=rejrhdg wjia:dj i,id foa' l%shdldrlfï fo jk mshjr hgf;a isiqka .fõIKfha fhfok úg ;lafiarejg;a (ASSESSMENT)" l%shdldrlfï f; jk mshjr hgf;a isiqka meyeÈ,s lsÍï yd úia;drKhg fhduq jk úg we.hSïlrKhg;a (EVALUATION) .=rejrhdg bv ;sfí' ;lafiarej yd we.hSu ms<sn| úia;rd;aul úuiqula .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha ;=ka jk fldgfi ys oelafõ' fï olajd úia;r lrk ,o bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh mßKduk N+ñldj l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd .=rejrhd fhduq lrjhs' fuys § lKavdhï .fõIKhg uq,a ;ek ,efnk w;r foniaa, ixjdo yd flá foaYk i|yd o .=rejrhdg wjldY ie,fia' m%fõY mshjf¾ § fonig yd ixjdohg wjia:d we;s w;r wjidk mshjf¾ iudf,dapkh hgf;a flá foiqula u.ska ixl,am ;yjqre lsßug .=rejrhdg bv we;' kj iyY%lfha m<uq jk úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh hgf;a bÈßm;a jk fuu úIhud,dj yd iïnkaO bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh ixj¾Okh lsÍfï § mßKduk .=re N+ñldjg wu;r j iïfm%aIK yd .kqfokq .=re N+ñldjkag wod< jeo.;a ,laIK .ek o ie,ls,su;a ùu fuu l%ufõofha úfYaI;ajh f,i i|yka l< yels fõ'

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.=Kd;aul fhojqï ^6 fYa%Ksh&

m<uq jk jdrh

iaÒr WmlrK

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · w;aldp veys w`vq m%siau fofk;s ud,sud hka;% óg¾ fldaÿ ñkqï má lsh;a má f; o`vq ;=,dj ;eá ;=,dj ÿkq ;rdÈh iïmSvk ;=,dj meh" ñks;;" ;;amr a = lgq iys; Trf,daiq meh" ñks;;" ;;amr a = Trf,daiq (digital) úrdu >áld WIK;ajudk ^idudkH yd idhksl& ñkskafodare fÜma ìhqfrÜgq wdOdrl nkaika odyl f;md · ·

ridhk øjH

fïi ¨Kq NaCl wdmam fidavd NaHCO3

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ùÿre WmlrK

· · îlr ùÿre l+re

fjk;a øjH

· · · · · · · · · · · · uq,¨ a f¾la l biafldamam l;=re w,afmfk;a;s kQ , a f;,a.dr kQ,a (twine) nlÜ lïì inka l=vq ,Kqq le/,s äuhs lvodis udl¾ mEka

16

ksmqK;dj

1'0

( úoHd{hl= f,i mßirh ksÍCIKh lrhs'

( ( ( (

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'1 l%shdldrlu 1'1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

ksÍlaIKh lsÍug i,iajkak' · tys wvx.= oE yels muK y÷kd f.k jd¾;d lsÍug isiqkg Wmfoia fokak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mßirfha we;s úúO oE y÷kd .ekSug úúO ixfõok Ndú; jk nj · weiSu" wd>%dKh" iam¾Yh hk ixfõok uÕska l`M frÈ u,a, ;=< we;s foa y÷kd .;a nj · ne,Su yd ri msßlaiSu uÕska o wm tÈfkod Ôú;fha § úúO foa y÷kd .kakd nj · iqúfYaI wjOdkhlska hq;= j úúO ixfõok Ndú;fhka mßirfha ;;= fiùu ksÍCIKh hkqfjka y÷kajk nj · hï hï foa jvd;a ishqï f,i yd fyd¢ka ksÍlaIKh lsÍug wjYH jQ úg wm WIaK;ajudk" m%siau fofk;s" óg¾ fldaÿ" w;aldp wdÈ WmlrK o Ndú; lrk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 1'1'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï follg fnokak' · .fõIK m;%sldfõ msgm;a yd WmlrK lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · .fõIKh i|yd mdi,a j;af;a iqÿiq ia:dk$fidnd msh uÕla fj; isiq lKavdhï fhduq lrjkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

17

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mßirfha wka;¾.;h ksÍCIKh lrhs' ksÍlaIKh u`.ska mßirh y÷kd .ksuq' ñks;a;= 120 hs' · weuqKqu 1'1'1g we;=<;a Wmfoia wkqj ilia l< l`M frÈ u,a, · weuqKqu 1'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a folla · w;a ldp" veys w`vq" m%siau fofk;s" uq,a¨" WIaK;ajudk" óg¾ fldaÿ · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 1'1'1 ( · isiqka lsysm fokl= mka;sh bÈßhg le|jd l`M frÈ u,a,

mshjr 1'1'3

( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · mßirfha we;s oE øjH fyda jia;= fyda f,i kï l< yels nj · mßirfha isÿ jk oE ixisoaê f,i kï lrk nj · hï fohla bf.kSfï § fyda .eg¨ úi£fï § fyda f;dr;=re /ia lr .ekSug wjYH nj · f;dr;=re /ia lr .ekSu i|yd ksÍCIKfha fh§u w;HjYH nj · ne,Su" Y%jKh" wd>%dKh" ri yd iam¾Yh uÕska wm ksÍlaIK ,nd .kakd nj · wei" lk" kdih" Èj yd iu ksÍlaIK ,nd .ekSug Wmldr jk bkaøshhka nj · ksÍCIK ,nd .ekSug Wojq jk bkaøshhka ixfõ§ bkaøshhka kï jk nj · ixfõ§ bkaøshhka uÕska ,nd .; yels ksÍlaIK iSud iys; nj · ixfõ§ bkaøshj,g yiq fkd jk oE ksÍCIKhg WmlrK ilia lr we;s nj · ksÍCIKh úoHd;aul l%shdj,sfha b;d u jeo.;a mshjrla jk nj · ksÍCIKh uÕska úoHd;aul fidhd .ekSï rdYshla lsÍug yels ù we;s nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · ksÍCIKh hkak meyeÈ,s lrhs' · úoHd;aul lghq;=j, § ksÍCIKfha jeo.;a lu w.h lrhs' · WmlrK weiqßka ishqï ksÍCIK ,nd .kshs'

· ·

ksjerÈ l%ufõohkag wkqj f;dr;=re /ia lrhs' mßirhg ixfõ§ j lghq;= lrhs'

18

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 1'1'1

ksÍCIKh i|yd imhk lZM frÈ u,a, idod .ekSug Wmfoia Z

kefuk iq`M rn¾ ng lene,a,la' .eàfuka y~la kslafuk f,day uQä lsysmhla" fj,ajÜ frÈ lene,a,la" je,s lvodishla" iqÿ Ækq hqI fmÕ jq frÈ lene,a,la hkd § øjH l`M frÈ u,a,l oud msg;g fkd fmfkk fia iS,a lrkak' weuqKqu 1'1'2

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

·

· · · ·

my; i|yka ud;Dldj,ska Tfí lKavdhug ,eî we;s ud;Dldj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · mßirfha ;sfnk oE · mßirfha isÿ jk oE Tng ,eî we;s ud;Dldjg wod< j mßirh ksÍCIKh i|yd wjYH WmlrK fhdod .kak' mdi,a j;af;a Tn fhduq lrkq ,nk ia:dk fj; hkak' b;d ie,ls,su;a f,i mßirh ksÍCIKh lrñka f;dr;=re igyka lr .kak' Tfí f;dr;=re wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

19

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj

1'0

( úoHd{hl= f,i mßirh ksÍCIKh lrhs'

mshjr 1'2'2

( · mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" WmlrK" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï lrjkak' ñks;a;= 60 hs& ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · mßirfha ;sfnk ñksid úiska ks¾udKh fkd l< oE iajdNdúl oE kï jk nj · mßirfha ;sfnk ñksid úiska ks¾udKh l< oE lD;%Su oE kï jk nj

20

mshjr 1'2'3

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( mßirfha ;sfnk oE y÷kd .eksug ksÍCIKfha fhfohs' ( mßirfha we;s oE ksÍCIK weiqßka y÷kd f.k j¾. lruq' ( ñks;a;= 120 hs' · weuqKqu 1'2'1g we;=<;a 'wfmaa mßirh' mska;+rh · weuqKqu 1'2'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · w;a ldp" fldagq len,s" m%siau fofk;s · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 1'2'1 ( · mska;+rh mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' · Ñ;%fhka oelafjk mßirh ;=< Tn isà kï tys § ksÍCIKh l< yels oE fudkjd oehs isiqka f.ka úuikak' · my; lreKq biau;= jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mska;+rfhka oelafjkafka wmg yqre mqrqÿ mßirhla nj · mska;+rfhys ñksid úiska ks¾udKh l< foa fuka u iajdNdúl j ,eî we;s iïm;a o ;sfnk nj · wm wjg mßirfha we;s oE mK we;s$mK ke;s jia;= jYfhka y÷kd .; yels nj · WKqiqu" wdf,dalh" Yíoh jeks wmg oefkk oE o mßirfha we;s nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

ksmqK;d uÜgu 12 ' l%shdldrlu 12 ' ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï(

· · · · · · ·

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · mßirfha olakg ,efnk úúO oE kï lr úia;r lrhs'

· · · ·

mßirfha we;s oE j¾. jYfhka oelSfï jeo.;a lu ms<s.kshs' fok ,o ks¾Kdhl Tiafia mßirfha we;s oE j¾. lrhs' f;dr;=re wdl¾IKSh f,i bÈßm;a lrhs' mßir ys;ldó j mßir .fõIKfha fhfohs'

21

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

j¾Okh ùu" j¾.hd fnda lsÍu" ñh hdu wd§ fmdÿ ,laIK iys; oE iÔù oE kï jk nj j¾Okh ùu" j¾.hd fnda lsßu" ñh hdu hk fmdoq ,laIK fkdue;s oE wÔù oE kï jk nj mßirfha hï bvla w;a lr .kakd oE øjHuh oE kï jk nj øjHuh oE fndfyduhla iam¾Yh uÕska y÷kd .; yels nj mßirfha we;s Yíoh" wdf,dalh" ;dmh jeks oE bvla w;a fkd lr .kakd nj mßirfha we;s bvla w;a fkd lr .kakd oE Yla;s kï jk nj mßirfha we;s Yla;s tÈfkod lghq;=j, § w;HjYH jk nj ^ñks;a;= 45 hs&

wfmaa mßirh

22

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 1'2'1

weuKqqu1'2'2

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

·

· · · · ·

23

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mßirfha we;s oE j¾. lsrSu i|yd Ndú; l< yels ,dCIKsl lSmhla my; oelafõ' · iajdNdúl$lD;%su nj · iÔj$wÔj nj · øjHuh$øjHuh fkd jk nj Tn lKavdhug ,efnk ud;Dldj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' fuys § Tn úiska i,ld ne,sh hq;= ,dCIKsl idlÉPd ud¾.fhka y÷kd .kak' mdi,a mßirfha .=rejrhd úiska fhduq lrkq ,nk úúO ia:dkj,g hkak' mdi,a j;af;a yuq jk oE Tng ,eî we;s ,dCIKslh Tiafia j¾. lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

ksmqK;dj

1'0

( úoHd{hl= f,i mßirh ksÍCIKh lrhs'

( ( ( (

ksmqK;d uÜgu 13 ' l%shdldrlu 13 ' ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 1'3'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" WmlrK" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj foka k ' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · mßirfha kej; kej; isÿ jk ixisoaê mqkrdj¾;S ixisoaê kï jk nj

mshjr 1'3'3

24

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mßirfha ixisoaê y÷kd .ekSug ksÍCIKfha fhfohs' mßirfha isÿ jk oE ksÍCIKh lruq' ñks;;= 120 hs a · weuqKqu 1'3'1g we;=<;a .S; LKavfha msgm;la · weuqKqu 1'3'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · m%siau fofk;s ;=kla" w;aldp" WIaK;ajudk · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 1'3'1 ( · .S; LKavh mka;shg bÈßm;a lr fyd¢ka Y%jKh lsÍug i,ia j ka k ' · .S;hg we;=<;a ixisoaê ms<sn| j úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mßirfha úúO ixisoaê we;s nj · mßirfha ixisoaê lsysmhla .S;hg we;=<;a jk nj · mßirfha ixisoaê úúO ks¾Kdhl Tiafia j¾. l< yels nj · mßirfha ixisoaë weiSu" ne,Su yd oekSu Tiafia ksÍCIKh l< yels nj

^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · mßirfha úúO ixisoaê kï lr" úia;r lrhs' · mßirfha ixisoaê ms<sn| j úuis,su;a úh hq;= nj ms<s.kshs' · mßirfha ixisoaê ksjerÈ j ksÍCIKh lrhs' · f;dr;=re ksjerÈ j jd¾;d lrhs' · iduQysl yeÕSfuka hq;= j lghq;= lrhs'

25

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· mdif,a iSkqj ye~ùu" ysre keÕSu yd neiSu" wjqreÿ ld,hg trnÿ u,a msmSu" uqyqfoa r< keÕSu wdÈh mqkrdj¾;S ixisoaê iuyrla nj · mßirfha kej; kej; isÿ fkd jk ixisoaê mqkrdj¾;s fkd jk ixisoaê kï jk nj · u,la mr ùu" i;l= ñhe§u" r;s[a[d lr,la msmsÍu wdÈh mqkrdj¾;s fkd jk ixisoaê iuyrla nj · mßirfha bfí isÿ jk ixisoaê iajhxisoaO ixisoaê kï jk nj · u,a msmSu" jeis jeàu" .Õla .,d hdu wdÈh iajhxisoaO ixisoaê iuyrla nj · mßirfha bfí isÿ fkd jk ixisoaê iajhxisoaO fkd jk ixisoaê kï jk nj · .,la by<g ùis lsÍu" úÿ,s mxldjla lrleùu" .ila lemSu wdÈh iajhxisoaO fkd jk ixisoaê iuyrla nj · mßirfha iuyr ixisoaê Ôj mßirh yd iïnkaO nj · megjl= ìys lsÍu" M, yg .ekSu" ñhe§u" Ôj mßirh yd iïnkaO ixisoaê iuyrla nj · mßirfha iuyr ixisoaê wÔj mßirh yd iïnkaO nj · kshx ld,fha § fmdf<dj bß ;e,Su" úÿ,s flàu" frdfnda hka;%hla l%shd;aul ùu wdÈh wÔj mßirh yd iïnkaO ixisoaê iuyrla nj · hï ixisoaêhla ks¾Kdhl lsysmhla Tiafia j¾. l< yels nj · ixisoaê úúO ks¾Kdhl Tiafia úuid ne,Su ;=<ska tajd M,odhS f,i Ôú; wjia:djkag .<md .; yels nj

weuqKu 1'3'1 q .S;h u,a msfmhs l:d lshhs ysre tfnhs l=re¨ .S fofk;a wefrhs fifuka t<sh fohs wefihs

u,a msfmhs ''''' weuqKu 1'3'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia · mßirfha ixisoaê j¾. l< yels wdldr my; oelafõ' · kej; kej; we;s jk ixisoaê kej; kej; we;s fkdjk ixisoaê ^mqkrdj¾;s& ^mqkrdj¾;s fkd jk& · bfí we;s jk ixisoaê bfí we;s fkd jk ixisoaê ^iajhxisoaO& ^iajhxisoaO fkd jk& · Ôj mßirh yd wÔj mßirh yd iïnkaO ixisoaê iïnkaO ixisoaê · by; j¾.SlrK wdldr ;=fkka Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk wdldrh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · .=rejrhd úiska kshu lrkq ,nk mdi,a mßY%fha kshñ; ia:dkh fj; f.dia Tng wod< ixisoaê ksÍCIKh lrkak' · Tn tajd w;aoelSï ,enQ ia:dkh o i|yka lrñka tu ixisoaê jd¾;d lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

26

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ߧ lf<;a - wrka Wfoa fldfyao - hka f k fï fldys isgka o - tkafka ljqo ujqmshka Tfí

ksmqK;dj

2'0

( mßirfha wka;¾.;h m%udKd;aul j i<ld n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 21 '

( mßirfha we;s jia;= úia;r lsÍug È. ms<sn| ñkqï WÑ; wjia:dj, § Ndú; lrhs' l%shdldrlu 21 ( iqÿiq WmlrK fhdod f.k jia;=j, È. uksuq' ' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( · Rcq isyska fldagq folla iy óg¾ rE,a folla · weuqKqu 2'1'1 g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;==kla · weuqKqu 2'1'2 g we;=<;a fmdÿ fïih ieliSfï Wmfoia · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 2'1'1 ( · ßhk ms<sn| isiqka okakd foa úuikak' · Wiska fjkia isiqka fofokl= mka;sh bÈßhg le|jkak' · Rcq isyska fldagq fol tu isiqka fofokdg ,nd §" ßhkl m%udKfhka hq;= lene,a, ne.ska lvd .ekSug Wmfoia fokak' · ilia lr .;a ßhfka fldaÿ fhdod f.k isiqka fofokd ,jd fjk fjk u lMZ ,E,af,a È. ukskak' · óg¾ fldaÿj ne.ska ,nd § isiqka fofokd ,jd fjk fjk u l`M ,E,af,a È. ukskak' · wjia:d foflys § isiqka fofokd ,nd .;a ñkqï" tall iys; j l`M ,E,af,a igyka lrjkak' · igyka l< ñkqï ms<sn| isiqka f.a woyia úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · jia;=j,g ksYaÑ; È.la we;s nj · È. ueksu i|yd wNsu; tall yd iïu; tall fhdod .kakd nj · ßhk wNsu; ñkqï tallhla nj · ógrh È. uekSfï iïu; ñkqï tallh nj · wNsu; ñkqï tall fhdod .ekSfï § .eg¨ u;= úh yels nj ² jvd ksjerÈ ñkqï i|yd iïu; ñkqï WmlrK iy tall Ndú; l< hq;= nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 2'1'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak'

27

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 2'1'3

(

· wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj foka k ' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · jia;=jl m%udKh ;SrKh lsßfï § tys È. uekSu wjYH jk nj

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· tl u jia;=jla yd ne¢ È. wdY%s; ñkqï lsysmhla ;sìh yels nj · jia;=j, È. uekSu i|yd úúO ñkqï WmlrK fhdod .kakd nj · È. ms<sn| ñkqï ,nd .ekSfï § úúO Wml%u wkq.ukh l< yels nj · jD;a;dldr jia;=j, È." kQ,la weiqre lr f.k fyda ñkqï máhla Ndú; lr fyda ueksh yels nj · ógrh È. uekSfï iïu; tallh jk nj · lsf,daógrh iïu; tallfha .=Kdldrhla jk w;r fikaáógrh iy ñ,sógrh iïu; tallfha Wm-.=Kdldr jk nj · jia;=jl È." iïu; tallfhka fyda tys .=Kdldr fyda Wm-.=Kdldr fyda weiqßka m%ldY lrkq ,nk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · È. ueksfï iïu; tall iy Wm tall kï lrhs' · jia;=jla úia;r lsÍfï § È. ms<sn| ñkqï m%fhdackj;a nj ms<s.kshs' · WÑ; l%u wkq.ukh lrñka úúO È. ukshs' · wka wh iuÕ iduqysl;ajfhka lghq;= lrhs' · .eg¨ wjia:djl § úl,am úi÷ï fidhd n,hs'

28

weuqKu 2'1'1 q · lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia my; i|yka øjH$jia;= ldKavhla wdY%s; È. ms<sn| ñkqï ,nd .ekSu Tn lKavdhug mejf¾' · ,sms øjH lsysmhla wdY%s; ñkqï · WmlrK lsysmhla wdY%s; ñkqï · jgl=re øjH lsysmhla wdY%s; ñkqï Tfí lKavdhug mjrk ,o øjH$jia;= fmdÿ fïih fj; f.dia f;dard .kak' mjrk ,o øjH$jia;= úia;r lsßug wjYH È." m<, " >klu yd Wi hk ñkqï yd tu ñkqï ,nd .kakd wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak' wod< ñkqï ,nd .ekSug fhda.H WmlrK fmdÿ fïih fj; f.dia f;dard .kak' Tng wod< øjH$jia;= úia;r lsÍug wjYH ñkqï ,nd .kak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iqodkï jkak' weuqKu 2'1'2 q fmdÿ fïih ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ñkqï ,nd .ekSu i|yd my; øjH ;nd fmdÿ fïihla ilia lrkak' · óg¾ rE,a ;=kla · wäfldaÿ ;=kla · ñkqï má ;=kla · ógrhla muK È. isyska kQ,a len,s ;=kla my; øjH lÜg, ;=k ^fjka jYfhka& · lÜg,h I · mqj;a m;a lsysmhla · ;shqKq odr iys; isyska lvodis ;Sre 100 la · weuqKqï lgq msys,a,la (stapler pins) · ,shqï ljrhla · lÜg,h II · lsh;a má len,s 10 la · w,afmfk;a;s 10 la · l;=rla · imhd .; yels fjk;a ´kE u WmlrKhla · lÜg,h III · wn weg iaj,amhla · fmd,a f.ähla · ì;a;rhla · ysia cEï fnda;,hla äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka

· · · · ·

·

·

·

29

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj

2'0

( mßirfha wka;¾.;h m%udKd;aul j i<ld n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 22 '

( mrsirfha we;s øjH úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § ialkaOh ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs' l%shdldrlu 22 ( muK is;uq' uksuq" n,uq' ' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( · weuqKqu 2'2'1g we;=<;a ;=,dj iy øjH lÜg,h · weuqKqu 2'2'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · fmdÿ fïihla u; ;nk ,o f;o~q ;=,djla" ;eá ;=,djla" ÿkq ;rdÈhla iy iïmSvk ;=,djla · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 2'2'1 ( · ilia lr .;a ;=,dj mka;shg m%o¾Ykh lrkak' · isiqka ;sfokl= mka;sh bÈßhg le|jkak' · lemqu fkd fh¥ fmd,s;Ska ngh jd;h msrùfuka miq o" lemqu fh¥ fmd,s;Ska ngh jd;h rys;j o" my< fl<jr iudk kQ,a len,s follska .eg .eiSug Wmfoia fokak' · fld;a;u,a,s jeks ieye,a¨ jQ;a" fyd¢ka oel .; yels jQ;a" weg j¾.hla lemqu fh¥ nghg ouñka ;=,dj iu;=,s; lrjkak' · by; wdldrhg u jd;h msrùu fjkqjg úhe<s je,s iy c,h fhdoñka fjk;a iqÿiq wNsu; tall uÕska ;=,dj iu;=,s; lrjkak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · >k" øj iy jdhqj,g ialkaOhla we;s nj · fuu ialkaO uekSu i|yd ;=,d ilia lr .; yels nj · øjHj, ialkaOh wNsu; tallj,ska m%ldY l< yels nj · lsishï fohl ialkaOh" uoáh weghl fyda ù weghl fyda ialkaOh fuka" lS .=Khla fõ oehs m%ldY lsÍu wNsu; tall Ndú; jk wjia:djlg WodyrK f,i oelaúh yels nj · wNsu; tallj,ska m%ldY lrk ialkaO ksrjoH;dfjka wvq nj · ialkaOh m%ldY lsÍu i|yd iïu; tall ;sfnk nj · ialkaOh uekSfï iïu; tallh lsf,da.a?uh ^kg& nj · ialkaOh uekSu i|yd fhdod .kakd iïu; WmlrK ;sfnk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

30

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 2'2'2

mshjr 2'2'3

( · mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' · lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoiaa imhkak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs& ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj foka k ' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · ÿkq ;rdÈhl isria j my<g wefok ÿkakla we;s nj · iAlkaOhla t,aÆ úg ÿkak my<g wefok nj · ÿkak my<g wefok m%udKhg wod< j mdGdxl igyka jk nj · iïmSvk ;=,djl isria j my<g f;rmsh yels ÿkakla we;s nj · ialkaOhla ;eáh u; ;enQ úg ÿkak f;rfmk nj · ÿkak f;rfmk m%udKhg wod< j mdGdxl igyka jk nj · f; o~q ;=,dfõ ;sria o~q ;=kla ;sfnk nj · tys bÈß" ueo yd msgqmi o~qj, ms<sfj<ska 100g" 10 g yd 1g ys .=Kdldr ,l=Kq lr we;s nj · o~q u; r|jk ,o Ndr iSre udre lsÍfuka ;=,dj ix;=,kh lr mdGdxl ,nd .kakd nj · by; ñkqï WmlrK w;=ßka wdikak .a?ï tl olajd ksrjoH ñkqula ,nd .; yelafla f; o~q ;=,dfjka nj · ÿkq ;rdÈh" iïmSvk ;=,dj" f; o~q ;=,dj yd ;eá ;=,dj uÕska iDcq j ueksh fkd yels b;d l=vd ialkaO iys; jia;= we;s nj · b;d l=vd ialkaO iys; jia;= iuQyhl ialkaOh uekSfuka wk;=re j tallhl ialkaOh ks¾Kh lr .; yels nj · ieye,a¨ ialkaO uekSug ridhksl ;=,dj" bf,lafg%dksl ;=,dj wd§ ishqï WmlrK o ilia lr ;sfnk nj · jia;=jl ialkaOh iïu; tallh fyda tys Wm-tall weiqßka m%ldY lrkq ,nk nj · m%ldY lrkq ,nk ialkaOfha úYd,;ajhg WÑ; mßÈ

31

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iïu; tallh fyda tys Wm-tall f;dard .; hq;= nj · ialkaOh ,shd oelaùfï § w.h b,lalñka ,shd" ysveila ;nd tallh i|yd iïu; ixfla;h ,súh hq;= nj Wod (· lsf,da.a?ï my 5 kg · .a?ï ishh 100 g · ñ,s.a?ï fod<y 12 mg ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

ilia lr .; hq;= ;=,dfõ rEm igyk oKav

lemqu

fmd,s;Ska ng · .eg .eiSu i|yd kQ,a · c,h" je,s yd fld;a;u,a,s ñgla muK weuqKu 2'2'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia · my; i|yka øjH w;=ßka Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk øjH lÜg,h flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · uqx weg" foys iy fmd,a · fnd;a;ula" remsh,a fofla ldishla iy firñla msÕdkla · yd*aISÜ tlla" ì%iag,a fndaâ tlla iy msÕka .fvd<la

32

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · ialkaOh m%ldY lrkq ,nk iïu; tallh" Wm-tall iy tajd Ndú; lrk wdldr úia;r lrhs' · jia;=jl ialkaOh w¾:j;a j m%ldY lsÍfï § iïu; tallh fyda tys Wm-tall WÑ; mßÈ fhdod .ekSu wjYH nj ms<s.kshs' · ialkaOh uekSfï WmlrK ksjerÈ j mßyrKh lrhs' · ld¾hhg .e,fmk WmlrK f;darhs' · .eg¨jla i|yd úl,am úi÷ï u;= lrhs' weuqKu 2'2'1 q

· tu øjH lÜg,hg we;=<;a øjHhka ys tallhl iAlkaOh fjka fjka j fiùu Tfí lKavdhug mejfrk ld¾hhs' · Tng wod< øjH lÜg,h ,nd .kak' · fmdÿ fïih u; ;nd we;s ñkqï WmlrK y÷kd .kak' · tla tla ;rdÈfhka ñkqï l< yels wju yd Wmßu ialkaO igyka lr .kak' · tla tla øjHfha ialkaOh ksudkh lr igyka lr .kak' · lÜg,hg wvx.= ieye,a¨ øjHfha ialkaOh uekSug WÑ; l%u idlÉPd lrkak' · iqÿiq l%u fhdod .ksñka Tng ,eî we;s tla tla øjHfha ialkaOh uek igyka lrkak' · wod< ialkaOj, Tn ksudkh l< yd uek .;a w.hhka ixikaokh lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï jkak'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 2'2'3 fmdÿ fïih ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia · my; i|yka øjH wvx.= fmdÿ fïihla iQodkï lrkak' · uqx weg 100 g la" foys f.ähla yd fmd,a f.ähla wvx.= u,a,la · lñi fnd;a;ï 25 la " remsh,a fofla ldishla iy firñla msÕdkla wvx.= u,a,la · yd*aISÜ lvodis 40 la" ì%iag,a fndaâ tlla yd msÕka .fvd<la wvx.= u,a,la · ieye,a¨ fmd,s;Ska nE.a lsysmhla · f; o~q ;=,djla" ;eá ;=,djla" ÿkq ;rdÈhla iy iïmSvk ;=,djla · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka

33

ksmK;dj 2'0 q

ksmK;d uÜgu 2'3 q

( mßirfha wka;¾.;h m%udKd;aul j i,ld n,hs'

( mßirfha ixisoaê úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § ld,h ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs' l%hdldrlu 2'3 s ( l,a fõ,d uksuq' isÿ jk oE úuiuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( · weuqKqu 2'3'1 g we;=<;a '.x bjqrl §' ,smsh · weuqKqu 2'3'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a yhla · weuqKqu 2'3'3 g we;=<;a øjH ;nd ilia l< fmdÿ fïih bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 2'3'1 ( · '.x bjqrl §' ,smsh isiqjl= ,jd mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · ,smsfha i|yka isoaê úia;r lsÍug ñkqï l< hq;= rdYs" tu rdYs m%ldY lrk tall yd tajd ñkqug ,la lrk WmlrK ms<sn| j isiqka f.ka úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · È. yd ld,h ms<sn| ñkqï fhdod f.k ksu,a ksÍlaIKh l< ixisoaê úia;r l< yels nj · ld,h uekSug wNsu; yd iïu; tall ;sfnk nj · ld,h uekSfï iïu; tallh ;;aamrh nj · ukskq ,nk ld, m%dka;rfha úYd,;ajh yd ñkqfï wfmalaIs; ksrjoH;d uÜgu wkqj ñkqï WmlrK ;SrKh l< hq;= nj · l=vd ld,dka;r jvd ksje/È j uekSug úrdu >áldj fhdod .kakd nj · úYd, ld,dka;r ksjerÈ j uekSu i|yd idudkH Trf,daiqj jqj o Ndú; l< yels nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 2'3'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï yhlg fnokak' · lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a mshjr 2'3'3 ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

34

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· úúO mqoa.,hska tl u ÿrla Èùu i|yd .; lrk ld,fha fjkila we;s nj · Odjlhd tall ld,hl § f.jd hk ÿr u`.ska Tyq f.a idudkH fõ.h oelafjk nj · Odjkh werUQ fudfydf;a isg wjidkh olajd jQ úúO ld, mr;rj, § Odjlhl= f.a fõ.h fjkia úh yels nj · Yíoh ksl=;a lrkakd yd ijka fokakd w;r mr;rh fjkia jk úg ksl=;a l< Yíoh weiSug .; jk ld,h o fjkia jk nj · Yíofha fõ.h hkq tall ld,hl § Yíoh .uka l< ÿr jk nj · iQ¾hdf,dalh ksid we;s jk jia;=jl fijke,af,a È. yd ÈYdj ojfia fõ,dj wkqj fjkia jk nj · ieye,a¨" isyska ;ka;=jlska t,a,k ,o jia;=jla iEu foda,khla u iïmQ¾K lsßug .kakd ld,h iudk nj · ;ka;=fõ È. wkqj tla foda,khla i|yd .; jk ld,h fjkia jk nj · wdk; ;,hla Èf.a ksYaÑ; ÿrla ,siaid hEug jia;=jla .kakd ld,h ;,fha wdk;sh wkqj fjkia jk nj · c,h yd jd;h ;=< iudk ÿr .uka lsÍug jia;=jla .kakd ld,h fjkia nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl (

· · · · ·

ld,h uekSfï iïu; tallh" tys .=Kdldr yd ñkqï WmlrK kï lrhs' we;eï ixisoaëka úia;r lsÍug ld,h ms<sn| ñkqï wjYH nj ms<s.kshs' WmlrK ksjerÈ j Ndú; lrñka ld,h ukshs' úp,H yiqrejñka n,mEu mÍlaId lrhs' mÍlaIK yd ksÍlaIK weiqßka ks.ukj,g t<fUhs'

35

weuqKqu 2'3'1 '.x bjqrl §' mßirfha ixisoaê ms<sn| úoHd .=re;=ñh f.a fufyhùu hgf;a mka;sfha § isÿ l< lKavdhï .fõIKh ms<sn| u;lh wjÈ lrñka iekaoEfõ .x f;dgq fmd< fj; .sh WfoaYsld tys jQ .,a ;,dj u; jdä jQjd h' wjg isß krUñka isáh § my; ixisoaê flfrys wef.a wjOdkh fhduq úh' · .fÕys wfkla f;dgqfmd< fj; ;reKhka fofokl= ;r.hg msyskd hdu · .fÕys wfkla mi bjqf¾ ldka;djl frÈ wmq,a,kq oelSu yd Yíoh weiSu · Trej n¢k lKqfõ fijke,af,a È. fjkia ùu · .x bjqf¾ we;s .ilska my<g t,af,k je,l <uhl= TxÑ,s meÈu · .x Èhg jegKq u,a fm;s my<g .id f.k hdu · .x bjqf¾ jQ lsr< .ilska bÿKq f.ähla .x Èh u;g jeàu ;ud ksÍlaIKh l< by; ixisoaê" jvd;a meyeÈ,s j fjk;a whl=g úia;r l< yelafla fl fia oehs WfoaYsldg .eg¨jla u;= úh' weuqKu 2'3'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia · my; i|yka ixisoaêj,ska Tfí lKavdhug mejfrk ixisoaêhg .; jk ld,h ms<sn|j wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · isiqka lsysm fokl= ;r.hg Èùu · weig fmfkk wE; isák flfkla ksl=;a l< y~la weiSu · ojfia fõ,dj iuÕ jia;=jl fijke,af,a È. yd ÈYdj fjkia ùu · isyska kQ,lska t,a,k ,o l=vd jia;=jla foda,kh ùu · wdk; ;,hla Tiafia l=vd úÿre fnda,hla fmr,S hdu$wdk; j .eg .eiq lñìhla Èf.a iqug uqÿjla my<g ,siaid hdu · c,h mqrjd isria j ;enQ È. fmd,s;Ska k<hla ;=<ska ùÿre fnda,hla my<g .uka lsÍu · Tn lKavdhug mjrk ,o ixisoaêh úia;r lsÍug ñkqï l< hq;= oE idlÉPd lrkak' · wod< ñkqï ,nd .ekSug fhda.H ñkqï WmlrK ;SrKh lrkak' · øjH yd WmlrK ;nd we;s fïih fj; f.dia Tfí l%shdldrlug wjYH oE f;dard .kak' · Tn lKavdhug mjrk ,o ixisoaêh úia;r lsÍug wjYH ñkqï ,nd .kak' · ixisoaêh i|yd .; jk ld,h fjkia l< yels l%u idlÉPd ud¾.fhka y÷kd .kak' · iqÿiq wegjqï ilid idlÉPd l< l%u mÍlaIdjg ,la lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK weiqßka ixisoaêh mka;shg úia;r lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

36

weuqKqu 2'3'3 fmdÿ fïih ilia lsÍug Wmfoia · my; i|yka øjH yd WmlrK ;nd fmdÿ fïihla ilia lr .kak' · meh" ñks;a;= yd ;;amr lgqj iys; Trf,daiq ;=kla · fõ,dj meh" ñks;a;=" ;;amr iys;j igyka jk bf,lafg%dksl Trf,daiq ;=kla · úrdu >áld ;=kla · ud,sudjla · ógr fldaÿ ;=kla · ógr 50lg jvd ÿr ueksh yels ñkqï máhla$l%udxls; ,Kq le/,a,la · óg¾ 1'5la muK È. Rcq oKavla · f;,a .dr ( twine) kQ,a · óg¾ 10la muK È. isyska lïìhla yd uqÿjla$msys,a,la yd ùÿre fnda,hla · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

37

ksmqK;dj

2'0 (

mrsirfha wka;¾.;h m%udKd;aul j i,ld n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 24 ( '

mrsirfha ixisoaê úia;r lsÍug WÑ; wjia:dj, § WIaK;ajh ms<sn| ñkqï Ndú; lrhs' l%shdldrlu 24 ( ' WKqiqu uek ;;= úuiuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( · weuqKqu 2'4'1g we;=<;a rEm igykg wkqj ilia l< wegjqu · weuqKqu 2'4'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · weuqKqu 2'4'3g we;=<;a Wmfoia wkqj ilia l< fmdÿ fïih bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh( mshjr 2'4'1 ( · wegjqu mka;shg m%o¾Ykh lrkak' · WIaK;ajudkfha mdGdxlh lshùug isiqka lsysm fokl=g wjia:dj fokak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · WIaK;ajudkh wgjd we;af;a îlrfha we;s c,fha WIaK;ajh uekSug nj · fï i|yd WIaK;ajudkfha n,anh c,h ;=< iïmQ¾Kfhka .s,S ;sîu w;HjYH nj · n÷k m;=f,a fyda ì;a;sj, fkd .efgk f,i WIaK;ajudkh .s,aùu isÿ l< hq;= nj · WIaK;ajudkfha øj uÜgu yd wei tl u ;sria f¾Ldjl ;nd mdGdxl lsheúh hq;= nj · mdGdxlh lshùfï § WIaK;ajudkh bj;g fkd .; hq;= nj · lsishï mrdihl WIaK;ajh uekSug WIaK;ajudk ilid ;sfnk nj · WIaK;ajudkhlska ueksh hq;af;a Bg wod< mrdifha WIaK;ajh muKla nj · fikaáf.%aâ ^fi,aishia& wxYlj,ska fyda *erkayhsÜ wxYlj,ska WIaK;ajudk l%udxlkh lr we;s nj · WIaK;ajudk mdGdxl ,shd oelaúh hq;af;a my; i|yka mßÈ nj · 100 0C · 212 0F ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

38

mshjr 2'4'2

(

· · · ·

mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak'^ñks;a;= 60 hs&

mshjr 2'4'3

(

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

^ · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkk' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · ia:dkh wkqj mßirfha ;sfnk c,fha iy mfia WIaK;ajh fjkia úh yels nj · iuyr øjH c,fha Èhùfï § ødjKfha WIaK;ajh by< fyda my< fyda hEug bv ;sfnk nj · iam¾Yfhka y÷kd .; fkd yels l=vd WIaK;aj fjkila mjd WIaK;ajudkh weiqßka ueksh yels nj · isref¾ WIaK;ajh uekSu i|yd idhksl WIaK;ajudkh ^clinical thermometer & Ndú; lrk nj · idhksl WIaK;ajudkh isrefrka bj;g f.k mdGdxl lsheùug yels jk fia ilia lr we;s nj · WIaK;ajh uekSfï iïu; tallh fl,aúkh ^ K & jk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · WIaK;ajudkhl fldgia kï lr WIaK;ajudk w;r fjkialï meyeÈ,s lrhs' · mßirfha iuyr ixisoaê úia;r lsßug WIaK;ajh ms<sn| ñkqï wjYH jk nj ms<s.kshs' · WIaK;ajudk ksjerÈ j yiqrejñka úúO WIaK;aj ukshs' · WmlrK wdrlaIdldÍ j Ndú; lrhs' · hym;a jev mqreÿ m%o¾Ykh lrhs'

39

weuqKqu 2'4'1

WIaK;ajudkh

wdOdrlh

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

c, n|qk f;mdj iam%S;= ,dïmqj

weuqKu 2'4'2 q · lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia my; i|yka WIaK;aj ñkqïj,ska tla j¾.hlg wod< WIaK;aj ñkqï ,nd .ekSug Tfí lKavdhug isÿ fõ' · úúO mqoa.,hska f.a YÍr WIaK;ajh · úúO ia:dkj, mj;sk mia yd c, ksheÈj, WIaK;ajh · úúO øjH Èh l< úg § c,fha WIaK;ajh Tfí lKavdhug wod< WIaK;aj ñkqï ,nd .ekSug iqÿiq WIaK;ajudkhla we;=`M wjYH øjH fmdÿ fïifhka f;dard .kak' tu WIaK;ajudkfha rEm igykla we| fldgia kï lrkak' WIaK;ajudkhg wod< ñkqï mrdih yd tallh y÷kd .kak' kshñ; WIaK;aj ñkqï ,nd f.k jd¾;d lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï jkak'

· · · · ·

40

weuqKqu 2'4'3 fmdÿ fïih ilia lsÍug Wmfoia · my; i|yka øjH ;nd fmdÿ fïihla ilia lrkak' · idudkH WIaK;ajudk folla · idhksl WIaK;ajudkhla · fïi ¨Kq" wdmam fidavd yd inka l=vq jeks c,fha Èh jk øjH lsysmhlska .a?ï 50la ne.ska · îlr yd ùÿre l+re · c,h · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

41

ksmqK;dj 3'0

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'1 l%shdldrlu 3'1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( ( (

( i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

mshjr 3'1'2

(

· mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" ,smsh" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj foka k ' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · j¾Okh" wdhq ld,hla ;sîu" fNdackh" Yajikh" nysiidjh" m%ckkh" mßirhg ixfõ§ ùu" Yla;h ksmoùu a % s wdosh Ydlj,g yd i;=kg fmdÿ ,laIK nj

mshjr 3'1'3

(

42

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Ôùka w;r we;s iudk;d yd wiudk;d úu¾Ykh lrhs' Ôùka f.a iudk;d" wiudk;d fidhuq' ñks;a;= 120 hs' · weuqKqu 3'1'1g we;=<;a 'Ôùka f.a j.;=.' mska;+rh · weuqKqu 3'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla' · weuqKqu 3'1'3g we;=<;a 'wykak n,kak fidhkak' ,smsfha msgm;a ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'1'1 ( · mska;+rh mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' · mska;+rfhka oelafjk Ôúka w;r úúO;ajh úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mßirfha úúO Ôùka fjfik nj · fuu ðùka Ydl yd i;=ka f,i uQ,sl fldgia follg fjka l< yels nj · Ôùkg fmdÿ jQ ,laIK o" Ydlj,g yd i;=kg iqúfYaIS jQ ,laIK o we;s nj · fï wkqj Ôj f,dalfha úúO;ajh f.dvkefÕk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

· fndfyda úg yß; j¾Kh ;sîu" m%Ndixiaf,aIKh" ^Tlaiscka msg lsÍu" iajhxfmdaIs nj"& ixprKh fkd lsÍu" Ydlj,g muKla fmdÿ jQ ,laIK nj · fNdackh i|yd wka Ôùka u; hemSu" ixprKh" u, uQ;% msg lsÍu" i;=kg fmdÿ jQ ,laIK nj ^ñks;a;= 45 hs& ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · Ôùkg fmdÿ ,laIK kï lrhs' · Ydl yd i;=ka w;r mj;sk wiudk;d Ôùka j¾. lsÍug uQ,sl jk nj ms<s.kshs' · Ôùka j¾.SlrKhg uQ,sl mokula ilia lrhs' · jd¾;d mßYS,kh uÕska lreKq wkdjrKh lr .kshs' · úúO;ajh ;=< mj;sk talSh;ajh olshs'

43

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

'Ôùka f.a j.;=.'

