Read s7tim15.pdf text version

.Ks;h

7 fY%aKsh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

.=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh

.Ks; fomd¾;fïka;j = úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh uyr.u 2008

i

.Ks;h

7 fY%Kh - .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh a s

cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh m%:u uqøKh( 2008

.Ks; fomd¾;fïka;j = úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh fjí wvúh : www. nie. lk

uqøKh( rcfha uqøK kS;s.; ixia:dj mdÿlal" mdk¿j'

ii

wOHlaI ckrd,a;udf.a mKsúvh =

kj iyY%lfha m<uq úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh, j¾;udk mdi,a wOHdmk l%ufha S mj;sk .eg¨ lsymhla uÕ yrjd .ekSu uq,a fldg ls%hd;aul fõ. is;fï yelshd" iudc s yelshd yd mqo., yelshd ÿ¾j, ùu ksid wo ;reK msßia uqyKmdk m%Yk y÷kd .ksñka a q a o, ta i|yd fya;= mdol jk lreKq mshjfrka mshjr fidhd n,ñka o, tu ;;a;ajhka ch .ekSug wjYH miqìu iliñka o, fuu úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh ie,iqï lr ;sfí. wdishd;sl l,dmfha rgj,a yd ii|k l< óg fmr wm rfÜ wOHdmkh m%uL ia:dkhl q mej;sK. tfy;a wo fuu l,dmfha fndfyda rgj,a YS% ,xldj wNsnjd wOHdmksl jYfhka s bosßhg f.dia ;sfí. okakd foa ixialrKhg, mQ¾jfhka ;SrKh lrK ,o foa bf.kqug yd mj;akd foa ta wdldrfhka u kej; f.dv ke.Sug, wOHdmksl wdh;k ld,hla ;=< wLKavj lghq;= lsÍu fï miqnEu i|yd n,mdk fya;= lsysmhla fõ. fï ish¨ lreKq i,ld n,d meyeos,s o¾Ykhla Tiafia kj úIhud,d iïmdokh lsÍug cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kfha ks,OdÍka W;aidy ord we;. okakd foa fjkia lrñka o, w¨;a foa .fõIKh lrñka o, wkd.;hg wjYH foa f.dv kxjñka o, fyg ojfia id¾:l;ajh i|yd iQodku m%o¾Ykh l< yels isiq msßila f.dvkexùu fuys uQ,l wruqK s fõ. tfy;a fï ;;a;aj idlaId;a lr.ekSu i|yd .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila wjYH nj wuq;=fjka lsjhq;= fkdfõ. fuf;la l,a wfma mx;sldurj, lemS fmkqK iïfm%IK yd .kqfokq .=re N+ñld fjkqjg YsIH flak§%h, ksmK;d mdol yd lshdldrlï a q % fmrgq lr .;a mßKduk .=re N+ñldfõ iajremh uekúka jgydf.k tu N+ñldjg yqreùug fï wkqj YS% ,dxflah mdi,a .=rejrekag isÿ fõ' kj ;;ajhkag wkq.; ùu i|yd wjYH Wmfoia rdYshla u we;=<;a fï .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh, kj iyY%lfha M,odhs .=rejrfhl= ùug Tng w;aje, imhkq we;ehs wms Wola u úYajdi lruq. fï Wmfoia mßYS,kfhka Tfí ffoksl b.ekaùfï lghq;= fukau we.hSï lghq;= o myiq lr .ekSug Tng wjldY ie,fikq we;. isiqka fjkqfjka bosßm;a jk .fõIK Wmfoia yd fjk;a .=Kd;aul fhojqï o .=re ld¾hh myiq lrùug fya;=jkq ksiel h. tfiau ld,igykalrKfha oS, iSñ; iïm;a fnod oSfï oS yd wNHka;r wëlaIKj, oS m%fhdackj;aa úh yels jákd f;dr;=re /ila úÿy,am;sjreka fj; f.k heug o .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh iydh fõ. mdi,a uÜgfï by; i|yka md¾Yj yereK úg wdrïNl fyda wLKav .=re wOHdmk lghq;j, kshef,k .=re wOHdmk{hskg yd .=re WmfoaYljrekag fukau ndysr wëlaIK = a yd kshduk jevigyka fufyhjk Oqrdj,sfha úúO uÜgïj, ks,Odßkag;a m%fhdackj;a jk mßos fuu ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh ilia lsÍug iDcqju odhl jQ cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kfha úoHd yd ;dlaIK wOHdmk mSGfha iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a wpd¾h whs't,a .skf.a uy;añh m%Odk wks;;a ks,Odßkag yd kka whqßka iïm;a odhl;ajh iemhq ndysr s = úoaj;=ka ish¨ fokdg udf.a m%Kduh ysñ fõ. uydpd¾h fÊ' ví' úl%uisxy wOHla I ckrd,a cd;s l wOHdmk wdh;kh

iii

ix{dmkh

kj Y%S ,xldjla i|yd Yla;su;a mokula ilia lsÍfï wruqfKka ls%hd;aul jk kj iyY%lfha m<uq jk úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila wfmalId lrhs. fï i|yd wjYH iydh Wmßu uÜgñka .=rejrekag ,nd oSu i|yd iïmdokh a lr ;sfnk fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yhg my; i|yka m%Odk fldgia wh;a fõ. · úia;rd;aul úIh ks¾foaYh · úIh ks¾foaYh ls%hd;aul lsÍug iydh jk ls%hdldrlï ika;;sh · bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK úIh ud;Dldj,ska yd wkq ud;Dldj,ska Tíng hk iúia;r úIh ks¾foaYh, úIhud,dj iïmdokh lsÍfï oS i,ld n,d ;sfnk uQ,sl ldrKd lsysmhla wjfndaO lr .ekSug .=rejrekag wjia:dj i,id fohs. kj úIh ks¾foaYhg mokï jQ idOl yd úIh wruqKq y÷kajd oSulska wdrïN jk fuu fldgig úIh ksmqK;d wkqj fm< .iajk ,o ksmqK;d uÜgï we;=<;a lr ;sfí. isika úiska ixj¾Okh lr .; hq;= ta ta ksmK;d uÜgu hgf;a q q ;SrKh lrk ,o oekqï moku úIh ikaOdrh jYfhka y÷kajd oS we;s w;r tu úIh fldgia isikg mjrd oSug fhdod .kq ,nk nyq úO bf.kqï yd b.ekaùï l%u o i,ld n,d q ta ta ksmqK;d uÜgu i|yd .; jk ld, jljdkq ;SrKh lr ;sîu fuu fldgfia úfYaI;ajh fõ. "mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jevigyka ''hk uefhka bosßm;a lr we;s iúia;r úIh ks¾foaYfha wjidk fldgi iEu WmfoaYl kdhlhl= u uekúka lshjd n,d f;areï .; hq;a;ls' úIh b.ekaùu i|yd ld,h fjka lsÍfï oS b.ekaùï lghq;= .=rejrekag mejÍfï oS úIh iu.dó jevigyka ls%hd;aul lsÍfï oS fuka u .=re ld¾hh wêlaIKh lsÍfï oS o w;aje, imhk jákd Wmfoia iuQyhla fuu fldgi u.ska mdi,a l<ukdlrejka fj; iemfhhs' .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha fojk fldgi fhdað; bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh ms<n| s j meyeos,s wjfndaOhla .=rejrekag ,nd oSu wruqKq fldg ilia lr ;sfí' .=re N+ñldfõ wfmalaIs; fjki fuka u ksmqK;d mdol wOHdmkhla hgf;a ls%hdldrlï ie,iqï lsÍfï l%u ms<sfj;a .=rejrekag y÷kajd oSfuka fï fldgi wrïN fõ' úIhud,dj ls%hd;aul lsÍug wjYH lshdldrlï ika;;sh B<Õg bosßm;a lr we;;a fhdað; lshdldrlï ta whqßka % % u lshd;aul lsÍu .=rejrekaf.ka wfmalId fkd flf¾' ta ta .=reNj;d i;= ks¾udKYS,s yd % a úpdrd;aul Ñka;k yelshd fhdod .ksñka tu ls%hdldrlï ;u mka;shg .e,fmk mßos wkqj¾;kh lr .ekSug .=rejreka fhduq úh hq;=hs. .fõIKhg ,la jk .eg¨fõ me;s wkqj lKavdhï ilia lsÍfï Wmfoia ,nd oS ;snK o mka;fha YsIH ixLHdj u; lKavdhï q s ixLHdj nqoêu;a j ;SrKh lr .ekSu .=rejrhdf.ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= fõ' a ls%hdldrlïj,g ld,h fjka lr we;af;a wod< ksmqK;d uÜgï idlaId;a lr .; yels mßoafoks' ta wkqj ñkska;= 40l ld,ÉfÊofhka neyer ùug .=rejrekag isÿ fõ' ta ta ksmqK;d uÜgu idlaId;a lr .ekSug m%udKj;a ld,hla ta ta ls%hdldrlu i|yd ,nd oS ;sfnk w;r, ld,igyfka ;ks fyda oaú;aj ld,Éfþo m%fhdackhg .ksñka fuu lshdldrlï % iqÿiq mßos fldgia lr ls%hd;aul lsÍu .=rejrekaf.ka wfmalaId flf¾' fmr oskl wdrïN lrk ,o ls%hdldrlula bosßhg f.k hk iEu wjia:djl oS u tf;la ksu lr we;s ls%hdldrlï fldgia mka;shg ieflúka y÷kajd oSu fï ms<sfjf;a id¾:l;ajh i|yd wjYH fõ' tfia u .=rejreka ksjdvq ,nd .kakd wjia:dj, oS isiqka M,odhs bf.kqul fhoùug o fï ;SrKh mdi,a msßiaj,g wjia:dj i,id foa' úIh bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu iuia;hla f,i i,ld tys .=Kd;aul nj wdrlaId lr .ekSu i|yd wjYH jk .=Kd;aul fhojqï ,ehsia;=jla fï fldgfia wjidk wxYh f,i bosßm;a lr we;' wjYH bf.kqï - b.ekaùï øjH l,a we;sj weKjqï lr iQodkï lr ;eîug fï wkqj .=rejrekag yelshdj ,efí. iv

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

úIh ks¾foaYfhka wfmalI; M, fk<d .ekSu ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd jeo.;a jk bÕs rdYshla a s u ;lafiarej yd we.hSu kï jQ .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha ;=kjk fldgig we;=<;a h. a ta ta ls%hdldrlu hgf;a isÿ úh hq;= ;lafiarej yd we.hSu ls%hdldrlï ldKavhla mokï lr isÿ jk bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu oS¾> lsÍu yd fmdÿ úNd.j, oS n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh yels m%Yakj, iajNdjh hk ldrKd y÷kajd oSug fuu fldgi ieliS ;sfí' ta ta ls%hdldrlu ;=< ;lafiarefõ yd we.hSfï fhosh yels wjia:d y÷kd f.k fmdÿ ks¾Kdhl fm<la weiqfrka fï ld¾hhka id¾:l lr .ekSu .=rejrekaf.a uQ,l j.lSu f,i y÷kajd osh yels s h. lshdldrlï iuQyhla b,lal fldg bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu oS¾> lsÍu i|yd bosßm;a jk % WmlrK lÜg,h ks¾foaYs; mka;sldur ieisj,ska neyer j wLKav bf.kqul fhoSug isiqkag wjldY i,id foa. tu WmlrK weiqfrka isiqka ,nk bf.kqu ksr;=re j mÍlaId lrñka Tjqka osßu;a lsÍu .=re ld¾hh jk w;r lshdldrlï yd iïnkaO wjika M, ms<n| % s j ie,ls,u;a fjñka ksjeros úksYphkag t<ö u o" tu úksYphka wod< md¾Yajhka fj; s a a ikakfõokh o" .=rejrekaf.ka wfmalId flf¾. bf.kqï -b.ekaùï lshdj,sfha id¾:l;ajh s a % i|yd fmdÿ úNd.j, o lemS fmfkk fjkila wksjd¾hfhka u isÿ úh hq;= hs. fujeks úNd.j,ska wjidk jk wOHdmksl uÜgï i|yd uQ,dlD;s m%Yk lsymhla y÷kajd oSug YS% a s ,xld úNd. fomd¾;fïka;=fõ iydh we;s j cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh lghq;= lr ;sfí. jkfmd;a lsÍu wdo¾Y m%Ykj,g ms<;re iemhSu jeks hdka;l l%uj,ska bf.kSu fjkqjg a s = %s ls%hdfjka yd w;aoelSï wdY%fhka bf.kSug isiqka fhduq lr .ekSu i|yd úNd. m%Yakj, fï fjki fhdackd lr ;sfnk ksid ta ms<sn| j mdi,a isiqka yd fouõmshka oekqj;a lsÍu o wdrïNfha oS u isÿ úh hq;= fõ. lsihï ksmK;d uÜgula idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd úúO ls%hdldrlï ilia l< yels nj s q % % ish¨u .=rejreka f;areï .; hq;= h. ta wkqj fhdað; lshdldrlï ta wdldrfhka u lshd;aul lsÍu fjkqjg jvd fyd| m%fõY" .fõIK fuka u bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu oS¾> lsÍfï úúO WmlrK o fhdod .ksñka jvd id¾:l b.ekaùula i|yd Tjqka iQodkï úh hq;= hs' kj m%fõY yuqfõ .=rejreka wl¾uKH ùu j,lajd .ksñka .=re N+ñldfõ lemS fmfkk fjkila rg mqrd .=rejreka ;=< we;s lsÍug fuu ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh .=rejrekag ffO¾h imhkq we;. tfia u ls%hdldrlïj,ska Tíng hñka kj ks¾udKj, fhfok .=re Nj;=ka osß .ekaùug iy;sl yd úúO ixj¾Ok wjia:d ,nd oSug wms wfmalaId lruq .tu ;s<sK i|yd iqÿiqlï ,nkq jia .=rejreka l< hq;f;a fhdað; ls%hdldrlï ks¾udKYS,s Ñka;kh a fhdod jeä oshKq lr bosßm;a lsÍuhs. uQ,l ls%hdldrlï ie,iqfuka neyer j fufia ilia q s lrkq ,nk bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ie,iqï iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ^úIhud,d ixj¾Ok& úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" uyr.u hk ,smkhg fhduq l< hq;= h' s ta ta úIh lñgq ,jd tu ls%hdldrlï wOHhkh lrjd fï i|yd iqÿiaika f;aÍu miq j isÿ lrkq we;. kj l%ufõo u.ska bf.kqu" b.ekaùu" ;lafiarej yd we.hSu tl u fõosldjlg f.k taug fufia wms W;aidy ord we;af;uq' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï lshdj,sh mdi,a mdol we.hSu % fuka u f.or jev mejreï o w¾:j;a j yiqrejd .ekSug fï wkqj .=rejrekag ´ke ;rï bv m%i;d ,efnkq we;. fuu w;ajef,ka Wmßu m%fhdack ,nñka .;dkq.;sl bf.kqï yd a b.ekaùï m%fõYj,ska neyer ù oefha ¥ mq;=kaf.a Ñka;k yelshd iudcuh yelshd fukau mqo., yelshd o jeä oshKq lsÍug YS% ,dxflah mdi,a wOHdmkh lshd;aul jkq we;ehs hkak a q % wfma taldhk úYajdihhs' wdpd¾h bkaord ,s,duks .skf.a s s iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ^úIhud,d ixj¾Ok& úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh v

kh WmfoaYkh ( uydjd¾h fÊ' ví,sõ' úl%uisxy wOHlaI ckrd,a, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh wdpd¾h whs' t,a' .sksf.a iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ,úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh" cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh Kh: wOHla I Kh ,d,a' tÉ' úfÊisxy uhd wOHlaI, .Ks; fomd¾;fïka;=j cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh lrK: iïnka ë lrK ví' tï' î' cdklS úfÊfialr ñh 6 - 11 .Ks;h jHdmD;s lKavdhï kdhl

úIhud,d lñgqj( ví' tï' î' cdklS úfÊfialr ñh m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh fla' .fkaI,sx.ï uhd m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh mS' mshkkao uhd jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh Ô' mS' tÉ' c.;a l=udr uhd tï' tka' mS' mSßia ñh Ô' t,a' lreKdr;ak uhd wdpd¾h ta' tï' hq' udïmsáh uhd wdpd¾h ã' wd¾' chj¾Ok ñh jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh jHdmD;s ks,Odß, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh le<Ksh úYajúoHd,h fld<U úYajúoHd,h

vi

mgqk

mßÉfÊoh 01 úIh ks¾foaYh · ye¢kaùu · .Ks;h bf.kSfï wruqKq · ksmqK;d ksmqK;d uÜgï yd úIh ikaOdrh · úIh f;aud yd wkaa;¾.;h w;r iïnkaOh · mdvï wkql%uh · mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jevigyka

msgqj 01 02-03 04-05 06-13 14-19 20 21-22

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

02

bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%ufõoh · ye|skaùu · ls%hdldrlï ika;;sh

23 24-26 27-184

03

;lafiarej yd we.hSu · ye¢kaùu · bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

185 186-187 188-212

vii

úIh ks¾foaYh

1

ye|s k a ù u

6 isg 11 fY%aKsh f;la .Ks;h úIh bf.k .kakd isiqka ,Õd lr .; hq;= olaI;d u; mokï j Tjqkg ,nd osh hq;= yelshd, l=i,;d, hy .=Kh yd iudcuh w;aoelSï mokï a jQ Ôjk mqreÿ iuQyh ksmqK;d iuQyhla f,i y÷kdf.k tajd ta ta fY%aKsj,g .e,fmk whqßka fm< .eiaùula lr we;. tu ksmqK;d ish,a,u 11 jeks fY%aKsh f;la .Ks;h úIh yodrd wjidk lrk isiqka <Õd flfr;ehs wfmalaId flf¾. tu ksmqK;d lrd isiqka <Õd lrjd .ekSu i|yd tu tla tla ksmK;d i|yd ksmK;d uÜgï o tajdg .e,fmk bf.kqï q q M, o ilia lr we;. 7 jeks fY%aKsfha .Ks;h bf.k .kakd isiqka <Õd lr .; hq;= ksmK;d o tajdg .e,fmk ksmK;d uÜgu o tu ksmK;d uÜgï lrd <Õd lr ùug wjYH q q q bf.kqï M, o fuu .%ka:fha we;=<;a lr ;sfí. tajd ish,a, 7 jeks fY%aKsfha .Ks;h úIh ks¾foaYh f,i fjka lr y÷kd .ekSug yels jk whqßka fuys wvx.= lr we;. isika j tu q bf.kqï M, lrd <Õd lrùu i|yd ilia lrk ,o úIh wka;¾.;h o tu úIh wka;¾.;h u; mokï j bf.kSu, b.ekaùu yd ;lafiarej hk ls%hdj,sh ls%hd;aul lsÍug wjYH ld,Éfþo ixLHdj o fuu úIh ks¾foaYfha we;=<;a lr we;. .Ks;h úIh iïnkaOfhka ilia lr we;s ksmqK;d mdol kj .Ks;h úIh ks¾foaYh j¾I 2007 isg 6 iy 10 jeks fY%aKs fol i|yd ls%hd;aul fjñka mj;sk w;r j¾I 2008 isg 7 jk fY%aKsh i|yd fuu úIh ks¾foaYh ls%hd;aul lsÍug m%;sm;a;suh jYfhka ;SrK f.k ;sfí. · · · · · oekqu yd l=i,;d ikaksfõokh iïnkaO;d oelSu fya;= oelaùu .eg¨q úi|Su

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

hk .Ks;h bf.kSfï wruqKq bgqjk wdldrhg fuu úIh ks¾foaYfha úIh ikaOdrh ilia lr we;. .Ks;h yqfola oekqug muKla iSud fkdfldg m%dfhda.l cSú;fha oS wjYH s l=i,;d ,nd oSug o" hy .=K j¾Okh lr,Sug o úIh ks¾foaYfhka wfmalI; h. ksmK;d a s q mdol j ilia lr we;s fuu úIh ks¾foaYh u.ska bf.kqï b.ekaùï fidhd ne,Sï ls%hdj,sh ls%hd;aul lsrSfï oS, · isikg w¾:dkaú; wkdjrK (Meaningful Discovery) bf.kqï wjia:d ilsh q % lsrSu ;=<ska bf.kSu jvd;a YsIH flaka§%h lr .; yels fõ. isikg Tjqkf.a udkisl uÜgug .e,fmk úúO ksmK;d ,nd .ekSug yd q a q tajd cSú; ld,h ;=< u ixj¾Okh lr.; yels u. fmkaùSu ,efí. bf.kqï, b.ekaùï yd fidhd ne,sï wruqKq jvd;a meyeos,s fõ. .=rejrhdf.a b,lal jvd;a iqúfYaIs fõ. tla tla ksmK;d uÜgï lrd isika <Õd ù we;s m%udKh .=rejrhdg yªkd q q .; yels fyhska wjYH m%;sfmdaIK yd bosrs fmdaIK lghq;= ixúOdkh lsrug .=rejrhdg myiq fõ S

·

· · ·

2

· YsIHhdg w;HdjYH u .Ks; ixl,am yd ta yd ne÷Kq uQ,O¾u ixj¾Okh lr .ekSug wjia:d ,efí' · .=rejrhdg .;dkq.;sl b.ekaùï l%uj,ska neyer fjñka mrsKduk N+ñldjg msúiSug yels fõ.

fuu .Ks; úIh ks¾foaYh mka;s ldurh ;=< ls%hd;aul lsrSfï oS ;j ÿrg;a ld,Sk wjYH;d f,i i,ld we;s ud;Dld hgf;a úúO ixisoaê iïnkaO lr .ksñka b.ekaùï l%fudamdhhka ks¾udKh lr .; hq;= h. 6 iy 10 fY%Ks fol i|yd j¾I 2007 oS lshd;aul l< úIh ks¾foaY yryd isikg a % q a w;aoelSï ,nd oSfï oS yªkd.;a .eg¨ ksrdlrKh lr .ksñka, fuu fY%Kh .Ks;h úIh a s ks¾foaYh lshd;aul lsÍu jvd;a M,odhs jkq we;. y÷kd.;a tjeks .eg¨ lSymhla o tajdg % s ms<shï jYfhka ls%hd;aul l< yels ld¾hhka lsysmhla o fuu úIh ks¾foaYfha "mdi,a m%;m;a;s yd jevigyka " hkqfjka i|yka lr we;s mßÉfÊofha we;=<;a lr we;. s bf.kqï - b.ekaùï - fidhd ne,sï lshdj,sfha oS isikg w;aoelSï ,nd oSu i|yd % q a fhdað; ls%hdldrlï i|yd wjYH .=Kd;aul fhojqï, "bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh'' kï mßÉfÊofha ta ta ls%hdldrlï hgf;a i|yka lr we;' bf.kqï - b.ekaùï - fidhdne,Sï ls%hdj,sfha oS tla tla ksmqK;d uÜgu i|yd ls%hdldrlï ixúOdkh lr .ekSug bv i,iajd we;s neúka isiqka <Õd lr .kakd ksmK;d uÜgï ;lafiare lsÍug;a, Tjqka ms<n| j we.hSula lsÍug;a, .=rejrekag myiq q s jkq we;' mdi,aj, .Ks;h b.ekaùu yd iïnkaO úúO ld¾hh bgq lr .ekSu i|yd Woõjk my; oelafjk wx.hka o fuu úIh ks¾foaYfha i|yka lr we;' · · · · · .Ks;h bf.kSfï wruqKq. bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%fudmdhhka. mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jev igyka. fhdað; b.ekaùï wkql%u yd ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj. ksmqK;d mdol úIh ks¾foaYh.

3

.Ks ; h bf.kS f ï wruq K q

lKsIG oaú;shl wjêhg t,fUk isika ;=< f.dv ke.S we;s .Ks; ixl,am" ks¾udKd;aul a S s q yd úkaokd;aul yelshd ixj¾Okh lrñka Tjqka ;=< .Ks;uh Ñka;kh wjfndaOh yd l=i,;d úêu;a j f.dvkexùu i|yd my; i|yka wruqKq bgqúh hq;= hhs wfmalId flf¾. a 1. .Ks; ixl,am yd uQ,O¾u ms<n| oekqu o .Ks; l¾u ms<n| oekqu o u.ska s s wd.Kk olaI;d j¾Okh lsÍu yd .Ks; .eg¨ wjfndaOfhka hq;=j úi£ug wjYH m%fõY yelshd ,nd §u. jdÑl , ,sÅ;, rEmsl ,m%ia;dßl, uQ¾; yd ùÔh l%u Ndú;h ms<sn| ksmqK;d j¾Okh lr .ekSu u.ska ksjerÈ ikaksfõok yelshd f.dvkexùu. jeo.;a .Ks;uh woyia yd ixl,am w;r iïnkaO;d f.dvk.ñka tajd wfkl=;a úIhhka yeoeÍug o wfkl=;a úIhhkays ixj¾Okhg fhdod .ekSug o tÈfkod Ôú;h ksrjq,a j yd ;Dma;sula j .; lsÍug wod< jk YslaIK ud¾.hla f,i .Ks;h Wmfhda.S lr .ekSug o fhduq lsÍu. .Ks;uh ixfoaYk(Conjectures) iy ixjdo f.dvke.Sug;a we.hSug;a wNHqyk yd wfmdayk ;¾lk Ndú;h i|yd yelshd j¾Okh lsÍu. wxl .Ks;uh fyda ixfla;uh fyda yeisÍïj,g muKla iSud fkdjq tÈfkod Ôú;fha u;=jk yqre yd kqyre .eg¨ iq;.; lsÍug iy úi£ug .Ks;uh oekqu q % yd Ys,ml%u Ndú; lsÍfï yelshd j¾Okh lsÍu. a

2.

3.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4.

5.

1'

oekqu iy l=i,;d

.Ks;h bf.kSfuka isiqka úiska uQ,sl l=i,;d ixl,am uQ,O¾u iy ls%hdud¾. idlaId;a lr.kq ,eîu wfmalaId flf¾. wfkl=;a lafIa;%j, § .Ks;uh Ñka;kh fhdod .ekSu i|yd jk fuj,ï f,i fyda .Ks;fha bÈß ld¾hhka i|yd mdol jk wdOdrl f,i fyda fïjd Ndú; l< yels h. isiqka úiska lgmdvï lr.; hq;= fyda W.; hq;= fyda l=uk wkaofï l=i,;d iy oekSu o ;SrKh lsÍfï § ;dlaIKfha kQ;k ÈhqKqj is;ays ;nd f.k tfia lsÍu wjYH h. úoHd;aul .Kl iy ixfla; ld¾h hka;% (Symbolic Processes) tajdfha ,dN odhl ùu" jvd n,j;a ùu, iy jvd lD;s%u ùu ksid fcHIaG oaú;Shsl mdi, flfrys n,mEï lrhs.

2' ika k s f õokh

woyia ixlaIsma;j;a, ksYaph f,i;a ikaksfõokh lsÍfï iy ksfhdackh lsÍfï n,h .Ks;hg we;s fyhska th wfkl=;a YslIKj, § Ndú; lsÍu úYd, jYfhka jeä ù we;. a mdi,a úIhud,dfõ jeo.;a ixrplhla úh hq;f;a ixl,am iy w¾: oelaùu ms<n| j isika a s q fmdÿ tlÕ;djlg meñKSu ms<sn| j iy;sl ùu h. fuh jvd fyd¢ka idOkh lr .; yelafla jdÑl j iy ,sÅ; j woyia meyeÈ,s lsÍu" wkqudk jYfhka is;Su iy woyia yqjudrej i|yd isiqkag wjia:dj ie,iSfuks. fujeks ls%hdldrlï ;=<ska isiqka ;=<

4

.

woyia yqjudrej iyfhda.S ld¾h iy talu;sl Ndjh ms<sn| l=i,;d j¾Okh iy;sl flf¾. fïjd kQ;k jev mf<ys § Wiia jákdlula we;s l=i,;d f,i ie,fla.

3'

iïnkaO;d

.Ks;h tal,s; (Isolated) wiïnkaê; i;Hhka iy ls%hdj,s Odrdjla f,i is;Sug YsIHfhda fndfyda úg fm<fU;s. m%i;dßl" ixLHd;aul, fN!;sl iy ùÔh wd§ úúO a ksrEmK fyda wdlD;s ;=<ska .Ks;h bf.kSu ;=< u mj;sk fndfyda iïnkaO;d ms<sn| j isiqka oekqj;a ùu fï ksid jeo.;a nj ksoiqkla f,i oelaúh yels h. Ôj, fN!;sl iy iudc úoHd, l,d, ix.S;, jHdmdr iy tÈfkod Ôú;h jeks wfkl=;a lafIa;%j, § .eg¨ úi£u i|yd .Ks;uh Ñka;kh iy wdlD;slrKh Ndú; lsÍu isika úiska y÷kd.; hq;= q h. tfia u wmf.a ixialD;shg, foaYSh yd úfoaYSh fuka u j¾;udkfha iy w;S;fha § .Ks;h iïnkaO ù we;s whqre Tjqka wjfndaO lr.; hq;= h.

4'

fya;= oelaùu

fmdÿ mdi,a úIhud,dj ;+< .Ks;h úIh flrys jeä wjOdkhla fhduq lsÍu i|yd fndfyda l,l isg mej;s ;¾lkh jkafka .Ks;h bf.kSfuka isiqkag meyeÈ,s iy ;¾ldkql+, j is;Sug yelshdj ,efíh hkak h. tfy;a .Ks;fhys wfmdayk ;¾lkh i|yd ;¾lk uQ,O¾u mokï jqj o wNHqykfhka j¾Okh jq .Ks;h o fndfyda h. tkï rgd fidhd .ekSfuka iy miqj wfmdaykfhka idOkh flfrk wkqñ;sj,sks. .Ks;fhys j¾Okh ùï isÿj we;af;a f,dalfhys úúO ksÍlaIK, rgd y÷kd .ekSu, l,am; f.dvke.Su iy m%fïhhka idOkh lsßu hk tajdfha s wka;¾ lshd ;=<k. .Ks;uh Ñka;kfha fuu úúOdx. ms<n| j isika oekqj;a úh hq;= w;r % s s s q tajd tlsfklg wod< l=i,;d j¾Okh lr.; hq;= h.