44 - 45

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 3'1'2 · lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia mßirfha fjfik Ôùka iïnkaO f;aud ;=k my; i|yka fõ' · Ôùkg fmdÿ ,laIK · Ydlj,g fmdÿ ,laIK · i;=kg fmdÿ ,laIK Tfí lKavdhug mejÍ we;s f;audj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' wykak" n,kak" fidhkak hk ,smsh lshjñka Tfí f;audjg wod< lreKq /ia lrkak' tu f;audjg wod< j Tn okakd ;j;a lreKq wef;d;a tajd o igyka lrkak' /ia lr .;a ish¨ lreKq wdl¾IKSh f,i mkA;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak' weuqKqu 3'1'3 wykak" n,kak" fidhkak ' ' ' mßirh ;=< ðù yd wcSù oE fjka lr .kakg Tn oeka fyd|g u okakjd' wðù oE ;=< ke;s tfy;a ðùkg we;s úfYaI ,laIK Tn fidhd ne¨jd [email protected] iEu ðúhl= u jefvkjd' l=vd wjêfha isg úhm;a fjñka wdhq ld,h wjika j f.dia Tjqka urKhg m;a fjkjd' Ydl tfuka u i;=ka o fï brKug f.dÿre jk nj is;d n,kak' wkak ta ksid ;uhs "Ydl yd i;=ka" Ôùka jYfhka y÷kajkafka' Ôùka ;=< olakg ,efnk ;j;a fndfyda ,laIK ;sfnkjd' "fNdackh" bka tlla' Ydl;a i;=kq;a wdydr .kakjd' Ydl ;uka f.a wdydr ;ud ;=< u ksIamdokh lr mßfNdackhg .kafka' Ydlj, yß; j¾Klhla ;sîu hs' ta i|yd WmldÍ jkafka' fuu wdydr ksIamdok l%shdj,sh y÷kajkafka "m%Ndixiaf,aIKh" kñka' ta jqK;a i;=ka" Ydl fyda fjk;a i;=ka fyda u; hefmkjd ñi wdydr ksmojd .kafka keye' fï ksid Ydlj,g ksIamdolhka lshd;a" i;=kg hefmkakka lshd;a" lshkjd' Ôùka yefuda u iqiaukh lrkjd' t kï YÍrhg Tlaiscka jdhqj /f.k" YÍrfhka ldnkavfhdlaihsâ jdhqj uqod yßkjd' fï l%shdj,sh i;=ka ;=<;a" Ydl ;=<;a" isÿ fjkjd' wmg i;=ka yqiau .kakd nj ksÍlaIKh lsÍu yß myiq hs' tfy;a Ydl ;=< jdhq yqjudrej myiqfjka ksÍlaIKh lrkak neye' isrefrka úúO foa neyer lsÍu;a Ydl-i;a;aj fldÜGdi foflys u mj;sk ,laIKhla' i;=ka u, uQ;% msg lrkjd' Tjqka Yajikh lrk úg ldnkavfhdlaihsâ yd c, jdIam msg fjkjd' ifuka vyÈh msg fjkjd' ta jdf.a u Ydl Yajikh lrk úg;a ldnka vfhdlaihsâ yd c, jdIam msg fjkjd' Ydl wdydr ksIamdokh lsÍfï §" t kï m%Ndixiaf,aIKfha § ksmofjk Tlaiscka jdhqj;a Ydlh ;=<ska msg ù hkjd'

46

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · ·

ksmqK;dj

3'0

( i;a;j úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3 ' 2 l%shdldrlu 3 ' 2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï (

^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 3'2'2 ( · · · · mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

mshjr 3'2'3

( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul woyia yd fhdackd úuika k ' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

47

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( Ôj;a jk mßirh wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' ( úúO mßirj, fjfik i;=ka ksÍlaIKh lruq' ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a · weuqKqu 3'2'1g we;=<;a N+ñld rx.k ;srkdglh · j÷rd" n<,d" Æ,d yd .evú,d f.a N+ñld ksrEmKh lsÍug fjia uqyqKq y;rla · weuqKqu 3'2'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a y;rla · weuqKqu 3'2'3g we;=<;a fmdÿ fïih ilia lsrSu i|yd Wmfoia bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'2'1 ( · isiqka y;r fokl= fhdojd N+ñld rx.kh mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · úúO mßirj, úúO i;=ka fjfik nj' · n<,d fN!ñl mßirfha o" ¨,d c,c mßirfha o" j÷rd rela u; o" .evú,d mfia o Ôj;a jk i;a;aj úfYaI jk nj' · iuyr i;=kg ;ud fjfik mßirfha yer fjk;a mßirj, Ôj;a úh fkd yels nj'

^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · úúO mßirj, fjfik i;=kaf.a uQ,sl ,laIK kï lrhs' · mßirhg olajk wkqj¾;k i;aj úúO;ajhg fya;= jk nj ms<s.kshs' · i;a;aj ,laIK msßlaiñka tu i;=ka Ôj;a jk mßirh ;SrKh lrhs' · fya;= úuiñka ks.ukj,g t<fUhs' · ikaksfõok udOHhla f,i rEm igyka fhdod .kshs' weuqKu 3'2'1 q .y <.Z idlÉPdj fmdl=Kla wi< o¾Ykhla' j÷rd .fia w;a;l isà' n<,d fmdl=Kq bjqf¾ o" mi u; È.d jqKq .evú,d o" fmdl=fKa mSkñka Æ,d o isá;s' n<,d("j÷r hs" Æ, hs" fokak u lj od j;a wfma f.or weú,a, keye' .evú,d kï ñÿ,gj;a tkj fk' ojil wms y;r fokd u wfma f.org tl;= fj,d fi,a,ï lruq [email protected] wfma f.or l=iaisfh <sm <Õ yß u ikSm hs "' ^uy yçka iskdfihs& "ux fldfydu o j;=frka t<shg [email protected] tfyu jqfKd;a ux ueß, hdú fka' ´fk kï j÷r hs" .evú, hs" w~.y .kak' ke;s kï Th ;=ka fokd u fmdl=Kg nyskak"' ^.fia fjk;a w;a;lg mkshs& "Æ, kslï fudav l:d lshkak tmd' n<, hs" udhs" j;=rg jegqfKd;a .s<s, uefrhs' .evú,d kï j;=fr b|, wdfhu;a miaj,g u ßx. .kshs' wmg jd;h ke;s j yqiau .kak mq`Mjks [email protected] wfka ug

Æ,d(-

j÷rd(-

48

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· Ôj;a jk mßirh wkqj i;a;ajhka my; wdldrhg j¾. l< yels nj · c,c · fN!ñl · relajeis · mdxY= · Ôj;a jk ia:dkh c,h kï" Tjqka c,c i;=ka jk nj · Ôj;a jk ia:dkh fN!ñl mßirh kï" Tjqka fN!ñl i;=ka jk nj · Ôj;a jk ia:dkh jDCI kï" Tjqka relajeis i;=ka jk nj · Ôj;a jk ia:dkh mi kï" Tjqka mdxY= i;=ka jk nj · fu fia j¾. l< fkd yels" mßir lsysmhl Ôj;a jk" i;=ka o mßirfha ´kE ;rï yuq jk nj · Ôj;a jk mßirh i,ld n,k úg i;=ka w;r úúO;ajhla we;s nj

kï neye .ia Wv ñila fjk ;ekaj,g hkak' Thd,g ´fk kï .y Wvg kÕskak"' .evú,d(- ^wEkqula yßhs& "ug fï mia we;=f< ßx.,d bkak tl fudk ;rï ikSmhla [email protected] mfia we;s fjkak f;;ukh ;sfhkj fka' Th .ia Wv hs" f.j,aj, ,sma <Õ hs" bkak .sfhd;a ux bjrhs"' n<,d("fï jefâ yß hkafk keye' iuyreka bkafk .iaj,; ;j;a wh j;=fr; ;j wh mfia" ux fmdf<dj Wv' Tfydu ne¨j u wmg tl ;eklg tl;= fj,d fi,a,ï lrkak ljod j;a neye fk"' j|qrd("Thd nqoaêu;a j l,amkd lr, n,kak' tl u mrsirhl yeu flkl=g u Ôj;a fjkak neye' ta ta mßirhg .e,efmkak hs wm yefuda u yev .eys, ;sfhkafk' Thdg fi,a,ï lrkak ´k kï Thd f. mßirfh u ;j fldhs ;rï i;=ka bkakj [email protected] fuÉpr ld,hla wdY%h l<d jdf.a" fï úÈhg u tl;= fj,d" wms yefuda u iqj ÿla wy, i;=gq fjuq"' n<,d" Æ,d iy .evú,d(- ^i;=áka iskdfi;s' wkqu; lr;s& "tal we;a;' fndfydu fyd|hs' j÷rd kqjKlaldrhd æ " weuqKu 3'2'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia · Tfí lKavdhug mejfrk my; i|yka i;a;aj ldKavh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · c,c i;=ka · fN!ñl i;=ka · rela jeis i;=ka · mdxY= i;=ka · fmdÿ fïifhka wod< i;=ka ksÍlaIKh i|yd wjYH WmlrK f;dard .kak' · fhduq lrkq ,nk lafIa;%hg f.dia tu lafIa;%fha olakg ,efnk i;=ka yels ;dla ksßlaIKh lr tu i;=ka f.a rEm igyka w¢kak' · Ôj;a jk mßirhg .e<emS isàu i|yd tu i;=ka i;= úfYaI ,laIK o igyka lr .kak' · Tjqkag wfkl=;a mßirj, jdih lsÍug we;s bvlv o idlÉPd ud¾.fhka wkdjrKh lr .kak' · kej; fmdÿ fïih fj; f.dia wod< mska;+r lÜg,h yd wfkl=;a øjH ,nd .kak' · mska;+r lÜg,hg we;=<;a i;a;aj rEm w;ßka Tn ksÍlaIKh l< mßirfha Ôj;a úh yels fjk;a i;=ka o y÷kd .kak' · Tfí ksÍlaIK o" mska;+r o fhdod .ksñka lKavdhï wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

49

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 3'2'3 q fmdÿ fïih ilia lr .ekSu i|yd Wmfoia · i;=ka ksÍlaIKh i|yd fhdod .; yels my; i|yka øjH yd WmlrK m%udKj;a ixLHdjla fïihla u; ;nkak' · fldagq len,s · w;a ldp · m%siau fofk;s · uq,a¨" biafldamam yd f¾lal · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka · j.=fõ i|yka i;=ka we;=<;a mska;+r lÜg, y;rla

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

c,c u;aiHhd leianEjd fvd,a*ska ll=Mjd Z Èh ueähd mie.s,,d Z a Èh ,siaikakd

fN!ñl ñksid tMZjd fldáhd ;,f.dhd .eräZhd j,s l=l=<d meianrd

relajeis f,a k d j÷rd .srjd weyegq,,d a iuk<hd Èñhd jjq,d

mdxY= m;a;Ehd .evú,d lähd fure f.dMZfn,a,d yel/,a,d ìxW!rd

50

51

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

52

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmK;dj q

30 '

( i;a;j úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3 3 ' l%shdldrlu 3 3 ' ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï(

^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 3'3'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" mska;+r lÜg," äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · úúO j¾Kj, i;=ka isák nj · iu" f,dau" msydgq iy ndysr iels,a, fu fia j¾Kj;a úh yels nj · iuyr i;=ka f.a isrerej, l%uj;a j¾K rgd we;s nj · i;=ka f.a j¾Kh úf,damshka f.ka wdrlaId ùug;a" f.dÿre w,a,d .ekSug;a" Wmldr jk nj · úúO yeve;s i;=ka isák nj

mshjr 3'3'2

53

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( ndysr ,laIK wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úuid n,hs' ( yev rej msßlaiuq' fjkia lï olsuq' ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a · weuqKqu 3'3'1g we;=<;a úYd, lr w|sk ,o cHdñ;sl rEm · weuqKqu 3'3'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a y;rla · weuqKqu 3'3'3g we;=<;a mska;+r lÜg, y;rla · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'3'1 ( · úYd, lr w¢k ,o cHdñ;sl rEm mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · j¾Kh" yevh" iuñ;sh yd Wmdx. hk ,laIK wkqj bÈßm;a l< cHdñ;sl rEmj, úúO;ajhla ;sfnk nj · j¾Kh" yevh" iuñ;sh yd Wmdx. hk ndysr ,laIK wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh o úu¾Ykh l< yels nj

^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · i;a;ajhska kï lr ndysr ,laIK úia;r lrhs' · i;=ka f.a ndysr ,laIKj, úúO;ajh wdOdrfhka Tjqka fjka lr y÷kd .ekSug yels nj ms<s.kshs' · ndysr ,laIK mokï lr .ksñka i;=ka j¾.SlrKh lrhs' · fidnd oyfï pu;aldrh w;a olshs' · f;dr;=re wdl¾IKSSh j bÈßm;a lrhs'

54

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· foayfha yevh ixprKhg yd i;=rka f.ka wdrlaId ùu i|yd m%fhdackj;a jk nj · wkdl+, yevh c,h ;=< msyskSug;a" jdhqf.da,h ;=< mshdidr lsÍug;a" i;=kg Wojq jk nj · iuñ;sl fuka u wiuñ;sl isrere iys; i;=ka o isák nj · ixprKfha oS YÍrfha iunr;dj /l .ekSug iuñ;sh Wmldr jk nj · oaúmd¾Yaúl fyda wÍh fyda iuñ;shla we;s i;=ka mßirfha oelsh yels nj · i;=ka f.a p¾hdjka bgq lsÍug bjy,a jk wjhjhka Wmdx. kï jk nj · ixprKh" ndysr mßirh flfrys ixfõ§ nj mj;ajd .ekSu" wdydr .ekSu wd§ wjYH;d imqrd .ekSfï § foay Wmdx. jeo.;a jk nj

^ ii &

^ iii &

^ iv & ^i &

rEm igyka

55

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 3'3'1 q

weuqKqu 3'3'2 · lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia i;a;j úúO;ajhg ;=vq fok my; i|yka ndysr ,laIKj,ska tlla ms<n| j úu¾Ykh a s lsÍug Tn lKavdhug mejf¾' · j¾Kh · yevh · iuñ;sh · Wmdx. Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk ,laIKh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' imhk ,o rEm lÜg,fha isák i;=ka f.a Tng wod< ,laIKh úuid n,kak' tu ,laIKh ksid tu i;=kg ie,iS we;s jdiss idlÉPd lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak' weuqKu 3'3'3 q

mska;+r

56

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · ·

57

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

58

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmK;dj q

30 '

( i;a;j úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' a

ksmK;d uÜgu 3'4 q l%shdldrlu 3 ' 4 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 3'4'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj foka k ' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · Ydl wdydr u; muKla hefmk yrld" iuk<hd" meKs l=re,a,d jeks i;=ka YdlNlaIlhka kï jk nj · udxY wdydr u; muKla hefmk Èúhd" ul=`Mjd" khd" fudard jeks i;=ka udxYNlaIlhka kï jk nj

59

mshjr 3'4'3

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( wdydrj, iajNdjh wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' ( i;=ka .kakd wdydr fidhd n,uq' fjkia lï olsuq' ( ñks;a;= 120 hs' ( · weuqKqu 3'4'1g we;=<;a YdlNlaIl" udxYNlaIl yd i¾jNlaIl i;=ka ;s fokl= f.a mska;+r · weuqKqu 3'4'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · weuqKqu 3'4'3g we;=<;a mska;+r lÜg, ;=kla · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'4'1 ( · i;a;aj rEm ;=k mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' · tu i;=ka .kakd wdydr ms<sn| j isiqka f.ka úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · iuyr i;=ka Ydl wdydr u; muKla hefmk nj · iuyr i;=ka udxY wdydr u; muKla hefmk nj · iuyr i;=ka by; foj¾.fha u wdydr u; hefmk nj · .kq ,nk wdydrj, iajNdjhg WÑ; jk wkaofï yev.eiSï i;=ka ;=< olakg ,efnk nj

· Ydl wdydr yd udxY wdydr hk foj¾.h u u; hefmk ñksid" lmqgd" lerfmd;a;d" j,yd jeks i;=ka i¾jNlaIlhka kï jk nj · .kakd wdydrfha iajNdjhg .e,fmk whqßka i;a;aj foayfha iuyr Wmdx. ilia ù we;s nj · YdlNlaIlhka wdydrhg .kq ,nk Ydl fldgiaj, iajNdjhg .e,fmk whqßka Tjqka f.a Wmdx. ilia ù we;s nj · hqI Wrd fndk lDókag Y=Kavdj keue;s isyska k<dldr wjhjhla ;sfnk nj · ;DK yd Ydl m;% nqÈk i;=kg rMZ Èjla" wdydr wUrd .ekSug myiq lrk rMZ odr iys; me;,s o;a yd È. ykq ;sfnk nj · OdkH j¾. wdydrhg .kakd mlaISkg ;shqK"q flá fydgla ;sfnk nj · i;=ka urd wdydrhg .kakd ùf,damSh i;=kg ;shqKq W,a iys; rokl o;a " f.dÿr w,a,d .ekSu myiq lrjk ;shqKq ksh iys; mdo" f.dÿre fidhd .ekSu myiq lrjk wkaofï .kaO ixfõok iy ;shqKq oDIaáhla ;sfnk nj · i¾jNlaIl i;=kg Ydluh yd i;a;ajuh wdydr l=vd len,sj,g m;a lr .ekSu myiq lrk oka; úkHdihla we;s nj · l=vd i;=ka wdydrhg .kakd mlaISkg f.dÿr w,a,d .ekSug" r|jd ;nd .ekSug yd len,sj,g leãug yels jk wkaofï ;shqKq È.= fydg fyda jla jQ fydg fyda fuka u ;shqKq ksh iys; mdo o" ;sfnk nj · iuyr i¾jNlaIl i;=kg o lemS fmfkk udxY NlaIl foay ,laIK we;s nj ^ñks;a;= 45 hs& ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · YdlNlaIl" udxYNlaIl" i¾jNlaIl i;=ka WodyrK iys; j kï lrhs' · .kq ,nk wdydrhg .e,fmk mßÈ i;=ka f.a Wmdx. ilia ù we;s nj ms<s.kshs' · i;=ka j¾. lsÍug Tjqka .kakd wdydrj, iajNdjh mokï lr .kshs' · j¾.SlrKh i|yd ks¾Kdhl fm< .iajhs' · ixhqla; fohska úhqla; foh lrd fhduq fjhs'weuqKqu 3'4'1

60

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 3'4'2

tMZjd - YdlNCIl

ß,jd - i¾jNCIl

isxyhd - udxYNCIl

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia .kq ,nk wdydrj, iajNdjh wkqj y÷kd .efkk i;a;aj ldKav ;=kla my; oelafõ' · YdlNCIl i;=ka · udxYNCIl i;=ka · i¾jNCIl i;=ka · Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk i;a;aj ldKavh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · tu ldKavhg wod< mska;+r ksÍlaIKh lrkak' · wod< ldKavfha i;=ka .kakd wdydrj, iajNdjh wkqj Tjqka f.a wjhj yev .eiS we;ss wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

61

i;=ka yd Tjqka wdydr .ekSug Wmfhda.S lr .kakd wjhj

62

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 3'4'3 q

ksmK;dj q

30 '

( i;a;j úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3 ' 5 l%shdldrlu 3 ' 5 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï(

^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 3'5'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" mska;+r m;%sld" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

mshjr 3'5'3

( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' · fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · ñksid" n,a,d" w,shd" jeks i;=ka weú§fuka yd Èùfuka ixprKh lrk nj · bínd" lsUq,d" yQkd" jeks i;=ka mdo fmdf<djg ;nd nv .d hk nj

63

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( ixprK l%u wkqj i;a;aj úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' ( i;=ka f.a .uka ú,di úuiuq' ( ñks;a;= 120 hs' · weuqKqu 3'5'1g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a y;rla · weuqKu 3'5'2g we;=<;a 'i;=ka f.a hEï Bï fufyu hs' msk;r q a + m;%sldfõ msgm;a y;rla · äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'5'1 ( · isiqka lsysm fokl= ,jd úúO i;=ka f.a ixprK ú,di ksrEmKh lrjkak' · tu ixprK ú,di y÷kd .ekSug wfkla isiqka fhduq lrjkak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · i;=ka úúO l%uj,g ixprKh lrk nj · weú§u" mshdieÍu" nv .Eu yd msyskSu i;=ka f.a m%Odk ixprK l%u nj · hï Wmia;rhlg iú ù T;a Ôú; .; lrk uqyqÿ u, yd fn,a,ka jeks i;=ka o isák nj

^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · i;a;aj ixprK l%u kï lrhs' · ixprK yev.eiSï i;a;aj f,dalfha úúO;ajhg odhl jk nj ms<s.kshs' · ixprK l%u myiq lsÍug foay ,laIK odhl jk wdldrh ú.%y lrhs' · ;d¾lsl fhdod .ksñka iïnkaO;d ;yjqre lrhs' · mqoa., úúO;d olshs' weuqKu 3'5'1 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk my; i|yka ixprK l%uh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · weú§u yd Èùu · mshdieÍu · msyskSu · nv.Eu · i;a;aj rEm we;=<;a m;%sldj ;=<ska Tfí lKavdhug wod< ixprK l%uh olajk i;=ka y÷kd .kak' · tu i;=ka f.a ixprK wjhjj, úfYaI ,laIK yd ixprKfha § tajd yiqrejk wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak' · foayfha yevh yd ieleiau ixprKh i|yd Wmldr ù we;s wkaou fidhd n,kak' · Tfí wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

64

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· i¾mhska fldrfmd;= wdOdrfhka" foayfha wla jla p,k fmkajñka nv .d hk nj · ud¨ka" Èh ldjka" ;drdjka" ueähka hk i;=ka o ixprK l%uhla f,i msyskSu fhdod .kakd nj · mlaISka" iuyr lDóka" jjq,ka jeks i;=ka mshdir lsÍu uÕska ixprKh isÿ lrk nj · ixprKh lrk i;=ka ta i|yd jr,a" wj,am;a" fldrfmd;=" mshdm;a" mdo jeks Wmdx. Ndú; lrk nj · ixprKh myiq lrk úfYaI foay ieliqï w;r wkdl+, yevh" tl u ÈYdjlg ilia jq fldrfmd;=" wla jla f,i keñh yels ieye,a¨ foay WodyrK f,i oelaúh yels nj · Ôj;a jk mßirh wkqj tl u Ôúhd úúO ixprK l%u olajk nj · ixprK l%u wkqj i;=ka j¾. l< yels nj

i;=ka f.a hEï Bï fufyu hs

65

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKqu 3'5'1

ksmK;dj q

30 '

( i;a;j úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' a

( ( ( (

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3 ' 6 l%shdldrlu 3 ' 6 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

iqÿiq ks¾Kdhl yd l%u fhdod f.k i;=ka j¾.SlrKh lrhs' y÷kd .ksuq /<lska tla wfhla ñks;;= 120 hs' a · weuqKqu 3'6'1g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a y;rla · äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 3'6'1 ( · isiqka lsysm fokl= mka;shg bÈßhg le|jkak' · Tjqka hï ,laIKhl we;s$ke;s nj wkqj lKavdhï follg fjka lrjkak' · tu fjka lsÍu fofnÿï iqÑhla wdldrhg ,E,af,a igyka lrkak' · tu lKavdhula kej; kej;;a hï ,laIKhl we;s$ke;s nj wkqj fjka lsÍug isiqka fhduq lrkak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · hï ,laIKhl we;s$ke;s nj wkqj iuQyhla ldKav follg fnÈh yels nj · úúO ,laIK we;s$ke;s nj mokï lr f.k È.ska È.g j¾. lsÍfuka iuQyfha tla whl=g iqúfYaI ,laIK u;= lr .; yels nj · úúO ,laIK we;s $ke;s nj mokï lr f.k lrkq ,nk j¾.SlrKh fofnÿï iqÑhla f,i ye¢kafjk nj · fofnÿï iqÑhla f.dv keÕSu uÕska iuQyhlska tys tla whl= fjka lr y÷kd .; yels nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 3'6'2 ( · mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" i;=ka f.a ,ehsia;=j" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' · ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍulA i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 3'6'3

( · lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' · m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak'

66

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · jdiia:dk wkqj j¾.SlrKh lsÍfï § c,c" fN!ñl" relajeis" mdxY= hk jdiia:dk yd tajdg iqúfYaI ,laIK i,ld ne,sh yels nj · ixprK ú,dih wkqj j¾.SlrKfha § T;aa" ixprK" jYfhka m%Odk ldKav follg fnÈh yels nj · ixprKh lrk i;=ka j¾.SlrKfha § weúÈk" mshdirk" msyskk" nv.d hk wd§ ,laIK i,ld ne,sh yels nj · j¾Kh" yevh" iuñ;sh" Wmdx. wd§ ndysr ,laIK wkqj o i;=ka j¾.SlrKh l< yels nj · iuQyhlg wh;a tla i;a;ajhl=fjka lr y÷kd .ekSfï § fofnÿï iqÑhla f.dv keÕSu m%fhdackj;a jk nj · hï fofnÿï iqÑhla j,x.= jkqfha Bg we;=<;a lr .kq ,enQ iuQyhg muKla nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( · fofnÿï iqÑhla f.dv kexùfï § wkq.ukh l< hq;= ms<sfj;a úia;r lrhs' · iuQyhlg we;=<;a tla wjhjhla fjka lr y÷kd .ekSug fofnÿï iqÑh Ndú; l< yels nj ms<s.kshs' · fok ,o iuQyhl wjhj y÷kd .ekSu i|yd WÑ; fofnÿï iqÑhla f.dvkÕhs' · ksjerÈ j úYaf,aIKh lrhs' · Wmfoia ms<smÈhs' weuqKqu 3'6'1 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia · i;=ka j¾.SlrKh i|yd fhdod .; yels uQ,sl ks¾Kdhl y;rla u;= oelafõ' · ndysr ,laIK · jdiia:dk · ixprK l%u · .kq ,nk wdydrj, iajNdjh · Tfí lKavdhug mjrkq ,enQ ks¾Kdhlh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · Tn okakd i;=ka úiaila fhdoñka wod< ks¾Kdhlh Tiafia fofnÿï iQÑhla f.dv k.Zkak' · Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

67

;lafiarej yd we.hSu

ye¢kaùu

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh uÕska wfmaCIs; bf.kqï M, isiqka úiska idlaId;a lr .ekSu ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd;a" isiqka <Õd lr .;a m%ùK;d uÜgï y÷kd .ekSu i|yd;a" mka;s ldurfha myiqfjka l%shd;aul l< yels wka;¾ iïnkaO;djlska hq;a jevigyka folla f,i ;lafiarej yd we.hSu y÷kajd Èh yels h' ;lafiarej ksis mßÈ isÿ jkafka kï mka;sfha bf.kqu ,nk ish¨ u isiqkg wod< ksmqK;d iïnkaO j wdikak m%ùK;dj j;a ,nd .ekSu wmyiq fkd fõ' wfkla w;g we.hSfuka wfmalaId lrkafka isiqka <Õd lr .;a m%ùK;d uÜgï ljf¾ oehs y÷kd .ekSu h' ;lafiarefõ fh§ isák .=rejrekag ;u isika i|yd fohdldrhl ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajh q ,nd Èh yels h' tu ud¾f.damfoaY fmdÿfõ y÷kajkafka m%;sfmdaIKh (FEED BACK) yd bÈßfmdaIKh (FEED FORWARD) hkqfjks' isiqka f.a ÿn,;d yd fkd yelshd wkdjrKh lr .;a úg Tjqka f.a bf.kqï .eg¨ uÕ yrjd .ekSug m%;sfmdaIKh;a isiq yelshd iy m%n,;d y÷kd .;a úg tu olaI;d jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug bÈß fmdaIKh;a ,nd §u .=re ld¾hh fõ' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sfha id¾:l;ajh i|yd úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a ksmK;d s q w;frka ljr ksmqK;d ljr uÜgñka idlaId;a l< yels jQfha oehs isiqka úiska y÷kd .ekSu wjYH fõ' we.hSï jev ms<sfj< Tiafia isiqka <Õd lr .;a m%ùK;d uÜgï úksYaph lsÍu fï wkqj .=rejreka f.ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk w;r isiqka yd fouõmshka we;=¿ fjk;a wod< md¾Yajhkag isiq m%.;sh ikaksfõokh lsÍug .=rejreka fhduq úh hq;= fõ' Tn fj; bÈßm;a lrk fuu úIhud,dj YsIH flakøh (STUDENT - CENTRED) ksmK;d a S q mdol (COMPETENCY- BASED&" l%shdldrlï ÈYdNsuqL (ACTIVITY- ORIENTED) lr .;a m%fõYhlska hqla; fõ' Ôú;h w¾:j;a lr .ekSu i|yd l%shdfjka bf.kqu" .=rejrhd f.a mßKduk N+ñldfõ (TRANSFORMATION ROLE) yrh fõ' mQ¾jfhka ixj¾Okh l< l%shdldrlï ika;;shla Tiafia l%shd;aul jk fuu úIhud,dj bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu" ;lafiarej yd we.hSu iuÕ ifudaOdkh lsÍug W;aidy ord we;' ta ta l%shdldrlïj, fo jeks mshjf¾ § isiqka lKavdhï jYfhka .fõIKfha fhfok úg Tjqka ;lafiarejg;a" l%hdldrlïj, ;=ka jeks mshjf¾ § isika iajlSh wkdjrK s q bÈßm;a lsÍug yd úia;drKhg fhduq jk úg Tjqka we.hSug;a" .=rejrhdg yels fõ' isiqka .fõIKfha fhfok úg isiqka w;r .ejfiñka Tjqka bgq lrk ld¾hh ksÍlaIKh lrñka isiqka uqyqKmd we;s .eg¨ mka;s ldurh ;=< § úi|d .ekSu i|yd myiqlï iy ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajh imhd §u .=rejrhd f.ka wfmalaId lrk ld¾hh fõ'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

68

;lafiarej yd we.hSu myiqfjka isÿ l< yels jk mßÈ fmdÿ ks¾Kdhl myla fhdackd flf¾' fuu ks¾Kdhl w;frka m<uq ks¾Kdhl ;=k ta ta ksmqK;dj f.dv ke`.Sug talrdYS ù ;sfnk oekqu" l=i,;d yd wdl,am uQ,sl fldg ieliS ;sfí' wjidk ks¾Kdhl fol Ôú;hg jeo.;a jk yelshd folla m%.=K lr .ekSug isiqkg w; foa' fï ks¾Kdhl yd iïnkaO p¾hd fjkia lï my u mka;s ldurh ;=< isiqka l%shd;aul ùfï § y÷kd .ekSug .=rejrhd W;aidy l< hq;= w;r" ;lafiarej hgf;a tu p¾hd f.dv ke`.u ;yjqre lsÍug;a" S we.hSu hgf;a t fia f.dv k`.d .;a p¾hd ms<sn| j úksYaphkag t<öug;a" .=rejrhd fhduq úh hq;= fõ' ;lafiarej yd we.hSu ms<sn| jevms<sfj< jeä ÈhqKq lsÍfuka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh §¾> l< yels h' fu fia bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsßu i|yd uq,ska u l< hq;af;a ls%hdldrlï ika;;shg we;=<;a ls%hdldrlï" ldKav lSmhlg fjka lr .ekSu hs' isiq bf.kqu úlis; l< yels m%fNao lSmhla ta ta ls%hdldrlï ldKavh yd nef|k úIh ikaOdrh mokï lr .ksñka fojkq j y÷kd .; hq;= h' f;dard .;a m%fNao mokï lr f.k .=rejrhdg yd isiqkag Wmfoia we;=<;a jk mßÈ bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh §¾> flfrk WmlrK ilid .ekSu B <Õ mshjr jk w;r iEu ls%hdldrlï ldKavhla wdrïNfha È u fuu WmlrK isiqkag y÷kajd §u .=rejrhd f.ka wfmalaId flf¾' fï wkqj bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍu i|yd .=rejrhl=g fhdod .; yels m%fNao lSmhla u;= oelafõ' · újdo ^DEBATES) · ixl,am is;hï ^CONCEPT MAPS& s · ì;a;s mqj;am;a ^WALL NEWS PAPERS& · m%Yk úpdrd;aul jevigyka (QUIZZES) a · YsIH ld¾h idOk f.dkq ^PORTFOLIOS) · isiq ks¾udK m%o¾Yk ^EXHIBITIONS) · CIKsl l:d ^IMPROMPTU SPEECHES) · N+ñld rx.k ^ROLE PLAYS) · idlÉPd uKav, ^PANEL DISCUSSIONS) · iïuka;K ^SEMINARS) %