5'

.eg¨ úi£u

hï YsIHhl= fyda YsIHdjl ksIamdok yelshdfjka hq;a ls%hdldß mqrjeisfhl= ùug kï Tyq fyda weh ;=< .eg¨ úi£fï yelshdj j¾Okh lsßu wjYH h. .eg¨ úi£u isiqka úiska wjg f,dalh ;=< .Ks;fhys we;s m%fhdack iy n,j;alu .ek ye.Sula we;s lr.kq ,nk fmdÿ úu¾Yk ud¾.hls. .Ks;fhys hïlsis m%úêhla újrKh lsßu i|yd jk tajdfha isg jerÈ f,i w¾: oelafjk ,o .Ks;uh wjia:djlg úi÷ula ,nd.ekSu i|yd Wiq,k ,o W;amdol Ñka;kh wjYH jk tajd f;la .eg¨ úúO úh yels h. iEu wjia:djl § u isikg tu wjêfha Tjqka i;= .Ks;uh oekSï ;=< .Ks;uh .eg¨ úi£fï yelshdj we;. q fujeks W;aidyhka ys § isikf.a id¾:l;ajh we.hSfï iy w.h lsÍï WÑ; m%úê j¾Okh q a l< hq;= w;r tajd úêu;a we.hSï jHqyh ;=<g ixhql; l< hq;= h. a

5

7 fY% a K s h -.Ks ; h

;d, uÜgï, ksmqK;d ksmqK;d uÜgï úIh ikaOdrh yd ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 1 tos f kod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idla I d;a lr .ekSu i|yd ;d;a;aúl ixLHd l=,lh ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs. 1.1 ixLHd w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhss. · iosY ixLHd · ixl,amh · wdl,kh NdcH;d Í;s ^3ka, 4ka ,6ka yd 9ka fnfok ixLHd& 06 úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,Éfþo ixLHdj

1.2 ixLHdjl idOl fiùug NdcH;d Í;s Ndú; lrhs. s

·

02

1.3

ixLHdj, idOl yd .=Kdldr fiùfï l%u úu¾Ykh lrhs. s

idOl yd .=Kdldr ^1000 f;la& · m%:ul idOl ^100 f;la& · uyd fmdÿ idOlh ^ixLHd ;=kla f;la& · l=vdu fmdÿ .=Kdldrh ^ixLHd ;=kla f;la& ·

04

ksmqK;dj - 3 tosfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d myiqfjka bgqlr .ekSu i|yd tall yd tall fldgia ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs. 3.1 Nd. yd oYu wdYs; m%udKhka ii|hs. % s · Nd. iei|Su · ñY% ixLHd rys; · wiïnkaê; yr iys; ^ yrh 12) · ñY% ixLHd ye|skùu a · mßj¾;kh ñY% ^úIu Nd. ixLHd & oYu ^wka; oYu idudkH Nd.&

05

·

6

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï 3.2 Nd. .Ks; l¾uj, yiqrejhss. ·

úIh wkaa;¾.;h Nd. tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu ^ñY% ixLHd iys;& oYu .=K lsÍu yd fnoSu · oyfha n,j,ska · mQ¾K ixLHdjlska

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

3.3 oYu .Ks; l¾uj, yiqrejhs. s

·

03

ksmqK;dj - 4 tosfkod lghq;= myiq lr .ekSu i|yd wkqmd; fhdod .kshs. 4.1 fnod yod .ekSu i|yd wkqmd; fhdod .ksh. s · wkqmd;hlg fnoSu ^fldgia ;=kla f;la&

06

05

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj - 5 m% ; s Y ; fhdod .ks ñ ka kQ ; k f,da l fha id¾:l f,i .kqfokq lrhss . 5.1 oYu ixLHd m%;Y;j,ska olajhs. s s ksmqK;dj - 6 ,>q.Kl Nd .Kl Ndú;fhka tosfkod Ôú;fha .eg¨ myiqfjka úi|hs. mdoh ùÔh ixfla; jQ n, ye|skùu ^ixfla; folla yd a o¾Ylh y;rg wvq& · mdoh ùÔh ixfla; jQ n, m%idrKh · mdoh ùÔh ixfla; jQ n, i|yd wdfoaYh · 6.1 mdoh ùÔh wdldrfhka jQ n,hl w.h fidhhss. · · m%;Y; ixl,amh s oYu ixLHd m%;Y; f,i s 06

06

ksmqK;dj - 7 mßñ;s h fiùfï l% u úu¾Ykh lrñka ffoksl lghq;= M,odhS f,i bgqlr .kshs' · 7.1 úúO wjYH;d i|yd os. wdYs; ñkqï uQ,l % s .Ks; l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs. os. ñkqï · tl;= lsÍu, wvq lsÍu · .=K lsÍu; fnoSu ^mQ¾K ixLHdjlska muKla& mßñ;sh i|yd iQ;% · ;s%fldaKh · iup;=ri%h · iDcqfldaKdi%h

7.2 ir, f¾Çh ;,rEmj, mßñ;sh fiùu i|yd iQ;% Ndú; lrhs. s

·

7

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

ksmqK;dj - 8 j¾.M,h ms<sn| j úu¾Ykh lrñkaa iS ñ ; bvlv m%Yia ; uÜgñka m%fhdackhg .kshs . 8.1 ir, f¾Çh ;,rEmj, j¾.M,h · ms<n| j úu¾Ykh lrhs. s s · ksmqK;dj - 9 ia l ka O h ms < s n | wjfnda O fhka hq ; = j lghq;= lrñka ffoksl wjYH;d imqrd .kshs . · · j¾.M, i|yd iQ;% · iup;=ri%h · iDcqfldaKdi%h iïu; tall j¾.M,h ksudkh ixhql; ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h a ^iup;=ri%h yd iDcqfldaKdi%h& 06

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

9.1 ialkaOh iïnkaO ñkqï uQ,sl .Ks; · l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs. s · ·

ñ,s.?ï yd .a?ï w;r iïnkaOh a ialkaO ksudkh ialkaOh (mg, g, kg) · tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu · .= K ls Í u; fnoS u ^mQ ¾ K ixLHdjlska muKla&

06

ksmqK;dj - 10 mßudj ms<sn| j úpdrYS,sj lghq;= lrñka wjldYfha Wmßu M,odhs;djh ,nd .kshs . · 10.1 >kjia;= wjldYfha .kakd bv m%udK ms<sn| j úuis,su;a fjhs. mßudj ^>kl, >kldN& · ixl,amh · wNsu; tallj,ska mßudj · iïu; tallj,ska mßudj 06 · mßudj ksudkh

8

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 11 øj ñkqï ms<sn| j úpdrYS,s j lghq;= lrñka ffoksl wjYH;d imqrd .kshs' 11.1 øj ñkqï , uQ,l .Ks; l¾u hgf;a s yiqrejhss.

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

· ñkqï tall · · .=K lsÍu ^mQ¾K ixLHdjlsk& a fnoSu ^mQ¾K ixLHdjlsk& a 06

ksmqK;dj - 12 ld,h l<uKdlrKh lrñka jev f,dalfha wjYH;d imqrd .kshs .

12.1 ld,h iïnkaO ñkqï , uQ,l .Ks; s l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj - 13 úúO l% u úê .fõIKh lrñka m%dfhda.sl wjia:d i|yd mßudK rEm Ndú; lrhs. 13.1 mßirh weiqßka ,nd.;a os. wdYs; % ñkqï cHdñ;sl ;, rEmj,ska ksrEmKh lrhs. s ksmqK;dj - 14 úúO l%u úê l%udkql+, jQ .fõIKh lrñka ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs. 14.1 .Ks; l¾u y;r u we;=<;a ùÔh m%ldYk f.dv k.hss.

· wêl wjqreoao" Y;l · ld,h iïnkaO ñkqï · tl;= lsÍu · wvq lsÍu

05

( ml , l )

· iqÿiq mßudK f;aÍu · ir, ;, rEm · iDcqfldaKdi%h 06

· ùÔh m%ldYk · Nd. ix.=Kl iys; · .Ks; l¾u y;r u we;=<;a · ùÔh m%ldYk · tl;= lsÍu, wvq lsÍu ^icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo we;=<;a & · wdfoaYh ^ mQ¾K ixLHd, n, yd uQ, we;=<;a fkdjk&

03

14.2 icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo we;=<;a m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs. s

9

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 17 tos f kod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd iólrK úi|Sfï l%u úê yiqrejhs. ·

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

17.1 tosfkod Ôú;fha yuqjk .eg¨ úi|Su i|yd ir, iólrK fhdod .kshs.

iólrK f.dvke.Su wdldrh ·

05

·

iólrK úi|Su · .e,Sï igyka u.ska · ùÔh l%u u.ska

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj - 18 Ôjk .eg¨ wdYs%; úúO rdYs w;r jq iïnkaO;d úYaf,aIKh lrhs . 18.1 fok ,o ixfrdaOl wkqj · úp,Hj,g .; yels w.h iSud " rEmslj m%o¾Ykh lrhs. s wiudk;d úi|Su · · · wdldrh wdldrh 06

ixLHd f¾Ldj u; ksrEmKh · wdldrfha úi÷ï ksÅ, jk

ksmqK;dj - 19 iQ ; % fhdod.; yels l%u úê .fõIKh lrñka tos f kod Ôú;fha yuqjk .eg¨ úi|hss' 19.1 ir, iQ;% f.dvk.hs. · ir, iQ;% f.dvke.Su ^úp,H ;=kla f;la& 03

10

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 20 úúO l%u úê .fõIKh lrñka úp,H folla w;r mj;s k wfkHdkH iïnka O ;d myiqfjkaa ikaksfõokh lrhs . 20.1tlsfklg ,ïn wlaI follg · idfmalaI j hï ia:dkhl msyàu s ú.%y lrhss.

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

ldáiSh ;,h · ,laIH ,l=Kq lsÍu · mámdá.; hq., ^m<uq jD;a; mdolh ;=< muKs&

06

ksmqK;dj - 21 úúO flda K w;r iïnka O ;d úu¾Ykh lrhss.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

21.1 iaÓ;sl yd .;sl ixl,am · weiqfrka fldaK ú.%y lrhss.

fldaK ixl,amh · iaÓ;sl · .;sl fldaK · we|Su · kï lsÍu · uekSu fldaKhl úYd,;ajh ^wxYlj,sk& a · iDcqfldaKh · ir, fldaKh iudka;r f¾Ld · ixl,amh · we|Su ^úys; p;=ri% Ndú;h& · msßlaiu S

04

21.2 flda K j, m% u dKd;a u l · w.hka úu¾Ykh lrhs. s

03

·

21.3 ir, f¾Ld hq.,hl iudka;r;dj úuihss.

·

06

ksmqK;dj - 22 úúO >k jia ; = ms < s n | j .fõIKh lrñka kj ks ¾ udKlrKfha fhfohs . 22.1 >k jia ; = j ,= ks¾udKh lrhs. wdlD;s · wdlD;s · iup;=ri% msrñv · ;s%fldaK ms%iau Ths,¾ iïnkaOh · >k jia;= i|yd

11

03

22.2 >k jia;j,= wx. w;r in|;d · = úuihs.

03

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 23 ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm wdYs%; cHdñ;sl ixl,am mokï lr .ks ñ ka tos f kod Ôú;fha lghq ; = i|yd wjYH ks . ukj,g t<fThs s . 23'1 úúO ,laIK mokï lr .ksñka · ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm kï lrhss.

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

;s%fldaK j¾. · fldaK wkqj · mdo wkqj nyq wi% j¾.SlrKh · W;a;, · wj;, · iúê

03

23'2 nyq wi%, yev wkqj j¾.SlrKh lrhs. · s

03

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;dj - 25' úúO yevj, ,la I K .fõIKh lrñka a a wjg mßirfha w,xldr;a j h msßlaihs ' 25'1 jia;+kaf.a iuñ;sl .=K úuihss. · oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh · ixl,amh · iuñ;s wlaI

05

ksmqK;dj - 26 w,xlrKh i|yd cHdñ;sl yev ;, fhdod .; yels l%u úê úu¾Ykh lrhs . 26'1 cHdñ;sl yev;, we;sßh yels l%u · úuihs. fgi,dlrKh · ixl,amh · Y+oO fgi,dlrKh a

05

ksmqK;dj - 27 cHdñ;s l ks h uhka wkq j wjg mßirfha msysàïj, iajNdjhka úYaf,aIKh lrhs . 27.1 jD;a; weiqfrka fudaia;r ks¾udKh · lrhs.

27.2 ;, rEm ks¾udKh lrhss.

·

jD;a;h · ljlgqj u.ska fudai;r we|Su a · flakaøh · wrh · úYalïNh ;, rEm · f¾Ld LKav · iumdo ;s%fldaK · iúê Ivi%

05

06

12

ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï ksmqK;dj - 28 o;a ; ks r EmKh ls Í fï úúO l%u úu¾Ykh lrñka ffoksl lghq;= myiq lr .kshs. 28.1 o;a; úúO l%u u.ska ksrEmKh lrhs. s

úIh wkaa;¾.;h

ld,ÉfÊo ixLHdj

04 · m%i;dr a · ;Sr · nyq ;Sr · jDka; m;% igyk

ksmqK;dj - 29 ffoksl lghq;= myiq lr .ekSu i|yd o;a; úúO l%u u.ska úYaf,aIKh lrñkaa mqfrdal:kh lrhss .

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

29'1 o;a;j, úisÍu ú.%y lrhs. s · wju w.h · Wmßu w.h · mrdih

03

ksmqK;dj - 30 tosfkod Ôú;fha lghq;= myiq lr .ekSu i|yd l=,l wdY%s; uq,O¾u yiqrejhs. 30'1 tlu ,laIKhla iys; ldKav úúO l%u u.ska ksrEmKh lrhss.

05 · l=,l ixl,amh · wjhj ,sùu · l=,l ksrEmKh · fjka rEm u.ska

ksmqK;dj - 31 wkd.; isÿùï mqfrdal:kh lsÍu i|yd isÿùul úh yelshdj úYaf,aIKh lrhs. 31.1 m%udKd;aul w.hka mokï lr .ksñka % mÍlaIK u; isÿùul úh yelshdj ks¾Kh lrhs.

· mÍlaIK · fkdkeUqre · keUqre · 0 - 1 mßudKh

05

13

7 fY%aKsh- .Ks;h

úIh f;aud yd wka;¾.;h w;r iïnkaOh

wkaa;¾.;h bf.kqï M,

1.0 1 0 ixLHd

1 1' iosY ixLHd 1.1' · ixl,amh · wdl,kh 1.2' 1 2' NdcH;dj · · · iosY ixLHd y÷kd .ksh' s iosY ixLHd tl;= lrhs. s ixLHdjla ;=fkka, y;frka, yfhka iy kjfhka fnfoa oehs mÍlaId lrhs. s ixLHdj, idOl yd .=Kdldr fidhhs. ^1000 f;la ixLHdj,& ixLHdj, m%:ul idOl fidhhs. ^100 f;la ixLHdj,& ixLHdj, uyd fmdÿ idOlh fidhhs. s ^ixLHd ;=kla f;la& ixLHdj, l= v d fmdÿ .= K dldrh fidhhss. ^ixLHd ;=kla f;la&

1.3' 1 3' idOl yd .=Kdldr · m%:ul idOl

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · ·

· uyd fmdÿ idOlh · l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh

1.4'Nd. 1 4'Nd. · ixikaokh · ñY% ixLHd ixl,amh · ñY% ixLHd · úIu Nd. úIu Nd. ñY% ixLHd

· · · · ·

ñY% ixLHd iys; wiïnkaê; yr iys; Nd. ii|hs. ^yrh 12 & ñY% ixLHd y÷kd .ksh. s ñY% ixLHd úIu Nd. f,i ,shhs. úIu Nd. ñY% ixLHd f,i ,shhss. ñY% ixLHd iy Nd. tl;= lrhs; wvq lrhs.s oYu idudkH Nd. f,i ,shhs. ^wka; oYu& oYu ixLHdjla oyfha n,j,ska .=K lrhs; fnohs. s oYu ixLHdjla mQ¾K ixLHdjlska .=K lrhs ; fnohs rdYs wkqmd;hlg wkqj fnod olajhs. ^;=kla f;la&

· Nd. tl;= lsÍu; wvq lsßu 1.5'oYu 1 5'oYu · oYu idudkH Nd. · oyfha n,j,ska .=K lsÍu; fnoSu · mQ¾K ixLHdjlska .=K lsÍu; fnoSu 1.6' 1 6' wkq m d; · wkqmd;hlg fnoSu

· · ·

·

14

wka;¾.;h s 1.7 1 7 m%;Y; · m%;sY; ixl,amh · oYu ixLHd m%;sY; 1 .8 8 o¾Yl · mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jq n, · · mdoh ùÔh jq n, m%idrKh mdoh ùÔh jq n, i|yd wdfoaYh · ·

bf.kqï M,

· m%;Y; ixl,amh wjfndaO lr .ksh' s s · oYu ixLHd m%;Y; f,i ,shd olajhs' s

·

mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jq n, y÷kd .kshs' ^ ixfla; folla yd o¾Yl y;rg wvq& mdoh ùÔh ixfla; jq n, m%idrKh lrhs' mdoh ùÔh ixfla; jq n, i|yd wdfoaY lrhs'

0 2.0 ñkq ï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

2 .1 1

os. · tl;= lsÍu, wvq lsÍu · .=K lsÍu, fnoSu

· os. wdYs; ñkqï tl;= lrhs; wvq lrhs' · È. wdYs%; ñkqï .=K lrhs; fnohs ^mQ¾K ixLHdjlska muKs&

·

iQ;% Ndú;fhka ;, rEmj, · ;sfldaK,iup;=ri% yd iDcqfldaKdi%j, % mßñ;sh fiùu mßñ;sh fiùu i|yd iQ;% Ndú; lrhs'

2 .2 j¾.M,h 2 · iïu; tall · ksudkh · iQ;% Ndú;fhka ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h · ixhql; ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h a · iïu; tall y÷kd .kshs' · j¾.M,h ksudkh lrhs' · iup;=ri% yd iDcqfldaKdi%j, j¾.M, fiùu i|yd iQ;% Ndú; lrhs' · iDcqfldaKdi% iup;=ri% iys; ixhql; a ;,rEmj, j¾.M,h fidhhs'

2 .3 3

ia l ka O h · tall · mßj¾;kh · ksudkh · tl;= lsÍu; wvq lsÍu · .=K lsÍu; fnoSu

· ialkaOh uekSu i|yd mg, g Ndú; lrhs' · ñ,s.a?ï yd .a?ï w;r iïnkaOh y÷kd .kshs' · ialkaOh ksudkh lrhs' · mg, g, kg we;=<;a ialkaO tl;= lrhs' wvq lrhs' · mg, g, kg we;=<;a ialkaO .=K lrhs' fnohs ' ^mQ¾K ixLHdj,ska muKs&

15

wka;¾.;h 2.4 mrsudj 4 · ixl,amh · tall ^wNsu;& · tall · ksudkh · · · ·

bf.kqï M, mrsudj ms<n| ixl,amh wjfndaO lr s .kshs' ^>kl ,>kldN& mrsudj uekSu i|yd wNsu; tall Ndú; lrhs. s mrsudj uekSu i|yd iïu; tall Ndú; lrhs. mßudj ksudkh lrhss.

2 .5 øj ïkqï 5 · .=K lsÍu' fnoSu

·

ml, l we;=<;a øj mßud .=K lrhs' fnohs ^mQ¾K ixLHdj,ska muKs& wêl wjqreoao y÷kd .ksh. s Y;lh y÷kd .ksh. s ld,h iïnkaO ñkqï tl;= lrhss; wvq lrhs' iqÿiq mßudK f;darhs' s iDcqfldaKdi%hl mßudK rEmh w|sh' s

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

2 .6 ld,h 6 · wêl wjqreoao ixl,amh · Y;lh ixl,amh · tl;= lsÍu, wvq lsÍu 2 .7 mßudK rEm 7 · mßudK f;aÍu · we|Su

· · ·

· ·

0 3.0 ùc .Ks;h

3 .1 ùÔh m%ldYk 1 · f.dvke.Su · tl;= lsÍu' wvq lsÍu

· .Ks; l¾u y;ru we;=<;a ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvk.hs' ^Nd. ix.=Kl iys;& · icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo we;=<;a ùÔh m%ldYk tl;= lrhs' wvq lrhss.

· wdfoaYh

2 3.2 iólrK · f.dvke.Su

· mQ¾K ixLHd wdfoaY lrñka ùÔh m%ldYkhla w.hlg mßj¾;kh lrhs. ^úp,H tllg jeä n, yd uQ, we;=<;a fkdjk& · fok ,o o;a ; wkq j iólrK f.dvk.hs. ^ wdldr&

· úi|Su

· .e,Sï igyka Ndú;fhka iólrK úi|hs. · ùÔh l%u u.ska iólrK úi|hss.

16

wka;¾.;h 3.3 3 3 wiudk;d · úi|Su · úi÷ï ixLHd f¾Ldjla u; ksrEmKh · ·

bf.kqï M,

wdldrfha wiudk;d úi|hss. by; wdldrfha wiudk;dj, úi÷ï ixLHd f¾Ldjla u; ksrEmKh lrhss' ^úi÷ï ksÅ,uh wjia:d muKs& úp,H ;= k la f;la ir, iQ ; % f.dvk.hs.

4 3.4 iQ;% · f.dvke.Su 3 .5 5 ldáiS h ;,h · ,laIH ,l=Kq lsÍu · mámdá.; hq.,

·

· ·

ldáiSh ;,hl ,laIH ,l=Kq lrhss. ldáiSh ;,h u; msysá ,laIHhla mámdá.; hq.,hla u.ska ,shd olajhs. ^m<uq jD;a; mdolh muKs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4.0 4 0 cHdñ;s h

4 .1 flda K 1 · ixl,amh · iaÓ;sl yd .;sl ixl,amh weiqfrka fldaK y÷kd .ksh' ^oS we;s úYd,;ajh s wkqj& fldaK w|sh' s oS we;s fldaK kï lrhs. oS we;s fldaK ukshs. iDcqfldaKdi%hl úYd,;ajh ir, fldaKhl úYd,;ajh y÷kd .ksh. s la yd la nj

· we|Su · kï lsÍu · uekSu

· · ·

· fldaKhl úYd,;ajh ^wxYl · j,sk& a

4 .2 iudka;r f¾Ld 2 · ixl,amh

·

iudka ; r f¾Ld ms < s n | ixl,a m h wjfndaO lr .kshs. iudkaa;r f¾Ld w|shs' ^úys; p;=ri% Ndú;fhka & f¾Ldj, iudka;r;dj msßlaihs. s

·

we|Su

·

·

msßlaiu S

·

17

wka;¾.;h 3 4.3 >k jia;= · ks¾udKh ·

bf.kqï M, wdlD;s ks¾udKh lrhs. ^iup;=ri% msrñv, ;sfldaK msiu& % % a

· Ths,¾ iïnkaOh

·

odr, YS¾I yd uqyK;a weiqfrka Ths,¾ q iïnkaOh f.dvk.hss.

4 .4 ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm 4 · fldaK wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. lsÍu · mdo wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. lsÍu · nyq wi% j¾.SlrKh lsÍu

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · ·

fldaK wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. kï lrhs. s mdo wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. kï lrhss. nyq wi% j¾.SlrKh lrhs' ^W;a;,, s wj;,, iúê&

4 .5 iuñ;sh 5 · ixl,amh

·

oaú md¾Yaúl iuñ;sh ms<n| ixl,amh s wjfndaO lr .kshs. iuñ;s wlaI y÷kd .ksh. s

· iuñ;s wlaI

·

4 .6 fgi,dlrKh 6 · ixl,amh

·

fgi,dlrKh ms < s n | ixl,a m h wjfndaO lr .kshs. Y=oO fgi,dlrKh y÷kd .ksh. a s

· Y=oaO fgi,dlrKh

·

4 .7 jD;a; 7 · jD;a; fudaia;r

·

ljlgqj Ndú;fhka jD;a; fudaia;r ks¾udKh lrhss. jD;a;hl flakøh, wrh, úYalïNh a y÷kd .kshs .

· jD;a;hl wx.

·

18

wkaa;¾.;h

bf.kqï M,

4.8 4 8 ks ¾ udK · f¾Ld LKav · iumdo ;s%fldaK · iúê Ivi%

· · ·

f¾Ld LKav ks¾udKh lrhss' iumdo ;s%fldaK ks¾udKh lrhss' iúê Ivi% ks¾udKh lrhss'

5.0 5 0 ixLHdkh

5 .1 1 o;a; ksrEmKh · ;Sr m%i;dr u.ska a · nyq ;Sr m%ia;dr u.ska

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · ·

;Sr m%i;dr u.ska o;a; ksrEmKh lrhs' a s nyq ;Sr m%i;dr u.ska o;a; ksrEmKh a lrhs' s jDka a ; m;% igyk u.s k a o;a ; ksrEmKh lrhs'

· jDka; m;% igyk u.ska

5 .2 o;a; w¾:l:kh 2 · wju w.h · Wmßu w.h · mrdih · · · o;a; iuQyhl wju w.h y÷kd .ksh. s o;a; iuQyhl Wmßu w.h y÷kd .ksh.s o;a; iuQyhl mrdih ,shd olajhs. s

0 6.0 l=,l yd iïNdú;dj

6 .1 1 l= , l · ixl,amh · l=,lhl wjhj · fjka rEm u.ska ksrEmKh · · · l=,l ixl,amh wjfndaO lr .kshs. l=,lhl wjhj ,shd olajhss. fjka rEm u.ska l=,l ksrEmKh lrhs. s

6 .2 iïNdú;dj 2 · mÍlaIK y÷kd .ekSu

·

keTqre, fkdkeTqre mÍlaIK y÷kd .ksh' s 0 - 1 mßudKh wkqj ,l=Kq m%odkh lrhs'

·

0 - 1 mßudKh

19

·

7 fY%aKsh mdvï wkql%uh ksmqK;d uÜgï yd ld,ÉfÊo .Kk

wka;¾.;h ksmqK;d uÜgï ld,ÉfÊo .Kk

m<uq jdrh ^01& ^02& ^03& ^04& ^05& ^06) ^07& ^08& ^09& iuñ;sh l=,l idOl yd .=Kdldr o¾Yl ld,h ialkaOh fldaK iÈY ixLHd Nd. fojeks jdrh ^10& ^11& ^12& ^13& ^14& ^15& ^16& ^17& ^18& ^19& ^20& oYu ùÔh m%ldYk iudka;r f¾Ld È . j¾.M,h jD;a; mßudj øj ñkqï wkqmd; m%;Y; s ldáiSh ;,h ;=kajeks jdrh ^21& ^22& ^24& ^23& ^25& ^26& ^27& ^28& ^29& iólrK wiudk;d ks¾udK ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm >k jia;= o;a; ksrEmkh yd w¾: l:kh mßudK rEm fgi,dlrKh isÿùul úh yelshdj 17'1 , 19'1 18'1 23'1 , 23' 2 27'2 22'1 , 22' 2 28'1 " 29' 1 13'1 26'1 31'1 08 06 06 06 06 07 06 05 05 tl;=j

20

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

25'1 301 1'2, 1'3 6'1 12'1 9'1 21'1 , 21'2 1'1 3'1 , 3'2

05 05 06 06 05 06 07 06 08

54

3'3 14'1 , 14'2 21'3 7'1 , 7'2 8'1 27'1 10'1 11'1 4'1 5'1 20'1

06 06 06 06 06 05 06 06 05 06 06

64

55 173

mdi,a m%;sm;a;s yd jevigyka

.Ks;h úIh ks¾foaYh ilia lr we;af;a oekqu iy l=i,;d u; muKla fkdj bka Tíng úysfok ikaksfõokh, iïnkaO;d, ;¾lkh iy .eg¨ úi|Su hk wruqKq o biau;= jk whqßks. fojkqj i|yka wruqKq y;r isiqkaf.a p¾hd m%j¾Okhg yd Ñka;k ls%hdj,sfha m%j¾Okhg jvd;a M,odhs f,i odhl jkq we;. tfia u .Ks;h, úIh ks¾foaYhg iy mka;s ldurhg muKla iSud fkdúh hq;= úIhhls. th mdi,a ixialD;sfha n,fõ.hla njg m;a l< hq;= h. .Ks;h hkq NdIdjls; úoHdjls ; l,djls ; Ñka;kfha;a .Kkfha;a ks¾udKfha;a fuj,uls ; tneúka .Ks;fha we;s fuu ixialD;sl w.hhka YsIHhka ;=< j¾Okh jk mßos mdi,a jevigyka ixúOdkh lsÍu jeo.;a fõ. my; i|yka úIh iu.dó jevigyka fï i|yd fhda.H jkq we;. 1 ì;a;s mqj;am;a 2 .Ks;d.dr 3 .Ks; mqi;ld, a 4 m%o¾Yk 5 .Ks; ix.ï 6 oekqu ñkqu jevigyka 7 .Ks; iÕrd 8 .Ks; osk 9 .Ks; l|jqre 10 lshdldrlï l=á % 11 pdßld fuu úIh iu.dó jevigyka ls%hd;aul lsÍfï oS iqÿiq mßos m%cdjf.a odhl;ajh ,nd .ekSug;a, we;eï úIh fldgia b.ekaùfï oS ta i|yd m%ùk úoaj;=kaodhl lr .ekSug;a, mdi,a l<ukdldß;ajfha wjOdkh fhduq úh hq;= h. fuu fY%Kfha .Ks;h b.ekaùu i|yd Tn mdif,a .Ks; mqyKq .=rejre fkdue;s kï úIh a s q m%ùk;dj we;s, .Ks;h b.ekaùug reÑl;ajhla olajk .=rejrhl= fhoùu iqÿiq h. .Ks; .=rejreka, úIh lreKq yd b.ekaùï l%u ms<n| j ksr;=re j u hdj;ald,Sk úh hq;= h. fï s i|yd, l,dmfha .Ks;h úIh wOHlaI $.Ks;h .=re WmfoaYl$ m%ùk WmdOHdh .Ks; .=re Nj;=ka yuq ù Wmfoia ,nd .ekSu fhda.H h. mqyqKq ieisj,g iyNd.s ùu o wjYH h. kj m%;sixialrK wkqj mdi,a ld, igyfka we;s ksoyia ld,ÉfÊoj,ska tlla .Ks;h i|yd fhdod .ekSug mdi,a l<ukdldß;ajh lghq;= lrkq we;ehs wfmalaId flf¾. fhdað; lKavdhï .fõIK lshdldrlula tla ld,ÉfÊohl oS wjika lr .ekSug fndfyda % úg fkdyels jkq we; . Bg fya;=j ls%hdldrlu i|yd fhdað; ld,h ñks;a;= 40 lg jvd jeä ùu h. túg wod< ld,ÉfÊoh ;+< oS ksu lsÍug fkdyels jQ fldgia i|yd .Ks;hg kshñ; B<Õ ld,ÉfÊo fhdod .; hq;= h.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

21

.fõIK lshdldrlï lsÍfï oS YsIH lKavdhï i|yd w¾O ljdldr yevhg wdik ms<fh< % s lsÍfuka isiqkg fuka u .=rejrhdg o ;u ld¾hh myiqfjka lr .; yels fõ. ta ta lshdldrlu i|yd wjYH .=Kd;aul fhojqï, bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%ufõoh hgf;a jQ .fõIK % m;sldj, igyka lr we;. uq¿ j¾Ihgu wjYH .=Kd;aul fhojqï j¾Ih uq, oS tljr ñ, % oS .kaafkaa kï th jvd;a myiq jkq we;. bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh kshdukfha § my; oelafjk lreKq .ek úfYaI wjOdkh fhduq lr wod< Wmfoia ,ndoSu jeo.;a h. · E - 5 wdlD;shg wkqj isiqka .fõIKhg fhduq lrkafka oehs fiùu. · iqÿiq wjia:dj, oS ;lafiare yd we.hSï isÿ lsÍu. j¾I 2007 oS 6 iy 10 fY%Ks i|yd y÷kajd oS we;s ksmK;d mdol úIhud,dj mdi,a a q moaO;sh ;=< ls%hd;aul ùfï oS we;s jq .eg¨ i|yd ms<shï jYfhka fhdackd lrkq ,nk my; i|yka lreKq flfrys o wjOdkh fhduq lrkq we;ehs wfmalaId flf¾' · lKavdhï ilia lr .ekSfï oS ;u mka;sfha isák isiqka ixLHdj wkqj tajd ilia lr .; hq;= nj. ^lKavdhï 4lg jev mjrd we;akï isika m%udKh jeä q wvq ùu wkqj lKavdhï ixLHdj tys .=Kdldrhla f,i .ekSu& lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia m;sldfõ i|yka tla tla ld¾hh lKavdhï % w;r wyTq f,i fnod oSu. lKavdhï kdhlhska m;alÍula fkdlr iafõÉPdfjka u;= ùug wjia:dj ie,iSu. s m<uqj .fõIK ls%hdj,shg isiqka fhduq lr ta ;=<ska wod< .Ks; ixl,am ;yjqre jq miq b;sß ld,ÉfÊo wNHdi i|yd fhdod .ekSu. .fõIK lshdj,sh wjidkfha .=rejrhd úiska isÿlrk iudf,dapkfha oS mdvfï % idrdxYh we;=<;a igykla YsIH wNHdi fmd;aj, ,shd .ekSug ie,eiaùu. mdi,a jdrhl oS l< hq;= we.hSï ixLHdj wkqj bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh oS¾> lsÍfï WmlrKj,g wu;r j wjYH jk we.hSï i|yd iqÿiq lshdldrlï % f;dard f.k ta i|yd ,l=Kq m%odkh lsÍu.