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· m%Yk iy ms<;re fmd;a (QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOKS) a s = · idys;H úuiqï ^PRESENTATION OF LITERATURE REVIEWS) · fCIa;% fmd;a$ iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd;a^FIELD BOOKS/ NATURE DIARIES) · m%dfhda.l mÍlaIK ^PRACTICAL TESTS) s .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha ;=ka jk fldgi" fhdað; bf.kqu yd b.ekaùï §¾> lsÍfï wjia:d yd we.hSï ,laIHhka o" ta i|yd f;dard f.k we;s WmlrK o" y÷kajd §ug ie,iqï lr ;sfí' fï wdldrhg l%shdldrlï ;=<;a" tajd w;r;a" ;lafiarej yd we.hSu fohdldrhlska isÿ lsÍfuka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ;j ÿrg;a mq¿,a jk w;r wdYdfjka yd m%fndaOfhka bf.kqfï kshe<SSug isiqkg yels fõ'

69

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( jdrh 01" WmlrKh 01

( 1'1" 1'2" 1'3 ( · mßirfha wka;¾.;h · mßirfha ;sfnk oE · iajdNdúl$lD;%su · iÔj$wÔj · øjHuh$øjHuh fkd jk · mßirfha isÿ jk oE · mqkrdj¾;S$mqkrdj¾;S fkd jk · iajhxisoaO$iajhxisoaO fkd jk · Ôj mßirh yd iïnkaO$wÔj mßirh yd iïnkaO

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq (

( iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd; · ksÍCIK l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu · úoHd{hl= f,i ksÍCIK ksjerÈ j jd¾;d lsÍfï l=i,;d m%.=K lsÍu · jd¾;d .; f;dr;= r e úúO ks ¾ Kdhl Tia f ia

úYaf,aIKh WmlrKh l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( .=rejrhdg ( ·

i|yd fhduq lsÍu fuu WmlrKhg tla tla YsIHhd úiska ;ks j isÿ lrkq ,nk l%shdj,shla we;=<;a nj i,lkak' · iEu isiqjl=g u ;u jdiia:dkh wi, Èkm;d myiqfjka yd ;ks j ksÍlaIKh l< yels wNsu; l=vd mßir moaO;shla f;dard .ekSug Wmfoia fokak' · tla tla l%shdldrlula wjidkfha § l%shdldrlï wdY%s; úIh ikaOdrh ish ffoksl ksÍlaIK ksjerÈ j /ia lr .ekSug yd úYaf,aIK lsÍug fhdod .; hq;= wkaou isiqkag fmkajd fokak' · iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd; iïmQ¾K lr Ndr Èh hq;= Èkh l,a we;s j okajkak' · Ndr Èh hq;= wjika Èkg fmr tla tla YsIHhd f.a Èk fmd;a jrla fyda fojrla fyda msßlaid ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd ,nd fokak'

70

isiqkag

(

Tfí iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd; i|yd msgq 40 wNHdi fmd;la fhdod .kak' · f;dard .;a mßirfha o< is;shula Èk fmdf;a m<uq msgqjg we;=<;a lrkak' · iEu Èkl u Tng myiq wjia:djl § f;dard .;a ia:dkh ksÍCIKh lrkak' · tla tla Èkfha § f;dard.;a fldgilg úfYaI wjOdkh fhoúh yels h' · mdif,a wod< l%shdldrlïj, § fhdod .kakd ks¾Kdhl wkqj Tfí Èkm;d ksÍlaIK j¾. lr wdl¾IKSh f,i jd¾;d lrkak' · kshñ; Èkg Tfí iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd; úoHd .=re Nj;dg Ndr fokak' · ffoksl jd¾;dj Èk fmdf;a tla msgqjlg iSud lrkak'

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

7'0 we.hSï wdlD;sh

(

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

· ksÍlaIK ksjerÈ j jd¾;d ;eîu · W.;a ks¾Kdhl úYaf,aIKfha § Ndú; lsÍu · ffoksl jd¾;dj, m%udKj;a nj · Wmfoia ms<sme§u · iajNdj wOHhk Èk fmd; wdl¾IKSh f,i bÈßm;a lsÍu

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A B C D b;d fyd|hs' fyd|hs' idudkH hs' ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

71

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( ( jdrh 01" WmlrKh 02 · os." os. uekSu" os. uekSfï tall" WmlrK yd Wml% u · ialkaOh" ialkaO uekSu" ialkaOh uekSfï tall" WmlrK yd Wml%u · ld,h" ld,h uekSu" ld,h uekSfï tall" WmlrK yd Wml%u · WIaK;ajh" WIaK;ajh uekSu" WIaK;ajh uekSfï

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( 2'1" 2'2" 2'3" 2'4

tall" WmlrK yd Wml%u WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq oekqu ( ( laIKsl l:d · ñkqï WmlrK ms<sn| j yd tajd Ndú;h ms<sn| j yd wjfndaOh m%.=K lsÍu · ikaksfõok l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu WmlrKh l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( .=rejrhdg ( · È." ialkaOh" ld,h yd WIaK;ajh hk rdYs y;frka wyUq f,i f;dard .;a tla rdYshla ms<sn| j ñks;a;=jl laIKsl l:djla meje;aùug iQodkï jk fuka isiqkg okajkak' · l:dfõ wka;¾.;h f,i wod< rdYsh" th uekSu yd m%ldY lsÍu iïnkaO b;sydih" j¾;udkfha Ndú; flfrk iïu; tallh" tys Wm tall yd .=Kdldr Ndú; lfrk ñkqï WmlrK wdÈh y÷kajd fokak' · l:dj meje;aùug ñks;a;= mylg l,ska ;udg kshñ; ud;Dldj f;dard .ekSug isiqkg wjia:dj fokak' · l:dj wjidkfha § bÈßm;a l< lreKq iïnkaO j wjfndaOh msßlaiSug flá m%Yakhla folla isiqkg fhduq lrkak'

72

isiqkag

(

· È." ialkaOh" ld,h yd WIaK;ajh hk rdYs y;frka wyUq f,i f;dard .;a tla ud;Dldjla Tiafia l:djla mj;ajkak' · rdYs iïnkaO mka;s ldurfha § W.;a lreKqj,g wu;r j fjk;a f;dr;=re o Tfí l:dfõ § bÈßm;a lrkak'

7'0 we.hSï wdlD;sh

isiqka f.a kï

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ks¾Kdhl

· úoHd;aul f;dr;=re m%udKj;a j wka;¾.; lsÍu · f;dr;=re ixúOdkd;aul j bÈßm;a lsÍu · fjka l< ld,h iïmQ¾Kfhka u fhdod .ekSu · y~ md,kh" ksjerÈ WÉpdrKh" wNskh wd§ l:k l=i,;d m%o¾Ykh lsÍu · m%udKh ms<sn| wjfndaOhlska hq;= j lreKq bÈßm;a lsÍu'

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A B C D b;d fyd|hs' fyd|hs' idudkHh hs' ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

73

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

1'0 2'0 3'0 we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgu wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh ( · ( jdrh 1" WmlrKh 03

( 3'2" 3'3" 3'4" 3'5 cSj;a jk mßirh u; mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh · ndysr ,laIK mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh · wdydrj, iajNdjh u; mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh · ixprK l%u u; mokï jQ i;a;aj úúO;ajh

4'0

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq

(

isiq ks¾udK m%o¾Ykh ( · i;a;aj úúO;ajh ms<sn| úuiqï iy.; nj m%.=K lsÍu · fidnd oyfï pu;aldrh ri ú£ug fm<Uùu · ks¾udKd;aul l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu · isiq ks¾udK weiqßka id¾:l ikaksfõokhla lrd fhduq lrùu

5'0

6'0

WmlrKh l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( .=rejrhdg ( · ks¾udKlrKh i|yd tla tla lKavdhug i;a;aj úúO;ajh úuid nef,k lafIa;%h ne.ska mjrkak' · flaj, jYfhka m%o¾Yk NdKav ks¾udKh i|yd wjYH uQ,dY% wOHhkhg isiqka fhduq lrkak' · isiq ks¾udK we.hSu i|yd fhdod .efkk ks¾Kdhl ms<sn| j oekqj;a lrkak' isiqkag ( · Tfí lKavdhï idudðlhska iuÕ idlÉPd lr úúO;ajhla iys; ks¾udK tl;=jla ilia lrk wkaou ie,iqï lrkak' · lKavdhfï idudðlhska i;= úfYaI l=i,;d m%fhdackhg .ksñka jvd;a wdl¾IKSh ks¾udK f.dvkÕkak'

74

7'0 we.hsï wdlD;sh

(

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

Copyright © 2006 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· ks¾udKfha wka;¾.; f;dr;=rej, .=Kd;aul nj · ks¾udKh i|yd fhdod.;a wuqøjH ,dNodhS o$mßir ys;ldó o hkak · wdl¾IKSh ksudj · j;auka ;dCIK iïm;aj,ska ks¾udKh Wfoid ,nd f.k we;s odhl;ajh · wdl,am idOkh iïnkaO fm<Uùu

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A - b;d fyd|hs B - fyd|hs C - idudkH hs D - ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

75

úoHdj

.=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh

fo jk fldgi

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

6 fY%aKsh 2007

úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

úoHdj

6 fY%aKsh fo jk fldgi 2007

© cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh ISBN -

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

uqøKh( uqøKd,h" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" uyr.u'

i

Tfí úfYaI wjOdkhg '''''''''''''''''''''''''''

6 fY%aKsfha úoHdj úIh iïnkaOfhka m<uq jdrh i|yd l%shd;aul l< hq;= l%shdldrlï ika;;sh we;=<;a .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh fï jk úg Tng w;g m;a j we;' fuu .%ka:fha wvx.= jkafka 6 fY%aKsfha fo jk jdrh iy f; jk jdrh i|yd l%shd;aul l< hq;= úoHdj l%shdldrlï ika;;sh hs' t fia u fo jk yd f; jk jdr i|yd fhdað; bf.kqu §¾> lsÍfï WmlrK o fï iuÕ we;=<;a lr we;' m<uq jdrh i|yd imhd we;s .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha úia;rd;aul úIh ks¾foaYh;a bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%fõoh;a ;lafiare yd we.hSu;a hk fldgiaj, wvx.= lr we;s ish¨ u lreKq fuu .%ka:h i|yd o iqúfYaI wjOdkhlska hq;= j wod< lr .kak' .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh ;=< bÈßm;a flfrk l%hdldrlï ika;;sfha" iEu l%hdldrlula s s u Tn fj;g iemfhk wdo¾Ylhla muKs' Tn f.a m%foaYfha iïm;a" ixialD;sh" wjYH;d yd Tfí ks¾udKYs,;jh wkqj" fhdað; úIh ikaOdrh .eí jQ" ksmK;dj ;yjqre jk fia S a q kj l%shdldrlï ie,iqï ilia lr .ekSu;a" tajd wm fj; iemhSu;a ;=<ska" fuu cd;sl fufyjrg Tn ,nd fok ixj¾Okd;aul iyfhda.h wm Wola u w.h lrk nj lreKdfjka i,lkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

wOHCI" úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

iii

mgqk

msgqj

² úfYaI wjOdkhg ² mgqk

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iii iv 1 - 111 112 - 123

² l%shdldrlï ika;;sh ² bf.kqï - b.ekaùï §¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

iv

ksmK;dj q

4'0 ( Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

( ( ( (

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'1 l%hdldrlu s 4'1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

rEm úoHd;aul ,laIK wkqj Ydl úúO;ajh úuid n,hs' wisßu;a Ydl f,dj úuiuq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² 'fudlla o fï [email protected]' l%Svdj i|yd ñßia" f.dgqfld<" ksÈl=ïnd jeks iqúfYaI ,CIK iys; Ydl lsysmhla ² weuqKu 4'1'1g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s ;=kla ² weuqKu 4'1'2g we;=<;a kso¾Yl lÜg, ilia lsÍfï Wmfoia q m;%ldj s ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 4'1'1 ( ² isiqka fofokl= mka;sh bÈßhg le|jd tlsfkldg msgqmi yrjd isák fia isg .ekSug Wmfoia fokak' ² tla YsIHhl= Ydl kso¾Ylhla wfkla YsIHhdg fkd fmfkk f,i f.k tys uq," l|" m;%" mqIam" M, yd îc ms<sn| j úia;r lsÍug fhduq lrjkak' ² wfkla YsIHhdg m%Yak weiSfuka tu Ydlh y÷kd .ekSug wjia:dj fokak' ² ;j;a isiqka lsysm fokl= o fuu l%Svdfõ fhdojkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² Ydlhl fldgia m%Odk jYfhka uq," l|" m;%" mqIam" M, yd îc jYfhka y÷kd .; yels nj ² úúO Ydl wkqj tu fldgiaj, úúO;ajhla we;s nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 4'1'2 ( ² mka;sfha isiqka mdi,a j;af;a Ydl keröfï pdßldjlg fhduq lrjkak' ² wk;=re j mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" Ydl kso¾Yl lÜg," äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï s lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

1

mshjr 4'1'3

(

² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² m;%j,g Wmßuj ysre t<sh ,efnk f,i;a" l| ia:djr j ;sfnk f,i;a Ydlhl yevh ieliS we;s nj ² Ydlj, uq," l|" m;%" mqIm" M, yd îcj, a rEmúoHd;aul úúO;ajhla we;s nj ² m;%j, yevh" ;ru" j¾Kh" kdrá yd odrj, iajNdjh wkqj úúO;ajhla we;s nj ² we;eï m;%j, CISrh we;s nj ² ir, m;% yd ixhqla; m;% f,i m;% fjka l< yels nj ² Ydlhl wdydr ksIamdokh isÿ jkafka m;% ;=< nj ² j¾Kh" yevh" iajNdjh wkqj mqIam tlsfklg fjkia jk nj ² mqIam" fmdl=re f,i fyda ;ks j fyda mj;sk nj ² Ydlhl m%ckk l%shdj,shg mqIam odhl jk nj ² l|kaj, iajNdjh wkqj me<Eá" m÷re" je,a" N+.; l|ka" w;= fnÿKq yd w;= fkd fnÿKq l|ka f,i j¾. l< yels nj ² iuñ;sl j w;= fnÿKq k;a;,a .ia jeks Ydl we;s nj ² l|ka uÕska ikaOdrl lD;Hhla bgq lrk nj ² rEmSh úúO;ajh wkqj uqÿka uq,a" ;ka;= uq,a" lre uq,a" lhsre uq," jdhqOr uq," uQ, .eá;s iys; uq,a f,i Ydlj, a a uq,a úúO;ajhla fmkajk nj ² uq,a uÕska c,h yd Lksc ,jK wjfYdaIKh lrk nj ² yevh" ;ru" îc ixLHdj yd j¾Kh wkqj M,j, úúO;ajhla we;s nj ² j¾Kh" yevh" ;ru msysàu wkqj îcj, úúO;ajhla we;s nj ² msh,s tlla fyda folla iys; îc we;s nj ² Ydl m%pdrKh i|yd M, yd îc WmldÍ jk nj ² úI iys; ùu" lgq iys; ùu yd lefmk iq¨ ùu jeks wmg ydkslr ,laIK o we;eï Ydlj, we;s nj ² lmamdÿ " fndkaidhs jeks l%u uÕska ñksid ;udg wjYH f,i Ydlj, iajrEmh md,kh lr we;s nj ² cdk ;dCIK l%u uÕska Ydlj, ,laIK fjkia l< wjia:d jYfhka my; ksoiqka ie,lsh yels nj ² ks,a meye;s frdai u,a ² îc rys; ñÈ" fodvï" ;lald,s ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

2

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Ydl fldgiaj, úúO ,CIK m%ldY lrhs' ² rEmSh úúO;ajh" lD;Hh yd iïnkaO nj ms<.ksh' s s ² Ydlj, rEm úoHd;aul ,CIK ú.%y lrhs' ² mßirfha iqkor;ajh olsh' a s ² wjfndaOfhka hq;= j mßirh ksÍlaIKh lrhs' weuqKu 4'1'1 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug wod< my; i|yka Ydl fldgi fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² uq,a yd l|ka ² m;% yd mqIm a ² M, yd îc Tn mßirfha ÿgq Ydlj, Tng mjrd we;s Ydl fldgi msysgd ;snQ wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak' tajdhska Ydlhg o" wmg o" we;s m%fhdack y÷kd .kak' úúO Ydlj, tu fldgia ñksidg ydkslr fia yev.eiS we;s wjia:d we;a oehs Tfí w;aoelSï weiqßka úuikak' Tng ,eî we;s lÜg,fha kso¾Yl ljr Ydlj,g wh;a oehs ;SrKh lrkak' kso¾Yl iïnkaO my; f;audj,g wod< f;dr;=re /ia lrkak' ² yevh" Wm fldgia ² j¾Kh" ;ru yd iam¾Y l< úg oefkk iajNdjh ² tu kso¾Ylj,g iudk fjk;a ksoiqka Tfí wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' weuqKu 4'1'2 q kso¾Yl lÜg, ilia lsÍug Wmfoia my; § we;s j.=j wdo¾Yhg .ksñka l%hdldrlu i|yd iqÿiq Ydl kso¾Yl iQodkï s lr ;nkak' kso¾Yl imhd .ekSug wmyiq Ydl i|yd PdhdrEm" rEmigyka wdÈh imhkak'

²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ² ² ²

²

² ²

3

lKavdhu I ² uq,a ksÈl=ïnd ;Kfld< ñßia kq. ^lhsre& Wvjeähd rïfm ^lre& wU fmd,a lsr, ^jdhqOr& .ïñßia ² l|ka f.dgqfld< fldys, .ïñßia Wla ksÈl=ïnd b`.re = k;a;,a .ia fnda foys ñßia

lKavdhu II ² m;% ksÈl=ïnd fo,a fl%dagka frdai fldys, rïfm wU fk`Mï mqjla f.dgqfld< ² mqIam wr,sh r;au,a l;=reuqrex.d frdai Wvjeähd lrdnqkeá f.dvudfk,a fk`Mï fmd,a ksÈl=ïnd

lKavdhu III ² M, lcq fmd,a fydr fldia rn¾ nvbß`.= ù nKavlald fk,a , s wkakdis ² îc lcq fmd,a mefmd,a fldia .ïñßia wn wU T,s| uex.=ia je,afodvï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4

ksmK;dj q

4'0 ( Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'2 l%hdldrlu s 4'2

( jdiia:dkh wkqj Ydl úúO;ajh úuid n,hs' ( Ydl jefvk ;ek wkqj ,efnk .;s ,laIK fidhuq' n,uq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 4'2'1g we;=<;a lúh q ² weuqKu 4'2'2'g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a myla ² weuqKu 4'2'3g we;=<;a 'isyk pdßldj' ,smfha msgm;a q s s myla ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 4'2'1 ( ² isiqjl= ,jd lúh mka;shg bÈßm;a lrñka iuQy .dhkhlg bv i,ikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² wm wjg mßirfha úúO Ydl we;s nj ² idudkH f.j;= mrsirj, we;s Ydl uOH Ydl hkqfjka ye|skafjk nj ² f.j;=j,g jvd fjkia mrsirj, o Ydl we;s nj ² jdiia:dkh wkqj Ydlj, úúO;ajhla we;s nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 4'2'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" ,smsh" äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' mshjr 4'2'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

5

² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² jdiia:dkh wkqj Ydlj, uq,a" l|" m;%" mqIam" M, yd îcj, úfYaI ,CIK oelsh yels nj ² l<mq" .x fudah iy ,jK iys; c,h we;s j.=re ìïj, jdih lrk Ydl lfvd,dk kï jk nj ² c,h u;=msg mdfjk fyda" c,h ;=< iïmQ¾Kfhka yd w¾O jYfhka .s,S mj;sk fyda Ydl c,c Ydl kï jk nj ² uqyÿ fjr<j, oeä ysre rYañh yd ,jK ñY% c,h q iys; mßirfha jefvk Ydl" fjr<nv Ydl kï jk nj ² mfia yd jdhqf.da,fha we;s c, m%udKh b;d wvq" oeä ysre /ia yd iq<x iys; mßirj, jefvk Ydl" Y=Il a Ydl kï jk nj ² mig iú fkd ù fjk;a Ydlhl l|g fyda w;a;lg iú ù jefvk" tfy;a Odrl Ydlfhka fmdaIKh ,nd fkd .kakd Ydl wmsYdl kï jk nj ² lfvd,dk Ydl lsymhl my; ,CIK oelsh yels s nj ² lfvd,a - jd isoqre ork lre uq,a iy lhsre uq,a ² lsr, - jdhqOr uq,a" c,dnqc M, ² uKav - jdhqOr uq,a" c,dnqc M, ² c,c Ydl lsymhl my; ,CIK oelsh yels nj s ² cmka cnr - jd; wjldY iys; m;% kgqj ² fk`Mï - jd; wjldY iys; È." jla jQ m;% kgqj" jd; wjldY iys; N+ .; l| ² je,siafkaßhd - mS;a; máhla jeks È.eá m;% ² fjr<nv Ydl lsymhl my; ,CIK oelsh yels s nj ² uyd rdjKd /jq, - .eUqrg úysÿKq ;ka;uh uQ, = moaO;sh" ² ìï ;Uqre - ìï nEjQ l| ² jegflhshd - lre uq,a ² Y=Il Ydl lsymhl my; ,CIK oelsh yels nj A s ² o`Mla- l=vd jQ m;%" CISrh ² fldaußld - udxY, m;%" kdkq ² mf;dla - udxY, l|" lgq

6

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

14

² wmsYdl lsymhl my; ,CIK oelsh yels nj s ² Wvjeähd - jdhj uq," udxY, m;% a ² fí÷re - Y,al m;%" wd,.ak uq,a ² ldis fm;s - udxY, m;%" wd,.ak uq,A ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² jdiia:dkh wkqj Ydl i;=jk úfYaI ,laIK úia;r lrhs' ² jdiia:dkhg .e,mS mej;Su i|yd Ydl úúO wkqj¾;k fmkajk nj ms<s.kshs' ² Ydl i;= iqúfYaI ,laIK jdiia:dkfha mdßißl ;;a;ajhkag .,mhs' ² fldgia tla lsÍu uÕska iuia;h f.dvkÕhs' ² ks¾udKYS,S f,i f;dr;=re bÈßm;a lrhs' weuqKu 4'2'1 q

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

lúh wf.hs o`M fld< iq<f`. wefohs uq,a uy fmdf<dj úo .ila fjñ uu f,djg fi; Tfí Ôjh ksn| ke<efjk f.k fok iqrlsk weuqKu 4'2'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² jdiia:dkh wkqj my; wdldrhg Ydl j¾. lr we;' ² lfvd,dk Ydl ² c,c Ydl ² fjr<nv Ydl ² Y=Il Ydl a ² wmsYdl ² Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk Ydl j¾.h flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² wod< ,smsh lshjd Tng wjYH f;dr;=re /ia lrkak' ² tu Ydlj, m;%" l|" M," îc yd uQ, moaO;sh i;= ,laIK mska;+rj,ska fyda Ydl fldgiaj,ska fyda ksÍlaIKh lrkak' ² y÷kd .;a ,laIK tu Ydlj,g wod< jdiia:dkfha jefvkakg Wmldr jk wkaou idlÉPd lrkak' ² Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak'

7

weuqKu 4'2'3 q isyk pdßldj s Ydlj, m;%" l|" uq,a" M, yd îcj, rEm úoHd;aul ,laIK ms<sn| j ñ;=rka iuÕ lafIa;% wOHhk pdßldjl ksr; ù ksjig meñKs ud,l rd;%sfha iqj kskaolg msúiqKd' iq`M fõ,djlska Tyq we;=`M jqfKa ukialdka; isysk f,djlg hs' ud,lg ;o wõrYañhla oeKqkd' iq<Õ b;d u oeä hs' "wehs ysg f.k bkafka" wudre [email protected] jefgkak hkjd [email protected]" lõreka yß ud,lg l:d l<d' ta y~ fldhska oehs ud,l jgmsg ne¨jd' lgq we;s mf;dla .ila ;uhs ta' ud,lg yß mqÿu hs' " ug j;=r ;sny hs' j;=r álla fndkak mq¨jka [email protected]" ud,l weyqjd' " j;=r ! wmg oeka udi .Kklska j;=r fmdola j;a kE' ug ,efnk j;=r ál ud mßiaiï lr .kakjd' uf.a l| j;=r /ia lr .kak mq¨jka udxi, l|la' j;=r jdIam fj,d hd yels m;%" ud lgq njg m;aa lr f.k hs bkafka' foayfha CISrh we;s wr,sh" o`Mla" hkd§ hy`Mjka o ug isákjd' Thdg fmfkkjd o wr È,sfik ySks fld< ;sfhk lfkare .i iy yd;jdßh je,' thd,d f.a ySks fld< iy tajdfha È,sfik iajNdjh ksid c,h jdIam lrk m%udKh wvq lrkjd' n,kak flda iq<fÕa ier' f,dl= fld< iys; f,dl= .ia úÈhg wm ;snqKd kï wmg iq<Õg Tfrd;a;= fokakg neß fjkjd'" ud,l f.a w; jeÈ,d ;j;a m÷rl >klï fld<hla levqKd' ta fldf<a we;=f<a kdkq jdf.a fohla' ud fldaudßld' kdkqj, ;uhs c,h r|j f.k bkafka' fldfydu jqK;a ud,l" Thdg kï fï mßirfha fï ojiaj, j;=r fydhd .kak fndfydu wudre hs "' fldaudßld lsõjd' ta iuÕ u meñKs fõ.j;a iq<Õlg ud,l .id f.k .shd' .syska kej;=fKa úYd, .il w;a;la Wv' " ud,l fudlo fï .y Wv'" lõfoda weyqjd' ud,l jgmsg ne¨jd' ,iaik u,a fmdl=rla ;sfhk Wvjeähd me<hla .fya w;a;lg fyd|g iú fj,d' " ud fndfydu ;snfyka bkafk' j;=r álla [email protected] " " wmg fldhska o j;=r @ fmdf<dfj kï j;=r ´k ;rï' ud fï w;a;lg iú fj,d hs bkafka' jysk fj,djg w;af;a fmd;= w;r /fok j;=r ;uhs ud m%fhdackhg .kafka' ke;a kï jd;fha ;sfhk c,jdIam ál uf.a fï t,af,k jdhj uq,aj,ska Wrd .kakjd' ud j;=r fyd|g m%fõiï lr .kakjd' uf.a fld< fyd|g udxi, hs' ta ksid fld< ;=< j;=r ;sfnkjd' tajd Thdg .kak nE'" ud,l jgmsg ne¨jd' fjk;a w;= fon,a u; jefjk Ydl rdYshla Tyq oelald' iuyr Ydlj, m;% úYd, hs' yevh flfi,a fld< jdf.a' wd fïl l=re¨ leoe,a,la jdf.a u hs' taflu fld< w;fr /÷Kq fld< frdvqj, f;;ukh /ia fj,d' w;a; Wv u fo,a fld< jdf.a fld< ;sfhk fí÷re me<hl=;a' ta .ia kï ud,l f.a f.or ,iaikg jj,d

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

8

;sfnk nj Tyqg u;la jqKd' thd;a f;;ukh r|jd .kafka fld< frdvqj,ska' ta <Õ u fld, mdg fnd;a;ï" fnd;a;ï jdf.a ;sfhk je,la .fya w;a;lg fyd|g iúfj,d ;sfhkjd' ud,l fld<hla lv,d fmdä l<d' j;=r .;sh fyd|g ;sfhk udxY, m;%hla' " Thd .fyka neye,d <Õ ;sfhk wef<ka j;=r fndkak' " ´lsâ m÷r lSjd' ud,la neye,d we< <Õg .shd' j;=r fndk fldg ,sii,d we<g jegKq ud,l my<g .id f.k a .syska wka;sug k;r jqfKa ,iaik fmdl=Kl' fmdl=fKa c,h u;=msg mdfjk Ydl iy fmdl=K wi, uv iys; f.dvìfï ;sfnk Ydl f.dvla ud,lg fmkqKd' fk`Mï u,la ud,lg l;d l<d' "ug kï c,fhka wvqjla kE' ud c,fha mdfjkjd' ug mdfjkak myiq fjkakg uf.a fld< m<,aj ;uhs ;sfnkafka' uf.a o~q we;=f<a jd;h /ia fjkak jd; wjldY ;sfhkjd' ug jeäh È. uq,a kE' ta uq,j,ska uvg iúfj,d bkafka' uf.a iuyr hy`Mjka a uq,a iu`. u j;=r u;=msg md fjkjd' tla flfkla ;uhs cmka cnr' ta f.d,a,kag md fjkak mq¨jka jkakg m;% kgq ;=< jd; wjldY msyg,d ;sfhkjd' " ud,l j;=f¾ lsñÈ,d s uvg iú fj,d ;snqKq fk`Mï .ila .,j,d ne¨jd' " isÿre iys; w,hla' " ud,l f.a wef`.a meg`MKd fld< mdg mS;; má ñáhla' "ud je,sifkaßhd' m;+<g iú fj,hs bkafk' a a f,dl= Èh myrla wdj;a tydg fuydg jeks,d ud fífrkjd'" " wfka Thd yß ,iaikhs "' ud,l lSjd' ta tlal u j;=r myrla u;= fj,d ud,l .y f.k hkakg jqKd' ud,l kej;=fKa uqyog <x fj,d ;sfhk l<mqjlg' j;=r ¨Kq ri hs' wäh ;shkak nE uv' ud,l jgmsg q ne¨jd' ,iaikg È,sfik fld< ;sfnk irejg jevqKq m÷re f.dvla l<mqj woaor ;snKd' q yß u mqÿu hs' fukak ta .i jfÜg u fon,a ;sh,d jdf.a' lre uq,a' .fya f.ä;a ;sfhkjd' ud,lg u;l jqKd wïud lsr, lsß mdkhla yo,d ÿkafka fï f.äj,ska nj' iuyr f.äj,g uqrex.d lr,a iú lr,d jdf.a' "Thd,d wks;a Ydlj,g jvd yßhg fjkia " ud,l lSjd' " wms bkafka ¨kq ri c,h ;sfhk" uv iys;" wõ rYañh jeä m%foaYhl' ta ksid ;uhs wfma fld, È,sfikafka' ufâ fyd|g iú fj,d ;sfhkak ;uhs wfma fï ;rï lreuq,a ;sfhkafka' fï lr,a jf.a f.ä j;=rg jegqKd u ufâ iú fjkjd' thg miafia fyd|g uq,a weÈ,d f.äh me< fjkjd "' ud,l jgmsg ne¨jd' j;=r uÜgug Wäka ;eka ;ekaj, by<g tijqKq uq,a j.hla oelald' ta lsr, .yl uq,a j.hla' lsr, .y l;d lrkakg jqKd' " fï yßh jv Èhg hg fjkjd' ta fj,djg fï uq,aj, by< fldgi jd;hg ksrdjrKh fj,d ;sfhkafka' ta uq,a jdhq yqjudrejg Woõ fjk jdhqOr uq,a' fï uf.a hd`Mfjda fokafkla' lfvd,a .i hs" uKav .i hs' wm ;=ka fokd u tl jdf.a ". "fndre lshkafkmd". lfvd,a .i lE .eyqjd' "Thdg hs uKav .ig hs lre uq,a" jdhqOr jdf.a u c,dnqc M,hla ;sfhkjd' ta jqKdg lhsre uq,a ;sfhkafk ug ú;r hs "'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

9

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

"yenehs b;ska Thdg c,dnqc M,hla kEfk "' lsr, .y lshoaÈ ud,l l<mqj Èf.a u .syka s uqyÿ fjr<g f.dv jqKd' ;o wõj" uqyÿ c,h ñY% fj,d yuk iq<Õ yß fõ.j;a' fijKg q q ;snqfKa jegfla m÷rla ú;r hs' ud,l t ;ekg .shd' iq<fÕa ierg Tfrd;a;= fokak lre jdf.a uq,a weú;a" jegfla .fia l| jfÜg u' "fjrf< bkafka fuhd ú;rhs'" ud,l lSjd' "kE wm;a bkakjd "' ud,lg l:d lf<a ìu Èf.a hk ìï ;Uqre je,la' "wmg Th ;o iq<Õ Tfrd;a;= fokafka kE' ta ksid wms je,a úÈhg ìu Èf.a .uka lrkjd' fld< fõ,s,d hEu kj;ajkak ;uhs È,sfik m;% wmg ;sfhkafka' " ud,l jgmsg ne¨jd' ySka È.eá fld< ;sfhk je,la jdf.a m÷rl=;a wE;ska ;sfhkjd' fudkjd o fï lsh,d ud,l ys;=jd ú;r hs' jegfla m÷r wdfh;a ud,lg l;d l<d'"ta ;uhs uyd rdjKd /jq, lshk me<Eáh". jegfla m\qr ms<;=re ÿkakd' ud,l f.or tkak msg;a jqKd' s "fï fudlo fï @" ud,lg yuq jqKq Tlafldu .ia" je,a" me<Eá ud,l f.a miafika tkjd' ud,lg ys;Kd tal = fyd|hs lsh,d' fyg biafldaf, hk fldg;a Tfydu u taú fka' t; fldg .=re;=óg mq`Mjka Ydlj, jdiia:dk mdvu wmqrejg lrkak' ud,lg yß yskd' "fudlo mqf;a ySfkka yskd fjkafk "' wyk fldg hs ud,lg weyerefKa'

lre uq,a iys; lsr, Ydlh

lhsre uq,a

l=re,q leo,s

lsr, M,

lfkare

10

jdhqOr uq,a

lreuq,a iys; jefgfla Ydlh

fk¿ï

uyd rdjKd /jq,a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ìï;Uqre

o¿la

fldaudßld

Wvjeähd

mf;dla

uKav Ydlfha M,h

11

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

wr,sh

yd;jdßh

je,siafkaßhd

fí÷re

12

ldis fm;s

cmka cnr

ksmK;dj 4'0 q

q ksmK;d uÜgu 4'3 l%hdldrlu 4'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

(

( ( ( (

Ydl úúO;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iqÿiq ks¾Kdhl yd l%u fhdod f.k Ydl j¾.SlrKh lrhs' fidhuq' n,uq' Ydl j¾. lruq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 4'3'1 g we;=<;a msk;rh iy fofnÿï iqÑh q a + ² weuqKu 4'3'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s myla ² weuqKu 4'3'3 g we;=<;a .=re Wmfoia m;%ldj q s ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka s bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s a + mshjr 4'3'1 ( ² mka;hg msk;rh bÈßm;a lrkak' ² tys i;=ka f.a we;s yd ke;s ,CIK úuikak' ² tu ,CIK weiqßka fofnÿï iqÑhla f.dv ke`.Sug W;aidy .kak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² Ôùka f.a ,CIKj, we;s$ke;s nj wkqj Tjqka j¾. l< yels nj ² tu ,CIK mokï lr .ksñka fofnÿï iqÑ f.dv ke`.h yels nj s ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 4'3'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs& mshjr 4'3'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' s ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² m;%j, iajNdjh wkqj j¾.SlrKfha § m;%fha yevh" kdráj, rgdj" odrfha rgdj" m;% mdofha iajNdjh" m;% w.%fha iajNdjh" m;%sld jYfhka fn§ mej;Su" jeks ,CIK i,ld ne,sh yels nj

13

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² mqImj, iajNdjh wkqj j¾. lsÍfï § j¾Kh" yevh" a fm;s .Kk" wfkl=;a Wm fldgia ixLHdj iy iajNdjh i,ld ne,sh yels nj ² M,j, iajNdjh wkqj j¾. lsÍfï § j¾Kh" yevh" îc ixLHdj iy M, yd îcj, jHdma;sh jeks ,CIK i,ld ne,sh yels nj ² uq,aj, iajNdjh wkqj j¾. lsÍfï § uqÿka uq,la mej;Su" me;sÍ we;s wdldrh" wdydr .nvd lsÍu" fnda ùug odhl ùu" .eá;s iys; ùu wd§ ,CIK i,ld ne,sh yels nj ² jdiia:dkh wkqj j¾. lsÍfï § c,c" lfvd,dk" fjr< nv" Y+Ial" wms Ydl yd uOH Ydl hk uQ,sl ,CIK fuka u tla tlA jdiia:dkhg wod< iqúfYaIs ,CIK o fhdod .; yels nj' ² f;dard .;a Ydl ksheÈhla" lsihï ks¾Kdhl .Kkdjla s Tiafia y÷kd .ekSug fofnÿï iqÑhla Ndú; l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Ydl j¾.SlrKh i|yd fhdod .; yels uQ,l ks¾Kdhl myla kï lrhs ' s ² j¾.SlrKh l< úg Ydl y\qkd .ekSu myiq jk nj ms<s.ks' ² fok ,o Ydl iuqyhla yªkd .ekSug fofnÿï iQÑhla f.dv k`.hs' ² øjHj, fjkia lï olshs' ² tÈfkod Ôú;fha lghq;= myiq lr .ekSug j¾. lsÍu Ndú; lrhs'

14

q weuqKu 4'3'1 wuq;= i;a;=

wd¾.d,s

wdâjdla

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Tßlaia

lne,a,Ehd

fofnÿï iqÑh wuq;= i;a;=

fÜmsh¾

wx we;s

wx ke;s

jl% wx wd¾.d,s

Rcq wx Tßlaia fldrfmd;= iys; lne,a,Ehd

j,a. È.

j,a. flá fÜmsh¾ fldrfmd;= rys; wdâjdla

15

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² Ydl j¾.SlrKh i|yd fhdod .; yels ,CIK myla u;= oelafõ' ² m;%j, iajNdjh ² mqImj, iajNdjh a ² M,j, iajNdjh ² uq,aj, iajNdjh ² jdiia:dkh ² Tn ksÍCIKh lrkq ,enQ Ydlj, Tng wod< ,CIKh flfrys ie,ls,su;a jkak' ² Ydl j¾.SlrKh i|yd tu ,CIKh fhdod .; yels wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak' ² tu ,CIKh mokï lr .ksñka ksÍCIKh l< Ydl y÷kd .ekSu i|yd fofnÿï iQÑhla f.dv k`.kak' ² Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' q weuqKu 4'3'3 .=re Wmfoia ² f;dard .;a Ydl oyhla ksÍCIKh i|yd ish¨ isiq lKavdhï fhduq l< hq;= fõ' ² fuys § isikg mjrd we;s rEm úoHd;aul ,CIK yd jdiia:dkj, úúO;ajhla we;s Ydl q a f;dard .ekSug ie,ls,su;a jkak' ² Tfí myiqj i|yd t jeks Ydl ksheÈhla my; kï lr we;' l;=reuqrex.d" fmd,a" wr,sh" je,a fodvï" frdai" ´lSâ" jegfla" lsr, ìï ;Uqre" fk`Mï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