·

· ·

·

·

22

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%ufõoh

23

yeÈkaùu

´´ û$ñ´$Ù$<ð à÷À$} áèùÔÈ-áè`ùßÒÈ æÜ´Ó÷À× õÛØó× æÚÎÈ ÷ÀÛ èÓÂó× û÷ÀùÈ æØ èù &Ú&Ô ùÚûÔóõ$ è$òù`èÛ´ð {`æÚ <ù ûÍ÷ÀÚ áèùÔÈ-áè`ùßÒÈ æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ &`Ù&ÔÈ æÚδ æØ{Ú à<ø$ù× ×$´Ô æØ à`õ. ùÚûÔóõ$ û$÷Àæ àø]$ûù× &úÀ{$ ´&ß &Ô÷À$ùÈ ÒÈ èÝØ` þÞÆæ$Ó ÷À û`{`÷ÀÚ}Ú <ù&æß àûßæßÂ$ æÌ. à|õ àõÛõ×ß &Úð àûß ûùßõÚ æ$´Ø<Ù ý{ÔÙ < æÚÜ×$õß´æ <Õ &$ÈûÜ÷À$×Úæ &ÈûßÜÂó èÝØ` þÞÆæ$< (TRANSMISSION ROLE) {$ û&Ô æ$ÙÛù {ú¸ùß<$ ÷ÀùÔ Ù`ýÕ èùÔ÷ÀùÔ èÝØ` þÞÆæ$< (TRANSACTION ROLE) <Ìõ´$ù ûùßõÚæ$´Ø õÝ} õ<´õß æ`ûÛ ûùß. û$&Ùß {`Ø ×ù ÷ÀØ` ÷À`Í×ùßèß ¥ùßõù æÝ&Ùõ$, &´$í æÝ&Ùõ$ {$ ûÔ÷ÀßèÙ æÝ&Ùõ$<Ù à÷À ÷Àæßùð Ù`ýù ûÚÍ{Û´ ûÚ}ÚýúÀ &Ùæ$ ýÙù Ñð áèùÔÈ-áè`ùßÑÈ æÜ´Ó÷À× &`<Ìøù× Ñ× ×ÔõÝ ý<õß ä× &Ú÷¸ Ñ× ×ÔõÝ à$æ$Ø×õß {ú¸ù$ è`ùÛ´ àû{&Ô ù$Ó. &ÈûßÜÂó èÝØ`þÞÆæ$Ó ÷ÀÛ &Ú&Ôùß ãèõ ×ÔõÝ &Ú×ÙßÙ ÷Àùßù$ à×æÝ Ù& èÝØ`<Ø×$ ûÚ}Úè`ùù àõØ &Ú&Ôùß äß æÚ&Ú<æß ù$÷Àùßù$ à× Ù& &Ùæ$ å<Ôùß <õ ÷À`ùÔ´ &ÈûÜßÂó× æÚδ èÝØ` æ$Ì×× ý<ð ûõßÒ õÚÅ. èÝØ`<Ø×$èùß &Ú&Ôùð ÷À`ùÔ´ èÙ$ ×$´ð û´óæß &Û´$ <ù ÷ÀßÁù ´Ô{ÔóÔ<Øæß èùßù$ ´´ áèùÔÈ-áè`ùßÒÈ æÚÜ×$<ÙÚ× &Ú&Ô ¥ùßõù× à<÷ÀÚ æÚδð {$ß &Ú&Ôùßèß û[÷ÀßèÙÚæ {$ &´$í {$ß û[÷ÀßèÙÚæ æÝ&Ùõ$ &`<Ìøù× æÚδð {$ß ûÜ´$ó<õß < ÷À$×æ ù$Ó. èÝØ`<Ø×$ ûùßõÚ× &´ê à`õÚ æØ èùßù$ ÷Àý& èùÔ÷ÀùÔ þÞÆæ$Ó à$ØÈþæ à<&ßö$< Ó. èÝØ`<Ø×$èùß ûùßõÚ×ð {$ ûùßõÚ×ùß èÝØ`<Ø×$ð èÙ$ ×ù à÷À{&ß<Ùð à´õØ < &Ú&Ô-&Ú&Ô àùßõÌ æÚÜ×$ ÷À û&Ô < à`õÚ Ò´ ùÚ&$ ´´ ÷Àý& æÜ´×ùß &`<$÷À×æð ûØÙß. ÷Àùßù$ ÷À×Úùß ù$÷Àùßù$ ÷À×ð, &ØÙ ÷À×Úùß &`æÛÌó ÷À×ð ´ùß ´ &`×Ôæßõ ÷À×Úùß Ñ×Ôæßõ ÷À×ð &Ú&Ôùß èù ×$´ &úÀ{$ èÝØ`<Ø×$ ÷ÀÚèÚùß ÷ÀÚèð ´ ûÜÁßùæØó×ß ùÚØõ Ó. ùÚûÔóõ$ û$÷Àæ àø]$ûù×ß ÷ÀÛ ÁÚÂ] æ$Ì××ùß ûÜýÙ &ßö$ù×æß èùßù$ àõØ ûùßõÚ×ß &|´ }´×æÝ ´ äß äß ùÚûÔóõ$< &Èýùßø < àòÔ õØÆùß à$&ùßù ûÜÒóõ$<ð {$ß èù äß´ð ´`÷ÀÚ{õß <ù &Èûõß ÷À$×æ×æÝèß (RESOURCE PERSON) õõßõß<×ð èÝØ`<Ø×$ ûõß Ó. &Úõß èùßù$ &ÔÏ à$ØÈþ×æß &{Úõ < æÚ×$æ$Øæ´ð ûÜÓÁ Ò´, áèùÔ´ð à<Á] ãûæØó {$ àùæÝõß û{&ÔæÈ Ü &{Úõ áèùÔÈ ûÍ&Ø×æß &`Ù&ÔÈ æÚδ, &Ú&Ôùß áèù èùßù$ à×ÔØ` &Çû < ùÚÎæßÂó× æÚÍ´, ÁÚÂ] {`æÚ×$ {$ ù${`æÚ×$ {ú¸ù$ èùÚÆùß ÷À à<Á] á÷ÀÚÍû$ßÂó {$ ûÜõÚû$ßÂó Ùý$ ÷ÀÆùß ÷À &Ú&ùèß áèùÔ´ ûÜ<Ìøù× æÚδ, &Ú&ùß á÷ÀÍûõß æÚÎÈ<Ùð {$ &$æ§ì$<Ùð ×$´Ô<ù à<&ßö$<ùß Ô ß Ô Ú {Ú ÷ÀÛ å<Ôùßð ´`ùÑùß &<ùß÷ÀÛ´ {$ à`è×Û´ ´ùß ´ ûùßõÚæ$´Ø×ùß ý`{`Øð áèùÔ´ {$ áè`ùßÒ´ ÷ÀÛÌé æÚδ &úÀ{$ &Ô÷¸&Ô ãûæØó &æ&ß æÚδ ÷À ´{Ú ÷ÀÛ èÝØ`<Ø×$èùß áðÔÑ× ×ÔõÝ ´ÕÙÚæ æ$Ì××ùß Ó. ×ö$ßæßõ èÝØ` æ$Ì×þ$Ø× à`&ÔØ` æ$ð èõß èÝØ` þÞÆæ$< ûÍó$´ù þÞÆæ$< (TRANSFORMATION ROLE) Ù& ùÈ æØ õÚÅ. ´´ û$ñ´$Ìè×ß û}´Ô æ$ð& ´êÚùß {ú¸ùß<$ ÷ÀùÔ Ùýù Ñ&ßõØ$õß´æ ÑÂ×´$Ù$< æÚÜ×$õß´æ æÚδ &úÀ{$ ×$÷À$ èõ {`æÚ æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ &õßõõÚ× ä{Ú ÷À<`ùÚ æ$ð&ð à`õÝ}õß æØ à`õ. È &|´ æÚÜ×$æ$Øæ´æß ´ àòÔ õØÆùß ûÚ×<Ø õÝùæß à`õÝ}õß <ù ûÍ÷ÀÚ &`<Ìøù× æØ õÚÅ. æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ<Ù û}´Ô <ù ûÚ×<Ø ´êÚùß &Ú&Ôùß áèùÔ´ð ý÷Àßø æØ è`ùÛ´ð àûßæßÂ$ æØùÔ Ù`Å. äý`Ñùß ´´ ûÚ×<Ø &Èýùßø æØ è`ùÛÈ ûÚ×<Ø (ENGAGEMENT STEP) <Á×ùß ùÈ æØ õÚÅ. ´{Ú à$ØÈþ×æß Ù& èÝØ`<Ø×$ èùÔ÷ÀùÔ þÞÆæ$Ó ÙæßÂó ûÜ÷ÀÌÁù× æØÆùß &Ú&Ôùß &´ê ÷Àý&æð ´ÔÙ ûÔØ×Ú. û&Ô< &`<$÷À×æð ûÍ<Ìõù× Ñ× {`æÚ È ÷Àý& ×ðõß èÓÂó×ß ×÷ÀÛ´ùß

24

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

&Ú&Ôùß &`<Ìøù× æØ èõ ×ÔõÝ ´ÕÙÚæ ùÚûÔóõ$ {$ &Èýùßø ûØ ÷À`ùÔ´ &Ú{Úûõß æØ è`ùÛ´ðõß, æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ<Ù á÷ÀÚÍ× ûÚ}ÚýúÀ áêÚ Ùý$ è`ùÛ´ðõß &Ú&Ôùð à<&ßö$< &`Ù&ß. ´´ à÷À{&ß {Ô<´$Ø`< &úÀ{$ ×$÷À$ èõ {`æÚ ãûæÜ´ Ø$ÁÚ×æß èÝØ`<Ø×$ &õÝ< à`õ. ûÜÁßù á÷ÀÚÍûõß æÚδ/ ûÚùßõÞØ, ûÔ<õßûõß ÷À`ùßÒÈ {$ &`ó ûõß (FLASH CARDS) <`ùÚ ãõßõßíæ ×$÷À$ è`ùÛ´ / è`ðÏ, ûÜ{ßÙÚæ$ {$ß &Ú÷Àß½ àø]×ù þ$Ñõ×/ ÷Àý&ß, þÞÆæ$ Ø`èù, æÑ, èÛõ, à$÷ÀÌÁù (DEMONSTRATIONS) &#íÔ< {$ß ÁÜ<] ûð {$ß ÷À#Á] ûð à`&ÔØùß ×$÷À$ è`ùÛ´ ´<ùß ãûæÜ´ æÚ{Úû×æÚ. &$Ø$`Á <Á×ùß û{õ &úÀ{ùß àØ´ÔóÔ õÝù &$æßÂ$õß æØ è`ùÛ´ ´ÔÙß æ$ð æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ<Ù û}´Ô <ù ûÚ×<Ø æÚÜ×$õß´æ Ó. · ûùßõÚ×ß à<ø$ù× ÷ÀÚù$ è`ùÛ´ · à<Á] ûØ ÷À`ùÔ´ &Ú{Úûõß æØ è`ùÛ´ð &Ú&Ôùßð à<&ßö$< Ùý$÷ÀÛ´. · æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ ÷À<`ùÚ ûÚ×<Ø ×ðõß &Ú&Ôùß ×$´Ô æÚδð àûßæßÂ$ æØù èÓÂó×ß ´ÕÙÚæ$`è &Ú&Ôùßð {ú¸ùß<$ ÷ÀÛ´. æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ ÷À<`ùÚ ûÚ×<Ø &`Ù&ÔÈ æØ à`õßõß èÓÂó× (EXPLORATION) &úÀ{$ &Ú&Ôùßð à<&ßö$< Ùý$÷ÀÛ´ð ×. &Ú&Ôùß èÓÂó×ß ×÷Àùßùß äß &úÀ{$ &ÔÑÁß < &æ&ß æØù Ù÷À ãû÷À&ß ûõÚÜæ$<æß û÷ÀùÈ æØ èù ×. è`ðÏ<ð &Èýùßø ÑÑø û`õÚ æóßò$×È <Á×ùß èÓÂó× æØÆùß &{×$ßèÛ áèùÔÈ ×÷ÀÛ´ð &Ú&Ôùßð {`æÚ <ù ûÍ÷ÀÚ ´´ èÓÂó× &`Ù&ÔÈ æÚδð èÝØ`<Ø×$ð &Ú÷¸ Ó. &û×$ à`õÚ &Èûõß ÷Ü<] ûÜ×$ßíù×ð èùÚÆùß, &õÚ´õß ý<ùß ×ÔõÝ< æóßò$×È &$æ§ì$ ´{×<Æùß &Ú&Ôùß èÓÂó×ß ùÚØõÒ´ ´´ ûÚ×<Ì <`÷Àèõß ÙæßÂó æÚ{Úû×æß Ó. æ$Ù×æß õÚ&ß&ß äý÷¸ æóßò$×È æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ<Ù ùÚØõÒ´ ùÚ&$ &ß<×` Ñù×, àù]×ùß ð &<ùß ÷ À Û ´ , àù]×ùß &´ê &{×$ß è ×ùß <`ò æÚ Í ´, å<Ô ù ð ã÷À < Ô Ò ´, æ$Ù æ}´ù$æØó×, èÝó$õß´æ ý<ùß á{} ùÚû`×ÔÈ Ùý$ è`ùÚ´, à<`æ ý< à$÷ÀÛ &$´$ù] ¶Ñõ×ð à<Á] <`÷Àèõß æÝ&Ùõ$ '&æß &`<Ìøù× æØ è`ùÛ´ð ÷À &Ú&Ôùð {`æÚ×$< Ù`Å. &Ú&Ôùß èÓÂó× &úÀ{$ ×$´Ô æÚÎÈ ÷ÀÛ ÁÚÂ] æóßò$×È<Ù ù$×æõß<× ûÚ}ÚýúÀ õÛØó è`ùÛ´ùß èÝØ`<Ø×$ <`}æÛ &Ú®× ×ÔõÝ àõØ &Ú&Ôùß àõÍùß ù$×æ×ùß ´õÝÒ´ð à<Á] û&Ôô û´óæß ´`ùÑùß &Ô÷À$ùÈ æ} ×ÔõÝ×. &`ê<ÔóÔ {`æÚ×$ û÷ÀùÈ æØ èùÚÆùß à<&ßö$<$ߥõ < ù$×æõß<× è`ùÛÈ <ØûÜ&$÷À× È àùÔ< &Ú&Ôùð {ÚÆ Ó. æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ õ<`ùÚ ûÚ×<Ì ÷ÀÛ &|´ æóßò$×´æð ´ õ´ èÓÂó ûÜõÚüÙ àùß à×èß ÷À`ù è`ùÛ´ &úÀ{$ á÷ÀÍûõß æÚδð à<&ßö$< &`Ù&ß. ´{Ú ÷ÀÛ èÝØ`<Ø×$ æ} ×Ôõßõß &´Õ{ á÷ÀÍûõß æÚÎÈ &úÀ{$ &Ú&Ôùß ÷ÀÚÍ´õß æÚδ×Ú. &|´ &$´$¬æ×æÝð ´ <èæÛÈ û`<Øù ûÍ÷ÀÚ á÷ÀÚÍûõß æÚÎÈ &`Ù&ÔÈ æÚδð &Ú&Ôùß ´{×Ò´ ÷À <`ò÷À$×æ×. &Ú&Ô àù$<Øó û`{`÷ÀÚÙÚ æÚδ (EXPLANATION) {$ &Èýùßø ´´ ûÚ×<Ì <`÷Àèõß ÙæßÂó×æß <ùßùß àûß ûùßõÚæ$´Ø õÝ} ùÚõØ à`&ù èÝØ` æöù× <ùÔ<ð &Ú&Ô {ô ´õÝ Ò´ð à<&ßö$ &Èû$÷Àù× Ò õÚÄ´ ×. æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ<Ù õ<ù ûÚ×<Ì ÷ÀÛ &$×$ è`ùÛÈ <`± ÷ÀÚ×ÔóÔ æÚδð ù`õßùÈ Ñ&ßõ$Øó×ð (ELABORATION) &Ú&Ôùß ×$´Ô æÚδ à<Á] Ó. äæß äæß æóßò$×´ å<Ôùßèß á÷ÀÚÍûõß æÚÎÈ à<&ùß æ} û&Ô äß ûÚ}ÚýúÀ &`<Ìøù$õß´æ ×$ßíù$ ´õÝ æÚδð á÷ÀÚÍûõß æ} æóßò$×È &Ú&Ôùßð û}´Ô < ÷À àùæß æóßò$×È<Ù &Ú&Ôùð ÷À<ùÔ < ÷À à<&ßö$< Ùý$ ÷ÀÛ´ùß ´× &Ú÷¸ æÌ. æ&ß <õõß à<&$ù &´$Ù$ßëù× ý$Ø <ùßùß èÝØ`<Ø×$ð ×. &Ú&Ôùß ùÚØõ <Õ èÓÂó×ð à÷À$} <`÷Àèõß æØ`óÔ &Ú×ÙßÙ û`{`÷ÀÚÙÚ <ù &ßõß &`æÙßû {$ ù]$××ùß ûÚ}ÚýúÀ ùÚ<`Ø÷ÀÚ à<ý$ßø× &Ú&Ôùß õÝ} õ{<ÔØ` <ù &ßõß ´´ &´$Ù$ßëù× &Ú÷¸ æÚδ èÝØ`<Ø×$èùß àûßæßÂ$ æÌ.

25

ûùßõÚæ$´Ø áèùÔÈ - áè`ùßÒÈ æÚÜ×$<ÙÚ× àûßæßÂÚõ à$æ$Ø×ùß &$Ìöæ < áðÔ <ùßùß ÷À`×Ú ùÚØõÝØ` < &$×$ ý`ÙÛ´ ´´ æÜ´Ó÷À× ×ðõß èÝØ`<Ø`ùß &õÝ ûÜø$ù <èæÛ´æÚ. È &úÀ{$ õæß&ßØ`< {$ à`è×Û´ ×$÷À$ èõ ×ÔõÝ àõØ äß &úÀ{$ ûÜ´$ó<õß áòæò áèùÔÈ - áè`ùßÑÈ æÚÜ×$<ÙÚ× õÝ} ÷ÀÛ ´ Ùý$ è`ùÛ´ð &`Ù&ÔÈèõ æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ èÝØ`<Ø×$ð à<&ßö$< &Ù&$ ÷Àß. æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ ÷À<`ùÚ ûÚ×<Ø ×ðõß &Ú&Ôùß èÓÂó×ß ×÷Àù Ñð õæß&ßØ`<ðõß (ASSESSMENT), æÚÜ×$æ$ØæÈ õ<ù ûÚ×<Ø ×ðõß &Ú&Ôùß û`{`÷ÀÚÙÚ æÚÎÈ {$ Ñ&ßõ$Øó×ð ×$´Ô <ù Ñð à`è×Û´ðõß (EVALUATION) èÝØ`<Ø×$ð áò õÚÅ. õæß&ßØ`< {$ à`è×Û´ ûÚ}ÚýúÀ Ñ&ßõØ$õß´æ Ñ´&Ô´æß èÝØ` ´$Ìè$ßû÷ÀßÁ &`èÜ{×ß õÝùß<ù æ$ð&{Ú ÷À`æß Ó. È ÷Àæß<$ Ñ&ßõØ æØù Ù÷À áèùÔÈ - áè`ùßÒÈ æÜ´Ó÷À× ûÍó$´ù þÞÆæ$< æÚÜ×$õß´æ æÚδ &úÀ{$ èÝØ`<Ø×$ ×$´Ô æØ<×Ú. ´{Ú ÷ÀÛ æóßò$×È èÓÂó×ð ´ÔÙß õ`ù Ù`ýù àõØ ÷Àý&ß, &`<$÷À {$ æ® ÷ÀßÁù &úÀ{$ ÷À èÝØ`<Ø×$ð à<æ$Á &`Ù&ß. ûÜÓÁ ûÚ×<Ì ÷ÀÛ ÷Àý&ð {$ &`<$÷À×ð à<&ßö$ à`õÚ àõØ à<&$ù ûÚ×<Ì &´$Ù$ßëù× ×ðõß æ® ÷À&Ô´æß ´êÚùß &`æÙßû õ{<ÔØ` æÚδð èÝØ`<Ø×$ð áò à`õ. ù< &{ÁÜæ×ß û}´Ô<ù ÑÂ×´$Ù$ ûÜõÚ&`&ßæØó× ×ðõß á÷ÀÍûõß <ù ´´ ÑÂ×´$Ù$< {$ &Èýùßø áèùÔÈ - áè`ùßÑÈ æÜ´Ó÷À× &`<Ìøù× æÚÎÈ ÷ÀÛ ûÍó$´ù èÝØ` þÞÆæ$<ð à´õØ < &ÈûÜßÂó {$ èùÔ÷ÀùÔ èÝØ` þÞÆæ$<ùßð à÷À$} <`÷Àèõß ÙæßÂó è`ù ÷À &`ÙæÚÙÚ´õß Ò´ ´´ æÜ´Ó÷À×ß ÑÁßÂõß<× Ù& &úÀ{ùß æ} {`æÚ Ó.

26

ls%hdldrlï ika;;sh

01' iuñ;sh

ksmqKd;dj 25 : úúO yevj, ,laIK .fõIKh lrñkaa wjg mßirfha w,xldr;ajh msßlaihs' jia;+ka f.a iuñ;sl .=K úuihs. úúO yevj, ,laIK y÷kd .ksuq. ñks;a;= 60 hs. · weuqKqu 25.1.1 g we;=<;a mska;+r igyk. · weuqKqu 25.1.2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a 4 la . · ;Ska;, l;=re, fnÿïlgq, nd. lvodis. · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 25.1 : ls%hdldrlu 25.1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï a : : :

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh: mshjr 25.1.1 : · ·

mska;+r igyk isiqkag bosrsm;a lrkak. tys we;s rEmj, olakg ,efnk ,laIK ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · we;eï rEmj, iudklï we;s nj yd we;eï rEmj, iudklï ke;s nj. · iudklï olakg we;s rEmj, fmdÿ,laIKhla we;s nj. ^ñks;a;= 10 hs&

mshjr 25.1.2

:

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia" ;Ska;, l;=re" fnoqïlgq nd. lvodis, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosrsm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak'. ^ ñks;a;= 20 hs &

27

mshjr 25.1.3 :

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bosrsm;a lsrSug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bosrsm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · ,nd.;a ish,qu yev iudk fldgia follska hqla; nj. · tfia iudk fldgia follska hqla; rEm oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh we;s rEm f,i y|qkajk nj. · oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;s yevhl iuñ;s wlaIhla we;s nj. · oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ; iys; yevhla iuñ;s wlaIh osf.a folg keuq úg tlsfkl iumd; jk fldgia folla ,efnk nj. · oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh yev mrsirfha olakg ,efnk nj. · iuñ;s wlaI tllg jvd we;s yev;, o we;s nj. ^ñks;a;= 30 hs &

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · · · · · oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh olakg we;s yev kï lrhs . iuñ;s .=Kh ;=<ska mrsirfha iqkaor;ajh w.h lrhs. oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh we;s yev ks¾udKh lrhs. s s lKavdhï ls%hd yd woyia oelaùfï oS úpdrYS,s fjhs. mrsirfha we;s yevj, úúO ,laIK olsñka kj ks¾udK ìys lrhs.

28

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mska;+r igyk

29

weuqKqu 25'1'1

25.1 2 weuqKqu 25 1.2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

úúO yevj, ,laIK y|qkd .ksu" my; oelafjk ls%hdj,s w;=frka Tfí lKavdhug kshñ; ls%hdj,sh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. 1. ls%hdj,sh 1 lvodish folg kjd os. yersh úg rEmhla ,efnk fia lmd tu rEmh bj;g f.k È. yßkak ls%hdj,sh 2 lvodishlg ;Ska; ìxÿq lsysmhla oud th folg kud msrsueo È. yßkak'

ls%hdj,sh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

3

ls%hdj,sh 4 kejqï odrh b;srsjk fia lvodisfhka lE,s lsymhla brd bj;alr lvodish os. s yrskak.

lvodish folg kud fnÿï lgqfjka hï rgdjlg isÿre lsymhla úo lvodish q s os. yrskak.

Tn lKavdhug wod< ls%hdj,sfha fhfokak: · ls%hdj,sh wjidkfha b;srs jq lvodisfha we;s yev kejqï odrh yd tys fomi ksrSlaIKh lr tajd igyka lrkak. · Tng ,enqKq rEmfha yevh yd odrh w;r we;s iïnkaO;dj fidhkak. · fomi iumd;jk fia tla kejqï f¾Ldjlg jvd ;sìh yels ;,rEm lsysmhla we| tajdfha kejqï f¾Ld igyka lrkak. · mrsirfha olakg ,efnk fujeks wjia:d ,ehsia;= .; lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bosrsm;a lsrSula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

30

02 l= , l

ksmK;dj 30 q : tosfkod cSú;fha lghq;= myiqlr .ekSu i|yd l=,l wdY%; uQ,O¾u yiqrejhs. s

ksmqK;d uÜgu 30.1 : tlu ,laIKhla iys; ldKav úúO l%u u.ska ksrEmKh lrhs. lshdldrlï 30.1 % ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï : l=,l y|qkd .ksuq; ksrEmKh lruq; : ñks;a;= 75 hs. : · weuqKqu 30.1.2 g we;=<;a rEm lÜg,j,g wh;a ldâm;a . · weuqKqu 30.1.1 g we;=<;a úYd,s; msx;+r igyk. · weuqKqu 30.1.3 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a 03la. · äuhs lvodis" meiag,a yd .ï.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï - b.ekaùSï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 30.1.1 : · úYd, lrk ,o msx;+r igyk mka;sh bosrsfha m%o¾Ykh lr tys we;s ;, rEm ldKav l< yels wdldrh isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · ø%jH iuQyhla fmdÿ ,laIK mokï lr .ksñka ldKavj,g fjkal< yels nj. · f;arï l< fmdÿ ,laIK ljf¾oehs fya;= iys;j S i|yka l< yels nj. · fmdÿ ,laIK wkqj fjka lr.;a iuQyh ixjD; rEmhla ;=< ,shd oelaúh yels nj. · fmdÿ ,laIKh wkqj tu iuQyh kï l< yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 15hs&

mshjr 30.1.2

: · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak. · ilia lr.;a ldâm;a lÜg," .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis" meiag,a" .ï lKavdhïj,g fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhï wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosrsm;a lsrSula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ ñks;a;= 30hs&

31

mahjr 30.1.3 s

:

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bosrm;a lsrug l=vd s S lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · bosrm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd s m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · · · · ksYÑ;j fjkalr y|qkd .; yels a ldKavhla l=,lhla f,i y|qkajk nj. l=,lhl wvx.= oE wjhj f,i y|qkajk nj. l=,lhla ixjD; rEmhlska ksrEmKh l< yels nj' ixjD; rEmhla ;=< l=,lhl wjhj olajd we;s úg th fjka rEmigyk f,i y|qkajkafka fuu rEm igyk uq,ska bÈßm;a l< fcdaka fjka .Ks;{hd isyùu msKi nj. s s ^ñks;a;= 30hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSñ ks¾Kdhl: · · · · l=,lhla hkq l=ula oehs úia;r lrhs. mßirfha we;s úúO oE" .=Kdx. wkqj ldKavj,g fjkal< yels nj ms<s.kshs. øjH iuQy fmdÿ ,laIK wkqj fjka rEm u.ska ksrEmKh lrhs. ;u jgmsgdj ms<sn| j fyd|ska wjfndaO lr .ekSu i|yd mßirh ms<sn| j úuis,su;a fjhs. · iuia;h olsñka wkqfldgia ú.%y lrhs .

32

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

7 1 4

10

mska;+r igyk

33

2

5

8 9 6

weuqKqu 30'1'1

3

weuqKqu 30.1.2

rEm lÜg, lÜg, wxl ^1&

28 , 75 , 136, 567 , 83 , wur, rg, u,, khkd, hk jpk iy

354,

mska;+r fjka fjka jYfhka tl neÕska jQ ldâm;a lÜg,hla

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

lÜg, wxl ^02& n,a,d, w,shd, yrld, lmqgd, .ssrjd, l=l=,d , frdaiu,, jou,, wr,sh u,, p;=ri%h , fnda,h ,;Km\qr, fjkaa fjka jYfhka tl ne.ska jq mska;+r lÜg,hla

lÜg, wxl ^03& ,S lnâ tl" fïih, mqgj, we| ,rdlalh ,msyh, msÕdk ,l=,, ,yÜáh , ghrh, q s a fmd;, ll=, ,fjka fjka jYfhka tl ne.ska jq msx;+r lÜg,hla

34

weuqKqu 30.1.3

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia l=,l y÷kd .ksuq; ksrEmKh lruq

my; oelafjk ldâm;a lÜg, w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqK ldâm;a lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ldâm;a lÜg, 1 ys øjH ldâm;a lÜg, 2 ys øjH ldâm;a lÜg, 3 ys øjH

·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

tu øjH leu;s wdldrhg hï lsis .=Kdx.hlg wkqj ldKavj,g fjka lrkak. ta ta ldKavj,g fjka lsÍfï oS Tn fhdod .;a .=Kdx.h ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrkak. tu ldKav j,g wh;a fkdjk øjH ;sfí kï tfia ùug fya;= bosßm;a lrkak. fjka lr.;a ldKav i|yd tu .=Kdx.h wkqj osh yels kula fhdackd lrkak. fjka lrk ,o ldKav ixjD; rem igyka weiqßka ksremKh lrkak. ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsßula i|yd iqodkï jkak.

·

·

·

· ·

35

03' idOl yd .=Kdldr 1

ksmqK;dj 1 : tosfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd ;d;a;úl ixLHd l=,lh ;=< .Ks;l¾u yiqrejhs. a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'2 : ixLHdjl idOl fiùug NdcH;d ßS;s Ndú; lrhs. ls%hdldrlu 1'2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï : : : ixLHdjl idOl fidhuq. ñks;;= 60hs a · · weuqKqu 1' 2' 1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla . äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 1.2.1 : · ixLHdjla foflka" mfyka" oyfhka" fnfoa oehs mÍlaId lrk wdldrh úuikak' . · ta weiqßka my; lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. ixLHdjl tlia:dkfha b,lalu brÜg kï tu ixLHdj foflka b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj. · ixLHdjl tlia:dkfha b,lalu ìxÿj fyda my kï tu ixLHdj mfykaa b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj. · ixLHdjl tlia:dkfha b,lalu ìxÿj kï tu ixLHdj oyfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj' · ^ñks;;= 15hs& a mshjr 1.2.2 : · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia "äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

36

31

mshjr 1.2.3

:

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bosßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. bosßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak. wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · ixLHdjl b,lalï ;ks b,lalula ,efnk f;la tl;= lsÍfuka tu ixLHdfõ b,lalï o¾Ylh ,efnk nj. · b,lalï o¾Ylh ;=k, yh, kjh jk ixLHd ;=fkka b;srs ke;sj fnfok nj. · b,lalï o¾Ylh kjh jk ixLHd kjfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj. · ixLHdjl oiia:dkfha iy tlia:dkfha we;s b,lalï foflka iEfok ixLHdj y;frka b;sß ke;sj fnfoa kï tu m<uq ixLHdj y;frka b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj. · foflka yd ;=fkka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHd yfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok nj.

^ñks;;= 30hs& a ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · · ;=fkka" y;frka" yfhka" kjfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHd fnoSfuka f;drj fidhd .kakd l%u úia;r lrhs. ;=fkka b;sß ke;sj fnfok" y;frka b;sß ke;sj fnfok yfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok" kjfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHdj, hï rgdjla we;s nj ms<.ksh. s s ;=fkka" y;frka" yfhka" kjfhka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHd ,shd olajhs. f;dr;=re ksÍlaIKfhka iïnkaO;d fidhd .kshs. wkH lKavdhïj, woyia úpdrYS,S j i,ld n,hs.

· · ·

37

1.2 1 weuqKqu 1 2.1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ixLHdjl

·

idOl fidhuq

my; oelafjk ixLHd w;=frka Tn lKavdhug wod< ixLHdj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ixLHdj 3 4 6 9

· · ·

· ·

leu;s ixLHd 15 la ,shd Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s ixLHdfjka tu ixLHd fnokak. b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHd yd tfia fkdfnfok ixLHd f,i ldKav follg fjka lrkak. b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHd ldKavfhys we;s ixLHd fyd|ska ksÍlaIKh lr fnoSfuka f;drj § we;s ixLHdfjka b;sß ke;sj fnok nj fidhd.kakd l%uhla fhdackd lrkak' by; wkdjrKhg wkqj Tn lKavdhug ,enqk ixLHdfjka fnÈh yels ixLHd 10 la ,shd Tn fidhd .;a l%uh ksjerÈ oehs mÍlaId lrkak' lKavdhï wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg bosßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak.

38

3' idOl yd .=Kdldr

ksmqK;dj 1 :

11

;d;a;aúl ixLHd l=,lh ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejñka tosfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idlaId;a lr .ksh' s ixLHdj, idOl yd .=Kdldr fiùfï l%u úu¾Ykh lrhs' ixLHdj, uyd fmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh fidhuq' ñks;;= 80 hs' a · · · 10 x 10 .=Kk j.=j weuqKqu 1.3.1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1.3

:

lshdldrlu 1.3 %

:

ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

: :

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 1.3.1 : · 10 x 10 .=Kk j.=j mka;sfha m%o¾Ykh lr ta weiqfrka .=Kdldr" idOl yd m%:ul idOl ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · ixLHdjla ;j;a ixLHdjlska .=KlsÍfuka tu ixLHdfõ .=Kdldrhla ,efnk nj. · ixLHdjla b;sß ke;sj fnosh yels ixLHd tu ixLHdfõ idOl nj. · ´kEu ixLHdjl" 1 yd tu ixLHdj tys idOlhla jk nj. · ixLHdjl úYd,u idOlh tu ixLHdju jk nj. · tlsfklg fjkia idOl folla muKla we;s ixLHd m%:ul ixLHd nj. · ixLHdjla m%:ul ixLHdjkaaf.a .=Ks;hla f,i ,súh yels nj. · tfia .=Ks;hla f,i ,shk ,o ixLHd" uq,a ixLHdfõ m%:ul idOl f,i y÷kajk nj'

^ñks;a;= 15hs&

39

mshjr 1.3.2

:

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 35hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bosßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bosßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · ixLHd lsysmhl uyd fmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh tu ixLHd i|yd iqúfYaIs w.hka nj. · ixLHd lsymhla b;srs ke;sj fnosh yels úYd,u s ixLHdj tu ixLHdj, uyd fmdÿ idOlh nj. · ixLHd lsysmhlska b;sß ke;sj fnosh yels l=vdu ixLHdj tu ixLHdj, l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh nj. · uydfmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh m%:ul idOl weiqfrka ,nd.; yels nj. · uydfmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh ,nd.; yels fnoSfï l%uhla o ;sfnk nj. ^ñks;a;= 30hs&

mshjr 1. 3. 3

:

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · ixLHd m%:ul idOl weiqfrka ,sùfuka tu ixLHdj,g fmdÿ jq idOl yd .=Kdldr ,nd.kakd wdldr i|yka lrhs. · tlu fõ,djg mgkaf.k ksYaÑ; ld, wka;rj,j, oS isÿ jk isoaê lsysmhla kej; tlu fõ,djl oS isÿúh yels nj ms<s.ksh. s · fok ,o ixLHdj, uyd fmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh fidhhs. · .eg¨j,g úiÿï fiùfï oS Ndú; l< yels úl,am l%u w;=frka myiq u l%uh fhdod .kshs. · fmr oekqu fhdod .ksñka kj lreKq u;=lr .kshs.

40

weuqKqu 1.3.1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

ixLHdj, uyd fmdÿ idOlh yd l=vd fmdÿ .=Kdldrh · fidhuq

my; i|yka ixLHd hq., w;frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk ixLHd hq.,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ixLHd hq.,h ^i& ^ii) ^iii& (iv) 12 , 12 , 8 , 10 , 18 10 20 15

·

ixLHd hq.,fha tla tla ixLHdfõ idOl weiqfrka tu ixLHd folg u fmdÿ jQ úYd, u idOlh fidhkak. ta i|yd iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. ixLHd hq.,fha tla tla ixLHdfõ .=Kdldr ,shñka tu ixLHd folg u fmdÿ jq l=vdu .=Kdldrh fidhkak. Tn lKavdhu ,nd.;a by; idOlh yd .=Kdldrh ixLHd hq.,fha m%:ul idOl weiqfrka ,nd .ekSug l%uhla fhdackd lrkak. by; w.hhka ,nd.; yels fjk;a l%u ms<sn| j fidhd n,kak. lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,s j iuia; mka;hg bosßm;a lsÍug a s iQodkï jkak.

· ·

·

· ·

41

04' o¾Yl

ksmK;dj q 6 : : : : : ,>q.Kl yd .Kl Ndú;fhka tosfkod Ôú;fha .eg¨ úi|hs. mdoh ùÔh wdldrfhka jQ n,hl w.h fidhhs. mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jQ n,hl w.h fidhuq. ñks;a;= 90 hs. · weuqKqu 6.1.1 g we;=<;a n, ksrEms; igyk · weuqKqu 6.1.2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a folla. · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6.1 ls%hdldrlu 6.1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 6.1.1 : · ixLHd;aul n, ksrEms; igyk mka;sfha m%o¾Ykh lrkak. · n,hl o¾Ylh yd mdoh fjka fjkaj y÷kd .ekSu" n,hla lshjk wdldrh yd n,hla m%idrKh lrk wdldrh ms<sn| isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · mdoh yd o¾Ylh ixLHd;aul jq n, mej;sh yels nj. · n,hla tys mdoh mqk mqkd .=KlsÍula f,i ,shd oelaúh yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 6' 1' 2 : · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï follg fjka lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq fldg tla tla lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak. · l==vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 35hs&

42

mshjr 6.1.3 :

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bosßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. bosßm;a l< lKavdhugg úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak. wfkla lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jQ n,hla tu ùÔh ixfla;h mqk mqkd .=KlsÍula f,i m%idrKh l< yels nj' · ùÔh ixfla;hla mqk mqkd .=KlsÍfuka" tu ùÔh ixfla;fha mdoh o mqk mqkd .=K l< jdr .Kk o¾Ylh o jk n,hla ,nd .; yels nj' · mdoh ùÔh jQ n,hla ùÔh ixfla;hg ixLHdjla wdfoaY lr iqM lsÍfuka ixLHd;aul w.hka ,nd .; yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 40 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jq n,hl mdoh yd o¾Ylh kï lrhs' · n, Ndú;h ixLHd;aul m%ldYk flálr ,sùfï l%uhla f,i ms<s.kshs' · mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jQ n, m%idrKh lrhs' · lKavdhu ;=< iyfhdaa.fhka ;¾ldkql+,j isoaOdka; f.dvk.hs' · ixlS¾K foa ir, lr .ekSfï Wmdh ud¾. fidhhs'

43

weuqKqu 6. 1. 1

n, ksrEms; igyk

·

<uhl=g wT f.ä 3 ne.ska o <uqka 3 lg fnod oSug wjYH wTf.ä ixLHdj n,hla f,i fuys mdoh o¾Ylh = 3 = 2

·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ffjoHjrfhla frda.sfhl=g fufia mjihs' fuu fnfy;a fm;s jrlg 2 ne.ska osklg 2 jrla osk 2 la .kak

osk folla wjidkfha .;a fnfy;a fm;s ixLHdj = 2 x 2 x 2 n,hla f,i fuys mdoh = 2 2 2 32× 23× 2 3 o¾Ylh = 3

44

weuqKu 6.1.2 q

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

mdoh ùÔh ixfla;hla jq n,hl w.h fidhuq · my; oelafjk fldgia w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqK fldgi fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak.

1 fldgi <ufhl=g fgd*s x ne.ska <uqka <uqka fofkla w;r fnod oSug wjYH fgd*s m%udKh.

11 fldgi jrlg fm;s ne.ska osklg jrla osk .Kkla Ndú;h i|yd wjYH fnfy;a fm;s m%udKh.

x · Tn lKavdhug ,enqk fldgig wod< j tys mejfik ùÔh m%ldYkh oelaúh yels wdldr folla fhdackd lrkak.

· ys w.h 2 jk úg w.hhka ii|kak. ys w.h 3 jk úg m%ldYkh i|yd ,efnk ixLHd;aul

· Tn f.dv ke.+ ùÔh m%ldYkh wdldrfha jq m%ldYk tosfkod Ôú;fha f.dvk.d .; yels wjia:d lsysmhla bosßm;a lrkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

45

05' ld,h

ksmqk;dj 12 : ld,h l<uKdlrKh lrñka jev f,dalfha wjYH;d imqrd .kshs.

ksmqK;d uÜfu 12.1 : ld,h iïnkaO ñkqï uq,l .Ks; l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs. s ls%hdldrlu 12.1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï : ld,h uksuq. : ñks;a;= 105 hs. :

· weuqKqu 12.1.1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla. · úrdu >áld ;=kla. · .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ i|yka Èk o¾Yk lÜg, ;=kla . · isxy, yd yskaÿ w¿;a wjqreÿ pdß;% we;=<;a ,s;la. · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a. bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 12.1.1 : · issxy, yd yskaÿ w¿;a wjqreÿ pdß;% we;=<;a ,s;la mka;shg bosßm;a lr tys oelafjk kele;a wjia:d ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · fõ,djka folla w;r fjki ld,h nj. · mDÓúhg iQ¾hhd jgd iïmQ¾K jghla hdug .;jk ld,h" wjqreoaola " nj. · ;;amr" ñks;a;=" meh" osk" i;s" wjqreÿ wdosh ld,h olajk tall nj. · ;;amr 60 } ñks;a;=1hs. ñks;a;= 60 } meh 1hs. meh 24 } osk 1hs. osk 30 } udi 1hs. udi 12 } wjqreÿ 1nj. · iïu; wdldrhg oskh ,sùfï oS j¾Ih b,lalï y;rlska o udih b,lalï follska o oskh b,lalï follska o hk wkqms<sfj<ska olajk nj. ^ñks;a;= 15hs& mshjr 12.1.2 : · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia" Èk o¾Yk äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' ^ñks;a;= 50hs&

46

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 12.1. 3

:

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bosrm;a lsrug l=vd s S lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak. bosßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak . my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · mD;=úhg iQ¾hhd jgd tla jghla hdug .;jk ld,h osk 365 meh 5 ñks;a;= 48 ;;amr 47 nj.

· osk 365 wjqreoaola f,i .kakd nj. · wêl wjqreoaolg osk 366 la we;s nj. · hïlsis j¾Ihla y;frys .=Kdldrhla kï th wêl wjqreoaola jq j o tu j¾Ih 100 ys .=Kdldrhla o jkafka kï th wêl wjqreoaola jkafka 400 ys .=Kdldrhla jk úg muKla nj. · Y;lhlg wjqreÿ 100l ld,hla wh;a nj. · ls%' j' 1 - 100 f;la m<uq Y;lh nj. · ls%' j' 101 - 200 f;la fojk Y;lh nj. · ls%' j 2001 - 2100 f;la 21 jk Y;lh nj. · ld,h uekSfï tall w;r we;s iïnkaO;djfhka tall mßj¾;kh lrñka ffoksl lghq;=j, oS ld,h tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu isÿ l< yels nj. · mqoa.,fhl=f.a jhi fiúh hq;= oskfhka Tyqf.a Wmka oskh wvq lsßfuka jhi ,efnk nj. ^ïks;a;= 40hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · wêl wjqreÿ" Y;l yd l,dka;r fidhk wdldrh úia;r lrhs. · jeh jQ ld,hla wdmiq fkd,efnk neúka ld,h m%fhdackj;a f,i fhdod .; hq;= nj ms<s.kshs. · ld,h tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu ksjeros j isÿ lrhs. · ksjeros j ld,h l<ukdlrKh lrhs. · f;dr;=re wkqj ks.ukj,g t<fUhs.

47

12.1 1 weuqKqu 12 1.1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ld,h uks u

· my; oelafjk osk o¾Yk lÜg, w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk j¾Ij, osk o¾Yk fyd|ska wOHhkh lrkak. lÜg,h j¾I 2008 2007 2006 1996 1 lÜg,h 2 j¾I 1999 2004 2005 2006 lÜg,h 3 j¾I 1998 2006 2007 2008

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · ·

Tn lKavdhug ,enqk osk o¾Yk wkqj tla tla udihg we;s osk .Kk fidhd wjqreoaolg we;s osk .Kk ms<n| Tfí woyia ,shkak. s wjqreoaolg we;s uqM osk .Kk jeäu w.hla .kakd wjqreÿ i|yd tfia ùug fya;=j idlÉPd lrkak. jeäu osk .Kkla we;s wjreÿ i|yd iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. oS we;s ´kEu j¾Ihla Tfí kï lsÍug wkqj fjka lr y÷kd .ekSug l%uhla fhdackd lrkak. wm "wm rgg ksoyi ,enqfka 20 jk Y;lfha ueo Nd.fha oS h' fõ.'' ls%'j' 0001 isg 0100 f;la ld,h m<uqjk Y;lh fõ

·

· · · ·

by; f;dr;=rej,g wkqj Tng oS we;s Èk o¾Ykj, i|yka j¾I wh;a jk Y;l fudkjdoehs idlÉPd lr tajd wdrïN jk yd wjika jk osk ,shd olajkak. ´kEu j¾Ihla wh;a jk Y;lh fidhd .ekSu i|yd myiq l%uhla fhdackd lrkak. mqoa.,fhl=f.a jhi ,nd.kakd wdldrh meyeos,s lr Tfí lKavdhfï idudðlhskaf.a wo oskg jhi fidhkak. ;j wjqreÿ 05 udi 08 osk 25 lg miq Tfí lKavdhfï tla tla idudðlhskf.a a jhi fidhkak. Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrKhka ks¾udKYS,s j iuia; mka;hg bosßm;a lsÍug s iQodkï jkak.

48

06' ia l ka O h

ksmqK;dj 9 : ialkaOh ms<sn| wjfndaOfhka hq;=j lghq;= lrñka ffoksl wjYH;d imqrd .kshs. ialkaOh iïnkaO ñkqï uQ,sl .Ks; l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs. · ialkaOh uksu. q · ñks;a;= 110 hs.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'1

:

lshdldrlu % ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

: : :

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· fmd,a f.ähla. · m<;=re j¾.hl f.ähla ^ osjq,a "fn,s, .ia,nq , wkakdis jeks& · .Ks;h fm< fmd;. · ;rdos 4 la. · kg , g mä lÜg,. · mg nr i|yka fnfy;a fm;s. · fnfy;a l=mams. · wiqrk. · weuqKqu 9. 1. 1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a. bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 9'1'1 : · wiqrk" fnfy;a l=mams" fnfy;a fm;s" m%o¾Ykh lrñka tajdfha oelafjk ialkaO ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · tosfkod Ôú;fha ialkaO uekSu i|yd g iy kg Ndú; lrk nj. · l=vd ialkaO uekSu i|yd ñ,s.a?ï ^mg) Ndú; lrk nj. · 1000g = 1 kg nj. · 1000 mg = 1g nj' ^ïks;a;= 10 hs&

49

mshjr 9' 1' 2 :

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak'. · .fõIK Wmfoia " äuhs lvodis" meiag,a yd ta ta lKavdhug wjYH øjH lKavdhïj,g fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bosßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · bosßm;a l< lKavdhugu úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · tosfkod cSú;fha lghq;=j, § ialkaOh ksudkh lsÍfï wjYH;d we;s jk nj. · ialkaOh ksudkh lsÍfï § fm!oa.,sl w;aoelSï WmldÍ jk nj. (ïks;a;= 20 hs&

mshjr 9. 1. 3 :

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 9 .1.4 :

· mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilikak. · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bosßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 30hs& : · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jkfia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak.

mshjr 9.1.5

50

· .a/ï" lsf,da.a/ï ñkqï .Ks; l¾uj, yeisrùfï § .a/ï" lsf,da.a/ïj,g o lsf,da.a/ï" .a?ïj,g o mßj¾;kh lsÍug isÿ jk wjia:d we;s nj. · ñ,s.?ï" .a?ï ñkqï .Ks; l¾uj, a yeisrùfï § ñ,s.?ï" .a?ïj,g o .a?ï a ñ,s.a?ïj,g o mßj¾;kh lsÍug isÿ jk wjia:d we;s nj.

^ñks;a;= 20 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · tÈfkod Ôú;fha ialkaOh ksudkh lr.; hq;= wjia:d úia;r lrhs. · kshu ialkaOh lsrd .ekSug fkdyels úg ialkaOh ksudkh l< yels nj ms<s.kshs.

· ialkaOh wdYs%; ñkqï .Ks; l¾uj, yiqrejhs. · ;¾ldkql+,j lghq;= lrñka ls%hdldrlfuys id¾:l;ajhg odhlfõ. · tÈfkod Ôú;fha lghq;= ld¾hlaIu j isÿ lr .ekSug úpdrYS,Sj ñkqï fhdod .kshs.

51

weuqKqu 9.1.1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ia l ka O h uks u q

1 fldgi · my; i|yka øjH w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq øjH flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak.

fmd,a f.äh

m<;=re f.äh

.Ks;h fm< fmd;

· · · · ·

tu øjHfhys ialkaOh lKavdhfï tla tla wh úiska ksudkh lrkak. ;rdÈh Ndú; lr tu øjHfha ialkaOh uek .kak. ienE ialkaOh iy tla tla idudðlhd f.a ksudks; ialkaOh w;r fjki oelafjk igykla ilia lrkak. tla tla idudðlhd ksudks; w.h ,nd .ekSfï § ,o w;aoelSï lKavdhu ;=< idlÉPd lrkak. Tfí wkdjrK iuia; mka;shg ks¾udKYS,S j bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak.

52

2 fldgi øjH lSmhl ialkaOhka my; j.=fjys oelafõ j.=j fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak øjHh hlv oïje, mdi,a nE.h ms;;, myk a u,a fmdaÉÑh uqoo a ud,h lrdnq fcdavqj kg 8 2 5 4 g 600 750 950 825 12 22 4 mg 450 800 250

·

my; i|yka øjH lÜg, w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq øjH lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ^1& øjH lÜg,h ^11& øjH lÜg,h mdi,a nE.a myla ^111& øjHh lÜg,h hlv oïjef,ka y;frka mx.=jla lrdnqjla

A

ms;a;, myk" u,a fmdaÉÑh" ud,h" uqoao

B

lrdnq fcdavq y;rla

j.=j weiqfrka" · A ldKavfha øjHj, ialkaOh fidhkak. · B ldKavfha øjHj, ialkaOh fidhkak. · ud,h uqoaog jvd fldmuK ialkaOfhka jeä oehs fidhkak. · ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

53

7' fldaK 1

ksmqK;dj 21 : úúO fldaK w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs. iaÓ;sl yd .;sl ixl,am weiqßka fldaK ú.%y lrhs. fldaK y÷kd .ksuq. ñks;a;= 60 hs. · weuqKqu 21.1.1g we;=<;a mska;+r igyk. · weuqKqu 21.1.2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla. · brgq, T¾f,daiq uqyqK;a y;rla, nd. lvodis · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 21.1

:

ls%hdldrlu 21.1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

: : :

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 21.1.1 :

·

·

mska;+r igyk mka;shg bÈßm;a lr iDcq fldaKh weiqfrka tys fldaKj, úYd,;ajh ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jkfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · · idcqfldaKhg jvd l=vd fldaK iq¿fldaK f,i y÷kajk nj. iDcqfldaK tllg jvd jeä tfy;a follg wvq fldaK uyd fldaK nj. iDcqfldaK follg iudk fldaK ir, fldaK f,i y÷kajk nj. iDcqfldaK follg jvd úYd, fldaK mrdj¾; fldaK f,i y÷kajk nj. ^ ñks;a;= 10 hs&

· ·

54

mshjr 21.1.2

:

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak · .fõIK Wmfoia" nd. lvodis" äuhs lvodis" meiag,a" Trf,daiq uqyK;a" brgq".ï" lKavdhï q w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 20 hs& : · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßsug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · ir, f¾Ld folla yuqùfuka fldaKhla iEfok nj. · fldaKhl w.h iaÓrj mj;S kï th iaÓ;sl wjia:dj nj. · fldaKhl tla ndyqjla wp,j ;nd wfkla ndyqj N%uKh lsÍfuka fldaKhla ks¾udKh jk wjia:dj .;sl wjia:dj nj. · mßirfha fldaK .;sl yd iaÓ;sl hk wjia:d foflka u we;s nj.

mshjr 21.1.3

^ ñks;a;= 30hs&

55

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl: · · · · · fldaKhl .;sl yd iaÓ;sl ixl,am meyeÈ,s lrhs. iaÓ;sl yd .;sl jYfhka fldaKhl iajNdjhka folla we;s nj ms<s.kshs. mßirfha we;s úúO yev w;ßka iaÓ;sl fyda .;sl fyda iajNdjfhka hq;a fldaK fjkalr olajhs. mßirfha we;s úúO yev ms<sn| j úuis,su;a fjhs. m%dfhda.sl Ôú;fha § wjYH;d y÷kdf.k ls%hd lrhs.

56

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

(1)

(1V)

(11)

57

weuqKqu 21'1'1

(V)

(111)

weuqKqu 21'1'2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia fldaK y÷kd .ksuq

· my; oelafjk fldaK w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq fldaK j¾.h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak.

A

B

C

D

iq¿ fldaKh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

uyd fldaKh

iDcq fldaKh

ir, fldaKh

· ·

· · · ·

brgq we,ùfuka Tng wh;a fldaK j¾.h ks¾udKh lrkak' th ir, odrh weiqßka lvodish u; w¢kak. Trf,daiq uqyqKf;ys meh lgqj ksYap,j ;nd ñks;a;= lgqj N%uKh lsÍfuka o Tng wh;a fldaK j¾.h ,nd.kak' th ir, odrh weiqßka lvodish u; w¢kak. by; wdldr fol u.ska fldaK ,nd .ekSfï § Tn ÿgq iudklï yd wiudklï ms<sn| j idlÉPdjla lrkak. tu fldaKh iEÿkq ir, f¾Ld LKav folg iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. ir, f¾Ld LKav fol yuqjk fmdÿ ,laIHhg iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

58

07' fldaK 11

ksmqK;dj 21 ksmqK;d uÜgu 21'2 ls%hdldrlu 21'2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï : : : : : úúO fldaK w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs' fldaKj, m%udKd;aul w.hhka úu¾Ykh lrhs' fldaK uksuq; kï lruq; w¢uq' ñks;;= 180 hs' a · weuqKqu 21'2'1 g we;=<;a fldaKudk rEm igyk' · weuqKqu 21'2'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · cHdñ;sl WmlrK lÜg, y;rla nd. lvodis' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 21.2.1 :

· jD;a; yev lvodishla kud iDcqfldaKS yev y;rla ,nd.; yels neõ fmkajd fokak. · fldaKudkh wOHhkhg wjia:dj i,ikak. · fldaKudkhl úYd,s; fmdaiagrhla u.ska w¾O jD;a;h fnod fjka lr we;s fldgia ms<n| j y÷kd .ekSug s i,ikak. · fldaK uekSug iqÿiq tall ms<sn| j my; lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · fldaKhl úYd,;ajh uksk tallhla f,i iDcqfldaKh yd wxYlh .; yels nj. · jD;a;hla iudk flakøl Lkav fldgia a s y;rlg fjka l< úg ,efnk fldgilska iDcqfldaKhla fmkaúh yels nj. · jD;a;dldr wdia;rhla iudk flakaøsl LKav 360 lg fnod ,efnk flakaøsl LKavhl fldaKh wxYlhla f,i y÷kajk nj. · fldaKudkh wxYl lg fnod olajd we;s nj. · myiqj i|yd wxYl oyfhka oyhg ,l=Kq lr we;s nj. ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

59

mshjr 21.2.2

: ·

·

·

· ·

mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak. .fõIK Wmfoia "nd. lvodis "äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 40 hs&

mshjr 21. 2. 3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

:

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · · fldaKfhys tla nyqjla u; fldaK udkfha mdol f¾Ldj msysgk fia o fldaKfha YS¾Ih u; mdol f¾Ldfõ uOH ,laIHh msysgk fia o fldaK udkh ;eìh hq;= nj. · fldaKfha wfkla ndyqj iu. iumd; jk fldaKudkfha i,l=K wkqj fldaKfha w.h wxYlj,ska ,nd .; yels nj. · iDcqfldaKh wxYl 90 la nj. · iq¿fldaKh wxYl 90 g wvq nj. · uyd fldaKh wxYl 90 g jeä yd wxYl 180 g jvd wvq nj. · fldaKudkh Ndú;fhka wdikak wxYlhg fldaKhla ueksh yels nj. · fldaKhl ndyq foflka tla ndyqjl wka;fha isg YS¾Ih yryd wfkla ndyqfõ wka;hg we;s bx.%sis wl=re ms<sfj<ska ,shd ueo wl=rg by<ska fldaK ixfla;h

^ & fh§fuka fldaKhla kï lrk nj

60

WodyrK :

B

A

C

· fuu fldaKh f,i ,shk nj' · fok ,o w.hlska hq;a fldaKhla fldaKudkh Ndú;fhka ksjerÈj we¢h yels nj' ^ñks;;= 50hs& a mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak. .fõIK Wmfoiaj, fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;;= 30 hs& a · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jkfia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · · · fldaK foll tl;=fjka fjk;a fldaKhla ,efnk nj. · iq¿ fldaK foll tl;=fjka iq¿ fldKhla, iDcqfldaKhla fyda uyd fldaKhla ,efnk nj. · iq¿ fldaKhla yd iDcq fldaKhl tl;=fjka uyd fldaKhla ,efnk nj. · iDcq fldaKhla yd uyd fldaKhl tl;=fjka mrdj¾; fldaKhla ,efnk nj. · uyd fldaKhla yd iq¿ fldaKhl tl;=fjka uyd fldaKhla" ir, fldaKhla fyda mrdj¾; fldaKhla ,efnk nj. · uyd fldaK folla tl;=fjka mrdj¾; fldaKhla ,efnk nj. ^ñks;a;= 40 hs&

61

mshjr 21'2'4

:

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 21.2.5

:

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · · · · · wxYlh hkak úia;r lrhs. fldaK uekSug iqÿiq tallhla f,i wxYl fhdod.; yels nj ms<s.kshs. fldaK ksjerÈj wdikak wxYlhg uek olajhs. ksjerÈ ñkqï ,nd.ekSu i|yd WmlrK ksjerÈ j yiqrejhs. úúO iïnkaO;d wOHhkh lrñka ksjerÈ ks.ukj,g t<fThs.