16

ksmK;dj q

5'0 ( mDÓúfha iy wNHjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu

5'1' ( iQ¾hhd f.a iy pkaøhd f.a p,s;h yd iïnkaO ixisoaê wkafõIKh lrhs' l%hdldrlu s 5'1 ( bfr;a" yf|;a .uk fidhuq" n,uq' ld,h ( ñks;a;= 120 hs' .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKqu 5'1'1g we;=<;a jdykhl hk .ukla lúh ² weuqKqu 5'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla ² weuqKqu 5'1'3g we;=<;a Wmfoia wkqj ilia l< ld¾h mßY% ;=kla ² weuqKqu 5'1'4 g we;=<;a Trß WmlrKh ilia lr .ekSfï Wmfoia m;%sldfõ msgm;a ;=kla ² weuqKu 5'1'5g we;=<;a 'wyi foi ne,qfjd;a fyd¢ka 'm;%ldfõ q s msgm;a ;=kla ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 5'1'1 ( ² ÿïßhlska fyda fjk;a jdykhlska .uka l< wjia:djla isysm;a lrjñka isiqka fofokl= ,jd rx.khla iys; j lúh bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² tys oS u`. fomi ;snQ ksYap, jia;= ud¾.fha miq mig .uka l< wdldrh ms<sn| ksÍlaIK úuikak' ² Èjd - rd;%S we;s ùu;a" fmdfydh we;s ùu;a" ms<n| idlÉPd s lrkak' ² i| rdyq we,a,u iy br rdyq we,a,u ms<n| f;dr;=re úuikak' S S s ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² jdykhl .uka lrk úg wjg we;s ksYap, jia;= miq mig Èj hkakdla fuka fmfkk nj ² wmg fmfkk p,s; ú,dYh oDYH p,s;h kï jk nj ² jia;= foll p,s; iajNdjh fjkia jQ úg tllg idfmaCI j wfkflys p,s;h úia;r l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 15hs& a mshjr 5'1'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a

17

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 5'2'3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

: ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² mDÓúh ;u wlaIh jgd tla jghla N%uKh ùfï § meh úis y;rla .; jk nj ² mDÓúfha N%uKh fya;=fjka Èjd-rd;%S we;s jk nj ² pkaøhd mDÓúh jgd mßN%uKh fya;=fjka pkaø l,d we;s jk nj ² pkaø l,d mqkrdj¾;kh ùu wkqj i;r fmdfydh o" udihl ld,h o" iïu; lr f.k we;s nj ² pkaø.%yK we;sjkqfha mDÓúfha fijke,a, ;=<g pkaøhd meñKSu ksid nj ² pkaø.%yK isÿ jkafka mif<diajl Èkj, § nj ² iQ¾h.%yK we;sjkqfha pkaøhd f.a fijke,a, mDÓúh u;g jeàu ksid nj ² iQ¾h.%yK isÿ jkafka wudjl Èkj, § nj ² iQ¾h.%yK yd pkaø.%yKj, § mDÓúh" iQ¾hhd iy pkaøhd tl u f¾Ldjl msysgk nj ² iQ¾hhd jgd mDÒúhg tla jrla .uka lsÍug .; jk ld,h jirla nj ² ;drld úoHd{hska lsysm fokl= my; i|yka jk nj ² ksfld,jqia fldm¾kslia ² fcdyekakia flma,¾ ² .e,S,fhda .e,s,s s ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² iQ¾hhd" pkaøhd iy mDÓúh tlsfkldg idfmalaI j p,kh ùu fya;=fjka Èjd - rd;%s" fmdfydh iy .%yK we;s jk wdldrh úia;r lrhs' ² iQ¾Hhd" pkaøhd yd mDÓúfha p,khka wfma Ôjk rgdjg úúO n,mEï we;s lrk nj ms<.ksh' s s ² idfmalaI p,khka yd iïnkaO ixisoaê wdo¾Ykh i|yd wegjqï ks¾udKh lrhs' ² M,odhs ikaksfõokhla Wfoid wdo¾Yk Ndú; lrhs' ² ks¾udK ieliSfï § ksudj ms<sn| ie,ls,su;a fjhs'

18

weuqKu 5'1'1 q jdykhl hk .ukla jdykhl wms hk úg isÿ jk foa mqÿu hs ug .ia ÿjkafk miq miaig wms hkafka biairyg weuqKu 5'1'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug mejfrk my; iajdNdúl ixisoaêh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² Èjd - rd;%s we;s ùu ² pkaø l,d we;s ùu fyj;a fmdfydh we;s ùu' ² pkaø.%yK iy iQ¾h.%yK we;s ùu ld¾h mßY%j, ;nd we;s øjH yd WmlrK Ndú;fhka Trß WmlrKfha wdlD;shla ks¾udKh lrkak' tu wegjqu Ndú;fhka Tng wod< ixisoaêh wdo¾Ykh lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' weuqKu 5'1'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka o%jH we;=<;a lr ld¾h mßY% ;=kla ilia lrkak' ² w÷re mßirhla ilia lsÍug l`M lvodis ² weuqKqu 5'1'4 g we;=<;a Trß WmlrKh ilia lsÍfï l%shd ms<sfj< oelafjk m;%sldj ² weuqKqu 5'1'5 g we;=<;a zwyi foi ne¨fjd;a fyd¢ka Z mska;+rh ² is,skavrdldr áka tlla ² >k ldâfndaâ ;eáhla ² yev,h ie§u i|yd ;=kS ,E,s má lene,a,la ² kQ,a frdao ;=kla ^yels kï myla& ² rn¾ uqÿjla (rubber band) ² fjdIr folla ² msx fmdx fnda,hla ² mn¿ weghla ² úÿ,s mkaoï n,anhla" fyda,avrhla" jh¾ iy negß ² we¨ñkshï ng len,s folla ² Yla;su;a lïìhla ^50 cm& ² w~qjla ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka ² by; øjH imhd .; fkd yels wjia:dj, § iqÿiq úl,am fhdod .kak'

19

²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Trß WmlrKh

20

weuqKu 5'1'4 q

weuqKu 5'1'5 q wyi foi ne¨fjd;a fyd¢ka ² Èjd - rd;%s we;s ùu iq¾hhd

²

pkaø l,d we;s ùu fyj;a fmdfydh we;s ùu'

iQ

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

¾ h hd

² pkaø.%yK iy iQ¾h.%yK we;s ùu

> pkaøhd mDÓúh > > Èjd ld,h jqj;a rd;s%h fuka w÷re fmfoi

> iq¾hhd

pkaø.%yKh

iq¾h.%yKh

21

ksmqK;dj

5'0 ( mDÓúfha yd wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

( ( ( ( mDÓúfha jHqyh y÷kd .ekSug wkafõIKfha fhfohs' fmdf<dj .ek fidhkakg fhduq fjuq'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'2 l%hdldrlu s 5'2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 5'2'1g we;=<;a .sks lkaol msk;rh q a + ² weuqKu 5'2'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s ;=kla ² weuqKu 5'2'3g we;=<;a 'wdYap¾hu;a mDÒúh' ,smh' q s ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh s ( a s mshjr 5'2'1 ( ² .sks lkaol msk;+rh mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' ² mDÓúfha u;=msg;a wNHka;rh;a w;r fjkila ;sfí oehs isiqka f.ka úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² mDÓúfha u;=msgg jvd wNHka;rh fjkia nj ² .sks l÷ we;s ùug mDÓú wNHka;rfha jHqyh fya;= jk nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" ,smsh" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' s ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² mDÓúh" c, f.da,h" jdhq f.da,h yd Ys,d f.da,h ixrpl Tiafia j¾. l< yels nj ² c, f.da,h jYfhka .efkkafka lrÈh yd ñßÈh" ysu whsi" c, jdIam f,i mj;sk mDÓúh weiqre lr .;a a iuia; c, iïm; nj

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 5'2'2

(

mshjr 5'2'3

(

yd

22

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² mD:súh ;=< >k ^whsia& øj yd jdhq hk wjia:d ;=fkka u c,h mj;sk nj ² mDÓúfha wka;¾.; c,fhka 97'5]la u we;af;a id.r ;=< lrÈh jYfhka nj ² mDÓúfha we;s 2'5]la muK jQ ñßÈfhka " y;frka ;=klg;a jvd .a,eishr yd whsia f,i >k wjia:dfõ o mj;sk nj ² mDÓúfhys u;=msáka 70]la muK c,fhka wdjrKh ù we;s nj ² mDÓúfhys ñksidg m%fhdackhg .; yels ñßÈh we;af;a b;d u w,am ud;%hla nj ² jdhqf.da,h jYfhka ie,flkafka mDÓú mDIaGfhka Tíng úysÿKq jd; ia;rh nj ² jdhqf.da,fha 4$5 la muKa khsg%cka yd 1$5 la muK Tlaiscka mj;sk nj ² ysre t<sfha mj;sk mdrcïnq, lsrK mDÓú mDIaGhg jeàu jdhqf.da,fha by<ska mj;sk ´fidaka ia;rh uÕska je<elafjk nj ² Ys,d f.da,h jYfhka ie,flkafka mdIdK yd Lksc wvx.= mDÓú lfndf,ys by<ska u msysgk ia;rh nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² mDÓúfha ixrpl kï lrhs' ² jdhqf.da,fha" c,f.da,fha yd Ys,df.da,fha .;sl nj Ôùka f.a meje;aug wod< jk nj ms<.ksh' s s ² mDÒúfha jHqyh mßir úm¾hdi flfrys n,mdk wdldrh ú.%y lrhs' ² iajdNdúl iïm;a ;sridr f.i mßfNdackh lsÍfï l=i,;d fmkajhs' ² mD:q, ixl,amj, yrh idrdxY lrñka OdrKh lr .ksh' s

23

weuqKu 5'2'1 q .sks lkao

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 5'2'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug mjrkq ,enq my; oelafjk mDÓúfha uQ,sl ixrplh flfrys fhduq jkak' ² Ys,df.da,h ² c,f.da,h ² jdhqf.da,h imhk ,o wdYap¾hu;a mDÓúh ,smsh wOHhkh lrkak' Tng wod< ixrplh uekeúka ú.%y flfrk mßÈ f;dr;=re f.dkq lrñka ks¾udKhla f.dv k`.kak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

² ² ²

24

weuqKu 5'2'3 q ZwdYap¾hu;a mDÒúh'

fï uy fmdf<dj foi yßhdldr j ne¨j fyd;a tys wdYap¾hh oel .kak mq¿jka' mDÓúh" c, f.da,h" jdhq f.da,h yd Ys,d f.da,h hk ixrpl Tiafia j¾. l< yels hs' c, f.da,h jYfhka .efkkafka lrÈh yd ñßÈh" ysu yd whsia" c, jdIam f,i mj;sk mDÓúh weiqre lr .;a iuia; c, iïm; hs' mD:súh ;=< >k ^whsi& øj yd jdhq a hk wjia:d ;=fkka u c,h mj;skjd' mDÓúfha wka;¾.; c,fhka 97'5]la u we;af;a id.r ;=< lrÈh jYfhka' mDÓúfha we;s 2'5]la muK jQ ñßÈfhka " y;frka ;=klg;a jvd .a,eishr yd whsia f,i >k wjia:dfõ mj;skjd' tys u;=msáka 70]la muK wdjrKh ù we;af;a c,fhka' fmdf<dj lfnd,a, u; .x.d we< fod< .,d hkjd' id.r" c,fhka msß,d' iuyr

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ia:dkj, ld,hlg ysu ñfokjd' iuyr ;ekaj, ioyg u ysu' wms n,uq wyfia c,h ;sfnk wdldrh' ysre /iska nenf,k wyfia mdg mdg j,dl=¿ mdfjkjd' ta j,dl=¿j, ;sfnkfka fmdf<dfjka jdIam ù by<g .sh c,h hs' wE; wyfia § fï c, jdYam >kSNjkh ù l=vd c, ì¢;s yefokjd' fõ,djlg br uqjd fj,d j,dl=¿ w÷re meyehg yefrkjd' t;fldg j,dl=f<a c, ì¢;sj, nr áflka ál jeä fjkjd' wkak t;fldg lvd yef<kjd uyd jreidjla' ta jeiai yg .;af;a wyfia §' iuyr fõ,djg ;uka f.a <`. bkak flkd j;a fmfkkafka ke;s ;rï >k óÿula wm oel,d ;sfnkjd' tal yßhg fmdf<dj jid .;a j,dl=<la lsh,d lshkak mq¿jka' tafla ;sfnkafka;a c, ìxÿ' iuyr fõ,djg wyiska mqxÑ mqxÑ ysu ì¢;s lvd yef<kjd' fuh isÿ jkafka fndfydu YS; m%foaYj,' fï ysu ì¢;sj,g lshkafka u,a ;=yk lsh,d' u,a ;=yk ke;s j whsia leg s s jeis jisk fj,dj¨;a ;sfhkjd' ta ú;rla fkdfjhs" ysu l=Kdgq;a t jeks m<d;a j, oel .; yels hs' .x.d yeu úg u .,kafka Wia l÷ m%foaYj, isg uqyog hs' ta w;f¾ Èh we,s olskk;a q a mq¿jka' Èh we,a,la lshkafka Wia ia:dkhl isg tl jr u lvd yef<k c, myrla' fï yer" jeõ fmdl=Kq jdf.a ñßÈh c,dY;a wm rfÜ ´kE ;rï oel .kak mq¿jka' q rfÜ uOHu l÷lr m%foaYfha iEu ;ekl u mdfya ksrka;rfhka c,h .,d hk W,am;a yuq fjkjd' fïjdfha c,h tl;= fj,d ;uhs mqxÑ mqxÑ Èh myr yeÈ,d wjidkfha uyd .`.la njg m;a fjkafka' iuyr fõ,djg W,am;aj,ska .,kafka WKq c,h hs' ta jqKdg tys mqÿuhla keye' fudl o tu c,h fmdf<dfõ b;d WKqiï .eUqre ia:dkj, isg hs by<g tkafka' ta jdf.a u WKq q Èh W,am;aj, c,h by<g úÈk wjia:d;a olskak mq¿jka'

25

O%ejdikak m%foaYj, úYd, ysu l÷ ;sfhkjd' iuyr ysu l÷ áflka ál p,kh fjkjd' weyeg fmfkkafka ke;s ;rï fifuka' fïjdg lshkafka .a,eishr lsh, hs' jdhq f.da,h lsh, lshkafka mDÓúh wdjrKh lr .;a jd; ia;rh hs' thska 4$5 la muK ;sfnkafka khsg%cka jdhqj hs' Tlaiscka ;sfnkafka 1$5 muK hs' iq¿ m%udKhla ;uhs wfkla jdhq yd c, jdIam mj;skafka' jd;h p,kh ùu wm y÷kajkafka iq<x hkqfjka' b;d fõ.j;a wdldrhg iq<x yuk úg wm lshkafka l=Kdgq lsh, hs' fgdkdfvda lshkafka;a tla;rd wdldrhl iq<s l=Kdgq j¾.hla' fgdkdfvdajl § fmdf<dfõ fyda uqyqfoa we;s foa by<g weÈ,d hkjd' wyfia j,dl=¿ w;r isÿ jk ls%hdj,shla ksid úÿ,s wl=Kq yg .kakjd' úÿ,s wl=Kq lsishï Wi jia;=jla yryd fmdf<djg we§ tkjd' fï ksid úÿ,s wl=Kq ðú;j,g;a foam,jg;a ydks lr úh yels hs' fmdf<dj úhef<k úg iq<`.;a iu`. mia wxY= by< k.skjd' ta ;uhs ¥ú,a,' l¾udka;

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Yd,d" jdyk wdÈh ksid;a jdhq f.da,hg úúO wxY= j¾. iy ÿu tl;= fjkjd' fï øjH iu`. jd;h wdYajdi lsßfuka ñksia ðú;j,g úúO wdldrfha wdmod we;sjkakg mq¿jka' jdhq f.da,fha by<ska u ;sfnk ;Ügqj ;uhs ´fidaka ia;rh ' ´fidaka ia;rfhka ñksia Yßrhg wys;lr mdrcïnq, iQ¾h lsrK Wrd .efkkjd' fï ksid ´fidaka ia;rh ;sîu wmg b;d u m%fhdackj;a ' ta jqK;a ;dlaIK ÈhqKqj;a iu`. ´fidaka ia;rh iuyr ;ekaj,ska ydks fj,d ;sfnkjd' fuh Nhdkl ;;a;ajhla' fmdf<dfõ" u;=mg ia;rh lshkafka lfnd,' mDÓú lfndf,a l÷" mia" m¾j;" .,a .=yd" s Lksc iy úúO mdIdK jeks foa wvx.= fjkjd' fmdf<dj wNHka;rh ne¨j fyd;a tys uOHfha ;sfhkafka ue.aud kue;s wêl WIaK;ajfhka hq;a" øj ù mj;sk mdIdK hs' fj,djlg .sks l÷ mqmqr,d ue.aud msg;g tkjd' t;fldg wm lshkafka ,djd .,kjd lsh, hs' wfma rfÜ úúO Lksc iïm;a ;sfhkjd' b,aukhsÜ" ñksrka" uhsld iy ueKsla thg ksoiqka lsysmhla' Lksc tlla fyda jeä .Kkla tl;= ù iefok øjH mdIdK hs' ksoiqka jYfhka l¿ .,a" yqKq .,a iy lsß .re`v i,lkakg mq¿jka' fmdf<dj lfndf,a we;s mia ;Ügqj wmg b;d m%fhdackj;a' ish¨ u Ydl jefjkafka" fuu mia ia:rfha hs' tfy;a fikaá ógr tll mia ia;rhla we;s ùug wjqreÿ ish .Kkla .; fjkjd' fl fia fj;;a" ;dlaIK ÈhqKqj ksid oeä f,i mßirh ¥IKh fjñka mj;skjd' tfy;a nqoêu;a mqo.,hka jYfhka mßirh;a wdrlaId lr .ksñka u ÈhqKj lrd hdug wm a a q ish¨ fokd ie,ls,su;a úh hq;= fjkjd' ta ukao lsj fyd;a ÿIs; mßirh wfma ðú; .s, .kakg bv ;sfnk ksid'

26

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Lksc

mDÓú wNHka;rh

.,a .=yd N+.; c,h

mfia ia;r

WKq Èh W,am;a

27

m¾j;

ó ÿu

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

msk;r a +

uqyqo

we<" fod<

N+ c,h j,dl=¿ .x.d

ñßÈh c,dY

28

ysu id.rh

Èh we,s

´fidaka ia:rh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ÿu

úÿ,s wl=Kq

jdhq f.da,h

l=Kdgqj

fgdkdfvda

.a,eishr

ueKsla

m;%h u; jegqKq msks

29

ksmqK;dj

5'0 ( mDÓúfha yd wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

( ( ( ( c,f.da,fha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSug wkafõIKfha fhfohs' fmdf<dj;a c,h;a ne÷Kq yeá n,uq'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'3 l%hdldrlu s 5'3 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 5'3'1g we;=<;a 'j,dl=<la youq' Wmfoia m;%ldj q s ² weuqKu 5'3'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s ;=kla ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh s ( mshjr 5'3'1 ( ² wegjqu fhdod .ksñka mka;shg bÈßfha j,dl=<la ks¾udKh lsÍug isiqka lsysm fokl= fhduq lrjkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² c, jdIam ksid jdhqf.da,fha j,dl=`M we;s jk nj ² ksr;=re j u újD; c, moaO;s yd Ôùka f.ka jdhqf.da,hg c, jdIam tl;= jk nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 5'3'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' s mshjr 5'3'3 ( ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² >k" øj iy jdhq hk fN!;sl wjia:d ;=fkys u mj;sk c,h fmdf<dj u; oel .; yels nj ² ysu" whsia" .a,eishr" whsia leg jeis" u,a ;=ysk" md fjk whsia l=Üá f,i >k wjia:dfõ c,h mj;sk nj ² j¾Idj" ;=Idr" .,k Èh myr" W,am;a" fmdl=Kq yd N+.; f,i ñßÈh o" id.r" uqyÿ yd l<mq f,i lrosh o " q jYfhka øj wjia:dfõ c,h mj;sk nj

30

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² c, jdIam" óÿu" j,dl=`M" yqud,h jYfhka jdhq wjia:dfõ c,h mj;sk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² c,fha fN!;sl wjia:d meyeÈ,s lrhs' ² ljr fN!;sl wjia:dfõ mj;sk c,h jqj o" úúO wjYH;d i|yd fhdod .; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ² fN!;sl wjia:dj,g wkqj ljr wdldrj,ska mDÓúfha c,h ;sfí oehs úu¾Ykh lrhs' ² .fõIKd;aul wdl,am we;s lr .ksh' s ² mßir ys;ldó ,CIK úoyd olajhs' s weuqKu 5'3'1 q 'j,dl=<la youq' l%hdldrlu i|yd .=re Wmfoia s my; rEmfha mߧ wegjqula ilia lrkak' ² ,Sgr 1'5 la muK Odß;djla we;s" úYd, ma,diaála fnda;,hlg c,h fldamam Nd.hla muK oukak' ² o,ajk ,o .sksl+re lsysmhla fnda;,h ;=<g oud" fnda;,fha lg fyd¢ka jikak' ² fnda;,h w;a folska fiñka fiñka ;o lr tlajr u ksoyia lrkak' ² t úg fnda;,h ;=< j,dl=<la yg .kq we;'

.sksl+re

31

weuqKu 5'3'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia mßirfha c,h mej;sh yels fN!;sl wjia:d my; oelafõ' ² >k ² øj ² jdhq Tfí lKavdhug mjrkq ,enQ" c,fha fN!;sl wjia:dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' mDÓúh u; úúO m%foaYj, Tn f;dard .;a fN!;sl wjia:dfjys c,h jdhqf.da,fha;a" fmdf<dj u;;a" mj;sk wdldr ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrkak' tu fN!;sl wjia:dfõ mj;sk c,h fmdf<djg m;kh jkafka fl fia oehs fidhd n,kak' Tfí wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

² ² ² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

32

ksmK;dj q

5'0 ( mDÓúfha yd wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

c, f.da,fha meje;au úuid n,hs' c,h ixirKh jk whqre fidhuq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 5'4'1g we;=<;a .S;h q ² weuqKu 5'4'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s y;rla ² weuqKu 5'4'3g we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia q ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 5'4'1 ( ² isika leu;s wdldrhlg .S;h .dhkh i|yd wjia:dj fokak' q ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² jeis iys; wjia:djl mßirfha ;;a;ajh wod< .S;fhka ksrEmkh jk nj ² j¾Idj jYfhka weo yef<kafka mDÓúfhka úúO l%uj,g by<g jdIam ù .sh c,h nj ² c,f.da,fha mj;akd c,h ksr;=re j u pl%dldr j fmdf<dj weiqre lr .ksñka ixirKh jk nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 5'4'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a mshjr 5'4'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² fmdf<dj u;=msg" N+.; j" cSùka ;=< yd jdhqf.da,fha úúO iajrEmj,ska c,h mj;sk nj ² u;=msg c,h iQ¾h;dmh uÕska jdIamSNjkh jk nj ² i;=ka ;=< we;s c,h Yajikfha § yd nysiidjfha § h<s;a a % mßirhg tl;= jk nj

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'4 ( l%hdldrlu s 5'4 ( ld,h ( .=Kd;aul fhojqï (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

33

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² Ydl ;=< we;s c,h Yajikfha § yd W;aifõokfha § c, a jdIam f,i mßirhg tl;= jk nj ² jdhqf.da,fha by<g hk úg c,h l=vd ì¢;s f,i >kSNjkh ù j,dl=`M we;s jk nj ² j,dl=`Mj, mj;sk c,h j¾Idj f,iska fmdf<djg m;s; jk nj ² fmdf<djg m;s; jk c,h" .x.d" we<" fod< Tiafia fmdf<dj u;=msáka iy mi ;=<ska ldkaÿ ùu Tiafia id.rj,g yd c,dYj,g tl;= jk nj ² mfia wvx.= c,h;a" id.r yd c,dYj, wvx.= c,h;a" jdIamSlrKh uÕska kej; jdhq f.da,hg tl;= jk nj ² jdIamlrKh" Yajikh" W;aifõokh" j,dl=`M " j¾Idj" S a .,dhdu yd ldkaÿ ùu hk l%hdj,s uÕska mßirfha we;s s c,h pl%Sh j ixirKh jk nj ² mßirfha c,h pl%h j ixirKh ùu c, pl%h kï jk S nj ² Ôjfha meje;au i|yd c, pl%h w;HjYH nj ² ñksid f.a w¥ro¾YS lghq;"= c, pl%fha meje;aug ndOd muqKqjk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² c,pl%h úia;r lrhs' ² Ôjfha meje;au i|yd c,pl%fha wjYH;dj ms<.ksh' s s ² c,pl%h yd iïnkaO lS%hdj,s wdo¾Ykh lsÍug mÍCIK fufyhjhs' ² ixisoê w;r iïnkaO;d olsh' a s ² iyfhda.;dj m%o¾Ykh lrhs' S

34

weuqKu 5'4'1 q .S;h wlafl wlafl wr n,kakflda" jeiaila fkd je tkafka fyda fyda fyda .d f.k tkafka" .ia je,a weUfrkafka iq<x yuhs úÿ,sh o fldghs uy j,dl=<la fï tkafka weuqKu 5'4'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² my; rEm igyfka mj;sk Tn lKavdhug mjrd we;s lú moh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² wyfia fldfydu o c,h ;sfnkafka

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ks;r u fmdf<dfjka Wvg k`.skafka

² ta Èh fufyu hs ìug jefgka f ka

² fmdf<dfj c,h fuf,i hs mj;skafka

² iqÿiq ld¾h mßY%hla f;dard .ksñka Tfí ud;Dldjg wod< l%hdj,s meyeÈ,s lsÍu i|yd s mÍCIK fufyhjkak' ² Tfí ksuejqu mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak' ² by; § we;s rEm igykg wkqj Tn f.a ks¾udK wvx.= äuhs lvodish mka;h bÈßmi s mqjrefõ r|jkak'

35

weuqKu 5'4'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; oelafjk øjH yd WmlrK lÜg, we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% y;rla ilia lrkak' ² lsßmsá wiqrk we¨ókshï ljr lsymhla" ueá" je,s yd yshuia jeks úúO mia idïm," s q c,h" l;=rla" ma,diaála n÷ka lsysmhla" fmd,s;Ska lene,a,la ^ljrj,g úúO mia j¾. mqrjd c,h /£u" .,d hEu yd ldkaÿ ùu$ o ljr ;=< we;s miaj,ska my< isg by<g c,h we§ hEu$ miaj,ska c,h jdIam ùu we;`=M úúO ixisoaê mÍCIK u`.ska fmkajkq we;e hs wfmaCId flf¾'& ² t<suyfka we;s Ydl " fmd,s;ska " isks÷ frÈ lvla " îlrhla" ;, o¾mKhla" mSßishla "iam;= ,dïmqjla" c,h" lKakdähla S% ^øjH úhe<Sfï §$W;aifõokfha §$ jdIamlrKfha §$jdIamNjkfha § iy úúO ixisoê a S S a u`.ska jdhqf.dA,hg c,h tl;= jk wdldrh mÍCIK u`.ska fmkajkq we;e hs wfmaCId flf¾'& ² uQäh iys;" wj¾K" úksúo fmfkk" f,dl= fnda;,hla" c,h" f,dl= rn¾ neÆkhla l;=rla" y÷ka l+rla" iam;= ,dïmqjla" ùÿre ;yvqjla" îlrhla" fmd,s;ka S% S ^j,dl+`M we;s ùu$c,h >kSNjkh ùu yd c, ìkaÿ my<g jeàu $m%Yjdifha § c, a jdIam msg ùu we;`M úúO ixisoê mÍCIK u`.ka fmkajkq we;e hs wfmaCId flf¾'& = a s ² iam;= ,dïmqjla" ùÿre ;yvqjla" îlrhla" t<suyfka we;s Ydl " fmd,s;ka %S s ^jdIam jQ c,h >kSNjkh ùfuka miq m;s; ùu$W;aiafõokh yd c, n÷klska jdImSNjkh jQ c,h m;s; ùu" we;`=M úúO ixisoê mÍCIK u`.ka fmkajkq we;e a s hs wfmaCId flf¾'& ² iEu lKavdhulgu ;u wegjqï ysre t<sfha ;eîug myiq lï i,id fokak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

36

ksmK;dj q

5'0 (

mDÓúfha iy wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

Ôùka f.a meje;au i|yd c,fha odhl;ajh úu¾Ykh lrhs' c,fha lD;Hhka fidhuq'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'5 l%hdldrlu s 5'5 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 5'5'1g we;=<;a kshx wjia:djl yd isxyrdc q wvúfha iYs%l oiqkl mska;+r folla ² weuqKu 5'5'2 g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia q m;%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla s ² weuqKqu 5'5'3 g we;=<;a 'c,h hs wfma f,dalh hs' ,smsfha msgm;a y;rla ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 5'5'1 ( ² kshx wjia:djl yd isxyrdc wvúfha iY%Sl oiqkl mska;+r mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' s ² isiqka jvd;a leu;s ljr wjia:djlg oe hs úuikak' ² my; `lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² kshx wjia:djl § mßirfha my; ,CIK oelsh yels nj ² fmdf<dj bß ;,d hdu ² ñh .sh i;=ka isàu ² Tjqka f.a weglgq b;sß j ;sîu ² .iaj, bm,a muKla olakg ,eîu ² j,dl=¿ fkd ;sîu ² ;Èka br mdhd ;sîu ² fmdf<dj iYS%l wjia:dfõ mßirfha my; ,CIK oelsh yels nj ² fld< mdg .iaje,a msÍ ;sîu ² u,a msmSu ² m%dKj;a i;=ka isàu ² Èh myr yd Èh lä;s ;sîu ² wyfia msß j,dl=¿ ;=<ska fmdf<djg ysre lsrK m;s; ùu ² fï wjia:d foflys uQ,sl fjkig fya;=j zc,hz jk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& s mshjr 5'5'2 ( ² mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" lshùï øjH" äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak'

37

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 5'5'3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;hg bÈßm;a s lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² Ydl ;=< isÿ jk iEu ls%hdj,shlg u c,h odhl jk nj ² Ydl ;=< f;;ukh CISrh" f.äj, hqI" u,a meKs wd§ úúO iajrEmj,ska c,h mj;sk nj ² i;=ka ;=< isÿ jk iEu ls%hdj,shlg u c,h odhl jk nj ² i;=ka ;=< f;;ukh" lsß" reêrh" vyÈh" fl<" fiu" fidgq" uQ;%" u<" l÷¿ wd§ úúO øjHj, c,h mj;sk nj ² mfia isÿ jk l%shdj,Skag c,h odhl jk nj ² mfia u;=mg" c,dY yd .,d hk Èh myr" N+.; c,h s f;;ukh uv j.=re wdÈh c,h mj;sk ia:dkj,g ksoiqka nj ² jdhqf.da,fha isÿ jk úúO l%shdj,Skag c,h odhl jk nj ² jdhqf.da,fha óÿu" jeiai" c, jdIam" mskak" j,dl=¿" whsia leg" u,a ;=ysk wd§ iajrEmj,ska c,h mj;sk nj ² mßirfha c,h ixrlaIKh lr .ekSu ;=<ska Ôùka f.a meje;au ;yjqre jk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Ydl" i;=ka" mi yd jdhqf.da,h ;=< mj;akd c,fha lD;Hhka meyeÈ,s lrhs' ² Ydl" i;=k" mi yd wfkHdakH hymeje;au i|yd c,h w;HdjYH odhl;ajhla a imhk nj ms<s.kS' ² Ôùka ;=< yd fN!;sl mßirfha c,h mj;akd wdldr ú.%y lrhs' ² iajdNdúl iïm;a ixrlaIKh l< hq;= nj ;SrKh lrhs' ² f;dr;=re fidhd .ekSu i|yd lshjhs'

38

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

kshx wjia:djl yd isxyrdc wvúfha iYS%l oiqkl mska;+r hq.,la

39

q weuqKu 5'5'1

q weuqKu 5'5'2 ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² lKavdhï .fõIK i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug wod< my; ud;Dldj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' i;=ka yd ine¢ c,h Ydl yd ine¢ c,h mi yd ine¢ c,h jdhqf.da,h yd ine¢ c,h imhd we;s ,smsh ;=<ska Tfí ud;Dldjg wod< f;dr;=re /ia lrkak' Tn okakd fjk;a f;dr;=re o ta yd tla lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug ks¾udKhla ilia lrkak' weuqKu 5'5'2 q c,h hs wfma f,dalh hs 1& Ydl c,fhka nef|fkafka fufyu hs' ² Ydl iÔù h' ² .iaje,a me<Eá fkd ue<eù iDcq j mj;S' ² .iaj, <má o¿ fld< meye;s h' m%dKj;a h' ² Ydl ;=<g uq,aj,ska fmdfydr Wrd .kS' ² uq,aj,ska Wrd .kakd foa Ydlfha iEu fldgilgu .uka lrhs' ² Ydl fldgiaj, isis,a njla we;' f;;ukh iys; h' úhe<Sula ke;' ² .iaj, u,a$M, yg .kS' ² u,aj, meKs ;sfí' ² M,j, hqI we;' ² Ydlh Èfkka Èk j¾Okh fõ' ² W;aiafõokh u.ska .iaj, we;s c,h jdIam fõ' ² .ila hg isis,a fijKla we;' 2& i;=ka yd c,h nef|kafka fufyu hs' ² i;=ka iÔù h' ² i;=ka l%shdYS,S h m%fndaOu;a h kSfrda.S h' ² msmdih we;s jQQ úg i;a;= c,h mdkh lr;s' ² i;=ka f.a YÍr ;=< reêrh .uka lrhs' ² i;a;aj YÍr ;=< úúO foa tys fuys f.k hdu isÿ fõ' ² i;a;= vyÈh u, uQ;% my lr;s' ² i;a;j YÍr jefâ' a ² i;a;= wdydr .ks;' s ² i;a;jfhda úúO lghq;= i|yd wjhj yd bkaøhhka Ndú; lr;s' a s

40

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ì;a;r oeóu fyda megjqka ìys lsÍu fyda u.ska i;=ka fnda ùu isÿ fõ' ² iuyr i;a;= lsß fnd;s' ² i;a;aj YÍr ;=< iEu úg u f;;ukh mj;S' 3& mi yd c,h ne£ we;af;a fufyu hs' ² mi u; iú ù Ydl jefâ' ² mfia ;ekska ;ekg f;;ukh fjkia h' ² mfia u;=msáka .,d hk Èh myr fuka u tl ;ek /£ mj;sk c,h o oelsh yels h' ² mi ;=<g hk úg f;;ukh jeä fjñka f.dia N+.; c, uÜgu yuq fõ' ² mi ;=< § úúO wm øjH Èrdm;a fõ' ² miaj, .evú¨ka mKqjka f.d¿fn,a,ka wd§ i;=ka oel .; yels h' ² mil fudf<dla yd isis,a njla ;sfí' ² Ydlj,g wjYH ,jK yd fmdfydr Wrd .kafka mfiks'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² fyd¢ka yshquia wvx.= f,daï mi Ydl jeãug b;d u ys;lr h' ² ydrd .;a miaj, wef,k iq¿ .;shla ;sfí' ² mßirfha Èh fifj, y;= yd mqia j¾. oel .; yels h' 4& jdhqf.da,h yd c,h ne£ we;af;a fufyu hs' ² jdhqf.da,fha by<ska j,dl=¿ olakg ,efí' ² rd;%sfha § msks jeàu isÿ fõ' ² j,dl=¿ ksid jeis yg .kS' ² isis,a nj wêl jQ úg u,a ;=ysk" whsia yd ysu we;s fõ' ² .ia fijfKa jd;h isis,a h' ² mßirfha f;;ukh we;s úg ¥ú,a, wvq fõ' ² c,dY%s; mßirj, Ydl yd i;=ka m%dKj;a h' ² hlv u< nef|a' ² úh<s wdydr mqia lEu isÿ fõ' ² úiaflda;"= wdmam" neomq mmvï" fldlsia jeks oE fmÕS fudf<dla fõ'

41

ksmK;dj q

5'6 ( mDÒúfha iy wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs'

úúO flafIa;%hka ys § c,fha Ndú; yd t u.ska c, iïm; flfrys we;s jk n,mEï úu¾Ykh lrhs' ;sridr f,i c, iïm; mßyrKh lruq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKu 5'6'1g we;=<;a 'Èh rlsuq - wms /fluq' fmdaigrh q /fluq a Èh

kssmqK;d uÜgu 5'6 ( s l%hdldrlu 5'6 ( ld,h ( ( .=Kd;aul fhojqï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² weuqKu 5'6'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s myla ² weuqKu 5'6'3g we;=<;a 'c, iïm; iqrlsu' jd¾;duh q c, q ,smh s ² äuhs lvodis" udl¾ mEka" .ï yd l;=re bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s a s mshjr 5'6'1 ( ² 'Èh rlsuq - wms /fluq' fmdaigrh mka;hg bÈßm;a Èh lrkak' ² fuu f;aud mdGh yd fmdaiagrfha wvx.= mska;+rh ms<sn|j idlÉPd lrkak' ² c, iïm; /l .ekSu i|yd osß fok t jeks f;aud mdG lsysmhla isiqkg ks¾udKh lrkakg;a yqKq mqjrefõ ,sùug;a wjia:dj fokak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² wmg c,h ke;s j Ôj;a úh fkd yels nj ² mDÒúfha ishhg 97la blaujd we;af;a ñksidg mdkh l< fkd yels lrosh nj ² c,h wrmsßueiafuka Ndú; lsÍu cd;sl fufyjrla nj ² c, iïm; ixrlaIKh lsÍu wm ish¨ fokd f.a u hq;lula nj = ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia" jd¾;duh ,smh" .ï yd l;=re" äuhs s lvodis iy udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs&

mshjr 5'6'2

42

mshjr 5'6'3

(

² lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;hg bÈßm;a s lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² wm úúO fCIa;%j, § c,h Ndú;hg .kakd nj ² uQ,sl jYfhka c,h Ndú; lrk fCIa;% lDIsl¾uh" l¾udka;" m%jdyk" úfkdaodiajdo iy .Dyia: f,i wmg j¾. lr .; yels nj ² ñksid úiska c, iïm; flfrys hym;a fuka u whym;a n,mEï we;s lrk ;;a;jhla Wod ù we;s nj a ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ²