62

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

fldaKudkh rEm igyk

63

weuqKqu 21'2'1

weuqKqu 21'2'2 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia fldaK uksuq; kï lruq; w¢uq 1 fldgi · A my; i|yka fldaK w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq fldaK j¾.h flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak C

O

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

B fldaKh 1

O

D fldaKh 2

M P

O

N fldaKh 3

Q fldaKh 4 O

64

· fldaKudkh Ndú;fhka tys úYd,;ajh fiùug l%uhla fhdackd lr tys úYd,;ajh wxYlj,ska ,nd.kak. · § we;s wlaIr fhdod .ksñka fldaKh kï l< yels l%uhla ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrkak. · Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq fldaK j¾.hg u wh;a fjk;a úYd,;ajhlska hq;a fldaKhla fhdackd lr tu m%udKhg fldaKhla we| kï lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,s j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak. 2 fldgi · my; oelafjk fldaK j¾. w;frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk fldaK j¾. fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak.

^1& iq¿ fldaK ;=kla

^2& iq¿ fldaK folla yd iDcqfldaKhla

^3& iDcqfldaKhla yd uyd fldaK folla

^4& iq¿fldaK folla yd uyd fldaKhla

· ·

· ·

,enqk fldaK j¾.hg wod< úYd,;ajfhka hq;a fldaK ;=kla w¢kak. YS¾I yd ndyq iïnkaO lrñka fldaK folla ne.ska tla lsÍug l%uhla idlÉPd lrkak. tu.ska iEfok fldaKfha j¾.h ms<sn| .fõIKhl fhfokak. fldaK hq., ;=kla i|yd fufia f;dr;=re /ia lrkak. Tn ,nd.;a f;dr;=re u; úúO fldaK folla tl;=fjka ,efnk fldaK j¾.h úuiqulg Ndckh lrkaak. lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udkKYS,S j iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak.

65

08'

ksmqK;dj 1 :

iÈY ixLHd

tÈfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd ;d;a;úl ixLHd l=,lh ;=< a .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs. ixLHd w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs. iÈY ixLHd y÷kd .ksu. q ñks;a;= 105 hs. · weuqKqu 1' 1' 1 g we;=<;a ixLHd f¾Ldfõ rEm igyk. · weuqKqu 1' 1' 2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla. · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a. · ixLHd f¾Ldfõ rEmigyk mka;shg bÈßm;a lrñka tys oelafjk ,laIHj,ska ksrEmKh jk ixLHd ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · · ixLHd f¾Ldj u; ,laIHhlska ksÅ,hla ksrEmKh l< yels nj. Ok yd iDK mQ¾K ixLHd Ok ksÅ, yd iDK ksÅ, f,i y÷kajk nj. ^ñks;a;= 10hs&

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'1 lshdldrlu 1'1 % ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

: : : :

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 1'1'1'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 1'1'2

:

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' . · .fõIK Wmoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 30hs&

66

mshjr 1'1'3

:

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak . · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · · Ok fyda iDK ,l=K iys; ixLHd iÈY ixLHd nj. Ok ksÅ," iDK ksÅ," ÈYdjla iys; Nd. yd oYu ixLHd iÈY ixLHdj,g wh;a jk nj. ys ixLHd f¾Ldfõ w;r yß ueÈka nj. iEu iÈY ixLHdjlg u ixLHd f¾Ldj u; msysàula we;s nj. · "0' g ÈYdjla fkdue;s neúka th iÈY ixLHdjla fkdjk nj' · ^ñks;a;= 25hs& msysàu yd

·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 1'1'4:

· mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;;= 20hs& a

67

mshjr 1'1'5

:

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · Ok ixLHd foll tl;=j Ok ixLHdjla nj. · iDK ixLHd foll tl;=j iDK ixLHdjla nj. · úcd;Sh ,l=Kq iys; ixLHd tl;= lsÍfï § ms<s;=fr ys ,l=K ixLHd wkqj fjkia jk nj. · iÈY ixLHd o ksÅ, tl;= lrk wdldrhg u tl;= l< yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 20hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl: · iÈY ixLHd i|yd WodyrK olajhs. · Y+kHh f,i uÜgula f;dard .;a úg thg wvq yd jeä ;;a;aj oelaùfï § iÈY ixLHd fhdod .; yels nj ms<s.kshs. · iÈY ixLHd tl;= lrhs. · ixlS¾K wjia:d ir, lr .ekSug rEmsl ksrEmK fhdod .kshs. · ixlS¾K ls%hdj,shl fh§fï § ir, foh wkq.ukh lrhs.

68

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ixLHd f¾Ldj - rEmigyk

A B C D E = = = = =

69

69 weuqKqu 1.1.1

weuqKqu 1. 1. 2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia iÈY ixLHd y÷kd .ksuq

1 fldgi my; oelafjk ixLHd ldKav w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq ixLHd ldKavh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak.

ixLHd ldKavh ^1& ixLHd ldKavh ^11&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ixLHd ldKavh ^111& ixLHd ldKavh ^1v)

· · · · · ·

Tn óg fmr W.;a ksÅ, yd ksÅ, fkdjk ixLHd w;r we;s fjki idlÉPd lrkak. fuu ÈYdjla iys; ixLHd we;=<;a ixLHd l=,lhg kula fhdackd lrkak. ixLHd f¾Ldjla we| fuu ixLHd tys ,l=Kq lrkak. Nd. yd oYu ixLHd ,l=Kq lsÍfï § tu msysàu ;SrKh l< wdldrh úia;r lrkak. by; oelajQ ixLHd l=,lfha ,laIK wkqj " 0 '' tu l=,lhg wh;a fõ oehs idlÉPd lrkak. Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,s j bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï jkak.

11 fldgi my; oelafjk ixLHd ldKav w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq ixLHd ldKavh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ixLHd ldKavh ^1& 0 ;a 10 ;a w;r Ok ksÅ, ixLHd ldKavh ^11& 0 ;a -10;a w;r iDK ksÅ, · · Tng ,enqKq ixLHd ldKavhg wh;a ksÅ, folla ,shd .kak. tu ixLHd fol tl;=fjka ,efnk ms<s;=r ,nd .kak.

70

·

· · · ·

fm< fmd; wOHhkh lr iÈY ixLHd tl;= lsÍu ms<sn| j lreKq fidhd .ekSfuka by; ixLHd fol tl;= lrk wdldrh ixLHd f¾Ldjl ksrEmKh lrkak. tys § ms<s;=r ,nd .kakd wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak. ta wkqj - 10 ;a + 10 ;a w;r Ok ksÅ,hla yd iDK ksÅ,hla tl;= lr ms<s;=r ,nd .kakd wdldrh ixLHd f¾Ldjl ksrEmKh lrkak. ksÅ, fkdjk iÈY ixLHd folla tl;= lsÍfï § fuu l%uh u wkq.ukh l< yels oehs idlÉPd lrkak. Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,s j bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï jkak.

71

09'

ksmK;dj q

Nd. I

: tÈfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d myiqfjka bgqlr .ekSu i|yd tall yd tall fldgia ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs. : Nd. yd oYu wdYs; m%udKhka ii|hs. % : Nd." oYu in|;d y÷kd .ksu. q : ñks;a;= 120hs .

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'1 lshdldrlu 3'1 % ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

: · weuqKqu 3.1.1 g we;=<;a igyk. · weuqKqu 3. 1. 2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla. · weuqKu 3 .1.2 i|yka wdldrhg iudk fldgiaj,g q fnod w÷re lrk ,o ldâfndaâ j,ska lmd .;a jD;a;dldr wdia;r oyhla . · flakaøsl Lkavfha fldaKh la jk jD;a; LKav y;la . · flakaøsl LKavfha fldaKh la jk jD;a; LKav y;rla. · w¾O jD;a; myla . · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a. bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 3. 1. 1 : · rEm igyk mka;sh bÈßfha m%¾Yk lrkak · tys oelafjk foa meyeÈ,s lsÍug isiqka fhduq lrjkak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak . · tallhla iudk fldgiaj,g fn§fuka Nd. ,efnk nj. · yrhg jvd úYd,;ajfhka wvq ixLHdjla ,jfhys we;s Nd. kshu Nd. nj. · mQ¾K ixLHd iy Nd. we;=<;a ixLHd `ñY% ixLHd' nj' · Nd. ixLHdjl yrh iy ,jh tlu ixLHdjlska .=K lsÍfuka fyda fn§fukaa ;=,H Nd. ,efnk nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs&

72

mshjr 3.1.2

:

isiqka l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak. · .fõIK Wmfoia" jD;a;dldr wdia;r" äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak. · ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 3' 1' 3

:

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. · · > fyda < ,l=K fhdod Nd. folla iei¢h yels nj. ;=,H Nd. weiqfrka Nd. iei¢h yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

mshjr 3' 1' 4

:

· ·

· ·

mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak. .fõIK Wmfoiaj, fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak. l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak.

73

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

rEm igyk

74

weuqKqu 3'1'1

mshjr 3'1'5

:

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak. bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak · ,jh yrh g jvd úYd, jQ Nd.hla úIu Nd.hla f,i kï lrk nj. · úIu Nd.hla ñY% ixLHdjlska oelaùug fn§fï l%u fhdod .; yels nj. · idudkH Nd. oYuj,g;a" wka; oYu idudkH Nd. j,g;a mßj¾;kh l< yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : · Nd.hla yd oYu ixLHdjla ii|k wdldrh úia;r lrhs. · tlu m%udKhla" Nd." oYu fyda ñY% ixLHd hk l=uk wdldrfhka oelajQ j o tys úYd,;ajfhys fjkila ke;s nj ms<s.kshs. · Nd. úúO wdldrj,ska ksjerÈj ,shd olajhs. · ksjerÈ l%u wkq.ukh lrñka idOdrKj fnod yod .kshs. · úhqla; ixl,am rEmsl ksrEmK weiqßka ú.%y lrhs.

75

weuqKqu 3'1'2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

Nd. oYu in|;d y÷kd .ksuq ( 1 & fldgi · Nd. oelafjk rEm lÜg, w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk rEm lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'

i lÜg,h

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ii lÜg,h

iii lÜg,h

· · · · ·

tu rEm foflys w÷re l< fldgia Nd. f,i olajkak' w÷re l< fldgia lmd fjka lsÍfuka fyda fjk;a l%uhlska tajdfha úYd,;aj ii|kak' > fyda < ,l=Kq ksjerÈj fhdod Nd. fol iïnkaO lrkak' Tn ,shq Nd. fol ;=,H Nd. weiqßka iei£ug l%uhla idlÉPd lrkak' ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßulg iQodkï jkak'

76

^11& ·

fldgi my; oelafjk jD;a; fldgia w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk jD;a; fldgia flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ^1& ^11& ^111&

fldgia 7 hs

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

fldgia 4 hs

fldgia 5 hs

· · · · ·

tu tla jD;a; fldgila iïmQ¾K jD;a;hlska ljr Nd.hla oehs i|yka lrkak. ta wkqj Tng ,eî we;s ish¨ jD;a; fldgia tl;= lr ms<s;=r Nd.hla f,i olajkak. tu jD;a; fldgia ish,a, Ndú; lrñka ms<sfh, l< yels ñY% ixLHdj ,shkak. uq,a jD;a; fldgiaj,ska oelajq Nd.h yd ñY% ixLHdj iudk neúka ñY% ixLHdjla Nd.hla f,i ,súh yels wdldrh meyeÈ,s lrkak. my; i|yka rEmfhka ksrEmKh jk ixLHdj Nd.hla wdldrfhka o oYu wdldrfhka o ,shkak.

77

77

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· ·

Tn ,shq Nd.h iy oYu ixLHdj w;r iïnkaOhla ;sfíoehs idlÉPd lrkak. iuia; lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j bÈßm;a lsÍulg iQodkï jkak.

78

09. Nd. II

ksmqK;dj 03 : tÈfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d myiqfjka bgqlr .ekSu i|yd tall yd tall fldgia ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs. : Nd., .Ks; l¾uj, yiqrejhs. : Nd. tl;= lruq ,wvq lruq. : ñks;a;= 100 hs. : · ·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3.2 ls%hdldrlu 3.2 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

· · · ·

weuqKqu 3. 2. 1 g wh;a igyfka úYd,s; m%udKfha msgm;la . weuqKqu 3. 2.2 g wh;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a 4 la . iudk fldgia wglg fnok ,o r;=mdg iup;=ri% 12 la. iudk fldgia 12 lg fnok ,o ks,amdg iDcqfldaKdi% 10 la. iudk fldgia 6 lg fnok ,o fld< mdg iumdo ;s%fldaK 11 la . äuhs fld<, meiag,a ,.ï, l;=re.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh : mshjr 3. 2. 1 : · úYd,s; m%udKfha igyk mka;sh bÈßfha m%o¾Ykh lr tys we;=<;a Nd. tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu iïnkaO j isiqkaf.ka úuikak. · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak. · yrhka iudk Nd. tl;= lsÍfï § yrh fkdfjkia j mj;sk w;r ,jhka muKla tl;= jk nj. · yrhka iudk Nd. wvq lsÍfï § yrh fkdfjkia j mj;sk w;r ,jhkaf.a muKla wka;rh ,nd.; hq;= nj. · yrh wiudk Nd. tl;= lsÍfï § yd wvq lsÍfï § ;=,H Nd. u.ska yrh iudk Nd. njg m;a l< hq;= nj. ^ïks;a;= 15hs&

79

mshjr 3'2'2

:

· ·

·

· ·

mka;h l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg s fjka lrkak. .fõIK Wmfoia , rEm lÜg,, äuhs fld<, .ï, l;=re lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak. .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrd fokak. l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak. iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak. ^ñks;a;= 30hs& lKavdhï wkdjrK bosrm;a lsrug s S l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,ndfokak. bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak. wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak. my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak. ñks;;= 25hs& a · ñY% ixLHd tl;= lsÍfï § m<uqj mQ¾K ixLHd o fojkqj Nd. o tl;= lsÍu myiq nj. · ñY% ixLHd wvq lsÍfï § m<uqj mQ¾K ixLHd o fojkqj Nd. o wvq lsÍu myiq nj. · ñY% ixLHd wvq lsÍfï § wvq l< hq;= Nd.h úYd, jq úg mQ¾K ixLHdfjkaa tallhla f.k wvq l< hq;= nj. · úYu Nd. njg m;alsÍfuka o" ñY% ixLHd tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu l< yels nj. ^ñks;a;= 30hs &

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 3'2'3

:

·

·

· ·

80

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl : a · · · · · fokq ,nk ñY% ixLHd rEm Ndú;fhka ksjerÈ j ksrEmKh lrhs. s ñY% ixLHd úYu Nd. njg m;a lsÍfuka tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu l< yels nj ms<s.kshs. ñY% ixLHd tl;= lrhs; wvq lrhss. úhqla; ixl,am ixhqla;j olajhs. lKavdhu ;=< iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lrhs.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

81

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

igyk

82

weuqKqu 3.2.1

weuqKqu 3.2.2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia Nd. tl;= lruq ; wvq lruq

· my; oelafjk rEm lÜg, yd ñY% ixLHd w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq rEm lÜg,h yd ñY% ixLHd fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. ^1& rEm lÜg,h ^rEm 12la & ^2& rEm lÜg,h ^rEm 10 la&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

^3& lÜg,h ^ rEm 11 la &

^4& lÜg,h ^ rEm 11 la&

·

· · ·

rEm lÜg,h fhdod .ksñka tu ñY% ixLHd foflys ftlHh ,nd .kak. tu ftlHh ,nd .kakd wdldrh idlÉPd lrkak. tu wdldrhg u úYd, ñY% ixLHdjlska l=vd ñY% ixLHdjla wvq lsÍug rEm lÜg,h fhdod .kakd whqre úia;r lrkak. rEm Ndú; fkdlr ñY% ixLHd tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu i|yd ;=,H Nd. weiqßka fjk;a l%uhla fhdackd lrkak. ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

83

10s' oYu

ksmqK;dj 3 ksmK;d uÜgu3'3 q l%hdldrlu 3'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( ( ( ( tÈfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d myiqfjka bgqlr .eksu i|yd tall yd tall fldgia ;=< .Ks; l¾u yiqrejhs' oYu, .Ks; l¾uj, yiqrejhs' oYu .=K lruq; fnouq' ñks;;= 105 hs' a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· oYu ixLHd ksrEmKh l< yels .Kl rduqjla · weuqKu 3'3'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ q msgm;a ;=kla · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 3'3'1 ( · l¿,E,a, u; oYu ixLHdjla ,shkak' · bÈßhg leojd.;a isiqfjl=g tu oYu ixLHdj .Kl rduqfjys ksrEmKh lsÍug Wmfoia fokak' · tu oYu ixLHdfõ tla tla b,lalfï ia:dkSh w.h úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · oYu ixLHdjla .Kl rduqjlska ksrEmKh l< yels nj' · oYu ixLHdjl tla tla b,lalug ksYÑ; ia:dkSh a w.hla we;s nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

mshjr 3'3'2

(

84

mshjr 3'3'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · oYu ixLHdjla mQ¾K ixLHdjlska .=KlsÍfï §, .=KHfha oYuia:dk .Kk u .=K;hg ,efnk nj' s · oYu ixLHdjlska mQ¾K ixLHdjla fn§fï § ,íêfha oYuia:dk .Kk Ndclh wkqj fjkia jk nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

mshjr 3'3'4

(

· · · ·

mshjr 3'3'5

(

· · · ·

mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs& lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · oYu ixLHdjla, oyfha n,hlska .=K lsÍfï § .=KHh;a, .=Ks;h;a w;r iïnkaOhla we;s nj' ksoiqka ( 2.583 x 100 = 258.3 2.5 x 1000 = 2500 · oYu ixLHdjla, oyfha n,hlska fn§fï § NdcHh;a, ,íêh;a w;r iïnkaOhla we;s nj' ksoiqka ( 17.5 ÷ 100 = 0.175 2.5 ÷ 1000 = 0.0025 ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

85

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

(

oYu ixLHdjla oyfha n,j,ska .=KlsÍfï § yd fn§fï § fhdod.kakd flá l%uúia;r lrhs' oYu ixLHdjla oyfha n,j,ska .=KlsÍfï § yd fn§fï § ms<s;=r ufkdaufhka ,nd.; yels nj ms<s.kshs' oYu ixLHdjla mQ¾K ixLHdj,ska .=Klrhs; fnohs wkH lKavdhïj, woyia úpdrYS,Sj i,ld n,hs' ,efnk m%;sM, ksÍlaIKh lrñka ksjerÈ ;SrKj,g t<fUhs'

86

weuqKqu 3'3'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

oYu .=K lruq. fnouq I fldgi my; ±lafjkafka iudk È.ska hq;a îu ng tlsfklg hd lr idod we;s rduq ksrEmKh jk ixjD; rEm lSmhls' îu nghl È. 7.5 cm ls.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

i rEmh ii rEmh iii rEmh · by; orlafjk rEm w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq rEmh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · tu rEmfhka ±lafjk rduqj idod we;s îu ngj, uq¿ È. fiùug wjYH jQ YsIHfhla tla tla ngfha È. tl;= lsÍfuka uq¿ È. fidhk ,È' tu w.h fiùu i|yd by; i|yka l%uhg jvd myiq l%uhla lKavdhu ;=< idlÉPd lr fhdackd lrkak' · by; i|yka È.e;s tla îu nghla muKla Ndú; lr iumdo ;s%fldaKdldr rduqjla iEÿfõ kï tys me;a;l È. fidhkak' · Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak' II fldgi · my; i|yka ±lafjk fldgia w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq fldgi fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' I fldgi 2.75 x 10 2.75 x 100 627.8 ÷ 10 627.8 ÷ 100 II fldgi 5.63 x 10 5.63 x 100 765.9 ÷ 10 765.9 ÷ 100 III fldgi 8.78 x 10 8.78 x 100 958.5 ÷ 10 958.5 ÷ 100

87

· tys we;=<;a .=KlsÍï yd fn§ï lrkak" · oYu ixLHdjla 10, 100, 1000 jeks ixLHdj,ska .=KlsÍfï § oYuia:dkh fjkia jk whqre idlÉPd lrkak" · oYu ixLHdjla 10, 100, 1000 jeks ixLHdj,ska fn§fï § oYuia:dkh fjkiajk whqre meyeÈ,s lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK ;=<ka oYu ixLHdjla 10 n,j,ska .=KlsÍfï § yd fn§fï § oYu ;sf;ys s ia:dkh fjkia lsÍfuka ms<s;=re myiqfjka ,nd.ekSug l%uhla fhdackd lrkak' · Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,s f,i bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

88

11' ùÔh m%ldYk

ksmqK;dj 14 ksmqK;dj 14.1 ksmqK;dj 14.1 ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( ( ( ( úúO l%u úê l%udkql+, j .fõIKh lrñka ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs' .Ks; l¾u y;ru we;=<;a ùÔh m%ldYk f.dv k.hs' ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvk.uq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a · weuqKqu 14'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' x + 3 yd y - 5 jeks ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvke.Su yd tajdfha w{d;j, ix.=Kl ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' ùÔh mo .Ks; l¾u u.ska iïnkaO ùfuka ùÔh m%ldYk ,efnk nj' · lsihï f;dr;=rla fláfhka bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd s ùÔh m%ldYk fhdod.; yels nj' · w{d;hka .=K ù we;s ixLHdj tys ix.=Klh jk nj' ^ñks;a;+ 15 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhïj,g fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduqlr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& ·

bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 14'1'1 ( · ·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 14'1'2

(

· · · · ·

89

mshjr 14'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · fok ,o f;dr;=rej,g wkqj ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvke.sh yels nj' · ùÔh m%ldYkhl w{d;j, ix.=Klh Nd. jk wjia:d o ;sìh yels nj' · ùÔh m%ldYk u.ska f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh myiq lr .; yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · fok ,o f;dr;=re wkqj ùÔh m%ldYkhla f.dv k.k wdldrh úia;r lrhs' ùÔh m%ldYk Ndú;fhka f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh myiq jk nj ms<s.kshs' fok ,o f;dr;=re u; ùÔh m%ldYk f.dv k.hs' mßirfhka /ia lr .kakd f;dr;=re leálr olajhs' lKavdhï yeÕSfuka hq;j lghq;= lrhs' =

90

90

weuqKqu 14.1.1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvk.uq ,sms øjH lsymhl ñ, ms<n| igykla my; ±lafõ' s s th fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak' · fmd;l ñ, re x o mekl ñ, y o fõ' · mekai,l ñ, fmd;l ñf,ka yß wvls' · ulkhl ñ, mEkl ñ,g jvd re: 5 la wvq h' · Tn wOHhkh l< f;dr;=re wkqj mekai,l yd ulkhl ñ, ±laùu i|yd ùÔh m%ldYk f.dvk.kak' · my; øjH lÜg, w;frka Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s øjH lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' øjH lÜg,h ( ^1& fmd;a 2la yd ulk 1la ^2& mEka 5la yd mekai,a 3la ^3& fmd;a 2la yd ulk 2la ^4& mekai,a 1la yd ulk 1la · Tng ,enqKq øjH lÜg,h ñ, § .ekSu i|yd f.úh hq;= uqo, ±laùug ùÔh m%ldYkhla f.dv k.kak' · by; Tn wOHhkh l< ñ, igykg wod< j Tn leue;s øjH lÜg,hla ñ, § .ekSu i|yd f.úh hq;= uqo, ±laùug ùÔh m%ldYkhla f.dvk.kak' · ks¾udKYS, j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak' S

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

91

11' ùÔh m%ldYk II

ksmqK;dj 14 ( úúO l%uúê l%udkql+, j .fõIKh lrñka ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs' icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo we;=<;a ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs' .eg¨ úi£ug ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lruq' ñks;;= 60 hs' a · weuqKu 14'2'1g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ q msgm;a ;=kla · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 14'2 l%hdldrlu 14'2 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 14'2'1 ( · · ·

fjkia ùÔh ixfla; wvx.= ùÔh mo iy ixLHd;aul w.hka lsymhla l¿,E,af,ys ,shkak' s tajdfha ,laIK wkqj j¾. l< yels l%u ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · ùÔh fldgia iudkjk mo icd;Sh mo nj' · úÔh fldgia wiudk jk mo úcd;Sh mo nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs&

mshjr 14'2'2

(

· · · · ·

mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

92

mshjr 14'2'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · icd;Sh mo folla, ;ks mohla ,efnk fia tl;= l< yels nj' · icd;Sh mo follaa, ;ks mohla ,efnk fia wvq l< yels nj' · úcd;Sh mo folla ;jÿrg;a tl;= lsÍug fyda wvq lsÍug Ndckh lr ;ks mohla ,nd.; fkdyels nj' · w{d; i|yd ixLHd;aul w.hka wdfoaY lr iq¿ lsÍfuka m%ldYkh i|yd ixLHd;aul w.hkaa ,efnk nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · icd;Sh mo yd úcd;Sh mo we;=<;a m%ldYk iq¿ lrk wdldrh úia;r lrhs' · ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lsÍfï § icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo fjkalr y\qkd.; hq;= nj ms<.ksh' s s · icd;Sh yd úcd;Sh mo iys; ùÔh m%ldYk iq¿ lrhs' · iïm;aj,g .e,fmk mßÈ øjH lÜg, f;darhs' · .eg¨ úi§ug ir, l%u fhdod .kshs'

93

weuqKu 14'2'1 q

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd

Wmfoia

.eg¨ úi§ug ùcSh m%ldYk iq¿ lruq · ùÔh m%ldYk weiqfrka ieliQ ñ, o¾Ykhla my; ±lafõ' th fyd¢ka ksÍlaIKh lrkak' ñ, o¾Ykh øjHh ñ, - remsh,a nksia f.ähla x t<j¿ frdáhla 2x lv, mSßishla y ìialÜ meleÜgqjla 5x flala f.ähla 10y lsß f;a tlla x meKs îu fnda;,hla 3y fhda.Ü tlla 2y ud¿ mdka tlla 3x meáia tlla

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

1 2 3 4

· my; ±lafjk øjH lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk øjH lÜg,hg wod< j § we;s ld¾hfhys ksr;jkak' øjH lÜg,h nksia f.ä 01, lv, mSßis 02, lsß f;a 02, meáia 02 ìialÜ melÜ 02, flala f.ä 01, fhda.Ü 02, meáia 04 ud¿ mdka 01, meáia 02, lsß f;a 03, lv, mSßis 04 ìialÜ melÜ 01, flala f.ä 01, lsß f;a 03, meáia 02 · § we;s ñ, o¾Yk wkqj Tng ,efnk øjH lÜg,fha uq¿ jákdlu i|yd úÔh m%ldYkhla ,shd th yels;dla iq¿ lrkak' · tu jákdlug .e,fmk fjk;a øjH lÜg, yels;dla ms<sfh, lrkak' w{d;h w.h x 5 y 10 · by; j.=fjys i|yka w{d;fhys w.h wdfoaY lr Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq ñf,ys ixLHd;aul w.h fidhkak' · ks¾udKYS,s j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

94

12' iudka ; r f¾Ld

ksmqK;dj 21 ksmqK;d uÜgu 21'3 l%hdldrlu 21'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( ( ( ( úúO fldaK w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs' ir, f¾Ld hq.,hl iudka;r;dj úuihs' ir, f¾Ld hq.,hl iudka;r;dj msßlaiuq' ñks;;= 150 hs' a · weuqKu 21'3'1 g we;=<;a msk;r igyk q a + · weuqKu 21'3'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia q m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla · ir, odr ;=kla' · úys; p;=ri% hq., ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 21'3'1 ( · ·

mska;+r igyk mka;shg bÈßm;a lrñka tys we;s tla tla f¾Ld hq., w;r iïnkaO;dj ms<sn| j úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · iuyr ir, f¾Ld tlsfkl fÊokh fkdjk nj' · iuyr ir, f¾Ld tlsfkl fÊokh jk nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

mshjr 21'3'2

(

· · ·

· ·

mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, ir, odr, úys; p;=ri%, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnodfokak' .fõIK Wmfoiaj, m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

95

mshjr 21'3'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · iudk mr;rhla iys; ir, f¾Ld iudka;r nj' · tu mr;rh f¾Ld fol w;r ",ïn ÿr" f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · iudka;r fkdjk f¾Ld folla w;r mr;rh úúO ,laIH j, § fjkia nj' · iudka;r ir, f¾Ld tlsfkl fÊokh fkdjk nj'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

^ñks;a;= 40 hs& mshjr 21'3'4 ( · · · · mshjr 21'3'5 ( · · · · mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilialrkak' .fõIK Wmfoiaj, fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lkavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs& lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · úys; p;=ri%h yd ir, odr Ndú;fhka iudka;r f¾Ld we¢h yels nj' · úys; p;=ri%h yd ir, odrhla Ndú;fhka ir, f¾Ld hq.,hla iudka;r jk fyda fkdjk wjia:d msßlaish yels nj' · f¾Ld w;r ,ïn ÿr uekSfuka ir, f¾Ld hq.,hl iudka;r;dj msßlaish yels nj' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

96

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · fok ,o ir, f¾Ld hq.,hla iudka;r jk fyda iudka;r fkdjk nj m%ldY lrhs' · mßirfha we;s úúO jia;+kaf.a ks¾ñ; odr, iudka;r jk nj fyda iudka;r fkdjk nj ms<s.kshs' · ir, odr yd úys; p;=ri% Ndú;fhka iudka;r f¾Ld ks¾udKh lrhs' · lKavdhï lshdldrlïj, § úpdrYS,j lshdlrhs' % S % · ,nd.;a ñkqï weiqfrka ksjerÈ ks.ukj,g t<fUhs' weuqKqu 21.3.1 msk;+r igyk a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ksji

we| bKsuÕ

97

weuqKqu 21'3'2

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

I fldgi ir, f¾Ld hq.,hl iudka;r;dj msßlaiuq

3 1 2 2 1 3 1 3 2

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

rEmigyk A

rEmigyk B

rEmigyk C

· my; ±lafjk rEm igyka w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq rEmigyk ms<n| s j wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · úys; p;=ri%h yd ir, odrh Ndú;fhka 1 yd 2, 2 yd 3, 1 yd 3 ir, f¾Ld hq.,hka w;r mr;rh ,laIH lSmhl § fjk fjk u fidhkak' · tla tla ir, f¾Ld hq.,hka w;r mr;rh wkqj tu ir, f¾Ld ms<sn| j Tng l< yels ks.uk ,shd olajkak' · lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; mka;hg bÈßm;a lsÍug s iQodkïjkak'