È.ska È.g u c,h ¥IKh ùu iuia; f,dalhg u ;¾ckhla nj c,fha ¥IKh msgq oelSu i|yd oekg u;a úúO l%fudamdhhka fhdod we;s nj läkñka c,fha ¥IKh j<lajd .ekSu Ôùka f.a meje;au i|yd oeä wjYH;djla nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs'& a

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ² ñksia wjYH;d i|yd c,h Ndú; jk fCIa;% kï lrhs' ² iuia; f,dalfha hy meje;au i|yd c, iïm; wdrlaId lr .; hq;= nj ms<s.kS' ² c,h mßfNdackfha § kdia;sh yd ¥IKh je<elaùfï l%fudamdhhka iïmdokh lrhs' ² lreKq /ia lrñka ikaksfõokh lrhs' ² mßirh wdrCId lsÍug tlÕ;dj m< lrhs'

43

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

/fluq osh rlsuq - wms /flu

44

weuqKqu 5'6'1

q weuqKu 5'6'2 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² ñksia wjYH;d i|yd c,h Ndú; lrk my; fCIa;% w;ßka Tn lKavdhug wod< fCI;%h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak ' ² lDIsl¾uh ² l¾udka; ² m%jdykh ² úfkdaodiajdoh ² .Dyia: lghq;= ² imhd ;sfnk ,smsh ish¨ fokd u tl;= ù lshjkak' ² ,smsh iy mska;+r iy mßirh wdY%s; j Tn olsk wfkl=;a foa fhdod .ksñka Tn f.a ud;Dldjg wod< j my; lreKq f.dkq lrkak' ² wod< fCIa;%fha § lskï wdldrhlg c,h Ndú; flf¾ [email protected] ² t u.ska c, iïm; flfrys we;s lrk hym;a yd whym;a n,mEï ² Tn y÷kd .;a whym;a n,mEï msgq oelsh yels l%fudamdhhka' ² Tn f.dkq lr .;a lreKq j,g .e<fmk mska;+r lmd bj;a lr .kak' ² úúO ks¾udK wvx.= lrñka imhd we;s äuhs lvodisfha ì;a;s mqj;a m;la ilia lrkak' ² Tfí ksuejqu mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' q weuqKu 5'6'3 c, iïm; iqrlsuq fidnd oyfï m%dKh c,h hs' c,h ke;s j Ôj f,dalfha meje;aula ke;' mDÓúfha we;s c,fhka 97 % la muK u id.rj, we;s lrÈh hs' b;ska n,kak" wmg mßfNdackh l< yelafla b;sß w,amh jk 3 % la muKla fkd fõ [email protected] fndfyda uydoAùm fuka fkd j wm wh;a jk wdishd uydoaùmfha mrsfNdackhg .; yels c,fhka jeä yßhla kslï u kslï uqyqog .,d f.k hhs' Y%S ,xldfõ tla mqoa.,hl=g Èklg ysñ c, m%udKh >k óg¾ 13 la muK fjhs' Y%S ,xldj mqrd u .x.d fødaKs 103 lska iuia; N+ñh ukd j f;;a flf¾' tfy;a fï ;rï fyd¢ka c, jyk moaO;shla we;s rgl Ôj;a jk wms c, iïm; wrmsrueiafuka Ndú; lsÍug;a" ¥IKh fkd lr /l .ekSug;a yoj;ska u odhl jkafkuq [email protected] wfma rg lDIsld¾ñl rgls' ù f.dú;ek o" wfkl=;a ish¨ f.dú;eka lghq;= o" flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrk úg m%Odk; u wjYH;dj c,h hs' c,h ukd fia md,kh lrñka f.dú;eka lghq;= l< hq;= w;r ta ta fnda. j¾.hg wjYH c, m%udKh .ek o f.dùyq ie,ls,su;a fj;s' tfy;a úúO fnda. j.djka i|yd wúpdrj;a f,i le<E t<s lsÍfuka .x.dj, c, fmdaIl m%foaY úhe<S f.dia .x.d ys£ hhs' t muKla fkd j wk;=re j weo yef<k j¾Idj ksid t<s l< m%foaYj, mi fia§ f.dia .x.d m;=f<a ;ekam;a ùfuka

45

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

.x.dj, .eUqr wvq ù .x j;=r ;¾ck yg .ksh' wm úiska u wfma úkdYh <`.d lr .ekSfï s tla wjia:djls ta' fjk;a l¾udka; i|yd jqj;a fmdf<dfõ Ydl wdjrKh bj;a lsÍu ydkslr h' Ydl wdjrKfhka fmdf<dfõ f;;ukh /fla' f;;ukh fkd /flk úg fmdf<dj úhe<S Ydl yd i;=ka úkdY fõ' t fia u kshx ;;a;ajhka yg .ekSu o jk úkdYfhka miq oelsh yels h' lDIsl¾udka;fha § Ndú; lrk lDIsridhk øjH fmdf<dfõ c, jyk moaO;shg tl;= ù tajd o wmg whym;a m%;úmdl f.k fohs' s iEu l¾udka;hlg u mdfya lsihï wdldrhlg c,h wjYH fõ' iuyr l¾udka; ksid Rcq s f,i u ridhk wmøjH iy ;dmj;a c,h" c, m%jdyj,g tla fjhs' rn¾ ieliSu" frÈ ms<s uqøK lghq;=" lvodis ksIamdokh" jdyk fiajd lsÍu" yï moï lsÍu" wdydr ieliSu" iald.dr" ;dm úÿ,s n,d.dr jeks úúO l¾udka; c,h Ndú; lrñka tajdfha wmøjH mßirhg uqod yßhs' t úg tu c,dY%s; Ydl yd i;a;aj m%cdj úkdY ùu ñksid f.a fkd ie<ls,a, ksid isÿjkafka h' keõ" fndaÜgq " Tre" mdre hkd§ l%u u`.ka wms m%jdyk wjYH;d imqrd .ksu' f;,a keõ uqyÿ s q q n;a jQQ wjia:d Tn wid ;sfí [email protected] t jeks ;;a;ajhlska uqyqÿ Ôùkag fl ;rï úkdYhla isÿ jkakg we;a [email protected] t fia jqj;a wmg m%jdykhg kï c,h w;HdjYH udOHhls' fï i|yd fyd| u ksoiqkla imhkafka fko¾,ka;fha weïiag¾vEï w.kqjr hs' tys N=ñh we< ud¾.j,ska ¥m;a 90 lg fjka ù we;' k.rfha m%jdyk lghq;=j, § c, udOHhg m%uqL ia:dkhla ysñ fõ' Tn úfkdodiajdoh i|yd c, l%Svd l< wjia:djla isys lrkak' úfkdaohg Tre" fndaÜgq me§u" msyku" Èh u; ,siid hEu jeks wjia:d muKla fkd j c,h u`.ska l%hd lrk lS%vd s S a s NdKav o wmg wdYajdoh f.k ths' úis;=re j;=r u,a" Èh we,s" fmdl=Kq wdÈh o wjg mßirfha iqkor;ajh we;s lsÍug fya;= fõ' a we< fod< .x.dj,g; l=Kq oeóu" jeisl<s k< yerùu" ,S l=vq yd fjk;a wmøjH ;,a¨ lr s oeóu" lDIsridhk wdïmkak fia¥ c,h tla lsÍu jeks oE lrk ñksiqka ienE mßir ys;ldóka he hs Tn is;kafkys o @ je,s f.dv oeóu yd ueKsla .eÍfï § o wjika jYfhka isÿ jkafka ;j;a wdldrhl ydkshls' tÈfkod f.or fodr lghq;=j, § o w;HdjYH iïm;la jk c,h ¥IKh ùu yd wmf;a yeÍu úúO l%uj,ska isÿ fõ' <sx újD; j ;eîu" c,h .nvd lrk gexls mú;% j mßyrKh s fkd lsÍu iy mdkSh c,h ksis f,i ilia lr fkd .ekSu frda. me;sÍug ;=vq foa' f.j;=j, /f|k c,h ksid uÿrejka f.ka fnda jk frda." jix.; f,i me;sreKq wjia:d wm rfÜ ;sîu fl ;rï fYdalckl [email protected] c, iïm; /l .ekSu l< hq;= jkafka o ñksid úiska u h' jk ixrCIKh yd frdamKh fï i|yd lÈu odhl;ajhls' l=Kq li< ;u mßir ;=< u pl%lrKh yd wjg mú;% j ;nd S .ekSu wfma hq;luls' = je,s f.dv oeóu yd ueKsla .eÍu jeks jHdmdr ms<n| j mßir iq/lSu iïnkaOfhka wod< s

46

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

kS;s ksis f,i l%hd;aul l< hq;= h' wOHdmkh Tiafia iuia; ck;dj ;+< u mßirh;a c, s iïm;;a iqrlsk wdl,am cks; l< hq;= h' l¾udka;Yd,dj, wmøjH mßir ydksh wju jk fia neyer lsÍug úl,am l%u y÷kajd Èh hq;= h' wms fmdfrdkaÿ fjuq wmg c, iïm; iqrlsk njg

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

47

ksmK;dj q

5'0

( mDÓúfha yd wjldYfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd wkafõIKfha fhfohs' s

( ( ( ( ksjfia c, mßfNdackh l<ukdlrKh lrhs' wrmsßueiafukq;a msßisÿ f,i;a c,h Ndú; lruq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKqu 5'7'1g we;=<;a ksjfia c, iemhqu weK ysg we;s wjia:djla ksrEmKh flfrk N+ñld rx.kfha msgm; ² weuqKqu 5'7'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ ' ' msgm;a y;rla ² weuqKu 5'7'3g we;=<;a ' f.or j;=r gexlsfhka Tng q ' '

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'7 l%hdldrlu s 5'7 ' ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weu;=ula ' ,smfha msgm;a y;rla s ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùfï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 5'7'1 s ( ² N+ñld rx.kh mka;hg bosßm;a lrjkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² c,h uQ,sl fuka u jeo.;a u .Dy wjYH;djla nj ² c,h fkdue;s ùfuka ksjfia iEu lghq;a;la u wvd< jk nj ² c, k<" <s|" k< <ssx wd§ úúO m%Njj,ska ksjfia c, wjYH;d imqrd .; yels nj ² c, mßfNdack l<ukdlrKhg ksjfia iduQysl odhl;ajh wjYH nj ^ñks;;= 15hs'& a ² mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' s s ² 'f.or j;=r gexlsfhka Tng weu;=ula ' ,smh" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60hs'& a ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' s ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak'

48

mshjr 5'7'2

(

mshjr 5'7'3

(

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² ksjil mßfNdackh lrk c, m%udKh tal mqoa., jYfhkq;" .Dyia: jYfhkq;" .Kkh l< yels a a nj ² c, ì,am;l tallhla jYfhka ie,flkafka >k ógrhl c, mßudjla nj ² mßyrKh lrk iEu wjia:djl u c,h wmf;a hdu;a" c,h ¥IKh ùu;a" isÿ úh yels nj ² c,h ¥IKfhka j<ld ixrËKh lsÍu fi!LH m%j¾Okhg fya;= jk nj ² ukd j c, mßfNdackh l<ukdlrKh lsÍu wfma hq;=lula yd cd;sl fufyjrla jk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs'& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² ksjfia c,h Ndú; lrk" wmf;a hk" ¥IKh jk wjia:d bosßm;a lrhs' ² .Dyia: c, mßfNdack l<ukdlrKh M,odhS lghq;a;la nj ms<s .ksh' s ² ¥IKh yd kdia;sfhka f;dr j c,h mßfNdackh i|yd l%fudamdhhka ie,iqï lrhs' ² iïm;a l<ukdlrK yelshd m%o¾Ykh lrhs' ² M,odhS;dj jeä lr .ekSu i|yd iduQyl m%h;akhkag odhl fjhs' s weuqKu 5'7'1 q ksjfia c, iemhqu weK ysg we;s wjia:djla uj- j;=r kE fk' f;a yokak j;a úÈyla kE' mshd- wehs uu wo gexlsh iïmQ¾Kfhka u msfrõjd fk' mq;d- uu;a kdkak .sys,a,d wdmyq wdjd' ux ys;kafk ñÿf, lrdfu wo;a .e,ú,d fjkak we;s' mshd- fldfydu jqK;a fï f.or j;=r kdia;sh fndfydu jeä hs' frÈ fyaÿj;a È.g u lrdfu wer f.k' oeka fmakj fk j;=r ke;s jqKd u uq`M f.or u jev wvd<hs'

49

q weuqKu 5'7'2 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² my; oelafjk Tng wod< f;audj fj; fhduqjkak' ² ksjfia c,h Ndú;hg .kakd wdldrh ^tal mqo., yd .Dyia:& a ² ksjfia c,h wmf;a hk wdldrh ^tal mqoa., yd .Dyia:& ² ksjfia c,h ¥IKhg n÷ka jk wjia:d ^tal mqoa., yd .Dyia:& ² ksjfia c,h ixrËK l%fudamdh ^tal mqoa., yd .Dyia:& ² imhd we;s ,smsh lshjñka Tng wod< ud;Dldj Tiafia lreKq idlÉPd lrkak' ² Tn okakd fjk;a f;dr;=re o wvx.= lrñka Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udmS f,i mka;hg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' s weuqKu 5'7'3 q f.or j;=r gexlsfhka Tng weu;=ula fndfyda ld,hla ;siafia bjid isàfuka wk;=re j Tn yeu wu;kakg wjYH hehs ug jegeysKs' ud .ek Tn lsisÿ ;elSula fkd l<;A uf.a fiajh ish,af,da u fkd wvq j ,nd .ks;s' c,h .nvd lr ;nd .ksñka Tfí ish¨ wjYH;d uu wog;a imqrd ,ñ' tfy;a gexlsfha isÿrej,ska c,h ldkaÿ jk úg n,kakg flfkla ke;' uQäh ke;s j fld muK l,la .; ù we;a o @ wjg mßirfha .iaj, fld<" ¥ú,s" lerfmd;a;ka gexlshg jefgk nj fkd okakd Tn .ek uu wkqlïmd lrñ' Tn c,h kdia;s lrk yeá n,kak' È.g u c, lrduh újD; j ;nd f.k Tn ish¨ fokd uqyqK fidao;s" frÈ fidao;s" Ndck fidao;s' ñ÷f,a lrduh leã c,h wmf;a hEu Tng .eg¨jla fkd ùu mqÿquhls' îug c,h /ia lrk fcda.=j,g i;=ka jefgk úg Tn is;a ms;a ke;s j tu c,h ùis lr ou;s' j.djkag j;=r ouk úg meh .Kka ngfhka j;=r wmf;a hhs' ;j;a lsj hq;= foa fndfyda h' Tn mqoa.,sl j;a" iduQysl j;a" c,h rlskafka ke;' c,h wmf;a yßkafka;a" ¥IKh jkakg bv yßkafka;a" ta ksid h' Tn ug wdorh fkd lrk nj uu oksñ' t fyhska uu Tfí jy, u;ska nei hkakg ;SrKh lr we;s nj fu fia okajd isáñ'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

50

ksmqK;dj

6'0 ( øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j wkafõIKh s s lrhs'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'1 ( fN!;sl .=K weiqfrka øjH j¾.SlrKh lrhs' l%hdldrlu s 6'1 ( øjHj, fN!;sl .=K fidhuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 6'1'1g we;=<;a øjH wvx.= fmÜáh q ² weuqKu 6'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s myla ² weuqKu 6'1'3g we;=<;a l¾h mßY% ilia lsÍfï Wmfoia q bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 6'1'1 ( ² øjH iys; fmÜáh mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' ² øjH wyUq f,i fmÜáfhka bj;g .ekSug isiqka fhduq lrkak' ² tu øjHj, úúO .=K ms<sn| j úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² øjHj, j¾Kh" jhkh" iqkuH;dj yd m%Ndj jeks .=K úúO;ajhla .kakd nj ² tl u øjHh ;=< úúO .=K iuqodhla ;sfnk nj ² úúO l%fudamdhhka weiqfrka ;jÿrg;a øjHj, .+K fidhd ne,sh yels nj ² Ndú;h i|yd øjH f;dard .ekSfï § fuu .=K i<ld nef,k nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 6'1'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs& mshjr 6'1'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' ² wfkla lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul woyia yd fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

51

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² f,day øjH ;=<ska úÿ,sh .uka lrk neúka tajd úoHq;a ikakdhl jk nj ² wf,dayuh øjHhla jQ ldnka l+r o úoHq;a ikakdhlhla jk nj ² øjH ;=<ska ;dmh .,d hkafka kï tajd ;dm ikakdhl nj ² hï øjHhla ;=<ska wdf,dalh .uka lsÍug bv i,ik wdldrh wkqj øjH" mdroDYH" mdrNdil yd mdrdkaO f,i j¾. l< yels nj ² maf,aka ùÿre" ma,diaála" c,h wdÈh mdroDYH øjH jYfhka ie,lsh yels nj ² f;,a lvodis" m¾iafmlaia" u,a ùÿre wdÈh mdrNdil øjH jYfhka ie,lsh yels nj ² ldâfndaâ" .fvd`M" weiafniagia ;yvq wdÈh mdrdkaO øjH jYfhka ie,lsh yels nj ² hlv" hlv ñY% f,day iy ;j;a iuyr f,day ^ ksl,a" fldfnda,aÜ& pqïnl .=K olajk nj ² wjYH f,i yevh fjkia lrñka úúO wdldrj,g ilia l< yels øjH iqúld¾h øjH kï jk nj ² wd;;shlla fh¥ úg È.$m<, jeä jk iy wd;;sfhka ksoyia l< úg kej; m%lD;s ;;a;ajhg m;ajk øjH m%;Hdia: øjH ku jk nj ² lïìhla fyda ;ka;=jla f,i weÈh yels øjH ;kH øjH kï jk nj ² ;eÆ úg l=vq fkdù ;ef,k øjH wdykH øjH kï jk nj ² ;eÆ úg l=vq jk øjH Nx.=r øjH kï jk nj ² fN!;sl .=K wkqj øjH j¾.SlrKh l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² WodyrK olajñka øjHj, fN!;sl .=K úia;r lrhs' ² øjH j¾.SlrKh i|yd tajdfha fN!;sl .=K ks¾Kdhlhla jYfhka fhdod .; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ² øjHj, fN!;sl .=K mÍCId lrhs' ² wjYH;djg .e,fmk øjH ffhdackd lrhs' ² ksjerÈ j øjH yeisrùfï yelshd m%o¾Ykh lrhs' a

52

weuqKu 6'1'1 q fmÜáh ilia lsÍug Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH wvx.= lr fmÜáhla ilia lrkak' ² úúO j¾Kj,ska hq;a laf,a .=,s ² ;U" hlv" we¨ñkshï jeks f,day len,s yd lïì ² .,a len,s ² úúO j¾Kj,ska hq;a ma,diaála len,s ² ;U" hlv" we¨ñkshï jeks f,day len,s

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 6'1'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tng wod< my; oelafjk øjHhj, we;s .=Kdx.h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² úÿ,sh .uka lsÍu ² ;dmh .uka lsÍu ² wdf,dalh .uka lsÍu ² pqïnlhla yuqfõ yeisÍu ² we§fï § yd ;e,Sfï § yeisÍu kshñ; ld¾h mßY%h fj; hkak' ld¾h mßY%fha we;s øjH msßlaid Tfí lKavdhug wod< .=Kdx.h mßlaId lsÍu i|yd iqÿiq øjH yd WmlrK fmdÿ fïifhka f;dard .kak' imhd we;s øjHj, wod< .=Kdx.h ;sfí oehs fidhd n,kak' fmdÿ fïifha ;nd we;s f,an,a fhdod Tng imhd we;s øjH j¾. lrkak' mka;shg fmdÿfõ imhd we;s øjH iy WmlrK Tfí ld¾h mßY%h fj; f.k hkak' Tfí wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

² ² ² ² ² ²

53

weuqKu 6'1'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsßu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH ;nd fïi myla ilia lr .kak' ² hlv yd hläka ;kQ oE ² ;U lïì ² úÿ,s fldaIhlska ,nd.;a ldnka l+rla ² mdroDYH yd mdrNdil ùÿre len,s ² ldâfndaâ jeks mdrdkaO øjH ² rn¾ má ² Bhï lene,a,la ² fmd,s;Ska yd ma,diaála len,s ² rg yqK" .,a" w`.re q = ² ,S len,s ² ueá fyda laf,a .=,shla ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 6'1'4 q fmdÿ fïihla ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH yd WmlrK ;nd fmdÿ fïihla ilia lrkak' ² úÿ,s fldaIhla" n,anhla yd iïnkaOl lïì ² iam%S;= ,dïmqjla yd .sks fmÜáhla ² veys w~q lsymhla s ² pqïnlhla ² l=vd ñáhla ² l=vd úÿ,s mkaoula ² 2cm x 10 cm ldâ fndaâ ;Srej, fome;af;a my; f;dr;=re $jpk ,shd ilia lr .;a f,an,a lÜg,hla ^wfklA msgqj n,kak'&

54

úoHq;h .uka lrk øjH

úoHq;a ikakdhl

úoHq;h .uka fkd lrk øjH

úoHq;a mßjdrl

;dmh .uka lrk øjH

;dm ikakdhl

;dmh .uka fkd lrk øjH

;dm mßjdrl

wdf,dalhg fyd¢ka úksúo øjH

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mdroDYH

wdf,dalhg ;rula úksúo øjH

mdrNdil

wdf,dalhg úksúo fkd jk øjH

mdrdkaO

;ka;= f,i wefok øjH ;yvq f,i ;ef,k øjH

;kH

wdykH

keñh yels øjH ;eÆ úg l=vq jk yd keuQ úg lefvk øjH wefok-yelsf<k øjH yevh fjkia l< yels øjH

iq k uH Nx.=r

m%;Hdia: iqúld¾h pqïnlj,g wdl¾IKh jk pqïnlj,g wdl¾IKh fkd jk

55

pqïNl .=K we;s øjH pqïNl .=K ke;s øjH

ksmqK;dj

6'0 ( ø%jHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| wkafõIKh lrhs' s s

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'2 ( úúO Ndú; i|yd WÑ; øjH f;darhs' l%hdldrlu s 6'2 ( wfma wjYH;dj,g .e,fmk øjH f;dard .ksuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 6'2'1g we;=<;a mqj;am;a YS¾ImdG oelafjk fmdaigrh q a ² weuqKu 6'2'2g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a yhla ² weuqKu 6'2'3g we;=<;a Wmfoia wkqj ilia l< ld¾h mßY% q yhla bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 6'2'1 ( ² YS¾ImdG i|yka fmdaigrh mka;hg m%o¾Ykh lrkak' a s ² mqj;a YS¾ImdGj, i|yka ;;a;j i|yd fya;= úuikak' a ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² hï wjYH;djla i|yd Ndú;hg iqÿiq øjH fuka u kqiÿiq q øjH o mßirfha ;sfnk nj ² kqiqÿiq øjH Ndú;h ksid uqo,a wmf;a hdu" mdßißl .eg,q" fi!LH .eg¨ yd wk;=re we;s úh yels nj ² hï Ndú;hla i|yd WÑ; øjH f;dard .; hq;= nj ² tl u wjYH;djla i|yd Ndú; l< yels úl,am øjH o ;sfnk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 6'2'2 ( ² ² ² ² ( ² ² ² ² mka;sh lKavdhï yhlg fnokak' lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

mshjr 6'2'3

56

² f.dvkeÕs,a,la ;kk øjH f;Ífï § wod< wjYH;djg wkqj tys Yla;u;a nj" l,a meje;au" s wdf,dalh ,nd§u" WKqiqu WÑ; uÜgñka mj;ajd .ekSu" wõ" jeis wdÈ úúO mßir ;;a;j,g Tfrd;a;= a §u" r`M Ndú;hg fhda.H ùu" fi!LHdrlaIs; ùu" w,xldrh wdÈ .=Kdx. i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² frÈ ms<s ;kk øjH f;aÍfï § mdßißl WIaK;ajhg .e,mSu" j¾K .ekaùug yels ùu" Wiia ;;a;jh" ieye,a¨ a yd Yla;su;a ùu" fidaod msßisÿ l< yels ùu" YÍrhg iqjodhl ùu" l,a meje;au wd§ .=Kdx. i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² wdhqO yd fuj,ï ;kk øjH f;aÍfï § Yla;su;a ùu" oeä ùu" úúO yevj,g ilia lsßug we;s yelshdj yd úúO mßir ;;a;ajhkg Tfrd;a;= §u" wod< ld¾hhg .e,mSu wdÈ .=Kdx. i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² weiqreï øjH f;aÍfï § ieye,a¨ ùu" wdl¾YkSh ùu" jdhq yd c,frdaOl ùu" r`M Ndú;hg Tfrd;a;= §u" fi!LHdrlaIs; ùu wdÈ .=Kdx. i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² wdNrK yd úis;re NdKav ;kk øjH f;aÍfï § w,xldrh" = yev.eiaùug we;s yelshdj" jákdlu" ieye,a¨ nj yd isrerg ys;lr ùu wdÈ lreKq i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² msiSfï WmlrK i|yd øjH f;aÍfï § fi!LHdrCIs; ùu" úúO yevhg ilia l< yels ùu" Yla;u;a ùu" by< s WIaK;ajhg Tfrd;a;= §u" ;dmh fyd¢ka .,d hdu" ks;r msßisÿ l< yels ùu" ieye,a¨ nj yd wdl¾YkSh nj wdÈ .=Kdx. i,ld ne,sh hq;= nj ² iEu wjYH;djhla i|yd u øjH f;aÍfï § mßir ys;ldó j lghq;= lsÍu o jeo.;a nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² úúO Ndú; i|yd WÑ; øjH f;dard .ekSug ks¾Kdhl bÈßm;a lrhs' ² wjYH;djg wkqj wuq øjH f;dard .; hq;= nj ms<s.kshs' ² úúO øjHj, .=K mÍlaId lrhs' ² jHqy-lD;H iïnkaO;d olshs' ² mdßißl iïm;a l<ukdlrKh lsÍfï l=i,;d m%o¾Ykh lrhs' '

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

57

weuqKu 6'2'1 q ² ² ² ² ² mqj;am;a YS¾I mdG nd, j¾.fha oej Ndú;h ksid id;a;= ksjdifha jy, lvd jefÜ' kqiqÿiq we`Mñkshï n÷kaj, wdydr msi .ekSu ksid W;=re ueo m<df;a jl=.vq frda.Ska ixLHdj YS>%fhka jeä ù we;' bj; ouk ,o fmd,s;Ska u¨ wdydrhg .ekSu ksid jk i;=ka wk;=f¾ WIaKdêl rgj, lmq frÈ i|yd by< b,a¨ula mj;S' iajdNdúl øjHj,ska ksIamdÈ; wdNrK yd úis;=re nvqj,g úfoaYj,ska weKejqï' weuqKu 6'2'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Ndú; wjia:dj wkqj øjH ldKav yhla my; i|yka fõ' ² f.dvke.s,s øjH ² we÷ï yd wdNrK ;kk øjH ² wdhqO fuj,ï ;kk øjH ² weiqreï øjH ² úis;=re nvq ;kk øjH ² msiSfï WmlrK ;kk øjH Tfí lKavdhug ,efnk øjH ldKavh ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' Tng wod< ld¾h mßY%fha ;nd we;s øjH ksÍCIKh lr y÷kd .kak' tla tla øjHfha Ndú; idlÉPd lrkak' tu Ndú; i|yd wod< øjH f;dard .;af;a tys mj;sk ljr .=Kdx.hla ksid oehs úuid n,kak' imhk ,o tla tla øjH fjkqjg fhdod .; yels fjk;a úl,am øjH ms<n| j idlÉPd s lrkak' tu úl,am øjH ksid u;= jk jdis yd wjdis f.dkq lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak'

²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ² ² ² ² ² ²

58

weuqKu 6'2'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH ldKav fjka fjka j mßY% yhl ;nd mßY%h kï lrk ,o mqjrejla o" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka o wvx.= lrkak' ² f.dvke.s,s øjH W`M leghla" .fvd<la" isfuka;s iaj,amhla" je,s" .,a" ,S hlv" weianiagia lene,a,la" yqK" idhï" PVC k<" ms;;, irfkare" lrdu" jh¾ wdÈh q A ² we÷ï yd wdNrK ;kk øjH lmq" jQ,a" is,ala" f,dï hk j¾.j,ska l=vd frÈ lene,a,la ne.ska" yï lene,a,la" lD;su frÈ" ma,diaála" rn¾" rka" ߧ" weg j¾." mn`M" ismms wdÈh s% a ² wdhqO yd fuj,ï ;kk øjH hlv" ms;;," ma,diaála" ùÿre" jdfka" ,S" rn¾ wdÈh a ² weiqreï øjH lvodis" fmd,s;k" ßðf*daï" áka" ma,diaála" ùÿre" ldâfndaâ" ,S" f,day ;yvq" flfi,a S a fld, wdÈh ² úis;=re NdKav ;kk øjH mn`M" f,day l+re" ùÿre" ma,diaála" ßðf*daï" rn¾" bá fld<" ueá" isfuka;" ,S" nïnq" s weg j¾." ismm" msydgq" úhe<s m;%" mqIm yd mdIdK wdÈh a s a ² msiSfï WmlrK ;kk øjH ueá" we¨ñkshï" ;U" u< fkd nef|k jdfka" fmd,algq ye¢" hlv wdÈh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

59

ksmqK;dj

6'0 (

øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j wkafõIKh s s lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'3 l%hdldrlu s 6'3 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

øjHj, .=K fjkia ùu wkafõIKh lrhs' mßirfha we;s oE fjkia ùug ;=vq fok fya;= fidhuq' ñks;;= 120hs' a ² weuqKu 6'3'1g we;=<;A .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s y;rla ² weuqKu 6'3'2g we;=<;A ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd q Wmfoia ² weuqKu 6'3'3g we;=<;A 'øjH fjkia jk yeá ,smsfha q yeá' øjH msgm;a y;rla bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( ( ² øjH lÜg,fha wvx.= w`M;a yd Èrd .sh Ydl m;%" u, ne÷Kq mshjr 6'3'1 hlv lene,a, iy øj njg m;a jQ udcßka iaj,amh mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' s fï tla tla øjHhg isÿ ù we;af;a l+ula oehs úuikak' my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² CIqøÔùka f.a l%shdldß;ajh ksid Ydl m;%h Èrd m;a ù we;s nj ² kej;;a Ydl m;%h fmr ;snQ ;;a;ajhg m;a fkd jk nj ² mßirfha úúO idOl ksid hlv lene,a, u, ne£ we;s nj ² kej;;a hlv lene,a, fmr ;snQ ;;a;ajhg m;a fkd jk nj ² r;a ùu ksid udcßka lene,a, Èhe ù we;s nj ² kej;;a isis,a l< fyd;a udcßka lene,a, fmr ;snQ ;;a;jhg m;a l< yels nj a ² jdIamh kej; øjh njg m;a l< yels nj ² øjHj, .=K fjkia ùug úúO fya;= n,mdk nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' s lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs'&

60

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( ( ( (

² ²

mshjr 6'3'2

(

² ² ² ²

mshjr 6'3'3

² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' s ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² >k" øj yd jdhq hk fN!;sl wjia:dj,ska tla wjia:djl isg fjk;a wjia:djlg hï øjHhla m;aùu wjia:d úm¾hdihla f,i ye¢kafjk nj ² r;aùu yd isis,a ùu fya;=fjka wjia:d úm¾hdi isÿ jk nj ² wjia:d úm¾hdi m%;Hdj¾;H isÿùula nj ² u,sk ùfï § f,day mDIaGj, m%Ndj ke;s jk w;r mDIaG u; w¨;a ridhk øjHhla we;s jk nj ² f,day u,sk ùu m%;Hdj¾;H isÿùula fkd jk nj ² Ydl yd i;a;aj fldgia Èrdm;a ùfï § tajd ;=<ska u ksmofjk úúO ridhk øjH fya;= jk nj ² Ydl yd i;a;aj fldgia Èrdm;a ùfï § m%lD;s weig fmfkk yd fkd fmfkk úúO Ôùka yd tu Ôùka ksmojk ridhk øjH o fya;= jk nj ² mdIdK ÔrKh ùu i|yd WIaK;ajh fjkia ùu c,h iy iq<`. " udkj lghq;=" i;=ka f.a fuka u Ydlj, l%hdldß;ajh yd mßirfha ;sfnk úúO ridhk øjH fya;= s jk nj ² øjHhl .;s ,CIK fjkia ùug ;=vq fok WIaK;aj fjkia ùï" c,h" iq<`." f;rmSu jeks idOl fN!;sl idOl kï jk nj ² øjHhla kej; fmr ;;a;jhg m;a fkd jk fia tys .=K a fjkia lrùug iu;a idOl" ridhksl idOl kï jk nj ² øjHhl .;s,CIK fjkia lsÍug ;=vq fok Ydl" i;=ka yd udkj lghq;= u`.ska we;s lrk idOl ffcj idOl kï jk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² øjHj, .=K fjkia ùu isÿjk wdldrh yd n,mdk idOl meyeÈ,s lrhs' ² øjH ksr;=re j u fjkia ùïj,g n÷ka fjñka mj;sk nj ms<s.kshs' ² øjHj, .=K fjkia ùï ksßCIKh lrhs' ² mßirfha .;sl nj yd wkq.; fjhs' ² iduqysl j lghq;= lrhs'

61

(

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

q weuqKu 6'3'1 ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia my; i|yka lr we;s øjHj, .=K fjkia jk wdldr w;=ßka Tfí lKavdhug wod< wdldrh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² wjia:d úm¾hdih ² f,day u,sk ùu ² ftkaøSh øjH Èrdm;a ùu ² mdIdK ÔrKh kshñ; ld¾h mßY%h fj; f.dia tys we;s øjH fyd¢ka ksÍCIKh lrkak' Tng wod< f;audj ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd l< yels l%hdldrlï idlÉPd lrkak' s tla tla øjHfha iajNdjh y÷kd .kak' Tn ksÍCIKh lrkq ,nk fjkia ùu i|yd fya;= jQ úúO idOl ms<n| j idlÉPd lrkak'

² ² ² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² øjHj, isÿ ù we;s fjkia lï kej; myiqfjka fmr ;;a;ajhg f.k wd yels yd fkd yels fjkia lï f,i y÷kd .kak' ² Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' weuqKu 6'3'2 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍug Wmfoia d¾h my; i|yka øjH lÜg," 'øjH fjkia jk yeá ,smsh" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka yeá' øjH ;nd ld¾h mßY% y;rla ilia lr .kak' mßY%h I c,h" bá lene,a,la yd tajd r;a lr ne,Sug wjYH WmlrK mßY%h II u,sk jQ yd u,sk fkd jQ úúO j¾.fha f,dayj,ska ;ekQ oE" je,s lvodis mßY%h III w;aldp" Èrdm;a fkd jQ" Èrdm;a fjñka mj;sk yd Èrdm;a jQ i;a;aj weg len,s yd Ydl kso¾Yl mßY%h IV w¨;a uqyqK;a yd ÔrKh fjñka mj;sk uqyqK;a iys; mdIdK len,s" ishqï u;=msg mi" fmdf<fõ úúO ia;rj,ska ,nd .;a mia ksheÈ" je,s" fndr`M" ;srejdkd wdÈh iy ñáhla

62

q weuqKu 6'3'3 øjH fjkia jk yeá wm wjg we;s iEu øjHhla u ksrka;rfhka fjkia ùïj,g Ndck fõ' tajdg n,mdk idOl úúO h' fN!;sl idOl ysu Èh ùu" c,h kgk úg yqud,h njg m;a ùu" bá Èh ùu bka iuyrls' fuys § >k" øj yd jdhq wjia:jka ys mj;sk oE tajdhska fjk;a wjia:djlg m;a fõ' tfia u kej; meje;s wjia:djg u jqj o m;aúh yels h' fïjd wjia:d úm¾hdi kï fõ' wjia:d úm¾hdi we;s ùug fya;j r;a ùu yd isi,a ùu hs' wjia:d úm¾hdi" fN!;sl úm¾hdi .Khg wh;a fõ' = s tfia u mdIdK r;a ùu yd isis,a ùu" mdIdK l=yr ;=< ysu ñ§u" c, myr" iq<x wdÈh mdIdK ÔrKh isÿ lsÍug odhl jk fN!;sl idOl fõ' ridhksl idOl

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

f,day u,sk ùu yd u, ne£u kej;;a fmr meje;s ;;a;ajhg m;a fkd jk l%shdj,s fõ' wdydr ms`MKq ùfï § ÿ`.|la we;s ùu yd tys iajNdjh fjkia ùu" wdï,sl øjH ksid m¾j; Èrd m;a ùu ridhksl úm¾hdij,g ksoiqka jYfhka .; yels h' ffcj idOl mdka lene,a,la mqia lEfuka l=vq iE§u" fõhka yd .=,a,ka ksid oej NdKav úkdY ùu" nelaàßhd yd È,Srj, ls%hdldß;ajfhka fld<frdvq" fldïfmdAiaÜ fmdfydr njg m;a ùu" Ydl uq,a we§u fya;=fjka mdIdK mqmrd hEu wdÈh Ôùka f.a l%hdjka h' ffcj idOl ksid q s isÿ jk fjkia ùï hkq Ôùka ueÈy;a ùfuka mßirfha isÿ jk fu jeks úm¾hdihka h'