98

II fldgi · my; i|yka rEm igyka w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqK rEmigyk fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' 1 rEm igyk i

L

2 rEm igyk i

y x

3 rEm igyk i

E F

ii (a)

m

ii (a)

Q

ii (a)

L

P

y x

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

P B F E L Q M

A

(b)

R P

(b)

P

(b)

A Q B D

Q

M

S

C

· (i) ys ±lafjk ir, f¾Ld LKavh äuhs lvodisfha msgm;a lr.kak' tu ir, f¾Ld LKavhg 3 cm la ÿßka jk mßÈ iudka;r f¾Ldjla úysÈ p;=ri% yd ir, odrh Ndú;fhka w¢kak' · (ii) ys (a) yd (b) fldgiaj, ±lafjk ir, f¾Ld hq., iudka;r fõ o, iudka;r fkdfõ o hkakg fya;= ,shd olajkak' · lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,Sj iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jka k

99

13' È. I

ksmqK;dj 07 ( mßñ;sh fiùfï l%u úu¾Ykh lrñka ffoksl lghq;= M,odhS f,i bgqlr .kshs' úúO wjYH;d i|yd È. wdYs; ñkqï uQ,l .Ks; l¾u % s hgf;a yiqrejhs' È. ñkqï i|yd .Ks; l¾u fhdouq' ñks;;= 90 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'1

(

l%hdldrlu 7'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· ñkqï WmlrK ^óg¾ fldaÿj, ñkqï má, kdo frdaoh'& · weuqKqu 7'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'1'1 ( · È. uekSu i|yd fhdod.kakd ñkqï WmlrK mka;sh bÈßfha m%o¾Ykh lr tajd fhdod .kakd wjia:d ms<n| s j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · l=vd È.la uekSu i|yd fikaàóg¾, ñ,sóg¾ we;=<;a fldaÿj Ndú; l< hq;= nj' · úYd, È.la uekSug ógr yd fikaáógr we;=<;a ógr fldaÿj fyda ñkqï má Ndú; l< hq;= nj' · 10mm = 1cm nj · 100cm = 1m nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'1'2 ( · · · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnodfokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd l=vd lKAvdhï iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

100

mshjr 7'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · È. ñkqï tl;= lsÍfï § tall wkqj fjk fjku tl;= l< hq;= nj' · f.khdï iys; wjia:dj, § tall mßj¾;khla l< hq;= nj' · È. ñkqï wvq lsÍfï § tall wkqj fjk fjku wvq l< hq;= jk w;r f.ktaïj, § tall mßj¾;kh ksis mßos isÿ úh hq;= nj' · È. ñkqï .=K lsÍfï § tall wkqj fjk fjk u .=K l< hq;= nj' · È. ñkqï .=K lsÍfï § wjYH wjia:dj, § tall mßj¾;khla isÿ l< hq;= nj' · È. ñkqï fn§fï § úYd, u tallh uq,ka u fn§fuka s fYaIhla we;akï B<Õ tallhg mßj¾;kh lr tl;= lsÍfuka miqj kej; fnÈh hq;= nj' ^ñks;a;= 20&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · È. wdYs; ñkqïj,g .Ks; l¾u fhdok wdldrh úia;r lrhs' % s · tÈfkod mßfNdackfha § kdia;sh j<lajd .ekSu i|yd È. wdYs%; ñkqï m%fhdackj;a jk nj ms<s.kshs' · È. wdYs; ñkqï .=K lrhs; fnohs' % · lKavdhï jYfhka lghq;= lsÍfï § lemùfuka hq;=j j.lSï bgqlrhs' · tÈfkod lghq;= ld¾hlaIu j yd ksjerÈj isÿ lrhs'

101

weuqKqu 7.1.1 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia È. ñkqï i|yd .Ks; l¾u fhdouq my; ±lafjk wjia:d w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk wjia:dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' 1 wjia:dj 4cm 3mm 6cm 8mm lvodis máh

5432109876543210987654321 543210987654321098765432 5432109876543210987654321 5432109876543210987654321 1 5432109876543210987654321

2 cm

80cm kQ,a len,s

1cm 35 cm · iïmQ¾K lvodis máfha È. fiùu' · kQ,a len,s foflysu uq¿ È. fiùu'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

2 wjia:dj 11cm 2 mm

65432121098765432109876543210987654321 65432121098765432109876543210987654321 65432121098765432109876543210987654321 65432121098765432109876543210987654321

lvodis máh kQ,a len,s

5 m 35cm 2 m 78 cm

· uq¿ lvodis máfhka mdg l< fldgi bj;a l< miq b;sß fldgfia È. fiùu' · È. kQ,a lene,af,ka l=vd kQ,a lene,a,g iudk m%udKhla lmd bj;a l< úg b;sß lene,af,a È. fiùu' 3 wjia:dj 2cm 6mm 2cm 6mm 2cm 6mm 2cm 6mm l lvodis máh 1 m 35 cm 1 m 35 cm 1 m 35 cm lvÈis máh · tl;= lsÍfuka f;drj tla tla lvodis máfha uq¿ È. fiùu' 4 wjia:dj 3 cm 9 m lvodis máh · lvodis máh iudk fldgia ;=klg fnod we;' 15 m 45 cm lvodis máh · lvodis máh iudk fldgia mylg fnod we;' · tla tla pvodis máfha tla fldgil È. fiùu'

102

· tys i|yka ld¾hhka fyd¢ka wOHhkh lr fm< fmd; o weiqre lr.ksñka wod< È. fidhkak' · ms<;=r ,nd.;a l%ufõoh idlÉPd lrkak' s · ffoksl lghq;=j, § È. wdYs%; ñkqï yiqrejk wjia:d i|yd ksoiqka olajkak' · Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,Sj iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

103

13' È. II

ksmqK;dj 07 ( mßñ;sh fiùfï l%u úu¾Ykh lrñka ffoksl lghq;= M,odhS f,i bgq lr.kshs' ir, f¾Çh ;, rEmj, mßñ;sh i|yd iQ;% Ndú; lrhs' mßñ;sh fidhuq' ñks;;= 60 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'2 l%hdldrlu 7'2 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 7'2'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla' · ir, odr ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 7'2'1 ( · ñkqï ,l=Kq lrk ,o iumdo lsfldaKhla, iup;=ri%hla % iy iDcqfldaKdi%hla w¢k ,o ldâm;a tlska tl mka;hg s bÈßm;a lrñka tajdfha mßñ;sh ,nd .kakd wdldrh isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · ;, rEmhl mßñ;sh hkq tys jfÜ È. nj' · ir, f¾Çh ;, rEmhl tla tla mdofha È. tl;= lsÍfuka tys mßñ;sh fidhd.; yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 7'2'2 ( · · · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, ir, odr, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnodfokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 25 hs&

104

mshjr 7'2'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · mdohl È. a jQ iumdo lsfldaKhl mßñ;sh p kï % p = 3a nj' · mdohl È. a jQ iup;=ri%hl mßñ;sh p kï p = 4a nj' · È. a o, m<,b o jk iDcqfldKdaKdi%hl mßñ;sh p kï p = 2 (a+ b) nj' · o;a; § we;s úg iQ;% Ndú;fhka mßñ;sh .Kkh l< yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · ;s%fldaKh, iup;=ri%h yd iDcqfldKdi%fha mßñ;sh i|yd iQ;% m%ldY lrhs' ksjerÈj mßñ;sh fiùfuka iïm;a msßuid.; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s iQ;% Ndú;fhka ;, rEmj, mßñ;sh fidhhs' idudkHlrKh lrk ,o m%;sM, iqúfYaI wjia:d i|yd fhdod .kshs' lshdj,sh id¾:l lr.ekSu i|yd iduQylj lghq;= lrhs' % s

105

weuqKqu 7' 2' 1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

mßñ;s h fidhuq · my; ±lafjk ;,rEm w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq ;, rEmh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' b a a a a a ;, rEm -i · · · · · · a ;, rEm -ii a a b ;, rEm -iii a

fm< fmd; mßYS,kfhka § we;s ùÔh mo weiqßka tys mßñ;sh i|+yd m%ldYkhla ,shkak' ;, rEmfha mßñ;sh p f,i f.k p iy Tn ,nd.;a m%ldYkh w;r iïnkaOhla ,shkak' ;, rEmfha mdoj, È. uek Tn ,nd.;a m%ldYkh weiqfrka tys mßñ;sh fidhkak' Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq wdldrfha fjk;a ñkqï iys; ;, rEmhla we| tys mßñ;sh fidhkak' mßñ;sh fiúug isÿjk wjia:d ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrkak' Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,Sj iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

106

14' j¾.M,h

ksmK;dj 08 q ( j¾.M,h ms<n| úu¾Ykh lrñka iSñ; bvlv m%Yia; s uÜgñka m%fhdackhg .kshs ' ir, f¾Çh ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h ms<n| úu¾Ykh lrhs' s ir, f¾Çh ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h fidhuq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a · weuqKu 8'1'1 g we;=<;a msk;r igyk' q a + · weuqKu 8'1'2g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ q msgm;a y;rla' · me;a;l È. 4cm, 5cm yd 7cm ne.ska jQ iup;=ri% ;=kla ne.ska jQ lÜg, folla' · È. yd m<, ms<sfj,ska 4cm, 3cm o 5cm,4cm o 7cm, 5cm o jQ iDcqfldaKdi% ;=kla ne.ska jQ lÜg, folla · 1cm2 fldgq cd,l y;rlaa'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 8'1 l%hdldrlu 8'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· ir, odr yd óg¾ rE,a y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 8'1'1 ( · msk;r igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lr tajdhska jgjk bv a + s m%udK ms<sn| isiqka f.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · mDIaG bv m%udKh j¾.M,h kñka ye¢kafjk nj' · j¾. fikaáógrh ^1cm2) j¾.M,h ueksfï tallhla nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia, iDcqfldaKdi% lÜg, fyda iup;=ri% lÜg,, 1cm2 fldgq cd,l, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

107

mshjr 8'1'2

(

mshjr 8'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq q u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · È. a iy m<, bo jQ iDcqfldAKdi%hl j¾.M,h A kï; A = a x b nj' · me;a;l È. a jQ iup;=ri%hl j¾.M,h A kï; A = a 2 nj' · j¾.ógrh ^1m2) ,úYd, bv m%udKhl j¾.M,h uekSfï tallhla nj' · j¾.M,fhka iudk jqj o úúO È. yd m<,ska hq;a iDcqfldaKdi% ;sìh yels nj' · tÈfkod lghq;=j, § j¾.M,h ms<sn| ksudkh m%fhdackj;a jk nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · ;,rEmj, j¾.M,h ksudkh lrhs' · tÈfkod lghq;=j, § j¾.M,h ms<sn| ksudkh m%fhdackj;a jk nj ms<.ksh' s s · iup;=ri%hl yd iDcqfldaKdi%hl j¾.M,h;a tajdfha È. iy m<,;a w;r iïnkaOh f.dvk.hs' · wkqudkfhka ,o w.hka ienE w.hka iuÕ ikaikaokh lrhs' · lKavdhï ls%hdldrlfï id¾:l;ajhg odhl fõ'

108

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mska;+r igyk

109

weuqKqu 8.1.1

weuqKqu 8.1.2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

ir, f¾Åh ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h fidhuq my; ±lafjk ;, rEm lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqKQq ;, rEm lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · · I i 1 yd 2 iup;=ri% lÜg, 3 yd 4 iDcqfldaKdi% lÜg, i iii

·

i

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

i

iii

II · tu lÜg,fhys wvx.= tla tla ;, rEmfha j¾.M,h ksudkh lrkak' 2 · fldgq cd,lfha l=vd fldgqjl j¾.M,h 1cm la kï th weiqfrka tla tla ;, rEmfhys j¾.M,h j¾. fikaáóg¾ j,ska fidhkak' · tu w.hka ksudkfhka ,enqKq w.hka iuÕ ii|kak' · fldgq cd,lh weiqfrka tla tla ;, rEmfhys È. iy m<, fidhd ,shkak' · È. yd m<, weiqfrka j¾.M,h ,nd.; yels l%uhla fhdackd lrkak' · ,nd.;a iïnkaOh weiqfrka mka;s ldurfha ìfuys j¾.M,h fidhkak' 2 · iDcqfldaKdi%hl j¾.M,h 36cm ùu i|yd tys È. yd m<, f,i ,nd.; yels úúO w.hka ,shkak' · tÈfkod lghq;=j, § j¾.M,h ksudkh lsÍug isÿjk wjia:d ;=kla bÈßm;a lrkak'

6cm

4 cm 2 cm 10 cm 4 cm 2 cm

§ we;s ñkqï wkqj fuu rEmfha j¾.M,h .Kkh lrkak'

· ,nd.;a f;dr;=re äuhs lvodishl igyka lr ks¾udKYS,S lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

110

15' jD;a ;

ksmqK;dj 27 ( cHdñ;sl kshuhka wkqj wjg mßirfha msysàïj, iajNdjhka úYaf,aIKh lrhs ' jD;a; weiqfrka fudaia;r ks¾udKh lrhs' ljlgqfjka jD;a; fudaia;r w¢uq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 27'1 l%hdldrlu 27'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 27'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ q msgm;a y;rla ' · ljlgq y;rla, l;=re y;rla ' · nd. lvodis' · j<,a,laa, mSßishlaa, áka mshklaa, cEï fnda;,a uQähla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 27'1'1 ( · jD;a; rgd fmkajñka jD;a; yev ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · fjk;a yev w;=ßka jD;a;dldr yev y÷kd.; yels nj' · jD;a;dldr yev Ndú;fhka fudaia;r ks¾udKh l< yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mshjr 27'1'2 ( · · · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis, meiag,a yd wjYH øjH lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

111

mshjr 27'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · jD;a;hl yß ueo ,laIHh "flakaøh" f,i y÷kajk nj' · jD;a;hla u; jQ ,CIH folla hd lsÍfuka we¢h yels È.u ir, f¾Ldj "úIalïNh" nj' · úIalïNh, flakøh yryd hk nj' a · jD;a;hl flakøfha isg jD;a;hg we;s ÿr "wrh" a jk nj' · úIalïNh, wrh fuka fo.=Khla jk nj' · ljlgqj Ndú;fhka jD;a;hla we¢fï § ljlgqfõ ;=v ;nk ,laIHh jD;a;fha flakaøh jk nj' · ljlgqj Ndú;fhka úúO jD;a; rgd we¢h yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 35 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · jD;a;hl wrh yd úIalïNh w;r iïnkaO;dj úia;r lrhs' jD;a; rgd weiqfrka mßirh w,xldr l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s úúO wjYH;d i|yd jD;a; rgd ks¾udKh lrhs' fudaia;r ks¾udKh i|yd odhl fõ' lKavdhu ;=< ixhufhka hq;=j lghq;= lrhs'

112

weuqKqu 27' 1' 1

lKavdhï .fõIK i|yd Wmfoia

ljlgq f jka jD;a ; fuda i a ; r w¢uq · my; ±lafjk øjH w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk øjHh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · · j<,a,la áka mshkla · · mSßishla cEï fnda;,a uQähla

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· th Ndú;fhka lvodish u; jD;a;dldr yevh we| lmd.kak' · th keófuka fyda uekSfuka fyda fjk;a wdldrhlska fyda tu jD;a;dldr yevfha yß ueo ,laIHh fidhd .kak' · fm< fmd; mßYS,kfhka jD;a;dldr yevfha yßueo ,laIHh i|yd kula fhdackd lrkak' · tu jD;a;h ;=< we¢h yels os.u ir, f¾Ldjla we| tu f¾Ldjg kula fhdackd lrkak' · jD;a; yevfha yß ueo ,laIHfha isg jD;a;h u; we;s ´kEu ,laIHlg we;s ÿr yd jD;a;h ;=< we¢ È.u ir, f¾Ldfõ È. w;r iïnkaOhla ;sfí±hs idlÉPd lrkak' · Tn ,nd.;a jD;a;fha yßueo ,laIHfha ljlgqfõ ;=v ;nd tu jD;a;h we| we;s wdldrh ms<sn| j ksÍlaIKh lr ljlgqj Ndú;fhka úúO m%udKfha jD;a; ;=kla § we;s lvodish u; w¢kak' · ljlgqj Ndú;fhka jD;a;dldr yev w¢ñka ì;a;s ieris,,la i|yd w,xldr a fudaia;rhla ks¾udKh lrkak' · ks¾udKYS,j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak' S

113

16' mßudj ksmqK;dj 10 ( mßudj ms<n| j úpdrYS,S j lghq;= lrñka wjldYfha s Wmßu M,odhs;dj ,nd.kshs ' >k jia;= wjldYfha .kakd bv m%udK ms<sn| j úuis,su;a fjhs' >k jia;=jlg wjYH bv m%udKh fidhuq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a · weuqKu 10'1'1 g we;=<;a rEm igyk' q

ksmqK;d uÜgu 10'1

(

l%hdldrlu 10'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 10'1'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia q m;sldfõ msgm;a y;rla ' % · ysia .sksfmÜá 8, 10, 12, 16 ne.ska lÜg, y;rla' · fikaá lshqí 8, 10, 12, 16 ne.ska f.k iEÿ >kldN y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 10'1'1 ( · rEmigyk mka;h bÈßfha m%o¾Ykh lrkak' s · rEmfha ±lafjk fodvï fmÜá fofla yevh, ;ru iy ta wkqj wmg .;yels ;SrK ms<n| j isikf.ka úuikak' s q a · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia idlÉPdjla fufyh jkak ' · tla fodvï fmÜáhla >kl yevh .kakd w;r wfkla fmÜáh >kldN yevhla .kakd nj' · >kldN yeve;s fmÜáh wfkla fmÜáh fuka fo.=Khla muK úYd, nj' · tla fmÜáhl wvx.= fodvï f.ä .Kk wkqj wfkla fmÜáfha wvx.= fodvï f.ä .Kk ksudkh l< yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs&

114

mshjr 10'1'2

(

mshjr 10'1'3(

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis, .skfmÜá fikaá lshí s q legj,ska iEÿ >kldN iy meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr tla tla lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;al< lKavdhug úia;drKh i|yd m<uq wjia:dj fokak' · wfkla lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · >k jia;=jlg wjYH bv m%udKh tys "mßudj" hkqfjka y÷kajk nj' · .sksfmÜá tl;= lr iEÿ >kldNfha mßudj .sksfmÜá ixLHdfjka m%ldY lsÍu jeks wjia:dj, § f;dard .kakd ,o mßud tallh jk .sksfmÜáh wNsu; tallhla f,i y÷kajk nj' · iïu; mßud tall >k fikaáóg¾ ^cm3) iy >k óg¾ (m3) nj' · >kldNhl mßudj tys È. x m<, x Wi u.ska ,nd.; yelsnj' · >klhl mßudj tys me;a;l Èf.ys ;=kjk n,fhka a ,nd .; yels nj' · tÈfkod lghq;j, § wmg we;eï >k jia;j, mßud = = ksudkh u.ska ,nd.ekSug isÿjk nj'

· ·

^ñks;a;= 35 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · >kldNhl yd >klhl mßudj fidhd .; yels wdldr úia;r lrhs' · øjH yeisrúfï § tajdfha mßudj ms<sn| wjfndaOhla ;sîu m%fhdackj;a nj ms<.ksh' s s · >kldNhl mßudj wNsu; tall yd iïu; tall weiqfrka .Kkh lrhs' · ks¾udKlrKfha § yd ñkqï ,nd .ekSfï § wjYH bjiSu yd m%fõYu m%o¾Ykh lrhs' · øjH mßyrKh lsÍfï § ksjerÈ ;SrKj,g t<fUhs'

115

weuqKqu 10' 1' 1

rem igyk

m%udKfhka iudk jQ fodvï fmÜá foll wiqrd we;s wdldrh rEmfha ±lafõs'

20 cm

20 cm

20 cm 40 cm

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

20 cm 20 cm

116

weuqKqu 10' 1' 2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoi a

>k jia;=jlg wjYH bv m%udKh fidhuq · Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s øjH lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' øjH lÜg, wxl 1 .sksfmÜá 8 la iy fikaálshqí 8 lska iEÿ >kldNh 2 .sksfmÜá 10 la yd fikaálshqí 10 lska iEÿ >kldNh 3 .sksfmÜá 12 la yd fikaálshqí 12 lska iEÿ >kldNh 4 .sksfmÜá 16 la yd fikaálshqíiEÿ 16 lska >kldNh · tla .sksfmÜáhla je,sj,ska mqrjkak' · tu je,s m%udKh lvodishlg .;aúg tu je,sm%udKh yd .sksfmÜáfha m%udKh ms<n| j l=ula lsj yels [email protected]' s · ta wkqj .sksfmÜáfha bv m%udKh i|yd kula fhdackd lrkak' · ,eî we;s .sksfmÜá ish,a, .,md ;nd >kldNhl yevhla idokak' · iEÿ >kldNfha È., m<, iy Wi i|yd .sksfmÜá lSh ne.ska ;sfí [email protected]' · >kldNfha È., m<, iy Wi i|yd we;s .sksfmÜá ixLHd iy uq¿ .sksfmÜÜ ixLHdj w;r iïnkaOhla f.dv k.kak' · .sksfmÜá mshklg w,a,k je,s m%udKh wkqj >kldNfha bv m%udKh ms<n| ñkqula m%ldY l< yels h' th [email protected] s · ,eî we;s fikaálshqí >kldNfha" wvx.= fikaálshqí ixLHdj ksudkh lrkak' · >kldNfha È., m<, iy Wi i|yd fikaálshqí lSh ne.ska ;sfí [email protected]' · fikaálshqí leg tll È., m<, iy Wi fldmuK [email protected]' · Tn ,nd.;a ñkqu ye¢kaùug iqÿiq tallh l=ula± hs idlÉPdlr ;SrKh lrkak' · >kldNhlg yd >klhlg ksoiqkla § tys È., m<, iy Wi i|yd ñkqï igyka lr >kldNhg yd >klhg wjYH bv m%udKh .Kkh l< yels wdldr fhdackd lrkak' · ms<;=re iy ks.uk äuhs lvodisj, igykalr iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a s lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

117

17' øj ñkqï

ksmqK;dj 11 ( øj ñkqï ms<sn| j úpdrYS,Sj lghq;= lrñka ffoksl wjYH;d imqrd.kS' øj ñkqï uQ,l .Ks; l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs' s øj ñkqï .=Klruqq; fnouq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 11'1 l%hdldrlu 11'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 11'1'1 g wh;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 11'1'1 ( · ,Sgr yd ñ,s,Sgrj,ska øj ñkqï folla l¿ ,E,a, u; ,shd tu ñkqï fol tl;= lsÍu;a wvq lsÍu;a lrk whqre isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyh jkak ' · ,Sgr iy ñ,s,Sgr j,ska øj uksk nj' · ñ,s,Sgr 1000 la ,Sgrhlg iudk nj' · øj ñkqï tl;= lsÍfï § yd wvq lsÍfï § ñ,s,Ssgr ,Sgrj,g;a" ,Sgr ñ,s,Sgrj,g;a mßj¾;kh lr .; hq;= wjia:d we;s nj' mshjr 11'1'2 ( · · · · · ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï follg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

118

mshjr 11'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;al< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · ,Sg¾, ñ,s,Sgr iys; øj ñkqï .=K lsÍfï § ñ,s,g¾ ,Sg¾j,g mßj¾;kh lr .; hq;= wjia:d S we;s nj' · ,Sgr, ñ,s,Sgr iys; øj ñkqï fn§fï § ,sgr, ñ,s,Sgrj,g mßj¾;kh lr .; hq;= wjia:d we;s nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · øj ñkqï .=K lrk whqre iy fnok whqre úia;r lrhs' øj ñkqï .=K lsÍfï § yd fnÈfï § flá l%u Ndú; l< yels nj ms<s.kshs' øj ñkqï wdYs%; .Kkh lsÍïj, fhfohs' w;a ±lSï mokï lrf.k ksjerÈ ;SrK .ksh' s iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lr id¾:l;ajh <Õd lr .ksh' s

119

weuqKqu 11' 1' 1

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia øj ñkqï .=K lruq fnouq

my; rEmigyfkys ±lafjkafka Odß;dj 2l 250ml jk, øj uekSug Ndú; lrk fldamamhls.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· my; ±lafjk ls%hdj,s fol w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk ls%hdj,sh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'

(i) lshdj,sh % · fldamamh iïmQ¾Kfhka meKs îu j,ska mqrjd îu /ia lrk n÷klg yhjdrhla ±óu

(ii) ls%hdj,sh · fldamamh iïmQ¾Kfhka meKSîu j,ska mqrjd tl iudk ùÿre 9 lg ±óu

· ls%hdj,sh wjidkfha § Tng ,eî we;s n÷fkys$ ùÿrejl wvx.= meKs îu m%udKh fiúh yels l%uhla idlÉPd lrkak' · ta wkqj n÷fkys$ ùÿrejl wvx.= meKs îu mßudj fidhkak' · Tn lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

120

18' wkq m d;

ksmqK;dj 4 ( tÈfkod Ôú;fha § lghq;= myiq lr.ekSu i|yd wkqmd; fhdod.ksh' s fnodyod .ekSu i|yd wkqmd; fhdod .ksh' s wkqmd;hg wkqj fnouq' ñks;;= 90 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'1 l%hdldrlu 4'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 4'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 4'1'1 ( · f.dvke.s,s bÈlsÍfï § fhdod .kakd nodu ñY%Khl je,s yd isfuka;s w;r wkqmd;h 6: 1 ls. fujeks wkqmd; fhdod .kakd wjia:d ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · tl u rdYshl m%udK folla w;r ixLHduh a iïnkaOh wkqmd;hla nj' b rdYsj, m%udK tlu tallhlska hqla; · wkqmd;hl úh hq;= nj' · tall fjkia wjia:dj, § wkqmd; ,sùug tajd tlu tallhlg mßj¾;kh l< hq;= nj' · rdYska folla w;r wkqmd; a:b f,i ±lajQ úg a wkq b f,i m%ldY lrk nj' · a:b f,i ±lajQ úg th f,i Nd.hl wdldrhg ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 4'1'2 ( · · · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, ir, odr, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnodfokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hka mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

121

mshjr 4'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · wkqmd;hla wkqj fn¥ uq¿ fldgia .Kk fiùu i|yd wkqmd;fha mo tl;= l< hq;= nj' · wkqmd;hg wkqj fnÈh hq;= m%udKh uq¿ fldgia .Kkska fn§fuka tl fldgil w.h ,nd .;yels nj' · tl fldgil w.h wkqmd;fha tla tla mofhka .=K lsÍfuka kshñ; w.hka ,nd.; yels nj' · wkqmd;fha moj,g kshñ; w.hhka tl;= lsÍfuka fn¥ uq¿ m%udKh ,efnk nj' ^ñks;a;= 40 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · wkqmd;hl, fnoQ uq¿ fldgia .Kk ,nd .kakd whqre úia;r lrhs' · tosfkod lghq;= i|yd wkqmd;j, wjYH;djh ms<.kshs s · ´kEu m%udKhla oS we;s wkqmd;hlg wkqj fnohs' · fnod yod .ekSïj, § idOdrK f,i lghq;= lrhs' · tÈfkod ld¾hka ys § kdia;sh wju lrhs'

122

weuqKQu 4. 1. 1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoi a

wkqmd;hg wkqj fnouq · my; i|yka wjia:d w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkQ wjia:dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. fn¥ fldgia .Kk iuka rdOd ksidï fn¥ m%udKh wjia:dj 1 3 1 2 re 300$wjia:dj 2 2 5 1 wU f.ä 40 hs wjia:dj 3 1 2 4 fjr¿ 45

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · · ·

;sfokd w;r øjH fn¥ wkqmd;h ,shkak. ta wkqj tla wfhl=g ,efnk m%udKh Nd.hla f,i ,shkak. iuka, rdOd, ksidï,,enQ m%udKhka fjk fjk u .Kkh lrkak. tÈfkod Ôú;fha § fujeks wjia:dj, § ie,ls,u;a úh hq;= lreKq ms<n| idlÉPd s s lrkak. Tfí lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak .

123

19' m%;sY;

ksmqK;dj 05 ( m%;sY; fhdod.ksñka kQ;k f,dalfha id¾:l f,i .kqfokq lrhs' oYu ixLHd m%;Y;j,ska olajkak' s oYu m%;Y; f,i ,shuq' s ñks;;= 135 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'1 l%hdldrlu 5'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 5'1'1 g we;=<;a ,l+Kq igyfka úYd,s; msgm;la' · weuqKqu 5'1'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 5'1'1 ( · ,l+Kq igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lr ta ms<n| j isikf.ka s s q a úuikak ' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyjkak' · Nd.hla, ;=,H Nd.hla weiqfrka yrh 100 jQ Nd.hla njg m;a l< yels nj' · tjeks Nd. fhfok wjia:d wjg mßirfhka ±lsh yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mshjr 5'1'2 ( · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, ir, odr, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnodfokak' .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfhys fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

· ·

124

mshjr 5'1'3

(

· · · ·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,nd fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · Nd.hla yrh 100 jk f,i ,súh yels nj' · yrh 100 la jQ Nd. m%;Y; f,i ±laúh yels nj' s · m%;sY; "]" ixfla;fhka y÷kajk nj' · f,i olajk nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 5'1'4

(

· · · ·

mshjr 5'1'5 (

· · · ·

mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoiays fojk fldgi fj; wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;al< lKavdhug úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wfkla lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · oYu ixLHdjl we;s oYu ia:dk .Kk wkqj tys yrh oyfha n,hla jk mßÈ Nd.hla njg m;a l< yels nj' · oYu ixLHd 100ka mx.= f,i mßj¾;kh lsÍfuka th m%;Y;hla f,i ±laúh yels nj' s · Nd.hla fyda oYu ixLHdjla ka .=K lsÍu u.ska ]

ixfla;h iys; j m%;Y; njg m;a l< yels nj' s ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

125

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · oYu ixLHdjla Nd.hla f,i ,shk whqre úia;r lrhs' · oYu ixLHdjla 100 ka mx.= njg m;alsÍfuka m%;sY;hla f,i ,súh yelsnj ms<.ksh' s s · oYu ixLHdjla m%;Y;hla f,i ,shd olajhs' s · iei§u i|yd tÈfkod Ôú;fha ,nk w;a±lSï mokï lr.ksh' s · lKavdhï yeÕSfuka hq;j lghq;= lrhs' = weuqKQu 5. 1. 1

,l=Kq igyk

wjidk jdr mÍCIKh ,l=Kq ^.Ks;h& .Ks;h we.hSï ,l+Kq isxy, úoHdj wd.u

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

126

weuqKqu 5' 1' 2

lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

oYu m%;sY;hla f,i ,shuq 1 fldgi my; i|yka rEmigyka w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkQ rEm igyka yd cd,lh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' I rEm igyk II rEm igyk

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

III rEm igyk

IV rEm igyk

cd,lh

127

· · · · · ·

tys w÷re l< m%udKh uq¿ rEmfhka lskï Nd.hla o hkak idlÉPd lrkak' Tng ,eî we;s cd,lfhys tu Nd.hg wod< fldgi w÷re lrkak' cd,lfhys w÷re l< l=vd fldgila tall tlla f,i f.k fldgilg wod< Nd.h ,shd olajkak' Tn uq,ska ,nd.;a Nd.h yd fldgq cd,lfhys w÷re l< fldgig wkqrEm Nd.h w;r iïnkaOh úia;r lrkak' cd,lh weiqfrka Tn ,nd.;a Nd.fhys yrh ms<sn| j ie,ls,su;a ùfuka yd fm< fmd; mßYS,kfhka Bg iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak' ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

II fldgi · my; i|yka oYu ixLHd w;ßka Tn lKavdhug wod< oYu ixLHdj flrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

0'5

0'07

0'28

1'5

· · · ·

tu oYu ixLHdj Nd.hla f,i olajkak' tu Nd.h m%;Y;hla f,i olajkak' s oYu ixLHdjla m%;sY;hla f,i ,súh ye;s ;j;a l%u úê fhdackd lrkak' ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak'

128

20' ldáiS h ;,h ksmqK;dj 20 ( úúO l%uúê .fõIKh lrñka úp,H folla w;r mj;sk wfkHdkH iïnkaO;d myiqfjka ikaksfõokh lrhs' tlsfklg ,ïn wlaI follg idfmalaIj hï ia:dkhl msyàu ú.%y lrhs' s msyàï ksrEmKh lruq' s ñks;;= 60 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 20'1

(

l%hdldrlu 20'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 20'1'1 g we;=<;a Ñ;%h' q · weuqKqu 20'1'2 g we;=<;a .fõsIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · fldgqrE,a lvodis y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a' bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ( mshjr 20'1 ( · Ñ;%h mka;hg bÈßm;a lr tys ±lafjk ksjfia msyàu s s .ek isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · tlsfklg ,ïnj msysá f¾Ld folla weiqßka rEm igykl lsishï msysàula úia;r lsÍu myiq nj' · msysàula úia;r lsÍug tlsfklg ,ïn ÈYd folla isg we;s ÿr m%udK fhdod .; yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mshjr 20'1'2 ( · · · · · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis, fldgQ rE,a lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bosrsm;a lsrSu;a i|yd l=vd lKavdhï iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

129

mshjr 20'1'3

(

·

lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKqq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · tlsfklg ,ïn ixLHd f¾Ld iys; ;,h" ldáiSh ;,h ^LKavdxl ;,h& hkqfjka kï lrk nj' y wlaIrh · ^5 3& LKavdxlh 3 2 1 O

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

·

·

· · · ·

1 2 3 4 5 x wlaIrh ox ;sria ixLHd f¾Ldj x wlaIrh hkqfjka o" oy isria ixLHd f¾Ldj y wlaIh hkqfjka o kï lrk nj ' x wlaIh Tiafia ÿr yd y wlaIh Tiafia ÿr ±lafjk ixLHd hq., mámdá.; hq.,hla fyda LKavdxlhla hkqfjka y÷kajk nj' LKavdxlh ,sùfï § m<uqj x w.h o fojkqj y w.h o ,shk nj ' mámdá.; hq.,hla jryka ;=< fldud ,l=Kla iys; j ,shk nj' ldáiSh ;,fha ^0,0 & ,laIHh uq, ,laIHh hkqfjka y÷kajk nj' ldáiSh ;,fha ,laIHhla bx.S%is lemsg,a wlaIrhlska o kï l< yels nj ' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · LKavdxl ;,hla u; msyá ,laIHhl msyàu tlsfklg s s ,ïn wlaI folla weiqßka úia;r lrhs' · tlsfklg ,ïn ir, f¾Çh udhsï follg we;s ÿr wdOdr lr.ksñka mßirfha msyàï ksYÑ; j ±laúh yels s a nj ms<.ksh' s s · úúO msyàï m%i;dßlj ksrEmKh lrhs' s a · wkawh fj; ksYaÑ; f;dr;=re ,nd§ug we;s yelshdj m%o¾Ykh lrhs' · ms<fj<la we;sj ;u ld¾hh ie,iqï lrhs' s

130

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

12 m

;drmdr

20m

ksjil msyàu ±lafjk Ñ;%h s

131

ir;af.a ksji

weuqKqu 20. 1. 1

.=re mdr

weuqKqu 20. 1. 2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

msysàï ksrEmKh lruq · rEm igyfka ±lafjk x yd y hkqfjka kï l< tlsfklg ,ïn ixLHd f¾Ld fol iy my; ±lafjk ,laIH hq., w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqK ,laIH hq.,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. A,B

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

C,E

F,H

G,D

·

tu tla tla ,laIHfha isg ms<sfj<ska y f,i kï lr we;s f¾Ldjg;a x f,i kï lr we;s f¾Ldjg;a we;s ÿr fldgq .Kka lr ,shkak' · tajd (p,q) wdldrhg m%ldY lrkak. · Tng ,eî we;s fldgq lvodisfhys by; rEmfha ±lafjk wdldrfha x iy y ixLHd f¾Ld fol w¢kak ' · my; ±lafjk ,laIH ldKav w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq ,laIH ldKavh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ,laIH ldKavh 1 ^2, 1& ^2, 4& ^2, 3& ^2, 6& ^2, 2& ^2, 0& ^2, 5& ,laIH ldKavh ,laIH ldKavh 2 3 ^1, 4& ^5, 6& ^3, 4& ^6, 4& ^0, 4& ^4, 4& ^2, 4& ^1, 1& ^4, 4& ^2, 2& ^3, 3& ^5, 5& ^0, 0& ^6, 6&

,laIH ldKavh 4 ^1, 5& ^2, 4& ^3, 3& ^4, 3& ^5, 4& ^6, 5& ^5, 5& ^4, 5& ^3, 5& ^2, 5& · ixLHd f¾Ld we¢ fldgq rE,a lvodis u; tu ,laIH ±laùug l;sr ,l=K fhdokak' · tla tla l;srhla wi, ta ta ,laIH ±lafjk ixLHd hq., ,shkak. · fm< fmd; weiqre lr .ksñka my; ±lafjk foa ye|skaùug úfYaI kula ne.ska fhdackd lrkak' (i) ixLH f¾Ld fol (ii) ixLH f¾Ld fol iys; fldgq lvodish (iii) (p,q) hq.,h (iv) (o,o) ,laIHh · ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

132

21. iólrK I

ksmqK;dj 17 ( tÈfkod Ôú;fha wjYH;d idlaId;a lr.ekSu i|yd iólrK úi§fï l%u úê yiqrejhs. tÈfkod Ôú;fha yuqjk .eg¨ úi§u i|yd ir, iólrK fhdod.kS' iólrK úi|uq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 17'1 (

l%hdldrlu 17'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKï 17'1'1 g we;=<;a Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a q y;rla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 17'1'1 ( · Tn ksjiska f.fkú;a ;snQ uqo,ska re'15 la niar:hg úhoï jQ wjia:djla isym;a lrkak' ±ka Tn <Õ re'50 la s b;sß kï ksjiska f.kúka ;snQ uqo, ms<n| j isikf.ka s q a úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · hï uqo,lska úhoï jQ uqo, wvq l< úg b;sß uqo, ,efnk nj' · f.kú;a ;snQ uqo, i|yd ùÔh ixfla;hla fhdod .ksñka b;sß uqo, i|yd ùÔh m%ldYkhla ielish yels nj' mshjr 17'1'2 ( ^ñks;a;= 20 hs& · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoiaj, m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 20 hs&

133

mshjr 17'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · iudk;djla wvx.= m%ldYhla iólrKhla f,i ixfla; u.ska ±laúh yels nj' · tÈfkod yuqjk we;eï iïnkao;djhka fï wdldrhg iólrK f,i ,súh yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 17'1'4

(

mshjr 17'1'5

(

· mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 40 hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · hï ls%hdj,shl wkqm<fj< ±laùug .e,Sï igykla s s Ndú; jk nj' · .e,Sï igyka u.ska iólrK f.dvkef.k wdldrh ±laúh yels nj' · tl;= lsÍfï .Ks; l¾ufha m%;f,dau lshdj wvq lsÍu s % nj' · wvq lsÍfï m%;sf,dauh tl;= lsÍu nj' · .=K lsÍfï .Ks; l¾ufha m%;sf,dau ls%hdj fn§u nj' · fn§u .Ks; l¾ufha m%;sf,dau ls%hdj .+K lsÍu nj'

134

· m%;sf,dau .e,Sï igyk weiqfrka ir, iólrKhla úiÈh yels nj' · tys iólrKh úi£fï ùÔh l%uh wka;¾.; nj' · ùÔh l%u Ndú;fhka ir, iólrK úi¢h yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

( ir, iólrK úi£fï úúO l%u úia;r lrhs' .eg¨ úi£ug ir, iólrK fhdod .; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s ir, iólrK ksjerÈj úi|hs' wruqKq idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd ksjerÈj Ñka;kh fufyhjhs' myiq l%u úê fhdod .ksñka .eg¨ úiod .ekSu g fhduq fjhs'

135

weuqKqu 17'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

iólrK úi|uq I fldgi · my; ±lafjk m%ldY w;=ßka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk m%ldYh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. 1 2 3 4 x g ;=kla tl;= l< úg ms<s;=r 10 g iudkh. x f.ka myla wvq l< úg ms<s;=r 4 g iudkh. x ys fo.=Khg ;=kla tl;= l< úg ms<s;=r 9 g iudkh. x ys fo.=Kfhka tlla wvq l< úg ms<s;=r 9 g iudkh.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· Tng ,enqK m%ldYh ixfla; Ndú;fhka ,shkak. · Tn ixfla; Ndú;fhka ,shQ m%ldYkh jeks tajd i|yd iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. · Tn lKavdhug imhd we;s wdldrfha fjk;a m%ldYhla ,shkak. · tu m%ldYh ixfla; Ndú;fhka ,shkak. · iuia; lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S f,i bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak. II fldgi · my; § we;s iólrK w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk iólrKh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. iólrKh I 2x + 7 = 17 iólrKh II x+4 = 10 iólrKh III 3x - 1 = 11 iólrKh IV x -8 = 3 · iólrKh úi£u i|yd .e,Sï igyka yd m%;sf,dau .e,Sï igyka fhdodf.k we;s wdldrh fm< fmd; mßYS,kh lrñka fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak. · .e,Sï igyk yd m%;sf,dau .e,Sï igyk we§fuka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq iólrKfha x ys w.h fidhkak' · ;j;a tjeks iólrKhla ,shd .e,Sï igyka u.ska úi|kak' · iólrK úi¢u i|yd ;j;a l%uhla fm< fmd; mßYS,kh lrñka fidhkak' · tu l%uh u.ska o Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq iólrKh úi|kak' · iuia; lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S f,i bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï jkak'

136

21. iñlrK II

ksmqK;dj 19 ( iQ;% fhdod.; yels l%u úê .fõIKh lrñka tÈfkod Ôú;fha yuqjk .eg¨ úi|hs. ir, iQ;% f.dvkÕhs' ir, iQ;% f.dvkÕuq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 19'1 ( l%hdldrlu 19'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 19'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla ' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 19'1'1 ( · Ys I Hfhl= ,jd l¿,E,a f ,a iup;= r i% h la yd iDcqfldKdi%hla wkaojkak' · iup;=ri%fha mßñ;sh o iDcqfldaKdi%fha j¾.M,h o fidhk whqre úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · me;a;l È. a jq iup;=ri%hl mßñ;sh p kï p = 4a nj · me;a;l È. l jk yd m<, b jq iDcqfldaKdi%hl j¾.M,h A kï A= l b nj ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mka ;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak'

mshjr 19'1'2

(

· · · ·

· ks¾udKYS,S f,i iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

137

mshjr 19'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · úp,H lSmhla zz}ZZ ,l=Klska iïnkaOùu iQ;%hla f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · fuu iïnkaO;dj iólrKhla jk nj'

· .Ks;fha úúO .Kkh lsÍï l%uj;a j iy myiqfjka lsÍu i|yd iQ;% Ndú; l< yels nj' · úoHdj jeks fjk;a úIhhkaj, § o iQ;% Ndú; jk nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · iQ;%hl ,laIK úia;r lrhs' · iQ;% fhdod.ksñka tÈfkod .Kkh lsÍï myiqfjka l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s · fokq ,nk úp,Hhka w;r we;s iïnkaOh wkqj ir, iQ;% f.dv k.hs' · ksjerÈ ks.uk ,nd .ekSug ;sfnk o;a; yiqrejhs' · lKavdhfï wfkl=;a idudðlhka iuÕ iyfhda.fhka mejÍ we;s ld¾hfhys fhfohs'

138

weuqKqu 19'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ir, iQ;% f.dvk.uq

· my; ±lafjk wjia:d w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq wjia:dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. wjia:dj 1 2 3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4

ialkaOh a jk fmÜáhla iy ialkaOh b jk md¾i,hl uq¿ ialkaOh jk A fiùu. ñ, re. b jk NdKavhla ñ,g .ekSu i|yd re. a ÿka úg b;sß uqo, jk A fiùu. Èklg fnfy;a fm;s a ne.ska Èk b ixLHdjla i|yd wjYH fnfy;a fm;s .Kk jk A fiùu. wU f.ä a ixLHdjla <uqka b ixLHdjla w;f¾ iu fia fn¥ úg tla wh;=g ,efnk wU .Kk jk A fiùu.

· tu wjia:djg wkqj a, b yd A w;r iïnkaO;djh ±lafjk m%ldYkhla f.dvkÕkak. · .e,fmk ixfla; Ndú; lrñka, fujeks fjk;a wjia:djla úia;r ta i|yd o m%ldYkhla f.dvkÕk wkaou idlÉPd lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,Sj iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkïjkak.

139

22. wiudk;d

ksmqK;dj 18 ( Ôjk .eg¨ wdYs; úúO rdYs w;r jq iïnkaO;d úYaf,aIKh % lrhs. fok ,o ixfrdaOl wkqj úp,Hj,g .; yels w.h iSud, rEmslj m%o¾Ykh lrhs' wiudk;d úi|uq' ñks;;= 60 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 18'1 (

l%hdldrlu 18'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 18'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla ' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 18'1'1 ( · ir, iólrK úi£u yd ixLHd f¾Ldjla u; ksÅ, ksrEmKh ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · ùÔh l%u Ndú; lsÍfuka ir, iólrK úi¢h yels nj' · < yd > ,l=Kq fhdod .ksñka mQ¾K ixLHd folla ixikaokh l< yels nj' · ksÅ, ixLHd f¾Ldjla u; ksrEmKh l< yels nj' -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 mshjr 18'1'2 ( · · · · · ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

140

mshjr 18'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · § we;s isoêhl f;dr;=re weiqfrka ùÔh ixfla;hla a yd " < , >" ,l=Kq fhdod .ksñka f.dv kÕd .kakd iïnkaO;dj wiudk;djla jk nj ' · iólrK úi£fï § Ndú; lrk uQ,sl m%;HlaI Ndú;fhka wiudk;d o úi¢h yels nj' · wiudk;djhl úi÷ï l=,lh ixLHd f¾Ldjl ,laIH uÕska ksrEmKh l< yels nj'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

^ñks;a;= 20 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · ùÔh l%u Ndú;fhka wiudk;d úi|k whqre úia;r lrhs' wiudk;djhl úi÷ï ixLHd f¾Ldjl ksrEmKh l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s fok ,o wiudk;d úi|hs' hï ixfrdaOlj,g wod< j úi÷ï fiùug fm<fUhs' ikaksfõokh i|yd ir, l%u fhdod .kshs'

141

weuqKqu 18'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

wiudk;d úi|uq my; i|yka isoê w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk isoêh flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' a a isoêh i a ±kg YS% ,xldfõ rcfha mdi,lg orefjla we;=<;a lrkq ,nkafka jhi wjqreÿ my iïmQ¾K jQ úgh' ±kg YS% ,xldfõ fmr mdi,l bf.k .kq ,nk orejl= f.a jhi wjqreÿ x f,i i,lkak' isoêh ii a lS%vd ;rÕhlg f;dard .kq ,nkafka jhi wjqreÿ 15 g jeä isiqka h' ;rÕhlg bÈßm;a jk isiqorejl= f.a jhi wjqreÿ x f,i i,lkak' isoêh iii a md<ulska .uka l< yelafla ialkaOh fuá%la fgdka 8g wvq jdyk muKs' md<fuka .uka l< yels jdykhl ialkaOh fuá%la fgdka x f,i i,lkak' isoêh iv a ±kg fj<ofmdf,a fodvï f.ähl ñ, remsh,a oyhg jvd jeä h' fj<ofmdf,a fodvï f.ähl ñ, remsh,a x f,i i,lkak' · Tng ,eî we;s isoaêfha x g .; yels w.h .ek i,lñka tu w.h iy x w;r iïnkaOh < fyda > ,l=K fhdoñka ,shkak' · Tn ,shQ iïnkaOh iólrKhla fõ [email protected] tfia fkdfõ kï tu iïnkaOhg Èh yels kula fhdackd lrkak' · my; § we;s iïnkaO;d w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk iïnkaO;dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' · 2x < 10 · 2x > 10 · x +1 > 6 · x-1 < 6 iólrK úi§u i|yd Tn fhdod.;a ùÔh l%u wkq.ukh lrñka wod< iïnkao;djfha úi÷ï x i|yd .; yels w.hka fiùug W;aidy lrkak' Tng ,efnk úi÷ï w;ßka 10 g wvq mQ¾K ixLHduh w.hka ish,a, ,shkak' ixLHd f¾Ldjla we| tys Tfí úi÷ï ksrEmKh lrkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

142

· · · ·

23' ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm -1

ksmqK;dj 23 ( ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm wdYs%; cHñ;sl ixl,am mokï lr .ksñka tÈfkod Ôú;fha lghq;= i|yd wjYH ks.ukj,g t<fUhs. úúO ,laIK mokï lr .ksñka ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm kï lrhs' ;sfldaK j¾. lruq' % ñks;;= 135 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 23'1 (

l%hdldrlu 23'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· .k lvodisj,ska lmd .kakd ,o iumdo, iuoaúmdo, úIu mdo , ;s%fldaK ;=k ne.ska jQ ;s%fldaK lÜg, ;=kla' · .k lvodisj,ska lmd .kakd ,o iq¿fldaKsl, iDcq fldaKsl yd uyd fldaKs; ls%fldaK ;=k ne.ska jQ lÜg, ;=kla' · weuqKï 23'1'1 g we;=<;a Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a q ;=kla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 23'1'1 ( · l¿,E,a, u; ;s%fldaKhla we| tys wx. ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mdo ;=kla iys; ixjD; ;, rEmh ;s%fldaKh nj' · cm, mm mßudKhla Ndú;fhka ;s%fldaKhl mdoj, È. ueksh yels nj' · fldaKudkh Ndú;fhka fldaKhl úYd,;ajh ueksh yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

143

mshjr 23'1'2

(

mshjr 23'1'3

(

· · · ·

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï ;=klg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoiaj, m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 20 hs& lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · mdoj, È. wkqj ls%fldaK j¾. l< yels nj' · mdo ;=ku È.ska iudk ls%fldaK iumdo ;s%fldAK f,i y÷kajk nj' · mdo folla È.ska iudk ;s%fldaK iuoaú mdo ;s%fldaK f,i y÷kajk nj' · mdo ;=k È.ska tlsfklg fjkia ;s%fldaK úIumdo ;s%fldaK f,i y÷kajk nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

mshjr 23'1'4

(

· mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 40 hs&

144

mshjr 23'1'5

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · fldaKj, úYd,;aj wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. l< yels nj' · ish¨u fldaK iq¿ fldaK jk ;s%fldaKhla iq¿ fldaKl s ;s%fldaKhla f,i y÷kajk nj' · iDcqfldaKhla iys; ;s%fldaKhla iDcqfldaKsl ;s%fldaKhla f,i y÷kajk nj' · uyd fldaKhla iys; ;s%fldaKhla uydfldaKsl ;s%fldaKhla f,i y÷kajk nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

( mdo wkqj yd fldaK wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾. kï lrhs' mdoj,È. wkqj fukau fldaKj, úYd,;aj wkqj o ;sfldaK j¾.SlrKh l< yels nj ms<.ksh' % s s fok ,o ;s % f lda K mdo wkq j iy flda K wkq j j¾.SlrKfha fhfohs' fmdÿ ,laIK wkqj j¾.SlrKhg fm<fò' w,xlrKh i|yd yev;, fhdod .ksh' s

145

weuqKqu 23'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia ;s%fldaK j¾. lruq

(i & fldgi · fm<fmdf;a i|yka mdo wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾.SlrKh l< wdldrh iy ta ta ;s%fldaKj, mdo w;r iïnkaOh wOHhkh lrkak. · my; i|yka ;s%fldaK lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk ;s%fldaK lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. I lÜg,h II lÜg,h III lÜg,h

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· fm< fmd; wOHhkfhka ,nd.;a mdo w;r iïnkaOh wkqj Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s ;s%fldaK lÜg,h wh;a jkafka l=uk j¾.hg ± hs idlÉPd lrkak. · ta wkqj tu ;s%fldaK j¾.h i|yd kula fhdackd lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

146

(ii) fldgi · fm<fmdf;a i|yka fldaK wkqj ;s%fldaK j¾.SlrKh l< wdldrh yd ta ta ;s%fldaKj, fldaK w;r iïnkaOh wOHhkh lrkak. · my; i|yka ;s%fldaK lÜg, w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq ;%sfldaK lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. (i) lÜg,h (ii) lÜg,h (iii) lÜg,h

tla tla ;s%fldaKfha fldaKj, úYd,;ajh uek.kak. fm< fmd; wOHhkfhka ,nd.;a fldaK w;r iïnkaOh wkqj Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s ;s%fldaK lÜg,h wh;ajkafka l=uk j¾.hg ± hs idlÉPd lrkak. · ta wkqj tu ;s%fldaK j¾. i|yd kula fhdackd lrkak. · Tn y÷kd.;a ;s%fldaK j¾. fhdod.ksñka w,xldr Ñ;%hla ks¾udKh lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

· ·

147

23' ir, f¾Åh ;, rEm II ksmqK;dj 23 ( ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm wdYs%; cHñ;sl ixl,am mokï lr .ksñka tÈfkod Ôú;fha lghq;= i|yd wjYH ks.ukj,g t<fUhs. nyq -wi% yev wkqj j¾.SlrKh lrhs' nyq -wi% y÷kd .ksu' q ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 23'2 ( l%hdldrlu 23'2 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 23'2'1 g we;=<;a rEmgyfka úYd,s; msgm;la' q · weuqKï 23'2'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ q msgm;a folla ^úYd, rEmigyka iys;&' · .=re wdo¾Yk fldaKudkh · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 23'1'1 ( · rEm igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lr tu rEm iE§ we;s f¾Ld s LKav ms<sn| j o tajdfha ixjD;, újD; nj ms<sn| j o isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · tla jl% f¾Ld LKavhla fyda wvx.= rEm ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm fkdjk nj' · ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm o ixjD; yd újD; f,i j¾. l< yels nj' · ir, frLd Lkavj,ska jg jQ ixjD; ;, rEmhla nyq- wi%hla f,i y÷kajk nj · fldaKudkh Ndú; lr mrdj¾; fldaK o uekSug l%u we;s nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

148

mshjr 23'2'2

(

· mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï follg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys m<uq fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · iEu wNHka;r fldaKhl u w.h 1800 g wvq fldaK we;s nyqwi%h W;a;, nyqwi%hla nj' · tla wNHka;r fldaKhla fyda 1800 g jeä w.hla we;s nyqwi%h wj;, nyqwi%hla nj' · mdo ish,a,u iudk jq;a fldaK ish,a,u iudkjQ;a nyqwi%h iúê nyqwi%hla nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

mshjr 23'2'3

(

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl

(

· W;a;, nyqwi%hl, wj;, nyqwi%hl, iúê nyqwi%hl ,laIK úia;r lrhs' · iúê nyqwi%hla iEu úgu W;a;< nyqwi%hla nj ms<.ksh' s s · cHdñ;sl ,laIK mokï lr.ksñka nyqwi% j¾.SlrKh lrhs' · kj ±kqu Ndú;hg .ksñka fudaia;r ks¾udKlrKfha fhfohs' · iajdNdúl mßirfha iy ks¾ñ; mßirfha we;s rgd ms<n| s úuis,su;a fjhs'

149

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

(i)

(x) (vii) (vi) (ii) (v) (viii)

(xi)

rEm igyk

150

(ix)

(iii)

(vi)

weuqKqu 23'2'1

weuqKqu 23'2'2 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia nyq - wi% y÷kd.ksuq · my; i|yka rEm lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s rEm lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. rEm lÜg,h I

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

rEm lÜg, 2

151

· · · · · · · · ·

tys we;s tla tla rEmfhys wNHka;r fldaK w;r mrdj¾; fldaK ;sfí±hs ksÍlaIKh lrkak. wNHka;r fldaK f,i mrdj¾; fldaK iys; ;, rEm o, tfia fkdue;s ;, rEm o f,i fldgia follg fjka lrkak. fm< fmd; o wOHhkfhka fuu ;, rEm j¾. fol i|yd kï fhdackd lrkak. Tn f;dard.;a mrdj¾; fldaK fkdue;s ;, rEmj, tla tla mdofha È. ukskak. mdo ish,a, È.ska iudk jQ yd tfia fkdjQ f,i fldgia follg fjka lrkak. mdo ish,a, os.ska iudk jq nyq wi%j, wNHka;r fldaK o iudk ± hs uek n,kak. mdo ish,a, yd fldaK ish,a, iudk jQ nyq wi% i|yd kula fhdackd lrkak. Tn leu;s ;, rEm yevhla f;dardf.k l=Ika ljrhlaa fyda fïi froaola i|yd iqÿiq fudaia;rhla ks¾udKh lrkak. lKavdhï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S f,i iuia; mka;hg bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï s jkak.

152

24. ks ¾ udK ksmqK;dj 27 ( cHdñ;s l ks h uhka wkq j wjg mßirfha ia j Ndjhka úYaf,aIKh lrhs. ;, rEm ks¾udKh lrhs' ;, rEm úêu;a j w¢uq' ñks;;= 120 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 27'2 ( l%hdldrlu 27'2 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 27'2'1 g we;=<;a rEmgyfka úYd,s; msgm;la' q · weuqKqu 27'2'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · cHdñ;sl WmlrK lÜg,h · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 27'2'1 ( · rEm igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lrñka tys tla tla rEmfha s ,laIK ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · mdo ;=kla fya Bg jeä .Kklska hq;a ixjD; ;, rEm we;s nj' · iudk mdo ;=klska iukaú; ir, f¾Çh ;, rEmh iumdo ;s%fldaKhla nj' · iudk mo yd iudk fldaKj,ska hq;a nyqwi% iúê nyqwi% nj ' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mshjr 27'3'3 ( · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

153

· ljlgqj yd lr, odrh Ndú;fhka fok ,o È.ska hq;a ir, f¾Ld LKavhla ks¾udKh l< yels nj' · lj lgqj yd ir,odrh Ndú;fhka fok ,o È.ska hq;a ir, f¾Ldj mdohla jkfia iumdo ;s%fldaKhla ks¾udKh l< yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& mshjr 27'2'4 ( · mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrd fokak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 20 hs& · · · · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · jD;a;hla tys wrhg iudk cHd u.ska fldgia yhlg fnÈh yels nj' · tu fnÿï ,laIH hdlsÍfuka iúê Ivi%hla ks¾udKh l< yels nj' · iúê Ivi%h ks¾udKh lsÍug fjk;a l%u o we;s nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · · ( iumdo ;s%fldaK iy iúê Ivi% ks¾udKh lrk whqre úia;r lrhs' ljlgq j yd ir,odrh Ndú;fhka ks j erÈj yd ld¾hIlaIu j iumdo ;sfldaK yd iúê Ivi% ks¾udKh % l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s iumdo ;sfldaK yd iúê Ivi% ks¾udKh lrhs' id¾:l m%;M, ,nd.ekSug WmlrK ksif,i yiqrejhs' s s kj ks¾udKlrKhg fhduqfjhs'

154

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 27'2'5

(

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

5 cm

5 cm

5 cm rEm igyk

155

weuqKqu 27'2'1

weuqKqu 27'2'2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

;, rEm úêu;a j w¢uqq 1 fldgi

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· by; rem igyka fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak. · my; ±lafjk ñkqï w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s ñkqu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. I II III IV ñkqu 3.5 cm 4.3 cm 5.2 cm 4.8 cm

· by; wOHhkh l< lreKq weiqre lr .ksñka ,eî we;s ñkqug wod< È.ska hq;a f¾Ld LKavhla, ljlgqj yd ir, odrh Ndú;fhka ks¾udKh lr th AB f,i kï lrkak. · b;sß mdo fol o AB È.g u iudk jk fia ljlgqj Ndú;fhka C ,laIh fidhd .ksñka ABC ;s%fldaKh ks¾udKh lrkak. · A, B yd C ,laIH hd lsÍfuka ,efnk ;sfldaKfha ,laIK y÷kd .ksñka ta i|yd úfYaI kula fhdackd lrkak. · tu ;s%fldaKfha fldaK ;=k o uek th iúê nyqwi%hla ±hs ks.ukh lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak.

156

2 fldgi · my; ±lafjk ñkqï w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s ñkqu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. I II III IV ñkqu 3.2 cm 3.5 cm 4.4 cm 4.6 cm

· tu ñkqu wrh f,i f.k jD;a;hla w¢kak. · tu jD;a;h u; tys wrhg iudk ÿr m%udK fldmuK ,l=Kq l< yels±hs fidhkak. · tu ,laIHh hd lrñka ;, rEmhla ks¾udKh lrkak. · tu ;, rEmfhys úfYaI ,laIK fidhd ta i|yd úfYaI kula fhdackd lrkak. · tu ;, rEmh ks¾udKh l< yels fjk;a l%u fhdackd lrkak. · ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï jkak.