63

ksmK;dj q

6'0 ( øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j wkafõIKh s s lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'4 ( hlv u, ne|Sug ;=vq fok idOl fiùug mÍCIK fufyhjhs' l%hdldrlu s 6'4 ( hlv u, ne£ug wjYH idOl fidhuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² u, ne÷Kq yd fkdne÷Kq áka" weK" lïì jeks oE ² weuqKu 6'4'1 g we;=<;a fmr iQodku yd ld¾h mßY% ilia q lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² weuqKu 6'4'2 g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a folla bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 6'4'1 ( ² u, ne÷Kq yd u, fkdne÷Kq lïì" áka" weK mka;shg m%o¾Ykh lrkak' ² hlvj,ska idod we;s øjHj, isÿ ù we;s fjkia lï ms<sn| ksßCIKhg isiqka fhduq lrkak' ² hlvj, fjkia ùï we;s ùug ;=vq ÿka idOl ms<sn| j úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² mßirfha we;s hlvj,ska ;ekQ øjH l,a .; jk úg u, nef|k nj ² hlv u, ÿUqre mdg l=vla nj ² f;;ukh iys; fyda c,h iuÕ iam¾Y jk fyda ;ekaj, mj;sk hlvj,ska ;ekQ oE u, nef|kq iq,N j oelsh yels nj ² fyd¢ka jd;hg ksrdjrKh ù ;sfnk hlv mDIaGj, o u, ne¢ ;sfnkq oelsh yels nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 6'4'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï follg fnokak' ² .fõIK Wmfoia lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60hs& a mshjr 6'4'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² l,ska iQodkï lr ;nd .;a wegjqu iu`. my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

64

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² hï idOlhl n,mEï mÍlaId lsÍfï § md,l mßlaIKhla o ie,iqï l< hq;= nj ² c,h kgjd ksjd .;a úg c,fha Èh ù we;s jd;h bj;a jk nj ² fmd,a f;,a ia;rhla c, mDIaGh u; ;ekam;a lsÍfuka c,h" jd;h iuÕ iam¾Y ùu je<elS ;jÿrg;a jd;h Èh ùu isÿ fkd jk nj ² le,aishï laf,darhsâ uÕska c,jdIam wjfYdaIKh lr .kakd nj ² jd;h iys; ixjD; n÷kla ;=<g le,aishï laf,darhsâ oeófuka tys we;s c, jdIam bj;a jk nj ² msg;ska jd;h we;=`M fkd jk fia n÷fka lg fmd,s;Ska yd rn¾ j<¨ fhdod wdjrKh l< hq;= nj ² mÍlaIKhg fhdod .kakd hlv weKj, u;=msg mDIaG je,s lvodis u`.ska fyd¢ka msßisÿ lr .; hq;= nj ² u, ne£u i|yd c,h wjYH nj fiùfï § u, nef|k øjHhg c,h iemhSu md,kh l< hq;= nj ² u, ne£u i|yd jd;h wjYH nj fiùfï § u, nef|k øjHhg jd;h iemhSu md,kh l< hq;= nj ² le,aishï laf,darhsâ uÕska c,jdIam wjfYdaIKh l< n÷fka hlv weK u, fkd ne÷Kq nj ² fmd,a f;,a ia;rhla c, mDIaGh u; ;ekam;a lsÍfuka yd c,h kegùfuka jd;h ,nd §u md,kh l< hlv weKh u, fkd nef|k nj ² c,h yd jd;h hk idOl fol u ,enqKq hlv weK u, nef|k nj ² u, ne£u i|yd c,h yd jd;h hk idOl fol u w;HdjYH nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² hlv u, ne£ug wjYH idOl úia;r lrhs' ² w;HjYH idOl ,eîu je<elaùfuka u, ne£u md,kh l< yels nj ms<s.kshs' ² u, ne£ug wjYH idOl fidhd ne,Su i|yd wegjqï ilia lrhs' ² hïlsis ld¾hhla i|yd WÑ; øjH f;darhs' ² mÍlaIK uÕska ks.ukj,g t<fUhs'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

65

weuqKu 6'4'1 q fmr iQodku iy ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH lÜg,h ne`.ska ;nd fïi folla ilia lr .kak' ² tl iudk lg f,dl= fnda;,a lsysmhla ² w`M;a hlv weK oyhla muK ² je,s lvodis$weuß lvodis ² by; Ndckj, lg jeish yels fmd,s;Ska len,s yd rn¾ j<¨ lSmhla ² ks¾c,Sh le,aishï laf,darhsâ .a?ï 25la wvx.= f,an,h iys; jeiQ Ndckhla ² fmd,a f;,a ² ñks;a;= oyhla muK kgjd .;a c,h 100 ml la muK wvx.= jeiQ n÷kla ² isis,a c,h 100 ml la muK ² f;,a.dr ^Üjhska& kQ,a ógr Nd.hla muK ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka ks¾c,Sh le,aishï laf,darhsâ Ndckfhys my; i|yka m%ldYh wuqKkak' ks¾c,Sh le,aishï laf,darhsâ' - jd;fha we;s f;;ukh$ c,jdIam Wrd .kshs' isis,a c,h wvx.= Ndckfhys my; i|yka m%ldYh wuqKkak' isis,a c,h-isis,a c,fhys jd;h Èhe ù mj;S' kgjd .;a c,h wvx.= Ndckfhys my; i|yka m%ldYh wuqKkak' kgjd .;a c,h-kgjd .;a c,fhys Èhe jQ jd;h fkd mj;S' u, ne£ug c,h yd jd;h wjYH nj fmkaùu i|yd l,ska ie,iqï lr m%;M, ,nd .;a s wegjqula iudf,dapkfha § bÈßm;a lsÍu msKsi iqodkï lr ;nd .kak' weuqKu 6'4'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia u, ne£ug my; i|yka tla idOlhl n,mEu ms<n| fidhd ne,Sug Tn lKavdhug s mejf¾' ² jd;h ² c,h$c,jdIam Tng wod< idOlfha n,mEu fidhd ne,Sfï § tu idOlh iemhsh hq;= o" ke;s o" hk nj idlÉPdjlska wkdjrKh lr .kak' kshñ; ld¾h mßY%h fj; f.dia wod< idOlfha n,mEu fidhd ne,Su i|yd § we;s øjH weiqßka mÍlaIK wegjqula ms<sfh< lrkak' Tfí mÍCIK wegjqu ;=< md,l mÍCIKhl we;s jeo.;a lu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' Tn ie,iqï l< mÍCIKh ;=<ska ,eìh yels m%;sM, ms<sn| fm/hSula lrkak' wegjqfï rEm igykla o weiqre lr .ksñka Tfí mÍlaIK l%shd ms<sfj< mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak'

66

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ² ² ²

²

² ² ² ² ²

ksmqK;dj

6'0

( øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j wkafõIKh s s lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'5

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( hlv u, ne£fï fõ.h fjkia lrk idOl fiùug mÍlaIK fufyhjhs' l%hdldrlu s 6'5 ( hlv u, ne£fï fõ.h fjkia lrk idOl fidhd n,uq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 6'5'1 g we;=<;a fonfia msgm;la q ² weuqKu 6'5'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a ;=kla ² weuqKu 6'5'3 g we;=<;a øjH wvx.= ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu q i|yd Wmfoia bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 6'5'1 ( ² isika fofokl= fhdod .ksñka foni mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' q s ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² msysh" hlv iys; f,dayhlska idod we;s neúka th u, ne£ we;s nj ² úúO øjH iu`. .eàu u, ne£fï fõ.h fjkia lsÍug fya;= jk nj ² u, ne£u l%hdj,sh iïnkaOfhka úúO øjHj, n,mEu s mÍCIKd;aul j fidhd ne,sh yels nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a mshjr 6'5'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² .fõIK m;%sldfõ msgm;a lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60hs& mshjr 6'5'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² hlv u, ne£u i|yd jd;h yd c,h hk idOl fol u mej;Su w;HdjYH nj ² w;HdjYH idOlj,g wu;r j fjk;a idOlj, n,mEu ksid u, ne£fï fõ.h fjkia úh yels nj

67

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² wdï,sl øjH yd ,jK u`.ska u, ne£u fõ.j;a lrk nj ² Ndiañl øjH ^CIdr& u`.ska u, ne£fï fõ.h wvq lrk nj ² u, ne£u fõ.j;a lrk øjH yd .eàu je<elaùu u`.ka s u, ne£u md,kh l< yels nj ^ñks;;45 hs& a = ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² u, ne¢fï fõ.h fjkia lrk øjH kï lrhs' ² u, ne£u fõ.j;a lrk øjH yd .eàu je<elaùu u`.ska u, ne£u md,kh l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ² u, ne£fï fõ.h fjkia lrk øjH y÷kd .ekSug mÍlaIK fufyhjhs' ² mßir ;;a;aj l<ukdlrKfhka iïm;a wdrCId lr .ekSfï yelshdj fmkajhs' ² fN!;sl mßirfha isÿjk ridhksl l%shdj,s yd wkq.; fjhs' weuqKu 6'5'1 q foni biqre - tod m<;=re i,dfo yokak mdúÉÑ lrmq msysh fidao,d ;sõfj keoao [email protected] ;s,xld - wehs fudlo fj,d ;[email protected] biqre - fïl u,lv ld,d fk' ;s,xld - kE' ´fl ¨Kq- weUq,a .Eú, fjkak we;s' fyd|g inka od,d oeka fydao, ;shkak' biqre - ta jqKdg wms inka lmk msysh kï lj od j;a fydaokafk keye fk @ ;s,xld - inkaj,g Th jf.a u,lv lkafk ke;s j we;s' weuqKu 6'5'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia hlv u, ne¢fï YS.%;dj fjkia ùu flfrys my; øjH n,mdk wdldrh fidhd ne,Su Tn lKavdhug mejf¾' ² wdï,sl øjH ² Ndiañl øjH ² ,jK Tng wod< ld¾h mßY%fha ;nd we;s øjH fhdod .ksñka kshñ; fidhd ne,Sug WÑ; wegjqula ilia lrkak' fuys § md,l mÍCIKhl wjYH;dj ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' Tng ,eìh yels m%;M, ms<n| j fm/hSula lrkak' s s Tfí l%shdldrlu ms<sn| f;dr;=re mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï jkak'

68

² ² ² ²

weuqKu 6'5'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu iy l%hdldrlfï bÈß lghq;= i|yd Wmfoia s ² my; i|yka øjH lÜg, ;nd ld¾h mßY% ;=kla ilia lrkak' ld¾h mßY%h I ² wdï,sl øjH - úkdlsß" foys" wU jeks m,;=rla ld¾h mßY%h II ² ,jK j¾. - ¨Kq" iSklaldrï*" tmaiï fida,aÜ* (epsom salt) (* fnfy;a fj<|i,lska ,nd .; yels h') ld¾h mßY%h III ² Ndiañl øjH- wdmam fidavd" inka" yqKq Èhr ² iEu ld¾h mßY%hl u ;eìh hq;= fmdÿ øjH lÜÜ,h ² lg f,dl= fnda;,a y;rla ² hlv weK oyhla ² je,s lvodis ² c,h ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka ² isiqka .fõIK l%shdj,sfha § ilia lrkq ,nk wegjqï weiqfrka wfmaCIs; m%;sM, ,efnk ;=re mka;s mßirh ;=< Èkm;d ksÍCIKh lsÍug i,iajkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

69

ksmqK;dj

6'0 ( øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j wkafõIKh lrhs' s s

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'6 ( u, ne£u md,kh lsÍug lghq;= lrhs' l%hdldrlu s 6'6 ( hlv NdKav /l .ksu' q ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² u, nef|k ;=re ¨Kq ødjKhl nyd ;nk ,o weKhla iy .%Sia wdf,am lr ¨Kq ødjKhl nyd ;nk ,o u, fkd ne÷Kq weKhla ² weuqKu 6'6'1g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a ;=kla ² weuqKqu 6'6'2g we;=<;a 'hlv nvq iqrlskafk fldfydu [email protected] ' ,smsfha msgm;a ;=kla ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 6'6'1 ( ² ¨Kq ødjKfha nyd ;nk ,o hlv weK mka;hg m%o¾Ykh s lrkak' ² hlv weK ksÍCIKh lsÍug isiqka fhduq lrkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² ¨Kq ødjKhl § u, ne£u iS>%fhka isÿ jk nj ² .%Sia wdf,am fkd l< hlv weKh u, ne£ we;s nj ² .%Sia wdf,ams; hlv weKh u, ne£ ke;s nj ² u, ne£u md,kh i|yd úúO Wml%u fhÈh yels nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 6'6'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia" ,smh" äuhs lvodis yd s udl¾ mEka ,nd fokak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60hs& a mshjr 6'6'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² u, ne£ug wjYH idOl ,eîu md,kh lsÍu uÕska u, ne£u fndfyda ÿrg wvq l< yels nj

70

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² hlv u, ne£u md,kh lsÍu i|yd mDIaGh u; ;Ska; j¾." f;,a fyda .%Sia wdf,am lrk nj ² t uÕska f,day mDIaGh iuÕ u, ne£ug wjYH idOl jk jd;h yd c,h$c, jdIam .eàu wju lrk nj ² fjk;a f,day o mDIaGh u; wdf,am lsÍfuka hlv u, ne£u j<lajd .; yels nj ² iskala" áka" ksl,a" fl%dañhï" wd§ f,day hlv mDIaG u; wdf,am lsÍug iq,nj fhdod .kakd nj ² øj njg m;a l< iskla f,dayh ;=< hlv NdKav .s,ùu a a uÕska tajdfha ;=kS iskala ia;rhla wdf,am lrkq ,nk nj ² lgq lïì" fiú,s ;yvq" nd,aÈ wdÈh u; wdf,am lr we;af;a iskala f,dayh nj ² iskala wdf,am lsÍu .e,ajkhsia lsÍu f,i ye¢kafjk nj ² wdydr wiqrk fnf,lal hlv f,dayfhka idod ta u; áka f,dayh wdf,am lrk nj ² hlvj,g ksl,a" fl%dñhï yd uex.kSia wvx.= lr ;kkq a ,nk ñY% f,dayh u, fkd nef|k jdfka kï jk nj ² ffoksl Ôú;fha § u, ne£u md,kh i|yd Wml%u Ndú; lsÍug isÿ jk nj ^ñks;a;= 45 hs& ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² u, ne£u md,kh lr .; yels Wml%u yd ta iïnkaO uQ,O¾u úia;r lrhs' ² u, ne£fuka isÿjk ydksh wju lr .ekSu i|yd úúO Wml%u fh§ug isÿ jk nj ms<.ksh' s s ² u, ne£u md,kh lr we;s wjia:d ksÍCIKh lrhs' ² wys;lr ;;a;aj md,kh lsÍfï Wml%u fidhd n,hs' ² w;aoelSï yqjudre lr .ksh' s

71

weuqKu 6'6'1 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia hlv u, ne£u j<lajd .eksug .kq ,nk my; § we;s Wml%uh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² Ndú; ;;a;ajh hgf;a § NdKav u, ne£fuka j<lajd .ekSu ² NdKav u, fkd nef|k ;;a;ajhg m;a lsÍu ² NdKav u, fkd nef|k mßirhl ;ekam;a lsÍu .=rejrhd úiska fhduq lrkq ,nk mßÈ mdif,a Tng kshñ; ia:dkh ksÍCIKh lrñka hlv u, ne£u j<lajd .ekSug f.k we;s mshjr fm< .iajkak' Tn /ialr .;a lreKq iy § we;s ,smsh weiqßka Tfí f;audjg wod< f;dr;=re /ia lrkak' Tn okakd fjk;a f;dr;=re o idlÉPd lrkak' ish¨ u f;dr;=rej, úoHd;aul miqìu fidhd n,kak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' weuqKu 6'6'2 q hlv nvq iqrlskafk fldfydu [email protected] tod .=re;=ó l%hdldrlu ie,iqï lr, ;snfK u, ne£u iïnkaO j hs' u, ne£u i|yd s q wjYH idOl fidhd ne,Sug <uhska úúO wegejqï ilia l<d' .=re;=ó l,a we;s j u lrk ,o mÍCIKhl m%;M,;a bÈßm;a l<d' s " n,kak u, ne£u wfma jákd øjHj,g lrkd ú[email protected] fldfydu o fïl j<laj [email protected] " .=re;=ó tu m%Yakhg i;s wka;fha § ms<s;=re fidhd f.k tkakg orejka fhduq l<d' ks¾udKS f.or mqrd u weúoaod' cfka,fha hlv .%,j, iqÿ mdg ;Sk; wdf,am lr ;sfnkafk s a a wehs @ ;d;a;d f.a nhsisl,fha ye`v,fha ksl,a wdf,am lr ;snqK;a iSreKq ;ekaj, u, ne¢,d' l=iifh rdlalfha iuyr msys u, ne¢,d' ta jqKdg tl msyhla ;du w`M;a jdf.a' a s s 'Stainless Steel' hk bx.%Sis jpk fol tafl fldg, ;snqKd' wïud lsõfj tal u, fkd nef|k jdfka lsh, hs' "tal ljod j;a u, nef|kafk ke;a [email protected]" ks¾udKs wlal f.ka weyqjd' "Th msyh yo, ;sfhkafk ñY% f,dAyhlsk' tys § hlvj,g ksl,a" fl%dñhï yd uex.kSia s a a hk f,day ñY% lr, hs ;sfhkafk' ta ksid fudk mßirhl È jqK;a Th msysh u,lv lkafk keye'" * * *

² ² ² ² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

wlS,a ;d;a;d f.a .rdchg .shd' "fï fudlo ;d;af; fï jdykfhka .,jmq tkaðu f;,a Ndckhl .s,aj,d ;[email protected] " "wehs mqf;a ke;akï tkaðu u,lv lkj fk'"

72

"t;fldg wr jdyk ;yvqj, .dkafk;a f;,a [email protected]" ;d;a;d wlS,a jdykh <`.g le|jd f.k .shd' "fï wdf,am lrkafk u, ne£u j<lajk ;Ska;'" "wfmdhs" ta jqKdg ;Sk; ;Ügqjg hákq;a wr jdykj, u,lv nqn¨ u;= fj,d ;sfhkafk'" a q "fldfydu jqK;a b;ska ld,hla hk fldg jßka jr ;Ska; wdf,am lrkak fjkj ;uhs'" * * *

rdðKS miqj od Wfoa u ;d;a;d;a iu`. ld¾hd,hhg .shd' f.dvke.s,,g msg;ska iú lr, a ;snqKq yeu jdhqiólrK hka;%hl u fndfydu >klug .%Sia ;Ügqjla wdf,am lr,' "wehs ;d;af; fïfl ;Ska; .d,d ;snqK u uÈ [email protected] fudlo fï .%Sia ;Ügqjl=;a .d,[email protected]" "fï ì,aäu uqyog <`.hs fk' ks;r u uqyÿ yq<x jeÈ,d blauKg hlv u,lv lkjd' wksl q q jdhq iólrK hka;% iú lrkak ´fk;a msg;ska fk' fyd| u úi`÷u ;uhs .%Sia ;Ügqjla .dk tl' "

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

*

*

*

ridx. fmdÿ mqi;ld,hg hs .sfh' iEfykak fmd;a m;a ne¨jd' ta;a ta yeu tfla u ;snfK a q u, ne£u je<elaùu iïnkaO j ljqrekq;a jdf. okakd foaj,a' ridx. ys;jd" wka;¾cd,fhkq;a = f;dr;=re fyõfjd;a fyd|hs lsh,d' thd mß.Klh <`. b| .;a;d' " wd fï ;sfhkafk jdyk ksIamdok iud.ul f;dr;=re' jdykh ksIamdokh lrk fldg u tys peisfh f*diaf*dßla wï,h wdf,am lsÍfuka u, ne£u je<elaùug mshjr .kakjd ¨'" ridx.g yß mqÿu hs ! "wï,hla .Ejd u u, ne£u jeä fjkj lsh, fk uu bf.k .;af;' " ridx. ;j ÿrg;a f;dr;=re fydhkak jqKd' f*diaf*dßla wï,h wdf,amh ksid jdyk peisfh mDIAGh u; hlv f*diaf*aÜ ia;rhla yg .kakjd' fuh wdrCIl ia;rhla f,i iaÓr jYfhka mej;Su ksid wjg we;s jd;h yd c,h iu`. .eàu j<lajkjd'

73

ksmK;dj q

7'0 ( Yla;h" ld¾hh yd n,h iïnkaO ixl,am" uQ,O¾u yd s isoOdka; M,odhS whqßka Ndú; lrhs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'1 ( ffoksl lghq;= yeisrùug n,h fhdod .kshs' l%hdldrlu s 7'1 ( úúO jia;= u; n,h fhdoñka úfkdao fjuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² lvodis fndaÜgqjla iE§ug iqÿiq >klï lvodishla ² weuqKu 7'1'1g we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia q ² weuqKu 7'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a q y;rla bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'1'1 ( ² mka;sh bÈßhg meñKs YsIHhhl= ,jd lvodis fndaÜgqjla idojkak' ² fndaÜgqj iE§fï tla tla mshjf¾ § Tyq úiska n,h fhdok ,o wdldrh ksÍCIKh lrjkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² lvodish keóu yd È. yeÍu isÿ lrk iEu wjia:djl § u n,h fhdok ,o nj ² fï iEu n,hla u we§ula fyda ;,a¨ lsÍula nj ² tÈfkod úúO lghq;= lr .ekSug n,h wjYH jk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'1'2 ( ² mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' s ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60hs& mshjr 7'1'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² jia;=jla u; fhdok we§ula fyda ;,a¨jla n,hla f,i ye¢kaúh yels nj ² n,hla fh§fuka my; l%shdjka isÿ l< yels nj ² ksYap, jia;=jla p,kh lsÍu ² p,kh jk jia;=jla ksYap, lsÍu ² p,kh jk jia;=jl fõ.h fjkia lsÍu

74

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² jia;=jl yevh fjkia lsÍu ² jia;jla wjYH mßÈ yeisrùu = ² n,h M,odhS f,i yeisrùfuka úúO ld¾h isÿ l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² n,h fh§fuka bgq l< yels l%shd kï lrhs' ² jia;= wjYH mßÈ yeisrùug n,h fhÈh hq;= nj ms<.ksh' s s ² n,h fhfok wjia:d we§ï yd ;,a¨ lsÍï jYfhka j¾. lrhs' ² wjYH;dj wkqj jia;= yeisrùug n,h fhÈh hq;= wdldrh ;SrKh lrhs' ² ksÍCIK u; ks.ukj,g t<fUhs' weuqKu 7'1'1 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH lÜg,h ne.ska ;nk ,o ld¾h mßY% y;rla ilia lr .kak' ² ma,diaála$rn¾ fnda,h ² kQ,a frdaoh$is,skavrdldr áka tlla ² fg%d,sh$fi,a,ï ld¾ tl$fi,a,ï lr;a;h ² kQ,a ² fikaá óg¾ 50la muK È. fldagqjla ² l=vd weKhla iy ñáhla ² laf,a .=,sh ² nlÜ lïì ² bj; ,k ldâ fndaâ fmÜá$ lvodis ² äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka weuqKu 7'1'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia hï jia;=jla meje;sh yels my; ;;a;ajh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² p,kh lrùu yd ksYap, lsÍu ² p,k fõ.h wvq lsÍu fyda jeä lsÍu ² p,s; ÈYdj fjkia lsÍu ² yevh fjkia lsÍu kshñ; ld¾h mßY%fhys ;nd we;s øjH yd WmlrK weiqßka Tng wod< wjia:dj wdo¾Ykh lrkak' tys § Tn úiska lrkq ,nk oE we§ï yd ;,a¨ lsÍï jYfhka y÷kd .kak' tÈfkod Ôú;fha § Tng wod< ;;a;ajh ksÍlaIKh l< yels wjia:d f.dkqlrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak'

75

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

²

² ² ² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

76

ksmK;dj q

7'0 ( Yla;h" ld¾hh yd n,h iïnkaO ixl,am" uQ,O¾u yd s isoOdka; M,odhS whqßka Ndú; lrhs' a

( ( ( (

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'2 l%hdldrlu s 7'2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

udkj wjYH;d imqrd,Sug Yla;sh Ndú; lrhs' Yla;s m%Nj y÷kd .ksuq' Yla;sfhka jev .ksuq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a ² weuqKqu 7'2'1g we;=<;a 'wms fufyuhs jev lrkafk' msk;rh a + ² weuqKu 7'2'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s y;rla ² weuqKu 7'2'3g we;=<;a Wmfoia wkqj ilia l< ld¾h mßY% q y;rla bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'2'1 ( ² úúO ld¾hhka ys kshef<k wjia:d oelafjk msk;r isikg a + q a fmkajkak' ² tys oelafjk ld¾hhka i|yd Yla;sh ,nd .kafka flfia oehs isiqka f.ka úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² ffoksl ðú;fha Yla;h jeh lrñka bgq l< hq;= fndfyda s ld¾hhka we;s nj ² ld¾hh bgq lr .ekSu i|yd wjYH Yla;h úúO l%u s uÕska ,nd .kakd nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'2'2 ( ² mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' s ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60hs& a mshjr 7'2'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u q wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² Yla;sh ,nd fok uq ,dY% Yla;s m%Nj f,i kï lrk nj ² ñksidg wdf,dalh yd ;dmh jYfhka Yla;sh ,nd fok uQ,l Yla;s m%Njh iQ¾hhd nj s ² iq<Õ Yla;s m%Njhla nj ² oykfha § ;dmh W;amdokh lrk øjH bkaOk f,i ye¢kafjk nj

77

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² .,a wÕ=re" or wdÈ >k øjHh;a fmg%," ãi,a" N+ñf;,a wd§ a øj;a" Ôj jdhqj jeks jdhq j¾.;a" bkaOk i|yd WodyrK f,i oelaúh yels nj ² ñksiqkaf.a Yla;s wjYH;dj Èfkka Èk by< hk nj ² ñksia wjYH;d imqrd,Su i|yd kj Yla;s m%Nj fidhd .; hq;= nj ² ñksid úiska fidhd f.k we;s úYd, Yla;s m%udKhla CIKsl j Wmojk l%uhla jYfhka kHIaál Yla;sh ie,lsh yels nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Yla;s m%Nj yd tajdhska ,nd .kakd Yla;s wdldr ,shd olajhs' ² ñksid ;u Yla;s wjYH;djka úúO Yla;s m%Nj uÕska ,nd .kakd nj ms<s.kshs' ² Yla;s m%Nj Ndú; lrk whqre wdo¾Ykh lrhs' ² ie,iqï lrk ld¾hhg WÑ; øjH f;dard .kshs' ² iyfhda.S;dfjka hq;= j lKavdhï l%shdldrlïj, ksr; fjhs' weuqKu 7'2'1 q 'wms fufyuhs jev lrkafk' msk;r a +

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

78

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

79

weuqKu 7'2'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Yla;s m%Nj Ndú;hg .ekSu wdo¾Ykh flfrk my; oelafjk ir, wegjqu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² iQ¾h Wÿk ² l=vq ,sm ² ;, nukh ² ir, fldaIh yd negß Tng wod< Yla;s m%Njh yd wdo¾Ykh l< hq;= Ndú; wjia:dj ms<n| j idlÉPd s lrkak' wod< wegjqu ilia lrkak' Tn ilia l< wegjqfuys Ndú; jk Yla;s wdldrh y÷kd .kak' imhk ,o tla tla øjH fjkqjg fhdod .; yels fjk;a úl,am øjH ms<n| j idlÉPd s lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak' weuqKu 7'2'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsßu i|yd Wmfoia ² my; i|yka øjH o" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka o" ;nd ld¾h mßY% y;rla ilia lr .kak' mßY%h I ² 30cm x 30cm m%udKfha ;=kS we¨ñkshï m;%hla ² fkd .eUqre wj;, yeve;s n÷kla ^Wod (- ;dÉÑhla& ² l=vd f,dayuh fnda;,a uQähla ² wdOdrlhla ieliSug iqÿqiq lïì ² l;=rla ² .ï fnda;,hla mßY%h II ² rEmfha mßÈ ilia lr .;a 15cm muK Wi áka n÷kla ² ,S l=vq fyda oyhshd jD;a;dldr ² fldyq ñglska lmd .kakd ,o 30cm újrh muK È. ,S len,s ;=kla mßY%h III ² fia,hska fnda;,hla yd Bg iïnkaO ngh ² ueÈka isÿre lrk ,o lsr, wenhla ² fhda.Ü ye¢ wgla ² 15cm muK È. lïì l+rla mßY%h IV ² 2cm x 4cm m%udKfha ;U yd iskala ;yvq len,s 2 ne.ska ² iïnkaOl lïì ² fgdaÉ n,anh ² ;kql i,a*shqßla wï,h ² 250ml îlrhla$cEï fnda;,hla

80

² ² ² ² ²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmK;dj q

7'0 ( Yla;h" ld¾hh yd n,h iïnkaO ixl,am uQ,O¾u yd s isoOdka; M,odhS whqßka Ndú; lrhs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'3 ( Yla;s mßj¾;k úu¾Ykh lrhs' l%hdldrlu s 7'3 ( Yla;s mßj¾;k w;ayod n,uq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 7'3'1g we;=<;a mßm:fha wegjqu q ² weuqKu 7'3'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s ;=kla ² weuqKu 7'3'3g we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% ilia lsru i|yd Wmfoi q S bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'3'1 ( ² mßm:h mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' s ² isika lsym fokl= le|jd n,anh" iam¾Y lsÍug i,iajkak' q s ² Tjqka f.a w;g oekqKq foa úuikak' ² fmakq h;=r jid n,anh hï;ï oe,afjk mßÈ Odrd kshdulh ilikak' ² ál fj,djlg miqj tu isiqka ,jd n,anh kej; iam¾Y lsÍug i,iajkak' ² tla tla wjia:dj, isiqkag oekqKq ixfõok m%ldY lsÍug i,iajkak' ² Odrd kshulh ilia lr n,anh §ma;su;a j o,ajkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² úoHq;a Yla;h ;dmc Yla;hg mßj¾;kh l< yels nj s s ² úoHq;a Yla;h wdf,dal Yla;hg o mßj¾;kh l< yels s s nj ² tla Yla;s wdldrhla ;j;a Yla;s wdldrj,g mßj¾;kh l< yels nj ² Yla;s mßj¾;kh .ek úuid ne,Su Yla;s mßfNdackfha § jeo.;a jk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'3'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia ,nd fokak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60hs& a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

81

mshjr 7'3'3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² pd,l Yla;h úoHq;a Yla;hg;a" úoHq;a Yla;h pd,l s s s Yla;hg;a mßj¾;kh l< yels nj s ² úoHq;a Yla;h wdf,dal Yla;hg;a wdf,dal Yla;h úoHq;a s s s Yla;hg;a mßj¾;kh l< yels nj s ² úoHq;a Yla;h ;dmc Yla;hg;a" ;dmc Yla;h úoHq;a s s s Yla;hg;a mßj¾;kh l< yels nj s ² Yla;s mßj¾;k ffoksl lghq;= i|yd M,odhS whqßka Ndú; l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 45hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² nyq, j olakg ,efnk Yla;s mßj¾;k lsysmhla kï lrhs' ² udkj lghq;= M,odhS wkaoñka bgq lr .ekSfï § Yla;s mßj¾;kj, we;s jeo.;alu w.h lrhs' ² Yla;s mßj¾;k Ndú;h m%o¾Ykh lrhs' ² úúO wegjqï weiqfrka iïnkaO;d fidhhs' ² ksÍlaIK mokï lr .ksñka ks.ukj,g t<efò' weuqKu 7'3'1 q mßm: igyk

A

B

VVVVV C

() D

A - (4 - 6) W n,anhla B - (4 - 6) V negßhla C - Odrd kshdulhla D - fmakq h;=rla

82

weuqKu 7'3'2 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² Tn lKavdhug ,efnk my; ud;Dldj fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² hdka;%sl - úoHq;a iy úoHq;a - hdka;%sl hk Yla;s mßj¾;k ² úoHq;a - wdf,dal iy wdf,dal - úoHq;a hk Yla;s mßj¾;k ² úoHq;a - ;dmc iy ;dmc - úoHq;a Yla;s hk mßj¾;k ² Tng wod< ld¾h mßY%fha we;s Wmdx. y÷kd .kak' ² imhd we;s Wmdx. Ndú; lrñka Tn fhduq lrjk ,o ld¾hh i|yd wegjqï ilia lrkak' ² iqÿiq WmlrKhla Ndú; lrñka mßm:fha úÿ,sh mÍCId lrkak' ² Tfí ksÍlaIK weiqfrka y÷kd .kakd Yla;s mßj¾;k jd¾;d lrkak' ² Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iqodkï jkak' weuqKu 7'3'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² u;= oelafjk WmlrK lÜg," øjH" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka wvx.= ld¾h mßY% ;=kla ilia lrkak' ² iEu ld¾h mßY%hl u bgq l< hq;= ld¾hh i|yka kdu mqjrejla ;nkak' ld¾h mßY%h I ² w;ska lrleúh yels fia ilia lr we;s vhskfudajla ² l=vd fjda,aÜógrhla ² iïnkaOl lïì ² l=vd ir, Odrd vhskfudajla ² úÿ,s mkaoï negßhla ld¾h mßY%h II ² l=vd úÿ,s mkaoï n,anhla ² úÿ,s mkaoï negßhla ² iïnkaOl lïì ² l=vd iQ¾h fldaIhla ² l=vd fjda,aÜógrhla ld¾h mßY%h III ² l=vd ksfl%daï lïì oÕrhla ² 2v negßhla ² l=vd c, n÷kla ² iïnkaOl lïì ² ;dm úoHq;a hq.uhla a ² ixfõ§ .e,ajfkdógrhla ² bámkaoula ² .sksfmÜáhla

83

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmK;dj q

7'0

( Yla;h ld¾hh yd n,h iïnkaO ixl,am uQ,O¾u yd s isoOdka; M,odhS whqßka Ndú; lrhs' a

( Yla;s mßj¾;kh fhdod .ksñka ir, WmlrK ks¾udKh lrhs' l%hdldrlu s 7'4 ( l%vd NdKav youq' Yla;s mßj¾;k olsu' S q ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² úÿ,s iSkqj ² weuqKu 7'4'1g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ msgm;a q s ;=kla ² weuqKu 7'4'2g we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia q ² weuqKu 7'4'3g we;=<;a NdKav ks¾udKh i|yd wjYH q rEmigyka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'4'1 ( ² úÿ,s iSkqjla mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' ² th l%shd;aul lr isiqka ,jd ksÍlaIKh lrjkak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² Yla;h mßj¾;kh l< yels nj s ² úÿ,s iSkfõ § úoHq;a Yla;h" pd,l Yla;h yd Yíoh q s s njg mßj¾;kh jk nj ² Yla;sh mokï lr .ksñka ir, WmlrK ks¾udKh l< yels nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'4'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a mshjr 7'4'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² yqud, ;,nukfha § ;dm Yla;sh pd,l Yla;sh njg mßj¾;kh flfrk nj ² nr Tijk hka;fha § úoHq;a Yla;h pd,l Yla;h njg % s s mßj¾;kh flfrk nj

84

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'4

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ÿïßh ix{d l=`MfKa § úoHq;a Yla;h pd,l Yla;h njg s s mßj¾;kh flfrk nj ² Yla;s mßj¾;k isÿ flfrk úúO NdKav" WmlrK yd hka;% iq;% ñksid úiska ;u lghq;= myiq lr .ekSug ks¾udKh lr we;s nj ² Yla;s mßj¾;k m%fhdackhg .ksñka úúO NdKav yd WmlrK ks¾udKh lrkq ,nk nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Yla;s mßj¾;kh isÿ jk wjia:d i|yd WodyrK bÈßm;a lrhs' ² ffoksl lghq;=j, § Yla;s mßj¾;k m%fhdackj;a wkaoñka fhdod .; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ² Yla;s mßj¾;k wdo¾Ykh flfrk ir, WmlrK ks¾udKh lrhs' ² rEm igyklska ksrEmKh flfrk oE f.dvkÕhs' ² ixisoê úYaf,aIKh lrhs' a weuqKu 7'4'1 q lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ² Tn lKavdhug mejfrk my; l%Svd NdKavh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² yqud, ;,nukh ² nr Tijk hka;%h ² ÿïßh ix{d l=`MK ² ld¾h mßY%fha ;nd we;s rEm igyk" øjH yd WmlrK fhdod .ksñka Tng wod< l%Svd NdKavh f.dv kÕkak' ² l%Svd NdKavh ls%hd;aul lsÍfï § isÿjk Yla;s mßj¾;k l%shdj,sh wkdjrKh lr .kak' ² tjeks Yla;s mßj¾;k ixisoëka ffoksl Ôú;fha § olskkg ,efnk wjia:d ms<n| j a a s idlÉPd lrkak' ² Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

85

weuqKu 7'4'2 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ² 15cm x 15cm x 2cm jQ ,E,s len,s ;=kla" w`.f,a weK" ñáhla" oe,a jQ bá mkaoula" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka fmdÿ fïihla u; ;nkak' ² ks¾udK i|yd kdu mqjre iys; j my; mßÈ ld¾h mßY% ;=kla ilia lr .kak' yqud, ;,nukh ² yqud, ;,nukfha mska;+rh ² mshk jeish yels áka tlla ² ;rul f,dl= b¢lgqjla ² >klï lïì len,s folla ² lsr, wenhla ² ;=kS áka ;yvq lene,a,la ² l;=rla ² fif,dafÜma$nlÜ lïì ² nkaika odylh yd f;mdj ² c,h iaj,amhla nr Tijk hka;%h ² nr Tijk hka;%fha mska;+rh nr Tijk hka;%fha mska;+rh ² úÿ,s fudagrh ² ,S wdOdrlh ² úh<s fldaI folla fyda ixpdhl fldaIhla ² iïnkaOl lïì ² kq,a T;k l=vd fndìka folla iy f,dl= fndìka tlla ² rn¾ j<¨ ² kQ,l t,aÆ nr .eg .eiSu i|yd iqÿiq oKavla' ² fhda.Ü fldamamhla ÿïßh ix{d l=`MK ² ÿïßh ix{d l=`MfKa msk;rh a + ² 2cm x 2cm x 30cm jQ taldldr ,S oKavla ² kQ,a ² fldhs,a lïì ² w`.,a 4 hlv weKhla ² iaúÉÑh

86

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

nr Tijk hka;%h

kQ,a T;k fndìka

weuqKu 7'4'3 q

úÿ,s fudagrh

fhda.Ü fldamamh oKav

kQf,ka t,a,k ,o nr ixpdhl fldaIh iñnkaOl lïì ,S wdOdrlh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;yvqj ;=,kh i|yd lemqu rn¾ máh taldldr ,S oKav fldhs,a lïì

fnf,la ;yvqj weuqKï lgqj q hlv weKh iaúÉÑh

,S wdOdrlh fldaI

ÿïßh ix{d l=`MK

áka ;yvq lsr, wenh lïì áka n÷fka isÿrg iú lr we;s ng lene,a, nlÜ lïì c,h iys; áka n÷k

yqud, ;,nukh

87

ksmK;dj q

8'0

q s ( YS% ,xldj uqyK mdk iajdNdúl úm;a yd tajd wdY%; wjodkï ;;a;j l<ukdlrKh i|yd iQodku a m%o¾Ykh lrhs'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( YS% ,xldj uqyqK mdk iajdNdúl úm;a yd ta wdY%s; úoHd;aul miqìu wkafõIKh lrhs' q q l%hdldrlu s 8'1 ( iajdNdúl úm;a y÷kd .ksu' id¾:l j uqyK fouq' a ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' q s .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 8'1'1 g we;=<;a fidnd úm;a ms<n| PhdrEm m;%ldj s ² weuqKu 8'1'2 g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia q m;%ldfõ msgm;a myla s ² weuqKqu 8'1'3 g we;=<;a 'wm fm<k fidnd úm;a ',smsfha msgm;a myla ² äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 8'1'1 ( ² iajdNdúl úm;aj, iajNdjh fmkakqï flfrk PdhdrEm lsysmhla ^fyda flá ùäfhda mghla& mka;shg bÈßm;a lrkak' ² Y%S ,xldj uqyqK fok iajdNdúl úm;a ms<sn| j isiqka f.ka úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² .xj;=r" ksh`." kdhhEï" l=Kdgq" wl=K" N+ p,k yd q iqkdñ Y%S ,xld jdiSka uqyqK md ;sfnk iajdNdúl úm;a lsymhla nj s ² jHikhg ,la jk m%foaY wkqj;a" tu m%foaY wk;=rg ,la jk jdr .Kk wkqj;a" isÿ jk ld, jljdkq wkqj;a" fuu úm;aj, me;sÍu y÷kd .; yels nj ² we;eï iajdNdúl úm;a Y%S ,xldfõ iuyr m%foaYj,g muKla iSud jk nj ² iajdNdúl úm;a" tajd wdY%; úoHd;aul miqìu" we;s jk s ld, jljdkq yd m%foaY oek isàfuka wk;=reodhl ;;a;ajhka wju lr .ekSug yels jk nj ^ñks;;= 15 hs& a

ksmqK;d uÜgu

8'1

88

mshjr 8'1'2

mshjr 8'1'3

( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² ,smsfha msgm;la" äuhs lvodis yd udl¾ mEka lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs& s ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;hg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² .`.la msgdr .e,Sfuka lsihï m%foaYhla hg ùu .x s j;=r f,i y÷kajk nj ² .x j;=r we;s ùu flfrys my; idOl n,mdk nj ² wêl j¾Idm;kh ² .x.d m;af,a frdka uv ;ekam;a ùu ² msgdr ;eksj, wl%uj;a bÈ lsßï ² c,dYj, jdka fodrgq yÈisfha újD; lsÍu ² c,dYj, fõ,s mqmqrd hdu ² Y%S ,xldfõ f;;a l,dmfha m%Odk .x.d wdY%; my;a ìï s .x j;=rg iq,n j uqyqK mdk nj ² uehs isg iema;eïn¾ olajd jk ksß;È. fudaiï iq<x iuh c, .e,Sï iq,n ld, jljdkq nj ² úÿ,s wl=Kq hkq úYd, úÿ,s mq,sÕ=jla nj ² úÿ,s wl=Kl § oeä ;dmhla o úYd, Yíohla o we;s jk nj ² idudkHfhka iq<x iys; jeis wjia:dj, o" iuyr úg lsisÿ jeiaila ke;s j o" wl=Kq yg .kakd nj ² wl=Kl § we;s jk úÿ,sh laIKsl j fmdf<djg fyda j,dl=<lska j,dl=<lg fyda we§ tk nj ² f.dvke.s,,la" lKqjla fyda .ila ;=<ka wl=Kl úÿ,sh a s fmdf<djg <Õd ùug bv we;s nj ² fmdf<djg meñfKk wl=Kla ksid tu mßirhg ydks isÿ úh yels nj ² ud¾;=-wfma%,a iy Tlaf;dan¾-fkdjeïn¾ hk wka;¾ fudaiï ld,j, § Y%S ,xldfõ wl=Kq we;s ùu iq,n jk nj ² wm rfÜ ´kEu m%foaYhl wl=Kq we;s úh yels nj ² mßirhg ydkslr úh yels fõ.hlska hq;a iq<`.la iq<s iq<`.la hkqfjka ye¢kaúh yels nj

89

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² yg .kakd m%foaYh wkqj;a" N%uKh jk wdldrh wkqj;a iq<s iq<x j¾. lrk nj ² Y%S ,xldfõ kef.kysr m<d; jeä jYfhka iq<s iq<x wjodkug ,la jk nj ² hï m%foaYhlg È.= l,la ;sifia jeis fkd ,eîfuka mßirh a ;Èka úh<su ksid kshx ;;a;ajhla we;s jk nj ² fmd<j u;= msg we;s ie,lsh hq;= ;rfï mia we;=`M mdIdK fldgia my<g lvd jeàu kdh hEula kï jk nj ² kdh hEïj,g n,h iemfhkqfha .=re;ajdl¾IKfhka nj ² iqkdñhla we;s ùu flfrys my; ;;a;j n, mE yels nj a ² uqyÿ m;af,a we;s jk N+ñlïmd" kdh hEï fyda .sks l÷ q msmÍï s ² id.rhg úYd, W,ald weo jeàu ² udOH uÕska fok oekqï §ï" i;=kaf.a úfYaI yeisÍï rgd iy mdßißl fjkiaùï ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq lsÍfuka fndfyda iajdNdúl wk;=re l,a ;shd y÷kd .; yels nj ² iajdNdúl úm;lg uqyK §fï § mdkSh c,h" úh<s wdydr" q úÿ,s mkaoula" .=jka úÿ,s hka;%hla" T!IO yd m%:udOdr i|yd wjYH øjH lÜg,hla iqodkï lr ;eîu iqÿiq nj ² lsihï iajdNdúl úm;lg fmr;a" Bg uqyK §fï §;a" bka s q miq j;a" ksis whqßka lghq;= lsÍfuka isÿ úh yels ydks wju lr .; yels nj ^ñks;;= 60 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² Y%s ,xldj uqyqKmdk iajdNdúl úm;a kï lr úia;r lrhs' ² iajdNdúl úm;l § wjia:dfjdaÑ; j lghq;= lsÍu ;=<ska ydksh wju lr .; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ² iajdNdúl úm;a ms<sn| f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh lrhs' ² lsheùï øjH mßYS,kh fldg wjYH f;dr;=re Wlyd .kshs' ² f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh i|yd risl udOH M,odhS wkaoñka fhdod .kshs'

90

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

fidnd úm;a

91

weuqKu 8'1'1 q

weuqKu 8'1'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Tfí lKavdhug wod< my; i|yka iajNdúl úm; flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² .x j;=r ² wl=Kq ² iq<s iq<x ² iqkdñ ² kdh hEï 'wm fm<k fidnd úm;a ' ,smsh lshjd wod< ud;Dldj ms<sn| lKavdhï idlÉPdjl fhfoñka my; lreKq wkdjrKh lr.kak' ² wod< iajdNdúl úm; wdY%; s ² úoHd;aul miqìu ² n,mEug ,lajk m%foaY ² iq,n ld,jljdkq ² wjodkï ;;a;jh wju lr .; yels wkaou a Tfí f;dr;=re ikaksfõokhg kdgH" .S;" ldjH" rEmK fyda t jeks fjk;a udOHhla fyda f;dard .kak' Tfí wkdjrK wdl¾IKSh f,i mka;shg bÈßm;a lsßug iQodkï jkak'

²

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ²

92

q weuqKu 8'1'3 wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 1 fudlla o fï úÿ,s wl=K @ úYd, úÿ,s mq,sÕ=jla úÿ,s wl=Kla hkqfjka ye¢kaúh yels hs' wl=Kla iuÕ u úYd, msmreï y`vla o ksl=;a fõ' wmg th úYd, f./ú,a,la f,i wefia' wl=Klska ksl=;a jk q ;dmh ksid ta wjg jd;h oeä f,i r;a fõ' fuu WIaK;ajh iq¾hhd u;= msg WIaK;ajhg;a jvd úYd, h' ta ksid wl=Kla th we§ tk mßirfha ;sfnk fndfyda foa úkdY lrjkakg iu;a h' wl=Kla hkq úYd, úÿ,s m%udKhla ñi .sks fnda,hla fyda f,day .=,hla fyda fkd s fõ' idudkHfhka wl=Kq we;s fjkafka iq<x iy jeis iys; wjia:dj, h' fu jeks mdßißl ;;a;ajhla hgf;a wl=Kq we;s fj;e hs n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh yels hs' tfy;a lsisÿ jeiaila ke;s j jqj;a wl=Kq we;s jk wjia:d ;sfí' fndfyda úg wyfia j,dl=`M wêl w÷re iajNdjhla wl=Kq we;s jk w;r;=r oel .; yels h'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

.s.=reï iys; l=Kdgqj, o .s.=reug fya;=j wl=Kq h' tu ksid .s.=reï y~ iuÕ l=Kdgq iys; ld,.=Khla we;s úg wl=Kq n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh yels h' wl=Kla we;s ùfï l%shdj,sh fl n÷ [email protected] j,dl=<lska j,dl=<lg fyda j,dl=<lska fmdf<djg fyda laIKsl j úoHq;a Odrdjla tla jr u we§ tau wl=Kl § isÿ fõ' t úg úYd, mq<sÕ=jla iys; msmsreï y`vla we;s fõ' we§ tk wl=Kla jvd;a Wia jQ f.dvke.s,,la" lKqjla" .ila jeks fohla ;=<ka fmdf<djg a s <Õd fõ' t úg tu mßirfha úúO ydks isÿ ùug bv we;' wl=Klska ñ§u i|yd f,dayuh foa ksjiska msg;g ùis l< hq;= he hs úYajdihla we;;a tys lsisÿ i;Hhla ke;' .s.=reï y~ wefikafka wl=K we;s ùfuka lsishï fõ,djla .; jQq miqj hs' thg fya;= jkafka Yíohg jvd fõ.fhka wdf,dalhg .uka l< yels ùu hs' fuu lreK Wmfhda.S lr .ksñka Tng wl=K we;s jQfha ljr ÿrlska oe hs .Kkh lr .; yels h' wl=fKa úÿ,s wdf,dalh we;s jQq fõ,dfõ isg .s.=reï y~ we;s ùug .; jQ ;;amr .Kk Trf,daiqjlska uek .kak' th ;=fkka fnokak' ^÷3& t úg ,efnk ms<s;=frka lshefjkafka Tn isák ia:dkfha isg wl=K we;s jQq ia:dkhg we;s lsf,da óg¾ .Kk hs' wl=Kq iq,n ljr ld,j, § [email protected] fldys [email protected] Y%S ,xldfõ ´kE u m%foaYhl wl=Kq we;s úh yels h' iEu jirl u ñksia Ôú; mkyla muK wl=Kqj,g f.dÿre fjhs' iEu jirl u wfm%a,a ^nla& udifha jeä u wk;=re ixLHdjla jd¾;d ù we;s w;r miajre ;=k;a rd;%S wg;a w;r tajd nyq, nj o fmkS f.dia we;'

93

ud¾;= - wfm%a,a yd Tlaf;dan¾ - fkdjeïn¾ hk wka;¾ fudaiï ld,j, idudkHfhka wm rfÜ wl=Kq we;s ùu iq,n j isÿ fõ' wl=Kqj,ska isÿ jk wk;=re fudkjd [email protected] wl=Kla wjg we;af;a úYd, WKqiuls' tu ksid wl=Kq je§fuka oreKq ms<iiï" ;=jd, iy q s a q iuyr úg urKh o isÿ fõ' fï yer b;d u n,j;a f,i lïmkhg m;a ùug o" t uÕska urKh mjd isÿ ùug o bv we;' wl=Kqj,ska wdrlaId jkafka fl fia [email protected] ² yeu úg u ksjila ;=< bkak' msÜgks" uqyqÿ fjr<" újD; mdrj," jy, u; isàfuka j<lskak' ² iïmQ¾Kfhka jid we;s jdyk ;=< isákak' ² .ila hgg fkd hkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² úÿ,s yd ÿrl:k l=`MKq wi, fkd /f|kak' ² irex.,a heùu" fllallska m<;=re leãu fyda .ia keÕSu fkd lrkak' ² fmdfrdj" msysh" Woe,a," ì,S ms;s wdÈh Ndú;fhka j<lskak' ² msyskSu fyda fndaÜgq me§fuka j<lskak' ² lsis úfgl;a ìu È.d fkd jkak' Wlal=ál j ys| .kak' ² lsiúfgl úÿ,s NdKav" ÿrl:k jeks /yekaj,ska iïnkaO ù we;s WmlrK Ndú; fkd s lrkak' ^cx.u ÿrl:khla Ndú; lsÍu ydkslr ke;'& ² YS;lrK" Woqka jeks f,dayuh WmlrKj,ska wE;a jkak' ² ksjfia jy< u; j;=r gexlshlska c,h imhd .kafka kï wl=Kq we;s wjia:dj, j;=r uf,ka Èh kEfuka o j<lskak' ² msyskqï ;gdlj, fkd /f|kak' ² ùÿre cfka, wi, fkd isákak' ² úÿ,s WmlrKj, fmakq ^ plugs & .e,eùug jeäysáhkag u;la lr fokak' ² wl=K ksid mekakqï iaúph ^ trip switch & újD; jQ úg ^off & th kej; ixjD; ^on & lsÍug W;aidy fkd lrkak'

94

wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 2 c, .e,Su .ek ixjdohla .=re;=ñh mka;hg meñKsfha miq .sh i;sfha mka;hg mjrkq ,enQ f;dr;=re ms<n| idlÉPd s s s lsÍug hs' uq,ska u wjia:dj ,nd .;af;a iquqÿ hs' .xj;=rla hkak y÷kajk wdldrh ud fukak fufyu bÈßm;a lrkjd' .xj;=rla fyj;a c, .e,Sula jYfhka ye¢kafjkafka idudkHfhka c,fhka hg fkd jk m%foaYhla úYd, c, m%jdyhla uÕska hgùu hs' fuu ;;a;jh we;s jk wdldrh wkqj c, a .e,Sï u;= i|yka wdldrhg j¾. l< yels hs' B <Õg wms n,uq c, .e,Sï j¾.' fukak fï pdÜ igyk lshjuq' ² .x.d msgdr .e,Sfuka we;s jk c, .e,Su ² laIKsl c, .e,Su ² fjr<dY%; c, .e,Sï s fcdaima ;uhs c, .e,Sulg ;=vq fok fya;= oelajQfha' fukak n,kak c, .e,Sula we;s ùug n, mE yels m%Odk fya;= lsysmhla' bka iuyrla iajdNdúl fya;=' ;j;a iuyrla ñksid f.a w¥ro¾YS l%shd fya;=fjka we;s jk ;;a;aj' ² jif¾ iuyr iD;=j, § ,efnk wêl j¾Idm;kh ² kdh hdula ksid mia tl;= ùfuka c,h nei hk ud¾. wjysr ùu ² wl%uj;a bÈlsÍï lghq;= yd bvï f.dvlsÍu ksid c,h /f|k" .,d nisk ia:dk wjysr ùu iy fmd<jg Wrd .ekSug we;s yelshdj wvq ùu ² jkdka;r t<s lsÍu fya;=fjka mi fidaodmd`Mjg ,la ù tu mia c,dY yd .x.d m;=f,a ;ekam;a ù tajdfha .eUqr wvq ùu ² c, .e,Sï md,khg .; yels ksis l%shdud¾. fkd .ekSu yika f. jdrh t<eUqKd' c, .e,Sï iq,N m%foaY yd jljdkq oek .ekSu wm ldg;a m%fhdackj;a úh yels hs'úfYaIfhka Y%S ,xldfõ f;;a l,dmfha m%Odk .x.d jk l`M" le,Ks" ks,aj,d yd .sx hk .x.d wdY%s; j c, .e,Sï fndfydu iq,n hs' uehs isg iema;eïn¾ olajd jk ksß; È. fudaiï iq<x iufha f;;a l,dmhg yd uOH l÷lr fmfoiaj,g ,efnk wêl j¾Idj fya;=fjkq hs" fuu .x.d msgdr .e,Su isÿ jkafka' óg wu;r j fnx.d, fndlal m%foaYfha we;s jk mSvk wjmd; ksid we;s jk iq<s l=Kdgq iuÕ weo yef<k wêl j¾Id ksid;a" wka;¾ fudaiï jeis ksid;a" rfÜ úúO m%foaYj, yÈis .xj;=r ;;a;aj we;s jk nj fidhd f.k ;sfnkjd' tfykï rdKs lshkak n,kak c, .e,Sï uÕska we;s jk úúO n,mEï' fldfydu;a Tn mÈxÑ m%foaYh le,Ks .Õ wdY%; m<d;la ksid Tng ta .ek fyd| w;aoelSï we;s' s c, .e,Su fya;fjka ksjdi iy ud¾.j,g w,dn ydks isÿ ùu fyda uq`MuKska úkdY ùu isÿ = s jk wjia:d ;sfnkjd' fu jeks ;;a;ajhl § idudkHfhka c,fhka hg fkd jk ia:dkj, we;s mi yd c,h o úYd, jYfhka wmú;% ùfuka we;s jk ydksh jpkfhka lsj

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fkd yels ;rï nrm;, hs' ta jdf.a u .xj;=rla ksid we;s jk ;;a;ajh m%cd fi!LHh flfrys úYd, n,mEula t,a, lrkjd' oeka wm oek .;a;d c, .e,Sula ms<n| fndfyda f;dr;=re' oeka iduqyl j tl;= fj,d wms s s idlÉPd lruq fldfydu o fï úm;a wju lr .kafk lsh,' c, .e,Sï ;;a;ajhlg id¾:l j uqyqK §u i|yd c, .e,Sulg fmr" miq yd c, .e,Sï isÿ jk wjia:dfõ § l%shd l< hq;= wdldrh fjka fjka j i,ld n,uq [email protected] tfyu kï fmr iQodku .ek uq,ska u l;d lruq' c, .e,Sula i|yd fmr iQodkï ùu uÕska ydks wju l< yels hs' ta i|yd iEu j¾Id ld,hl § u yÈis c, .e,Sulg uqyK§ug mjq,a uÜgñka yd fm!oa.,sl uÜgñka iQodkï q j isáh yels hs' tys § ;u nvq ndysrdÈh wdrlaIs; j ;eîug iqÿiq l%uhla yd ia:dkhla y÷kd f.k ;sîu" wdrlaIdj i|yd <Õd úh yels Wia ìul msysá ia:dkhla y÷kd f.k ;sîu" ksfjia yer hdug isÿ fõ kï mdkSh c,h" wdydr øjH yd wfkl=;a w;HdjYH øjH lÜg,hla iQodkï lr ;nd .ekSu wd§ lreKq jeo.;a fjkjd' oeka l;d lrkafka .xj;=r wjia:dfõ § l< hq;af;a l=ula o lshk tl hs' .xj;=r wjia:djl § w¾O jYfhka c,fhka hg jQ ksfjiaj, /§ isàfuka fndfydaúg wk;=re isÿ fjkjd' ksjfia iú Yla;sh ms<sn| j ukd wjfndaOfhka hq;= j lghq;= lsÍu fuys § b;d u jeo.;a' tfia u úÿ,sh ldkaÿ ùu j<lajd ,Sug ksfjiaj, úÿ,s iemhqï úikaê lr ;eîu o l< hq;= hs' .xj;=frka miq fudlo lrkafk' c, .e,Sï ksid úm;g ,la j irKd.; l|jqrej, kjd;eka .ekSug fndfyda msßiaj,g isÿ fjkjd' t jeks úfgl fm!oa.,sl fi!LHh yd wdrlaIdj;a wka whf.a fi!LHh yd wdrlaIdj;aa flfrys ie,ls,su;a j lghq;= lsÍu o ldf.a;a j.lSula' fndfydu fyd| hs' ud ys;kjd fï lghq;; iïnkaOfhkaTn yefuda u ord we;af;a m%ùK a odhl;ajhla'

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96

wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 3 ud iq<siq<Õla' idys;H ix.ufha /iaùfï iqúfYaIS wx.h jqfKa bkaÿ f.a l;dj' tod bkaÿ l;d lf<a thd we;a;g u iq<s iq<Õla lsh, ys;d f.k hs' ;o iq<x" ;o jeis yd r`M uqyÿ ;;a;j" uqyÿ r< rg we;=<g tau jeks úm;a we;s lrk ud b;d q a q m%n," úkdYldÍ iajdNdúl ixisoëka w;=ßka tla j¾.hla' a ^uhsl%f*dakhg ióm jQ bkaÿ iq<s iq<Õl Nhdkl y~ ujd fmkajqjd'& fldfydu o ud WmÈkafk' ta lshkafk iq<s l=Kdgq j¾Okh jkafk fldfydu [email protected] jdhq f.da,fha mSvkh fjkia ùfuka mSvkh jeä ;ekl isg mSvkh wvq ;eklg iq<x Odrdjla yeófukq hs iq<s iq<x fyj;a iq<s l=Kdgq we;s jkafk' ud b;d m%n, iq<s l=Kdgqjla jk úg uf.a fõ.h 120 km/h blaujd hk nj Tn okakjd [email protected] ud tla tla wjia:dfõ § yud hkafka ug ´kE ´kE úÈhg hs' Tn ug lshdú ud ovínr hs lsh,' ud orKqhs lsh,' ud ydks lrhs lsh,' fl fia fj;;a ug fu jeks ;;a;aj we;s jkafka uf.a jrÈka fkd fõ' jdhq f.da,fha isÿ jk fjkia lï ksi hs' uf.a iajrEmh wkqj úúO wjia:dj, § ud kï lrk wdldrh Tkak wy .kak' yßflaka ghs*ka Q ksj¾;k iq<s l=Kdgq fgda¾kefvda Èh f.dn j,dj ^Bg miafi bkaÿ fudfyd;la ksy~ jqKd'& Tn uqyK §, ;sfhkj o wfma rfÜ l=Kdgq wjia:dj,g' iuyr ld,j, § tajdf.a u iuyr q m<d;aj, fndfyda úg ud oel .; yels fjkjd' fldfydu jqK;a ud Y%S ,xldjg meñfKkafka wka;¾ fudaiï ld, jljdkq tkï" wfm%a,a - uehs yd Tlaf;dan¾ - fkdjeïn¾ hk ld,j, § yd ksß;È. fudaiï yg .kakd ^uehs - iema;eïn¾& ;=< § hs' Y%S ,xldjg jeämqr u ud meñfKkafka fnx.d, fndlafla isg hs' t neúka ud fndfyda úg n,mdkafka Tfí rfÜ kef.kysr m<d;g hs' uf.a meñKSu ug md,kh lr .kakg neye' ta jdf.a u Tn;a oek .; hq;= hs ud ksid isÿ jk ydks wju lr .kakg' fl fia jqj;a r`M iq<s iq<Õla f,i ud meñfKk nj oek .;a úg Tn fmdÿ uyck wdrlaIdj fuka u uqyÿ .uka$.=jka .ukaj, § o wdrlaId iys; ùug q ie,ls,su;a jkak' oeka Tn isákafka fndfydu ÈhqKq ;dlaIK hq.hl'

97

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ud tk nj t kï iq<s iq<x ;;a;j ms<n| j meh 48g muK fmr jqj o oekqï §fï yelshdj a s ld,.=K úoHd ;dlaIKh i;= hs' ta ksid ksrka;rfhka rEmjdyskS" .=jka úÿ,s ld,.=K jd¾;d ms<sn| j wjOdkfhka isákak' iq<s iq<xj, n,mEu wju lsÍug Tng tÈfkod l< yels foa ud lshkakï' Tkak wy .kak' - ksjfia jy,fha fiú,s ;yvq ;Èka iú lsÍu - fodr cfk,a ksis f,i iú lsÍu - f.dvke.s,s wdikak .iaj, w;= yd Èrdm;a jQ w;= lmd bj;a lsßu - f.dvke.s,af,a ùÿre ;yvq lïì uÕska wdjrKh lsÍu

fldfydu jqK;a iq<s iq<Õlg uqyqK §fï § yd bka miq j l< hq;= oE oekqï §,d u ud iuq

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

.kakï' ² iq<s iq<Õla ms<n| j oekqï ÿka úg l,n, ùulska f;dr j l,ska y÷kd .;a wdrlaI; s s ia:dk lrd hkak' ² ² ² l,ska iQodkï lr .;a øjH yd we÷ï lsmhla Tn iuÕ /f.k hkak' iafõÉPdfjka bÈßm;a ù j. lsj hq;= mqoa.,hkag oekqï fokak' úÿ,s n, uKav,hg oekqï § m%foaYfha úÿ,sh úikaê lrjkak'

wid isá Tn ieug ia;=;s hs' ^iNdfjka iuq .kakg l,ska kej;;a bkaÿ Nhdkl iq<s iq<Õl y~ ldg;a wefykakg bÈßm;a l<d& iNdfjka w;afmd<ika kdohla !

98

wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 4

iqkdñ

uqyÿ fjr< wdikakfha me;sreKq úYd, jegfla .df,ys Wi u w;a;l jid isá fmd,alÉpd q s uqyo foiska weiqKq wuq;= YíofhkA ;s.eiaiKd' q q "fudlo wmafma fï" uqyqo ys£ f.k hkjd fka [email protected] /,a, ke;a;g u ke;s fj,d' m;=f,a fndr¨;a mEÈ,d' j;=r ke;s ksid ;ekska ;ek ud`Mka o`.,kjd'" "wd" fï ñksiqka ÿjkafk;a uqyqo Èydjg' uqyqo ysf`ok fõ.fhka u ñksiqkq;a ta me;a;gu ÿjkjd' we;a; fkakakï' n,kak ják jefâ'" fmd,alsÉpd ;j;a Wi w;a;lg mshEUqjd' t;fldg wE; uqyqo fyd|g fmakjd' "wE" uqyqo l`M mdg fj,d' ug kï fmfkkafk fudlla yß úkdYhlA w; <. jdf. hs' Tkak Tkak uqyqo wdmiq msÍ f.k tkjd'" fmd,alÉpd nh jqKd' wyig mshEUqjd' s "whsfhda wmrdfo' ÿjmq ñksiqka Tlafldu l`M j;=rg hg fjkjd' fjr<g lsÜgq fjkak fjkak /,A, Wia fjkjd'" fmd,a .fya lráh;a myq lr f.k /,a, ì| jegqKd' wjg isá ish¨ u fokd;a" hdk jdyk;a" foam,;a" l`M j;=rg ì,s jqKd' ";j fldfya fldfya hg jqKd o okafk keye'" fjr< ;Srfha meh .dKla ;siafia fmd,alsÉpd mshEUqjd' thdg ;j hd`Mfjla uqK .eyqKd' fokak l:d lrk fldg f;areï .;af; uq`M Y%S ,xldj jfÜ u jdf. uqyÿ nv m%foaYj, uyd q úkdYhla isÿ ù we;s nj' "we;a;g u fudlo okafk keye fï úÈhg uqyqo f.dv .,kafk'" hd`Mj f. woyi jqfKa fïl foaj fldamhla lsh, hs' fmd,a lsÉpdg yskd .shd' "tfyu fkfjhs' fï ;;a;ajh we;s fjkak fya;= mdol jQ úoHd;aul miqìu hs ug fydhd .kak ´k' rEmjdysksh krUkak mq`MjkA ;eklg huq [email protected]" lkao Wv f.or cfk,a mshk Wv fokak u b| .;a;d' rEmjdyskfh f;dr f;daxÑhla ke;s s j uqyqo f.dv .,k l:dj' "weyqK [email protected] fïlg lshkafk iqkdñh lsh,d' Tkak wy .kak B <`. l:dj'" '''''''''''''iqkdñ nyq, jYfhka we;s jkqfha id.r m;=, wdikak j fyda ;rula háka fyda isÿ jk N=ñlïmd ksid h' uqyqÿ m;=f,a mdIdK fldgia p,kh ùu ksid tajd u; we;s úYd, c, m%udKhla by<g ;,a¨ fõ' t úg iqkdñ ;rx. we;s fõ' fï i|yd ßÉg¾ mßudKfha wvq ;rñka 6'5 la j;a ;rï jk N=ñlïmdjla we;s úh hq;= h' iqkdñ ;rx. mx;s f,i wjg ÈYdj,g .uka lrhs' .eUqre uqyfoa § fuu ;rx.j, fõ.h mehg lsó 500 isg 1000 olajd q úh yels h' uqyfoa .eUqr wvq jk fjr<dikakfha § ;rx.fha fõ.h wvq jk w;r tys Wi q úYd, m%udKhlska jeä fõ' wE; uqyqfoa § ;rx.fha Wi fió 25 la 30 la muK jqj;"a fkd

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99

.eUqre fjr<dikak uqyfoa § Wi óg¾ 5 isg óg¾ 10 la olajd fyda Bg;a jvd jeä úh yels q h' úYd, Wila iys; fuu c, ;rx.h f.dvìu ;=<g meñKSfuka úYd, úkdYhla isÿ fõ' wo tkï" 2004 foieïn¾ 26 jk osk we;s ù ;sfnk úkdYh;a tnkaola''''''' "fudlla o fï ßÉg¾ mßudKh [email protected]" "ug f;afrk úÈhg fmdf<dfõ lsihï ;ekl we;s jk N+ñ lïmdjl Yla;s m%udKh jdf.a s u ;ru fld muK o hk lreKq fol u uek .kakd WmlrKh ;uhs'" "wkak rEmjdysksfh ;j;a l:djla lshkjd'" '''''iqkdñ we;s jkafk N+ñlïmd ksid muKla u fkd fjhs' N=ñlïmdj,g wu;r j uqyqÿ m;af,a; kdh hEï-.sks l÷ msmÍï" uqyog W,aldmd; lvd jeàï iy ñksid úiska uqyo ;=< s q q § w;ayod n,k kHIaál msmsÍï ksid o iqkdñ ;;a;aj we;s úh yels h'''' hd`Mjd lgy`v wjÈ l<d' "l,amkd lrlr b|,d jevla keye' fï fj,dfj wms mdvula bf.k .kak ´kE'" "fudk mdvula [email protected]" "wehs fï jdf. fj,djl we;s jk wjodku mq`Mjka ;rï wvq lr,d wdrCId fjkak ´k úÈh bf.k .kak ´kE'" "tal fjkak we;s rEmjdysksfh Th oeka lshkak yokafk'" ''''''fu jeks wjia:djl Tn fjr<dikak ;ekl isákafka kï mßirh .ek wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= fõ' iqkdñh wdrïNfha § iuyr úg fjr<nv m%foaYfha c,h uqyqo foig we§ f.dia c, Y=kH m%foaYhla we;s úh yels hs' uqyqfoa f>daIdj fjkia ùu o" f.dvìu foig meyeh fjkia jqKq c,h .,d tau o isÿ fõ' úáka úg f.dvìu ;=<g we§ tk /,a, o j¾Okh fõ' Tng wk;=re yeÕùfï ix{d ,efí kï tajdg wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' jyd u wdrlaIs; ia:dkhlg Èj hkak' Yla;su;a f.dvke.s,a,la Tn wi, ;sfí kï tys by< uy,lg k`.skak' uqyqo wdikakfha my;a ìul Tn isákafka kï Wi .ilg fyda k`.skak' iqkdñ r< lsymjrla meñKsh yels neúka wdrlaI; m%foaYhl meh lsymhla /f|kak' uqyo s s s q wdikakfha kj;d we;s r:hla ;=< isákafka kï jyd u bka bj;a ù wdrCIs; ia:dkhlg ÿjkak' r:h f.dvìu foig yrjd meoúh yels kï t fia lrkak' Tn isákafka uqyqfoa fndaÜgqjla ;=< kï fjr< foig fkd meñK wE; uqyqfoa u meh lsysmhla isákak' iqkdñ r< f.dvg .,d tafuka miq wdmiq nei hdfï§ o úYd, úkdYhla isÿ úh yels hs' by; i|yka l< wdldrhg iqkdñ ms<sn| j oekqj;a j isàfuka o wdrlaIl Wml%u wkq.ukh lsÍfuka o Tfí jákd Ôú; wdrlaId lr .; yels fõ'''''''''''' fmd,alsÉpd uqyqÿ fjrf< ;uka uq,ska isá jegfla .ig mshUd .shd' "fuÉpr iqkdñhla weú,a,;a jegfla m÷r kï fy,a,s,d j;a keye'" thd iqmreÿ mßÈ wjg ne¨jd' q "uyd úkdYhla æ" fmd,alsÉpd wuq;= u kdohla l<d' ta kdoh ;=< ;snqfKa f,dl= fõokdjla'

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wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 5 kdh hdï .ek fidhd n,uq ojia .Kkla ;siafi weo yef,k fudr iQrk jeiai ;=r,a fjk l,a ;d;a;d n,d isáfh l=Uqrg fjÉp foa fidhkak hkak hs' fldfya o jeiai wvq fjkafk u keye' yÈisfha u rxð;a whshd fndfydu l,nf,ka ÿj f.k wdjd' thd l:d lf<;a y;s ouñka' t<shg nysuq' t<shg nysuq' m<d; u kdh hkjd' Wvlef<a lkao Nd.hla ú;r lvd f.k jeá,d' lv uKaäh;a tlal u hg fj,d' ta jqKdg fï nvq uqÜgq ál fldydg yß weo .kak ´fk' wdfh yïn lr.kak he' fudk nvq uqÜgq [email protected] Th rka r;arka nvqjla ;sfhkj kï .;a;g ldß kE' fmdä u,a,s .kak f,dl= j;=r fnda;,a fol ;=kla-fgdaÉ tlla-ìialÜ jdf. lEu cd;s-w¢kak frÈ fudkjd yß' wehs fï WKla fyïìßiaidjlg .kak w;a fnfy;a fudkj yß .kafk [email protected] ta ú;rla fkfjhs mqxÑ f¾äfhda tl;a .ksuq' blauka lrkak' blauka lrkak' biairy ldKqj;a oeka fndr mdg fj,d' <`. biafldaf, f.dvke`.s,a,;a bß ;,, ¨' b;ska fldydg o wms hkafk biafldaf,;a ke;a kï @ .%du ks,Odß uy;a;hd wmg lsõfj .f,a mkai,g lÜáh tl;= lrkak lsh, hs' yefuda u .f,a mkai,g tl;= jqKd' .%du ks,Odßjrhd /ia j isá msßi weu;=jd' lÜáh fmdâvla idjOdk j weyqï lka fokak fld' Bfh ? b|, u Wv lef,a lkafoka uv j;=r ldkaÿ jqKd' wms yels blauKska lkao md uq, msßi bj;a l<d' ta;a lshkak lK.dgq hs' Wmfoia ms<smÈkak wlue;s jqKq ;fudl o fjkafk lsh,d n,kakg blauka jqKq; ta jdf. u nvq uqÜgq wÈkakg f.dia mud jqK; lsysm fofkla muKla q miaj,g hg jqKd' .fï ;reKhka f. wm%;sy; ffO¾hh;a" ia:dfkdaÑ; m%{dj;a ksid fidauodi udud kï fírd f.k frday,a .; l<d' .%du ks,Odß uy;a;fhd oeka fldfydu o wms oek .kafk kdh hEul fmr i,[email protected] fndfydu fyd| m%Yakhla' fndfyda úg kdh hdï we;s fjkafk fkd lvjd jisk jeis iu`. hs' fukak fï mQ¾j i,l=Kq flfrys ie,ls,su;a fjkak ´kE' · nEjqfï mDIaGfhys w¨;ska bß ;e,Sï we;s ùu · f.dvke.s,sj, w¨;ska bß ;e,Sï we;s ùu · f.dvke.s,sj, merKs bß ;e,Sï ;j;a jeä ùu · f.dvke.s,sj, f. ìu ls|d neiSu · .ia weo ùu · nEjqïj,ska yÈisfha uv j;=r ldkaÿ ùu · u;=msg c, m%jdyhka we;s ùu · i;=ka f.a wiajdNdúl yeisÍï Wod ( Wvq ìÍu" wiajdNdúl f,i tla j .ejiSu" m%foaYfhka bj;a ù hdu

101

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

wfkla w;ska yefudag u ud oekqï fokafk ksrka;rfhka u .=jka úÿ,shg ijka foñka ;;a;jh ms<n| oekqj;a fjkak lsh,hs' a s wd fukak .=jka úÿ,s ksfõokhla æ '''''''''fkd lvjd weo yef,k j¾Idj ksid Èjhsfka iuyr m%foaYj, kdh hdï isÿ fjñka mj;S' Y%S ,xldfõ uOH l÷lrfha nyq, j olakg ,efnk N+ Wmøjhla jk fuu kdh hdï u`.ska úYd, ydks isÿ jk w;r osjhsfka N=ñ m%udKfhka 30]l muK m%foaYhla kdh hEfï wjodkug f.dÿre ù we;' .fõIKj,g wkqj uykqjr" ud;f,a" kqjrt<sh" nÿ,a," r;akmqr" lE.,a," l`M;r" .d,a," ud;r" iy yïnkaf;dg hk Èia;llj, kdh hdfï wjodku we;s s% a ia:dk y÷kd f.k we;' kdh hdï we;s ùug jvd;a u bv we;af;a nEjqï iys; m%foaYj, jqj o .x.d iy c,dYj,g wdikakfha mj;sk wvq nEjqï m%foaYj, jqj o wLKav jeis iys; jljdkqj, § kdh hdï we;s úh yels hs' t fyhska m%dfoaYh jYfhka ixúOdkh fjñka wjodkï ;;a;jh wju lr .ekSug kghq;= S a lrk f,i uyck;dj fj; oekqï fokq ,efí' wod< m%foaYj, m%foaYSh f,alï ld¾hd," fmd,sia ia:dk flakaøfldg .ksñka jyjyd ixúOdkh jk f,i rch ksfõokhla ksl=;a lrhs'''''' .%du ks,OdÍjrhd ;j ÿrg;a lreKq meyeÈ,s lsÍfuka miq msiQ wdydr" mdkSh c,h" we÷ï me<÷ï" úúO T!IO j¾. wdÈh msßi w;f¾ fnod fok ,§' fjk;a m%foaYj, iafõÉPd ixúOdk tu øjH läkñka iemhSug ldreKsl ù ;sìKs' mdi,a orejka frdla ù isáfha úoHd .=re WmfoaYljrhd wi, hs' Tyq kdh hdï iïnkaO úoHd;aul lreKq meyeÈ,s l<d' kdh hdï l%shd;aul ùug n,h iemfhkqfha .=re;ajdl¾IKh u`.skq hs' kdh hdul § isÿ jkafka mia l=Üáhla lvd jeàu hs" ke;fyd;a mia ;Ügqjla rEgd my<g .uka lsÍu hs' wmg oeka oeka ks;r u wikakg ,efnk kdh hdïj,g n,mdk m%Odk fya;=j wksis ñksia l%hdldrlï u hs' s kdh hdula f.dvìu muKla fkd j c,dYhl m;=f,a fyda uqyÿ m;=f,a jqj;a nEjqula we;s q ia:dkhl § isÿ ùug bv ;sfnkjd' wfma ;d;a;d fldÉpr lsõj o fidauodi udug Wvlef<a lkao nEjqfï f.h yokak tmd lsh,' flda weyqj he' ta ú;rla fkd fjhs N+ úoHd ióCIK wdh;khlska meñKs bxðfkarejrfhl=;a lsõjd 300g jvd jeä nEjqïj, lsis u ñksia l%shdldrlula lsÍu úoHd;aul j wkqu; lrkak nE lsh,d' fldfydu jqK;a ó <`. kdh hdï wjia:djla t<eUqfKd;a ta i|yd óg;a jvd fmr iQodkula a we;s lr .kak fï wjia:dfj È u wms ixúOdkh fjuq'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

102

wm fm<k fidnd úm;a - 6 ksh`.h fld ;rï mSvdldÍ o @ "wehs wd;a;ïfu" wr ñksiqka wr ;rï wE; b|,d j;=r l<f.ä Wiaid f.k fmda,sug [email protected] ux jdf. fmdä <uhskq;a mqxÑ mqxÑ j;=r fnda;,a mqrjd f.k'" ksjdvqjg .fï .sh le¨ï ;u ñ;a;Ksh f.ka úuiqjd' le¨ïg u;la jqfKa ;u k.rfha fmdÿ c, iemhqï moaO;sh fl ;rï myiq lula o lsh,d' fï úhe<s m<df; fï ;rï c, ys`.hla mj;skj lsh,d f.or È kï le¨ï ys;,d j;a ;snfK keye' q "Tfydu ;uhs mqf;a" wfma m<d;g fï ldf,g jeis tkafk fndfydu l,d;=rlska' jysk ldf,g fyd|g u jyskjd' mdhk ldf,g j.d úkdY fj,d .syska" we< fod< ys¢,d .syska" fndkak j;a j;=r fmdola fydhd .kak neß fjkjd' óg l,ska mq;d .fï wdmq wjia:dj, fï ;rï oreKq ksh`.hla ;sì,d keye' fï j;dfj kï jeõ we;=f< ydrmq <sxj,;a j;=r ys¢,d' wms jqK;a mdúÉÑ lrkafk njqirj,ska fnod yßk j;=r' Th wE; b|,d ñksiqka j;=r f.akafk tyd .fï k< <s|lska'" "k< <ssxj,ska f.fkk j;=r msßisÿ o wd;a;ï[email protected]" "wfmdhs Tõ' f,dl= udud nhsislf,a ner,a tl ne| f.k .sys,a,d j;=r f.fkkafk;a k< <ssf|ka' ta j;=r ;uhs wms fndkakg .kafk'" "t;fldg wd;a;ïfu wfma .ï m<d;g ú;r o fufyu ksh`. [email protected]" "wfmdhs keye' Y%S ,xldfj úhe<s l,dmfha fndfyduhla m%foaYj,g udi ;=k y;rl kshx jljdkq ;sfhkjd' idudkHfhka isxy,-fou< w¨;a wjqreoafoka miafi iema;eïn¾-Tlaf;dan¾ ú;r fjk l,a jeiai kE ;uhs' mq;;,u" wkqrdOmqr" a fmdf<dkakrej" jõkshdj" ukakdru" ls,sfkdÉÑh" hdmkh" ;%sl=Kdu,h" uvl<mqj" wïmdr" fudKrd.," uyshx.Kh" yïnkaf;dg jdf. m%foaYj,g ;uhs c,h fndfydu ys`.'" "oeka ne¨j u wd;a;ïfu Y%S ,xldfj f;;a l,dmhg iy l÷lrhg wh;a N+ñ m%foaYh yereKq fldg b;sß úYd, m%foaYh u kshx wdmodjg ,la fjkjd fka [email protected]" "l÷lf¾ jqK;a kef.kysr nEjqug jefgk jeiai fndfydu wvq hs'" "fudlo l:dj @ mq;dg ksh`.h .ek oek .kak ´kE fj,d [email protected]" wy f.k f,dl= udud f.g f.dv jqKd' "wfka Tõ f,dl= udfu" fudlo fï wfma rfÜ iuyr m%foaYj,g ú;rla fï úÈhg oreKq ksh`. we;s [email protected]" "Th ldrKh mqf;a úoHd;aul j meyeÈ,s lrkak ´kE' wd;a;ïu lsõj m%foaYj,g fldfydu;a wvq j¾Idm;khla ;uhs ,efnkafk' Y%S ,xldjg m%Odk jYfhka u jeis ,efnkafk fudaiï iq<x u`.ska' f;;a l,dmhg iy l÷lrhg ksß; È. fudaiï jeis;a" úh<s l,dmhg Bidk È. fudaiï jeis;a ,efnk nj lõre;a okakd lreKla' úhe<s l,dmh hkqfjka ku ,eî ;sfnkafk;a j¾Idj wvq úhe<s foaY.=Ksl ;;a;ajh ksi hs' fï yer fjk;a l%uj,skq;A" fjk;a ld, jljdkqj,;a" u| jYfhka jeis ,efnkjd'

103

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

fukak fï miqìu ksid úhe<s l,dmh ksh`.hg f.dÿre ùfï bv lv jeä hs'" "tfykï wr wE; j;=r wr f.k tk <uhska jdf. wd;a;ïu;a mqxÑ ldf, wE; .sys,a,d j;=r f.akak we;s fka [email protected]" "wfmdhs" ux mqxÑ ldf, kï ug u;l úÈhg j;djlg follg jvd fufyu ksh`. weú,a,d keye' fï oeka ldf, fka fï msg msg kshx tkafk'" "udud lsõj úÈhg tfyu fjkafk fldfydu [email protected] fudlo fudaiï iq<x lshkafk ldf,ka ldf,g fjkia fjk tlla he @" "kE kE talg miqìï jqKq fjk;a úoHd;aul lreKq;a ;sfnkjd' wd;a;ïud lshmq foa ksjerÈ nj tajdhska ;yjqre lrkak mq`Mjka' n,kak wms mqxÑ ldf, ;sìÉp uy le,E oeka iEfykak wvq fj,d' b;sß fj,d ;sfhk le,Ej,;a fndfyduhla f,dl= .ia lmd f.k' ne¨ ne¨ w; ;sfhkafk lgq m÷re" ,÷ le,E ;Kfld< cd;s jdf. fyjKlg j;a Woõjla ke;s .iaje,a' t;fldg b;ska fmdf<dj fõf<k tl wykak fohla [email protected]" "ta ú;rla fkfjhs mqf;a" fï lkao;a fyaÈ,d .sys,a,d oeka ;ssfhkafk .,a fndr¨ u;= fjÉp ksire mila' ux mqxÑ ldf, jeiai jysk fldg Th lkao oeka jdf. fydaod f.k .sfh kE' ;j ál ldf,lska uq`M lkao u ke;s j hd ú o okafk keye'" tfyu lshmq wd;a;ïu yhsfhka yskd jqKd' "we;a; ;uhs' YS>%fhka isÿ jk jk úkdYh;a" ksis l<ukdlrKhlska f;dr ixj¾Ok lghq;=;a" ksid mig wdjrKhla ù ;snqKq .ia je,a wmg wysñ fj,d' fï ksid fmdf<dj u;=msg úhef<kjd muKla fkfjhs N+ .; c, uÜgu;a tkak tkak u my< niskjd' óg wjqreÿ mylg l,ska <ssf|a j;=r uÜgu ug u;l yeáhg óg jvd fndfydu by<skq hs ;snfKa'" q "ta ú;rla fkfjhs' jeiai jefgk úg jqK;a" ta j;=r oeka l%udkql+, j fmdf<djg Wrd .kafk keye' Tfya .,kakka jdf, u;=msáka u .,d f.k hkjd' biair kï .ia ;snqKq ksid jeiai fmdf<djg fl<ska u jegqfK;a keye' ksrmrdfo .,d f.k .sfh;a keye' ysñka ief¾ fmdf<djg Wrd .kakjd' fld<frdvq ;Ügqj ksid fmdf<dj lr fj,d úhe¿fK;a keye' ;=re úhk ksid fl<ska u ysre /ia fmdf<djg jegqfK;a keye'" "tfykï ug fmfkkafk fï ksh`.h fndfyda ÿrg wm u yod .;a tlla' ta jqK;a oeka fï ksh`.hg uqyqK fokak ñksiqka lrkafk fudkjd o [email protected]" "mq;d ñÿ,g weú;a n,kak wr wE; fldfydU .yg tyd me;af; iqÿ kekao, f. f.or jyf,ka jefgk j;=r tl;= lrkak yomq Ndckh' tafl wog;a j;=r ;sfnkjd' jeiafika tl;= jqKq c,h'" "tal ldurhla ú;r f,dl= uqÜáhla jdf. fk' c,h /ia lrkak fyd| Wml%uhla' fï m<d;aj, ñksiqka c, iïmf;a w.h fyd¢ka u f;areï f.k ;sfnk nj hs ug fmakafk'" "Tõ mq;d" kej; jk j.dj;a oeka wdrïN fj,d' j;=r ìxÿjla j;a ksrmrdfo wyl odkafk;a keye'" "tfyu kï ud;a fndfydu mßiaifuka j;=r mdúÉÑ lrkak ´kE fka o [email protected]" "mq;d tal f;reï .;a; tl fldÉpr f,dl= fohla [email protected] fï mKsjqvh ux mdi,g;a f.k hkak ´kE' wo ;uhs uu c,fha jákdlu yßhg u f;areï .;af;'"

104

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmK;dj q

8'0

( iajdNdúl úm;a yd tajd wdY%; wjodkï l<ukdlrKh s i|yd iQodku m%o¾Ykh lrhs'

( iajdNdúl úm;aj, n,mEu wju lr .ekSu i|yd úoHd{hl= f,i odhl fjhs' l%hdldrlu s 8'2 ( ld,.=K f;dr;=re uksuq' úuis,su;a j isáuq' ld,h ( ñks;;= 120 hs' a .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ² weuqKu 8'2'1g we;=<;a ld,.=Kh ms<n| mqj;am;a jd¾;dj q s ² weuqKu 8'2'2g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia m;%ldfõ q s msgm;a myla ² weuqKu 8'2'3g we;=<;a ld¾h mßY% ilia lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia q bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 8'2'1 ( ² mqj;a m;a jd¾;dj mka;hg bÈßm;a lsrug isijl= s S q fhdojkak' ² ld,.=K úoHd fomd¾;fïka;fõ ld¾h Ndrh ms<n| isika = s q f.ka úuikak' ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ² ld,.=K úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=j úiska bÈßfha § we;s úh yels ld,.=Kl ;;a;j ms<n| wkdjels m< lrk s a s nj ² ld,.=K úoHd{hska wkdjels m< lsÍu i|yd úúO WmlrK o" ta weiqfrka ,nd .kakd f;dr;=re yd ñkqï o" fhdod .kakd nj ² ld,.=K f;dr;=re /ia lr úuid ne,Su iajdNdúl úm;a ms<n|j fm/hSug yd tajdfhka wdrlaId ùug s w;sYhska jeo.;a jk nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 8'2'2 ( ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak' ² lKavdhïj,g .fõIK Wmfoia imhkak' ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfha fhdojkak' ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 60 hs& mshjr 8'8'3 ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak' ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj fokak' ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak'

105

ksmqK;d uÜgu

8'2

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' ² j¾Idudkh uÕska hï m%foaYhlg ,efnk j¾Id m%udKh ukskq ,nk nj ² hï ksYaÑ; ld,hl § ,efnk j¾Id m%udKh Rcq is,kvrdldr n÷kl /ia jk c, m%udKfha Wi weiqßka s a m%ldY lrk nj ² j¾Idudkh újD; ia:dkhl fmdf<dj uÜgñka wä lsymhla by<ska isria j msygjd .; hq;= nj s s q ² wks, udkh uÕska hï wjia:djl yud hk iq<fÕa fõ.h ueksh yels nj ² wks, udkh ñks;a;=jl § N%uKh jk jdr .Kk weiqfrka iq<fÕa fõ.h ueksh yels nj ² wd¾ø;dudkh uÕska jd;fha mj;sk c,jdIam m%udKh ms<sn| j ñkqï ,nd fok nj ² flia .i jd;fha c, jdIam m%udKhg b;d ixfõ§ jk w;r c, jdIam m%udKh by< hk úg flia .fia È. jeä jk nj ² iq<x ÈYd o¾Ylh uÕska hï wjia:djl § iq<Õ yuk ÈYdj fmkakqï lrk nj ² wjg jd;h uÕska mßirfha we;s jia;= u; we;s lrk f;rmqu jdhq mSvkh f,i ye¢kafjk nj ² mSvkudkh uÕska jdhq f.da,fha mSvk fjkia ùï fmkakqï lrk nj ² ks¾udKh lrk ,o ñkqï WmlrK Ndú; flfrk iïu; WmlrKj, ir, wdlD;s nj ² WmlrKj,ska ñkqï ,nd .ekSu muKla m%udKj;a fkd jk w;r tajd ksjerÈ j jd¾;d lsÍu o l< hq;= nj ² úúO WmlrK weiqßka ,;a ld,.=K f;dr;=re /ia lr úYaf,aIKh lsÍu uÕska bÈß ld,.=K ;;a;jh jvd;a a ksjerÈ j mqfrdal:kh l< yels nj ^ñks;;= 45 hs& a ;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl ( ² ld,.=K f;dr;=re /ia lsÍug Ndú; lrk WmlrK kï lrhs' ² ld,.=K wkdjels tÈfkod Ôú;hg jeo.;a jk nj ms<s.kshs' ² ld,.=K f;dr;=re /ia lsÍug ir, WmlrK ks¾udKh lrhs' ² rEm igyklska bÈßm;a l< f;dr;=re ksjerÈ j .%yKh lr .ksh' s ² Wiia ksudjlska hq;= j ld¾hh ksu lrhs'

106

weuqKu 8'2'1 q mqj;a m;a jd¾;dj

bÈßfha § jeis - ;o iq<x

oekg mj;sk ksß; È. wka;¾ fudaiï ld,.=Kl ;;a;jh s a hgf;a .s.reï iys; jeis iy ;o iq<x we;s úh yels hehs = ld,.=K úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=j mjihs' fï ld,h ;=< § we;súh yels iq,x 'fgdakdfvda'jYfhka ye¢kaúh yels nj;a" miq.h Èkj, Èjhskg n,mEfõ t s jka ;;a;ajhla nj;a" l,.=K úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%ldYlfhla jeä ÿrg;a mejiS h' fgdakdfvdajl idudkH fõ.h mehg lsf,da óg¾ 30-40la muK jk w;r fïjd ksß; foiska yuhs' we;eï úg iq,f`.a fõ.h mehg lsf,da óg¾ 60 olAjd jeä úh yels hehs o ksfõokh flf¾' ksß; È. wka;¾fudaiï ld,.=Kl ;;a;jh iema;eïn¾ s a udih olajd n, meje;afjhs'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

weuqKu 8'2'2 q ² lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ld,.=Kh ms<sn| f;dr;=re /ia lsßug fhdod .kakd my; WmlrKh flfrys Tfí wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ² j¾Idudkh ² wks,udkh ² wd¾ø;dudkh ² iq<x ÈYd o¾Ylh ² mSvkudkh ld¾h mßY%fha ;nd we;s øjH yd rEm igyk m%fhdackhg .ksñka WmlrKh ks¾udKh lrkak' WmlrKfhka ñkqï ,nd .kakd wdldrh yd jd¾;d lrk wdldrh oelafjk Wmfoia m;%sldjla ilia lrkak' Tfí wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

² ² ²

107

weuqKu 8'2'3 q ld¾h mßY% ilia lr .ekSug Wmfoia my; i|yka øjH lÜg," mska;+r m;%sldj" äuhs lvodis iy udl¾ mEka ;nd ld¾h mßY% myla ilia lr .kak' mßY%h 01 ( ² wj¾K ma,diaála fnda;,hla ² ñ,s ógrj,ska ,l=Kq l< lvodis máhla ² l;=rla ² .ï fnda;,hla mßY%h 02 ( ² ysia fhda.Ü fldamm y;rla a ² fnda,afmdhskaÜ mEkl miqmi fldgi ² 30 cm la muK È. isyka WK m;=re y;rla s ² lsr, wenhla ² iafmdala lïìhla ² 4 cm muK È. hlv weK ;=kla ² .fvd,a leghl m%udKfha ,S l=Üáhla mßY%h 03 ( ² ysia lsß fmÜáhla ² ;%sfldaKdldr ì%iag,a fndaâ lene,a,la ² 30 cm la muK È. flia.ila ² fikaá óg¾ mßudKh ,l=Kq l< lvodis máhla ² .ï fnda;,hla mßY%h 04 ( ² lsß msá weiqreï fmÜáhla ² 16 cm la muK È. WK m;=rej,ska rjqï yevhg ilia lr .;a l+re folla ² ysia Pdhdmg, weiqreï n÷kla ² îu ng ² mn`M y;rla ² .fvd,l m%udKfha ,S l=Üáhla ² l;=rla ² isÿre úÈh yels ;shKq l+rla q ² .ï fnda;,hla mßY%h 05 ( ² ysia cEï fnda;,hla ² neÆka lÜg,hla ² lsr, wenhla ² kQ,a ² fikaá óg¾ mßudKh ,l=Kq l< ì%iag,a fndaâ máhla ² m%siau yevfha l=vd ,S lene,a,la

108

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mska;+r m;%sldj j¾Idudkh

fnda;,fha by< fldgi

ñ,S ñgr mßudKh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

fnda;,fha my< fldgi

wks,udkh

fhda.Ü fldamamh lsr, uQäh iafmdala lïìh ,S fldgh

mEfka miqmi fldgi

WK m;=r

fif,da fÜma má

lïì weK

lsr, uQäh

fhda.Ü fldamam

109

jdhq mSvkudkh ,S lene,a, brgqj ne¨ka mg,h kQ ,

lsr, wenh

fnda;,h

mßudKh

wd¾ø;dudkh

ysiflia .i

ldâfndaâ fmÜáh

o¾Ylh o¾Ylh mßudKh iys; iqÿ lvodish

110

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

3cm

iq<x ÈYd o¾Ylh

3 cm 9 cm 4 cm

2.5cm

111

2 cm 2cm 4 cm 6 cm 4 cm 6 cm

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 02" WmlrKh 01 wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 4'1" 4'2" 4'3 WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( ² rEmúoHd;aul ,CIK u; mokï jQ Ydl úúO;ajh ² jdiia:dk u; mokï jQ Ydl úúO;ajh WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( Ydl wdYs%; rgd weiqßka ks¾udK ie,iqïlrKh WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² ksÍCIK l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu ² Ydlj, rgd$wmf;a hk Ydl iïm;a weiqfrka ks¾udK ie,iqïlrK l=i,;d m%.=K lsÍu ² ms<.;a l%ufõo Ndú; lrñka$wdlD;s fyda ie,iqï s fyda bÈßm;a lsÍu WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia s .=rejrhdg ( ² iEu YsIHhl= u fuu WmlrKh Tiafia lsishï ks¾udKhla ie,iqï l< hq;= h' ² mßirfha fyda Ydlj, fyda meje;aug ndOdjla we;s fkd jk mßÈ YsIHhka l%hdldrlfuys ksr; s úh hq;= h' ² YsIHhdf.a ks¾udmS woyia úlis; jkakg bv foñka tajd fmdaIKh lrkq úkd Tnf.a woyia wkqj YsIHhd fufyhùfuka j<lskak' ² fhdað; Èkhl § ish¨ ks¾udK bÈßm;a lsÍug i,iajd mka;sfha isiqkag o we.hSu i|yd wjia:djla i,ikak' isiqkag ( ² Tng mejÍ we;af;a Tn mßirfha we;s Ydl weiqßka m%fhdackj;a fohla ie,iqï lsÍuhs' ^ksoiqka : úis;re NdKav" WmlrK" l%vd NdKav hkdÈh& = S ² fï i|yd uq,ka u mßirh ksÍCIKh lr Ydlj, s rgd iy wmf;a hk iïm;a y÷kd .kak' ² Ydlj, rgd fhdod .kafka kï tu rgd mj;sk mßÈ úl,am wuq øjH Ndú; lsÍfï ksoyi Tng we;' ^ksoiqka :-bj; ,k øjH fhdod .ksñka úúO Ydlj, rEm úoHd;aul ,CIK fmkajk wdlD;s" úúO mßirj, Ydl ms<n| yeoEÍug fhdod .; yels bf.kqï øjH" s u,a lsk;;la" m,;=re jÜáhla & s a

112

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² wmf;a hk Ydl iïm;a fhdod.ekSfï § o Tng by; Wmfoiaj,g wod< j fyda fjk;a ks¾udK lsÍfï fyda ksoyi we;' ² Tfí ks¾udKfha rEmigyk" idod .kakd wdldrh iy È. m<, wd§ f;dr;=re fmdaigrhla u`.ska bÈßm;a lrkak' a ² yels iEu úgl § u tu ks¾udKh o bÈßm;a lrkak' 7'0 we.hSï wdlD;sh (

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

² iaj;ka;% ks¾udKhla ùu

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² ksrjq,a j ikaksfõokh lsÍu ² wmf;a hk øjH Ndú; lr ;sîu ² Ydl wdY%s; úúO rgd fhdod f.k ;sîu ² wdl¾IKSh ksudj

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A b;d fyd|hs' B fyd|hs' C idudkH hs' D ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

113

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 02" WmlrKh 02 wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 5'1" 5'2 WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( ² iQ¾hhd f.a yd pkaøhdf.a p,s;h yd iïnkaO ixisoê a ² mDÓúfha jHqyhg wod< uQ,sl ixrpl WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( idys;H úuiqï WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² f;dr;=re /ia lsÍu i|yd úúO uQ,dY% mßYS,kh lsÍu ² Ñ;a;dl¾IKSh ,sÅ; ikaksfõok l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu ² mDÓúh yd wjldYh ms<n| iajhx wOHhkhg s fm<Uùu WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( s .=rejrhdg ( ² wod< úIh ikaOdrh fldgiaj,g fnod mka;fha s l=vd lKavdhïj,g mjrd fokak' ² úúO udOH yd uQ,dY% Tiafia idys;H úu¾Ykhl fhfoñka f;dr;=re /ia lsÍug isiqka fmd<Ujkak' ² lKavdhu ;=< /f|ñka iEu YsIHhl=u ;ud fidhd.;a f;dr;=re fjka fjka jYfhka ,sÅ; j ikaksfõokh l<hq;= nj wjOdrKh lrkak' ² .=reNj;d f.a wëCIKfhka wk;=rej" isiq ks¾udK tl u m%udKfha lvodisj, ,sùug i,iajd msgljrhla iy ud;Dldjla iys; j fuh fmd;la jYfhka mka;s mqia;ld,hg tl;= lrkak' isiqkag ( ² f;dr;=re fiùu i|yd fmd;am;a" úoHq;a udOH yd wka;¾cd,h" iïm;a mqo.,hska weiqre lr a .kak' ² lKavdhu ;=< ;udg mejreKq jev fldgi ks¾udmS f,i ,shk lvodisj,g f.dkq lrkak' ² f;dr;=re fiùu i|yd fmd;am;a" úoHq;a udOH yd wka;¾cd,h" iïm;a mqo.,hska weiqre lr a .kak'

114

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² lKavdhï w;r idlÉPdjla u`.ska ksu jkq ,nk fmd;g iqÿiq ud;Dldjla fhdokak'

7'0 we.hSï wdlD;sh

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

² wod< úIh lreKq ksjerÈ yd m%udKj;a nj

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² msk;r" remigyka iys; Ñ;a;dl¾IKSh nj a + ² Ndú; l< uQ,dY%j, úúO;ajh ² iduQyl m%h;akhg oelajQ odhl;ajh s ² ,smsfha ksudj

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A b;d fyd|hs' B fyd|hs' C idudkHh hs' D ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

115

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 2" WmlrKh 03 2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 5'3" 5'4" 5'5" 5'6 5'7 3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh ( ² c,fha fN!;sl wjia:d" c, m%Nj yd c,h m;kh jk wdldr ² c, pl%h yd ta iu. neªKq ls%hdj,s ² Ôùka f.a meje;au i|yd c,fha odhl;ajh ² udkj lghq;= i|yd c,fha Ndú; ² c,fha ¥IKh msgq oelSu ² ksjfia c, mßfNdackh l<ukdlrKh lsÍu ² c,h ixrCIKh 4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( idlÉPd uKav,h 5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² c,f.da,h iïnkaO úu¾Ykd;aul j f;dr;=re fiùu ² idlÉPd u`.ka f;dr;=re ú.%y lsÍfï yelshd s j¾Okh lsÍu ² .eg¨j,g úl,am úi÷ï fiùug fhduq lsÍu ² c,h w;HdjYH iïm;la f,i iq/lSug wdl,am cks; lsÍu 6'0 WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( s .=rejrhdg ( ² ksmK;d uÜgïj,g wod< f;aud ,nd foñka q lKavdhï myla msygjkak' s q ² lKavdhula ;=< iduqylj o" ;ks ;ks j o" s f;dr;=re f.dkq lr .ekSug m%udKj;a Èk .Kkla ,nd fokak' ² idlÉPdj i|yd isika f.dkq l< f;dr;=re q wëCIKh ;=<ska ixialrKh lrkak' ² ta ta lKavdhu úoaj;a uKav,hla f,i i,lñka iuia; mka;sh yd idlÉPdjlg fhduq flfrk idlÉPd jg myla mj;ajkak' ² mj;ajkq ,nk idlÉPd ;=< § wod< lreKq uekúka biau;= jk f,ig;a" iNdfjka w¾:j;a .eg¨ bÈßm;a jk f,ig;a idlÉPdj fmr iQodkula iys; j meje;aùug j. n,d .kak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

116

isiqkag

7'0 we.hsï wdlD;sh

( ² Tfí lKavdhug mejÍ we;s f;audj wkq fldgiaj,g fnod .ksñka f;dr;=re /ia lrkak' ² lKavdhu ;=< idlÉPdjla fufyhjñka /ia l< f;dr;=re" f;audjg wod< .eg¨" úi÷ï yd úúO fhdackd we;=<;a jk mßÈ idlÉPd uKav, ie,eiaula f.dvk`.kak' ² tla tla idudðlhdg kshñ; úIh fldgila ne.ska mjrkak' ² mka;s ldur idlÉPd uKavmfha § úoaj;a u`vq,af,a idudðlhl= jYfhka fyda iNdfõ idudðlhl= jYfhka fyda ms<s.;a iïuq;sj,g wkqj ukd ixhuhlska Tn f.a odhl;ajh ,nd fokak' (

isiqka f.a kï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ks¾Kdhl

² ² ² ² ²

f;dr;=rej, ksrjoH;dj yd wod<;ajh fmr iQodku ;¾ldkql, j woyia bÈßm;a lsÍfï yelshdj + lKavdhug ,nd ÿka odhl;ajfha id¾:l nj idlÉPdfõ § ms<.;a iïuq;s ms<me§u s s

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A - b;d fyd|hs B - fyd|hs C - idudkH hs D - ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

117

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 03" WmlrKh 01 wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 6'1" 6'2" 6'3" 6'4" 6'5" 6'6 WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( ² fN!;sl .=K wkqj øjH j¾.SlrKh ² úúO Ndú; i|yd WÑ; øjH f;aÍu ² øjHj, .=K fjkia jk wdldr ² hlv u, ne£u md,kh lsÍu WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( m%dfhda.l mÍCIK wdo¾Yk jevuq`Mj s WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² øjHj, .=K" wka;¾l%hd yd Ndú; ms<n| j ukd s s mßphla ,nd .ekSu ² mÍCIK yd l%hdldrlï ie,iqï lsÍu" lshd;aul s % lsÍu yd ikaksfõokh iïnkaO l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu ² mßirfha we;s øjH Wmßu m%fhdack ,efnk mßÈ l<ukdlrKh lr .ekSfï mqreÿ we;s lsÍu WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia s .=rejrhdg ( ² fuu WmlrKh ;=<ska ish¨u isiqka fjka fjka jYfhka lKavdhï ;=< /f|ñka il%sh f,i l%hdldrlula ie,iqï lsÍu" ls%hd;aul lsÍu yd s ikaksfõokh i|yd fhduq l< hq;= h' ² fuu WmlrKfhka wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï iïnkaOfhka lrkq ,enQ l%hdldrlïj,§ s lKavdhïj,g iemhQ f;aud isiqka w;r fnod fokak' ² f;audjg wod< j yels ;dla kj l%hdldrlï fyda s fkd tfia kï mx;s ldurfha lrkq ,enQ l%hdlrlu fyda bÈßm;a lrñka jevuq`Mjg ish¨u s isiqka f.a odhl;ajh ,nd .kak' ² m%udKj;a ld,hla ,nd §fuka wk;=rej fhdað; Èkhl § jevuq`Mj mj;ajd isiqka we.hSug ,la lrkak' isiqkag ( ² Tn l< hq;= jkafka .=reNj;d úiska mjrkq ,enQ f;audjg wod< l%hdldrlu iqÿiq mßÈ ie,iqï s lr kshñ; Èkfha § bÈßm;a lsÍu hs' ² Tng ,nd § we;s fuu wjia:dj m%fhdackhg .ksñka yels ;dla kj;dfjka hq;a l%shdldrlï bÈßm;a lsÍug Èß .kak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

118

² lsihï mÍCIKhl m%;M, ,nd .ekSug Èk lsymhla .; jkafka s s s kï l,a we;s j ie,iqï lr mÍCIKfha ls%hd;aul lsÍu yd ikaksfõokh úúO mshjr i|yd wegjqï ilia lrkak'

7'0

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

we.hSï wdlD;sh (

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

² fmr iQodkula ;sîu ² ksrjq,a j ikaksfõokh lsÍu ² WÑ; øjH yd WmlrK fhdod .ekSu ² úIh lreKq ksjerÈj bÈßm;a lsÍu ² kj;dfjka hq;a woyila ùu

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A b;d fyd|hs' B fyd|hs' C idudkH hs' D ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

119

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 03" WmlrKh 02 wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 7'1" 7'2" 7'3" 7'4 WmlrKhg wod< ikaOdrh ( ² n,h$n,h fhfok wjia:d ² Yla;s m%Nj ² Yla;s mßj¾;k ² WmlrKj, oelsh yels Yla;s mßj¾;k WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( fidhuq" n,uq" úuiuq jevigyk WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² n,h yd Yla;sh iïnkaO m%dfhda.sl wjia:d úYaf,aIKh lsÍu ² wNsfhda.d;aul ;;a;jj,g id¾:lj uqyK §u a q ² m%Yk úpdrd;aul jevigykl iïuq;j,g a s wkq.; ùu WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( s .=rejrhdg ( ² fuu WmlrKfhka lsÍug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka lKavdhï w;r m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigykla njg isiqka oekqj;a lrkak' ² wod< úIh ikaOdrh fldgiaj,g fnod mka;fha s l=vd lKavdhïj,g mjrd fokak' ² n,h yd Yla;h iïnkaO ienE lshdldÍ WmlrK" s % rEm igyka" msk;r iy wdo¾Yk Ndú; lrñka a + m%Yk bÈßm;a lsÍu;a" tu wNsfhda.j,g ú.%yd;aul a ms<s;=re iemhSu;a i|yd isiqka fhduq lrkak' ² jevigyk l%shd;aul lsÍug fmr isiqka ie,iqï l< m%Yak ms<sn| j fidhd n,d ixialrKh lrkak' ² jevigyk wjia:dfõ § isiq úkh iy wod< iïu;s iq/lSu ms<n| j ie,ls,u;a jkak' s s isiqkag ( ² m%Yk ieliSu i|yd n,h yd Yla;h iïnkaO a s úúO NdKav yd WmlrK" wdo¾Yk jeks wjia:d weiqre lr .kak' ² iq,n j yuq fkd jk wjia:d bÈßm;a lrñka wNsfhda.d;aul m%Yk f.dkq lsÍug Èß .kak' a ² ixhufhka hq;= j wka whf.a woyiaj,go .re lrñka jevigyk id¾:l lr .ekSug odhl;ajh ,nd fokak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

120

7'0 we.hSï wdlD;sh

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

² wNsfhda.d;aul .eg¨jla bÈßm;a lsÍu

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² .eg¨jg wod< uQ,dY% Ndú;h ² úYaf,aIKd;aul j úi÷ï ,nd §u ² flá" blauka" b,lal.; ikaksfõokh ² iïuq;sj,g wkq.; ùu

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A b;d fyd|hs' B fyd|hs' C idudkHh hs' D ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

121

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK s

we.hSï wjia:dj ( jdrh 3" WmlrKh 03 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgu ( 8'1" 8'2 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh ( ² Y%S ,xldj uqyqK mdk iajdNdúl úm;a yd ta wdY%; s úoHd;aul miqìu ² iajdNdúl úm;aj, n,mEu wju lr .ekSu i|yd úoHd{hl= f,i olajk odhl;ajh WmlrKfha iajNdjh ( N+ñld rx.k WmlrKfha wruqKq ( ² Y%S ,xldj uqyqK mdk iajdNdúl úm;a yd ta wdY%; s úoHd;aul miqìu" ta iïnkaO fm/hSï yd n,mEï wju lr .ekSu iïnkaO i;su;a nj we;s lsÍu ² úoHdj yd l,d ks¾udK l=i,;d ifudaOdkh lsÍu ² lKavdhula ;=< iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lsÍug wjia:dj ie,iSu WmlrKh l%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia ( s .=rejrhdg ( ² WmlrKfha wruqKq bgqjk mßÈ iajdNdúl úm;a yd iïnkaO isÿ ùï weiqre lr .ksñka ^ñks;a;= 15 l muK& kdgH lsysmhla rpkd lsÍug wod< úIh lreKq isiq lKavdhïj,g ,nd fokak' ² kdgH ;sr msgm;a ixialrKfhka wk;=re j mqyqKq ùï i|yd wjia:dj i,ikak' ² rx.k bÈßm;a lsÍug Èkhla fhdod .kak' ² keröu i|yd úÿy,am;sjrhdg o werhqï lrkak' isiqkag ( ² Tfí lKavdhug mejÍ we;s f;audjg wod< jk is;a .kakd iqq`M kdgHhla ks¾udKh lrkak' ² wod< iajDNdúl úm; ta wdY%; úoHd;aul miqìu" s fm?hSï yd ydksh wju lr .ekSu iïnkaO w¾:j;a w;aoelSï ms<ìUq jk isÿ ùula Tfí kdgHhg mokï s lr .kak' ² kdgHh ;=< lsisÿ mqoa.,hl=$ck fldÜGdihla wmyiq;djg m;a fkd jk isÿ ùï wvx.= lsÍug j. n,d .kak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

122

we.hsï wdlD;sh

(

isiqka f.a kï ks¾Kdhl

² kshñ; ish¨ úIh lreKq ks¾udKhg wvx.= ùu ² fmr iQodku ² Ñ;a;dl¾IKSh j woyia bÈßm;a lsÍfï yelshdj

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

² lKavdhug ,nd ÿka odhl;ajfha id¾:l nj ² rx.kfha § ms<.;a iïuq;s ms<me§u s s

A, B, C, D hkqfjka m%ùK;d uÜgu igyka lrkak' A - b;d fyd|hs B - fyd|hs C - idudkH hs D - ixj¾Okh úh hq;= hs'

123

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