157

25. >k jia;= I

ksmqK;dj 22 ( úsúO >kjia;= ms<sn| j .fõIKh lrñka kj ks¾udK lrKfha fhfoa. >k jia;= j, wdlD;s ks¾udKh lrhs' úúO >k jia;= ;kuq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a · weuqKq 22'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a y;rla' · fikaáógr fldgiaj,g fnok ,o m%ia;dr lvodis lKavdhug fldgia fol ne.ska · l;=re" .ï fyda fif,dafÜma iy ì%iag,a fndaâ · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 22'1 ( l%hdldrlu 22'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh s mshjr 22'1'1 ( · p;=Ia;,hl wdlD;shla mka;shg m%o¾Ykh lrkak' · tys m;ru o mka;shg bÈßm;a lr p;=Ia;,hl wx. ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · >k jia;= iE§fï § m;rula ilid .; hq;= nj' · p;=ia;,hl odr yhla o Ys¾I y;rla o uqyqK;a y;rla o we;s nj' · tÈfkod Ôú;fha § úúO yeve;s >k jia;= fhdod .kakd nj ' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mshjr 22'1'2 ( · mka ;sh l=vd lKavdhï follg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 40 hs&

158

mshjr 22'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· iup;=ri% msrñvhl iup;=ri%ldr m;=,la yd ;s%fldaaKdldr uqyqK;a y;rla we;s nj' · ;s%fldaK ms%iauhl ;s%fldaKdldr uqyqK;a folla yd iDcqfldaKdi% uqyqK;a ;=kla we;s nj' · fyd| ksuejqula i|yd ;dlaIKsl l%u fhdod .; hq;= nj' ^ñks;a;= 25 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl ( · · · · · ks¾udKh lrk ,o >k jia;=fõ uqyqK;aj, yevh úia;r lrhs' fujeks wdlD;s mßirh w,xlrKhg fhdod.; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s m;ru ksjerÈj we| lmd, >k jia;fõ wdlD;sh ks¾udKh = lrhs' Wmßu M,odhs;djla ,efnk f,i iïm;a ksisf,i m%fhdackhg .kshs' lKavdhu ;=< ixhufhka hq;=j lghq;= lrhs'

159

weuqKqu 27'2'2

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

úúO >k jia;= ;kuq · my; § we;s m;rï w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk m;ru flfrys lKavdhfï wjOdkh fhduq lrkak. m;ru 1

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

m;ru 2

160

· Tn lKavdhug ,enqk m;ru m%ia;dr lvodisfha we|.kak. · · m%ia;dr lvodish ì%iag,a fndaâ tll w,jd lmd fjkalr.kak. iqÿiq mßÈ we,jqï jdis kud we,ùfuka >k jia;=jla ,nd.kak.

· >k jia;=fõ odr, YS¾I iy uqyqK;a ixLHdj lKavdhu iuÕ idlÉPdlr ,shkak. · >kjia;=fõ uqyqK;aj, yev mÍlaId lrkak. · >k jia;=jg iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak. · fuu yevh we;s >k jia;= Tn lKavdfï wh ±l we;s wjia:d idlÉPdlr ,shkak. · lKavdhfï wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S f,i bÈßm;a lsÍulg iqodkï jkak.

161

25' >k jia;= II

ksmqK;dj 22 ( úúO >kjia ; = ms , s n | j .fõIKh ks¾udKlrKfha fhfoa. >k jia;j, wx. w;r in|;d úuihs' = >kjia;j, wx. w;r in|;d f.dvk.uq' = ñks;;= 75 hs' a lrñka kj

ksmqK;d uÜgu 22'2 ( l%hdldrlu 17'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKqu 22'2'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a folla' · odrhl È. 4 cm jQ >klhla' · wdOdrlh 4 cm x 4 cm jQ iup;=ri% msrñv folla' · odrhl È. 4 cm jQ iúê p;=i;, y;rla' a · È., m<,, Wi ms<fj<ska 4 cm, 4 cm, 10 cm jQ >kldNhla' s · yrialv 4 cm jq iumdo ;s%fldaKdldr yevhla iys; È. 10 cm jq ;s%fldaK ms%iau folla' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 22'2'1 ( · >klhla, >kldNhla iy p;=ia;,hla jeks >k jia;= lsymhla mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' s s · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · >k jia;=jla uqyqK;a, Ys¾I yd odr hk wx.j,ska iukaú; nj' · úúO >k jia;j, odr YS¾I yd uqyK;a ixLHd úúO = q nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mka ;sh l=vd lKavdhï follg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

162

mshjr 22'2'2

(

· · ·

· ·

mshjr 22'2'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj ,nd fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · >kjia;jl YS¾I ixLHdfjys iy uqyK;a ixLHdfjys = q ftlHh odr ixLHdjg jvd follska jeä nj' · fuu iïnkaOh Ths,¾ iïnkaOh f,i y÷kajk nj' · Ths,¾ iïnkaOhg wkql+, jkafka ;, uqyqK;a yd ir, odr j,ska iukaú; >kjia;= muKla nj'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

^ñks;a;= 30 hs& ;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · · ( úúO >kjia;j, odr" uqyK;a yd YS¾I y\qkd.ksh' = q s ir, odr muKla we;s >k jia;= i|yd muKla Ths,¾ iïnkaOh ;Dma; lrk nj ms<.ksh' s s >k jia;= i|yd Ths,¾ iïnkaOh f.dvk.hs' .fõIKh lr.;a foa Ndú; lr.ks ñ ka kj ks¾udKlrKfha fhfohs' lKavdhï ksuejqï úpdrYS,S j bÈßm;a lrhs'

163

weuqKqu 17'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

>k jia;=j, wx. w;r in|;d f.dvk.uq my; i|yka >k jia;= lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq >k jia;= lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' 1 lÜg,h >klh iup;=ri% msrñv folhs p;=i;, folhs a 2 lÜg,h >kldNh ;s%fldaK ms%iau folhs p;=i;, folhs a

· ,eî we;s tla tla >kjia;=fõ uqyK;a, YS¾I yd odr ixLHdj .Kka lr j.=jl igyka q lr.kak' · tla tla >k jia;=fõ uqyqK;a .Kk, YS¾I .Kk iy odr .Kk w;r iïnkaOhla ;sfí±hs fidhd ne,Su i|yd lKavdhï ;=< idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · Tn lKavdhu úiska f.dv ke.+ iïnkaOh ,shd olajkak' · Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq >k jia;= Ndú; lrñka fjk;a ixhqla; >k jia;= idokak' · tu tla tla ixhqla; >k jia;=j, uqyqK;a YS¾I yd odr .Kk by; Tn lKavdhug ,nd.;a iïnkaOhg .e,fma ± hs n,kak' · lKavdhï wKdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; mka;shg bÈßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'

164

26' o;a; ksrEmKh yd w¾:l:kh I

ksmqK;dj 28 ( o;a; ksrEmKh lsÍfï úúO l%u úu¾Ykh lrñka ffoksl lghq;= myiqlr .ksh. s o;a; úúO l%u uÕska ksrEmKh lrhs' f;dr;=re m%i;dßlj ikakfõokh lruq' a s ñks;;= 120 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 28'1 ( l%hdldrlu 28'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 28'1'1 g we;=<;a igyfka úYd,s; msgm;la' q · weuqKu 28'1'2 g we;=<;a Wmfoia m;s%ldfõ msgm;a q ;=kla' · ly iy ks,a mdg mekai,a' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 28'1'1 ( · igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' s · ta weiqßka my; i|yka lreKq u;=jkfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · /ia lr.kakd ,o f;dr;=re j.= uÕska bÈßm;a lsÍu myiq nj' · j.=j, ±lafjk o;a; rEmhlska bÈßm;a lsÍfuka ikaksfõokh myiqjk nj' · fok ,o Ñ;% igyklg wkqj jeäu w.h yd wvqu w.h myiqfjka y÷kd.; yels nj' · f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh lsÍug ;j;a myiq l%u we;s nj' mshjr 28'1'2 ( · · · · · ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 30 hs&

165

mshjr 28'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · · · · m<, iudk jQ ;Sr moaO;shlska o;a; ksrEmKh flfrk m%ia;dr ;Sr m%ia;dr f,i y\qkajk nj' ;sria fyda isria f,i ;Sr m%ia;dr we¢h yels nj' ;Srhl Èf.ka tys ixLHdj ksrEmKh lrk nj' f;dr;=re folla tlu m%ia;drhl ksrEmKh lrk úg th nyq ;Sr m%ia;drhla f,i y÷kajk nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

mshjr 28'1'4

(

mshjr 28'1'5

(

· mQ¾j lKavdhï kej; ilia lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia ys fojk fldgi fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 15 hs& · lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj fokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia iudf,da p khl fhfokak' · o;a; ksrEmKh lsÍfï myiq l%uhla f,i jDka; m;% igyk Ndú; l< yels nj' · ;Sr follska hq;= igyfka m<uq ;Srh jDka;h f,i o fojk ;Srh m;%h f,i o y÷kajk nj' · o;a; iuqyh jDka; m;% igyklg we;=<;a lr miqj tajd wdfrdayK ms<sfj<g ilia l< yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 30 hs&

166

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

( o;a; ksrEmKh lrk wdldr úia;r lrhs' f;dr;= r e m% i a ; dßlj ks r EmKh ls Í fuka o;a ; wr:l:kh myiq nj ms<.ksh' s s o;a; iuqyhla úúO whqßka ksrEmkh lrhs' f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh i|yd flá l%u Ndú; lrhs' tÈfkod Ôú;fha úúO whqßka olajd we;s f;dr;=re myiqfjka .%yKh lr.ksh' s

167

weuqKqu 28'1'1

igyk

m,;=re fjf<kaÈhla i;sfha Èk myla ;=< fjr¿ úlsKSfuka ,enQ wdodhï my; j.=fõ ±lafõ' Èkh iÿod wÕyrejdod nodod n%yiam;skod islrdod a = wdodhu 30 45 40 20 55 ^remsh,a&

by; f;dr;=re YsIHhl= úiska rEmslj olajd ;snKq whqre my; ±lafõ' q

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

168

weuqKQu 28.1.2 lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia f;dr;= r e m% i a ; dßlj ika k s f õokh lruq 1 fldgi · my; ioyka wjia:d w;=ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqk wjia:dj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' 1 wjia:dj ( 7 fYA%Ksfha <uqka f.a im;a;=j, ;ru'

im;a;=fõ ;ru .eyEKq <uhs .Kk

.eyEKq <uhs .Kk

;ru 5 8

;ru 6 7

;ru7 4

im;a;=fõ ;ru msßñ <uhs .Kk

;ru 5 5

;ru 6 9

;ru7 6

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;ru 5

;ru 6 im;a;=fõ ;ru

;ru7

2 wjia:dj ( 7 fYA%Ksfha <uqka Èk 03l § mdi,a meñKSu'

Èkh meñKs .eyeKQ <uhs .Kk

meñKs .eyeKQ <uhs .Kk

iÿod 20

wÕyre 15

nodod 25

Èkh meñKs msßñ <uhs .Kk

iÿod 25

wÕyre 20

nodod 30

iÿod

wÕyre

nodod

3 wjia:dj ( 7 fYA%Ksfha <uqka mdi,g meñfKk wdldrh'

meñfKk wdldrh .eyeKq <uhs .Kk nifhka 8 mhska 6 fjk;a wdldrhg 4 meñfKk wdldrh nifhka mhska msßñ <uhs .Kk 4 8 fjk;a wdldrhg 8

.eyeKq <uhs .Kk

nifhka

mhska

fjk;a wdldrhg

169

· Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq wjia:dfõ j.=fõ ±lafjk .eyeKq <uhs yd iïnkaO f;dr;=re m%ia;drhlska olajd we;s wdldrh wOHhkh lrkak' · ta wkqj msßñ <uhs yd iïnkaO f;dr;=re m%ia;drhlska olajkak' · th ks,a j¾Kfhka j¾K lrkak' · fuu m%ia;drh i|yd iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak' · fm< fmd; wOHhkh lsÍfuka Tng ,enqk wjia:dfõ .eyeKq <uhska yd iïnkaO f;dr;=re iy msßñ <uhska yd iïnkaO f;dr;=re hk folu tlu m%i;drhl olajkak' a · tu m%ia;drh i|yd o iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; mka;shg boßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï jkak' 2 fldgi 537, 558, 536, 522, 525, 530, hk ixLHd iuQyh igykl olajd we;s whqre my; ±lafõ' th fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

52 53 55

2, 0 , 8

5 6 ,

7

· my; olajd we;s ixLHd ldKav w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk ixLHd ldKavh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ixLHd ldKavh 1 7, 48, 34, 39 9, 2, 12, 15 25, 12, 11, 17 23, 28, 29, 41 40, 30, 23, 23 ixLHd ldKavh 2 103, 94, 108, 109 105, 105, 107, 103 107, 104, 93, 98 104, 108, 107, 99 97, 101, 109, 102 ixLHd ldKavh 3 304, 312, 285, 298 307, 296, 340, 321 317, 309, 323, 293 314, 340, 328, 299 308, 319, 333, 338

· oS we;s igyk o fm< fmd; o wOHhkfhka Tng ,eî we;s ixLHd iqÿiq mßÈ igykl olajkak' · ta igykg iqÿiq kula fhdackd lrkak' · igyfka m<uq ;Srhg iqÿiq ixLHd f;dard .;a wdldrh ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrkak' · Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq wdldrfha fjk;a ixLHd ldKavhla ,shd tu ldKavh o tjeks igykl olajkak' · Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

170

26. o;a; ksrEmKh yd w¾:l:kh

ksmqK;dj 29 (

II

ksmqK;d uÜgu 29'1 ( l%hdldrlu 29'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

ffoksl lghq;= myiq lr .ekSu i|yd o;a; úúO l%u u.ska úYaf,aIKh lrñka mqfrdal:kh lrhs. o;a;j, úisÍu ú.%y lrhs' o;a;j, úisÍu fidhd n,uq' ñks;a;= 60 hs · weuqKu 29'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;sldfõ msgm;a q % ;=kla ' äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a i;s folla ;=< tla tla Èkfha isika f.a mdi,a meñKSu q l¿,E,af,a igyka lrkak' my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia idlÑPdjla fufyhjkak' · tla tla Èkfha isiqkaf.a meñKSfï fjkialï we;s nj' · meóKSu jD;a; m;% igyklska ±laúh yels nj' · f;dr;=re weiqfrka úúO ks.ukj,g t<eôh yels nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsßula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;= 40 hs&

· bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 29'1'1 ( ·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

·

mshjr 29'1'2

(

· · · · ·

171

mshjr 17'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · o;a; iuQyhl wvq;u w.h wju w.h f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · tys jeä;u w.h Wmßu w.h f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · tys Wmßu w.h yd wju w.h w;r fjki mrdih f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · o;a; iuQyh ms<n| úúO ks.ukj,g t<eöug Wmßu s w.h wju w.h yd mrdih fhdod .; yels nj' · o;a; tlla fyda lsymhla wka o;a; j,ska úYd, f,i s wE;a jkafka kï mrdih úYd, jk neúka th ;=<ska .kakd ks.uk ksjerÈ fkdjk nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

( o;a; iuQyhl Wmßu w.h, wju w.h yd mrdih úia;r lrhs' o;a; iuQyhl mrdih u.ska tu o;a;j, jHdma;h ms<n| s s woyila ,nd.; yels nj ms<.ksh' s s o;a; iuQyhl Wmßu w.h, wju w.h yd mrdih .Kkh lrhs' iSudka;sl w.hka ms<sn| j ie,ls,su;a fjhs' f;dr;=re mokï lr .ksñka ksjerÈ ks.ukj,g t<fò'

172

weuqKqu 29'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

o;a ; j, úis Í u fidhd n,uq my; ±lafjk ixLHd ldKav w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk ixLHd ldKavh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ixLHd ldKavh - 1 7 fYA%KSfha isiqkaf.a Èk 10 l meñKSu my; ±lafõ' 30, 35, 31, 29, 40, 28, 34, 35, 39, 33 ixLHd ldKavh - II weÕ¿ï lïy,l lemS bj;ajk frÈ len,s lsymhl os. óg¾j,ska my; ±lafõ' s 0.1, 0.9, 1.1, 0.3, 0.2, 0.3, 1.2, 0.5, 0.4, 0.8

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

ixLHd ldKavh - III Èk 10l ^ñ,s óg¾j,ska uksk ,o & j¾Idm;kh ms<sn| f;dr;=re ±lafjk jDka; m;% igykla my; ±lafõ' jDka;h 0 1 2 m;%h 2, 3, 5, 9 4, 6, 7, 8 2, 5

ixLHd ldKavh - IV Èk 10 la ;=< fj<oie,l wf,ú jQ iy,aa lsf,da.a?ï .Kk ms<sn| f;dr;=re ±lafjk jDka; m;% igykla my; ±lafõ' jDka;h m;%h 10 2, 5, 8 11 4, 7, 8, 9 12 1, 3, 6 · Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq ixLHd ljr w.hka w;r me;sÍ ;sfí±hs fidhkak' · jeäu w.fha yd wvqu w.fha tu w.hka f.a jeo.;alu meyeÈ,s lr tajd i|yd iqÿiq kï fhdackd lrkak' · tu w.hka w;r fjki fidhd ta i|yd iqÿiq kula fm< fmd; mßYS,kfhka fidhkak · fuu fjki wvq jeä ùu yd o;a;j, j,x.=;djh w;r iïnkaOhla ;sfí±hs idlÉPd lrkak' · fujeks w.hka fhdod .kakd wjia:d i|yd ksoiqka olajkak' · Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,Sj bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iqodkï jkak'

173

27. mßudK rEm ksmqK;dj 13 ( úúO l%u úê .fõIKh lrñka m%dfhda.sl wjYH;d i|yd mßudK rEm Ndú; lrhs. mßirh weiqfrka ,nd.;a È. wdYs; ñkqï cHdñ;sl ;, rEm % j,ska ksrEmKh lrhs' mßudK rEm w¢uq' ñks;;= 75hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 13'1 (

l%hdldrlu 17'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 13'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;sldfõ msgm;a q % y;rla ' · äuhs lvodis, fldgq rE,a lvodis yd meiag,a · ir, odrh bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 13'1'1 ( · mdif,a iDcqfldaKdi% yeve;s Yd,djl ìfuys rEmhla wNHdi fmdf;a we¢h yels ±hs úuiñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · úYd, ñkqï iys; msyàulg wod< rEmhla s wNHdi fmdf;a we¢h fkdyels nj' · by; mßos rEmhla we£ug kï yevh fkdfjkia j wNHdi fmdf;a we¢h yels mßÈ l=vd lr we¢h hq;= nj' ^ñks;a;= 10 hs& · mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' · .fõIK Wmfoia äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' · .fõIK Wmfoia" fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak' · l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' · iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 40 hs&

174

mshjr 13'1'2

(

mshjr 13'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsÍug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · ienE ñkqï lsishï wkqmdkhlg l=vd lsÍfuka fyda úYd, lsÍfuka w¢kq ,nk rEmhla mßudK rEmhla f,i ye¢kafjk nj' · mßudK rEmhla we£fï § iqÿiq mßudKhla f;dard .; hq;= nj' · mßudK rEmfha 1cm lska ±lafjk È. yd Bg wod< ienE rEmfha fikaáógr j,ska ±lafjk È. w;r wkqmd;h mßudKh nj ' · 1cm x cm fyda 1cm y m wd§ f,i o ±lafjk fia ir, mßudKhla i|yka lrk wjia:d we;s nj' · 1 cm lska x cm ±lafõ hkak 1:x f,ig ±laúh yels nj' · f;dard.;a mßudKhg wkqj mßudK rEmh we¢h yels nj' · l=vd rEmhla úYd,lr we£u i|yd mßudK rEm fhdod.; yels nj ' · mßudK rEmhl § we;s ñkqï" mßudKfhka .=K lsÍfuka ienE rEmfha ñkqï ,nd .; yels nj ' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

( § we;s iDcqfldKdi%hl mßudK rEmhla we£u i|yd iqÿiq mßudKhla m%ldY lrhs mßudK rEmhla we¢fï§ iqÿiq mßudKhla f;dard.; hq;= nj ms<.ksh' s s f;dard.;a mßudKhg wkqj mßudK rEmh we| olajhs ' ikakfõokh myiq lr .ekSu i|yd iqÿiq Wml%u fhdod s .ksñka rEmsl ksrEmK bÈßm;a lrhs' wjia:dfjdaÑ;j iqÿiq foa f;dardf.k Ndú; lrhs'

175

weuqKqu 17'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

mßudK rEm w¢uq · my; § we;s j.=fõ ±lafjk ia:dk w;=frka Tn lKavdhug ,efnk ia:dkh fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' ia:dkh ienE ìfï È. ^m) ienE ìfï m<, (m) mka;s ldurhl idcqfldaKdi%dldr 6 5 ìu fjd,sfnda,a msáh 18 9 m%Odk Yd,djl iDcqfldaKdi%dldr ìu 40 25 iDcqfldaKdi%dldr msÜgksh 600 400

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · · · · ·

·

Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq ia:dkh È., m<, wkqj rEmhla Tfí wNHdi fmdf;a we¢h yels ±hs idlÉPd lrkak' tfia we¢h fkdyels kï rEmh we|sh yels jk mßÈ ienE rEmfha yevh fkdfjkia jkfia .; yels È., m<, fhdackd lrkak' Tn ,nd.;a È., m<, wkqj rEmh fldgqrE,a lvodishl w¢kak' Tn we¢ rEmfha 1 cm È.lska ienE È. fikaáóg¾ lShla olajkafka o hkak idlÉPdlr ,nd .kak' Tn we¢ rEmfha 1 cm È.la yd ienE remfha Bg wkqrEm Èf.a fikaàóg¾ .Kk w;r wkqmd;h ,shd olajkak' Tn ,nd .;a wkqmd;h i|yd iqÿiq kula fm< fmd; mßYS,kh lsÍfuka fidhd .kak' 300 cm È.la 1cm lska olajd we;s wjia:djl w¢k ,o È. 5 cm o m<, 3 cm o jk iDcqfldKDi%ldr rEmhl Bg wkqrEm ienE È., m<, fikaáóg¾ j,ska ,nd f.k miqj th óg¾ j,ska olajkak' ks¾udKYS,Sj iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iqodkï jkak'

176

28. fgi,dlrKh ksmqK;dj 26 ( w,xlrKh i|yd cHdñ;sl yev;, fhdod .; yels l%u úê úu¾Ykh lrhs. cHdñ;sl yev;, weisßh yels l%u úuihs' cHñ;sl yev;,j,ska fudai;r ks¾udKh lruq' a ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 26'1 ( l%hdldrlu 26'1 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï ( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 26'1'1 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;sldfõ msgm;a q % y;rla ' · j¾K y;rlska Pdhdmsgm;a lvodis 16' · ì%iag,a fndaâ folla' · l;=re wgla' · ue,shï yd meiag,a' · mßudKhg we| lmd.;a .fõIK m;sldfõ we;s nyq wi% % tl ne.ska bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 26'1'1 ( · isiqka fuf;la W.;a nyqwi% l¿,E,af,a w¢ñka tajdfha ,laIK ms<sn| j isiqkaf.ka úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j kfia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' úúO cHñ;sl yev;, we;s nj' ir, f¾Ld LKavj,ska hq;a ixjD; ;, rEmhla nyq wi%hla kï jk nj' · iúê nyqwi%hl mdo iudk nj' · iúê nyqwi%hl fldaK iudk nj' ^ñks;a;= 15 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia" äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a nyq wi% yevh lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾h mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak ^ñks;a;+ 20 hs&

177

· ·

mshjr 26'1'2

(

· · · · ·

mshjr 26'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · we;eï nyqwi% fhdod.ksñka ysveia fkdisák fia o tl u; tl fkdmsysgk fia o ;, u;=msgla iïmQ¾Kfhka wdjrKh l< yels nj' fujeks ks¾udKhla fgi,dlrKhla nj' tla yev;, j¾.hla muKla Ndú; lrñka lrk fgi,dlrKhla Y=oaO fgi,dlrKhla jk nj' Y=oO fgi,dlrKhla i|yd ´kEu ;sfldaKhla fhdod a % .;yels nj' Y=oaO fgi,dlrKhla i|yd ´kEu p;=ri%hla fhdod .; yels nj' iúê Ivi%, Y=oaO fgi,dlrKhla i|yd fhdod .;yels nj' we;eï nyqwi% fhdod Y=oO fgi,dlrK l< fkdyels a nj' ^ñks;a;= 20 hs& ( Y+oO fgi,dlrKhl ,laIK úia;r lrhs' a iuyr nyqwi% yev fhdod.ksñka ;, u;= msgla wdjrKh l< yels nj ms<.ksh' s s cHdñ;sl yev;, fhdod .ksñka Y=oaO fgi,dlrK ks¾udKh lrhs' wjia:dkql+,j úis;=re rgd ks¾udKh lrhs' mßir w,xlrKhg fhduqfõ'

· ·

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· · · ·

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

178

weuqKqu 26'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

cHdñ;sl yev;, j,ska fudaia;r ks¾udKh lruq · my; ±lafjk yev;,j,ska Tn lKavdhug ,eî we;s yev;,h ms<n| j wjOdkh s fhduq lrkak' yev;,h - 1 4 cm yev;,h - 2 5 cm 3 cm

yev;,h - 3

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

yev;,h - 4

6 cm 7 cm

5 cm 2 cm

· tu yev;,fhka yels;dla msgm;a m%udKhla jraK lvodis u; we| lmd.kak' · lmd.;a yev;, ysveia fkdisák fia o tl u; tl fkdisák fia o l%uj;aj yd w,xldr f,i ì%iag,a fndaâ tl u; w,jkak' · Tfí ks¾udKh i|yd kula fhdokak' · fujeks yev;, fhdod iEÿ rgd olakg we;s ia:dk i|yka lrkak' · ´kEu nyqwi% yev;,hla fhdod.ksñka fujeks ks¾udKhla l< yels ± hs idlÉPd lrkak' · Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd iQodkï jkak'

179

29. isÿùul úh yelshdj ksmqK;dj 31 ( wkd.; isÿùï mqfrdal:kh lsÍu i|yd isÿùul úh yelshdj úYaf,aIKh lrhs. m%udKd;aul w.hka mokï lr.ksñka mÍlaIKd;aul isÿùul úh yelshdj ks¾Kh lrhs' úhyelshdjg ,l=Kq fouq' ñks;;= 75 hs' a

ksmqK;d uÜgu 31'1 (

l%hdldrlu 17'3 s ld,h .=Kd;aul fhojqï

( ( (

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· weuqKu 31'1'1 g we;=<;a isoê igyk' q a · weuqKu 31'1'2 g we;=<;a .fõIK Wmfoia m;sldfõ msgm;a q % y;rla ' · äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%hdj,sh ( s mshjr 31'1'1 ( · isoê igyk mka;hg bÈßm;a lrkak' a s · isiqkg ish leue;af;ka bÈßm;aùug wjia:dj ,nd § igyfka fldgq ;=< iaÒrj u isÿjk ^&, iaÓrj u isÿ fkdjk ^x&, úh yelshdj ksYaÑ; fkdjk ^-& hkqfjka ,l=Kq lrjkak' · YsIH m%;spdr o ie,ls,a,g f.k isoaêhl úh yelshdj ms<sn| j úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;= j k fia idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak' · · úhyelshdj wkqj we;eï isoê j¾. l< yels nj' a iaÓrj u isÿjk isoê yd ia:rj u isÿ fkdjk isoê a S a yd m%;sM, l,a;shd ksYaÑ;j lsj fkdyels isoaê hkqfjka isoaê j¾. ;=klg fjka l< yels nj'

mshjr 31'1'2

(

· · · · ·

^ñks;a;= 10 hs& mka;sh l=vd lKavdhï y;rlg fjka lrkak' .fõIK Wmfoia, äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a lKavdhï w;r fnod fokak' .fõIK Wmfoia fj; lKavdhïj, wjOdkh fhduq lr ta ta lKavdhug wod< ld¾hh mjrkak' l=vd lKavdhï .fõIKfha fhdojkak' iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak' ^ñks;a;+ 20 hs&

180

mshjr 31'1'3

(

· lKavdhï wkdjrK bÈßm;a lsßug l=vd lKavdhïj,g wjia:dj fokak' · bÈßm;a l< lKavdhug u úia;drKh i|yd m%:u wjia:dj ,ndfokak' · wkH lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak' · my; i|yka lreKq u;=jk fia iudf,dapkhl fhfokak' · isoêhl úhyelshdjg ^0-1& mßudKhg ,l=Kq a m%odkh l< yels nj' · isÓrj u isÿjk isoaêhl úhyelshdjg m%odkh lrk ,l=Kq 1 nj' · iaÓrj u isÿfkdjk isoaêhl úhyelshdjg m%odkh lrk ,l=K 0 nj' · isÿùu ksYÑ; fkdjk isoêhl úh yelshdjg m%odkh a a lrk ,l=K 0 ;a 1;a w;r nj' · iudk úh yelshdjlska hq;a m%;sM, folla muKla we;s mÍlaIKhl tla m%;sM,hla isÿ ùfï úh yelshdjg m%odkh lrk ,l=K 1$2 nj' · hï isoêhla isÿùfï yelshdj b;d jeä kï Bg m%odk a lrk ,l=K 1$2 ;a 1 ;a w;r nj' · hï isoêhla isÿùfï yelshdj b;d wvq kï Bg m%odkh a lrk ,l=Kq 0;a 1$2 ;a w;r nj' · ish¨u m%;M, i|yd iudk úh yelshdjla we;s s mÍlaIKj, § Ndú; lrkq ,nk jia;= fkdkeUqre tajd nj' · ish¨u m%;M, i|yd iudk úh yelshdjla fkdue;s s mÍlaKj, § Ndú; lrkq ,nk jia;= keUqre tajd nj' ^ñks;a;= 35 hs&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiare yd we.hSï ks¾Kdhl · · · · ·

( úhyelshdj ie<ls,,g f.k isoê úia;r lrhs' a a úhyelshdj wkqj isÿùï mqfrdal:kh lsÍug fm<fUhs' iïNdú;d mÍlaIKj, úh yelshdj ;SrKh lrhs' ;uka w;aolsk isÿùï ;¾ldKql+, j úuihs' fya;= hqla; ie<ls,a,g f.k ;SrK .kshs'

181

weuqKqu 31'1'1 isoê igyk a · f,d;/hs m;la ñ, § .;a flfkl=g f,d;/hs Èkqula ,eîu · wudjl Èkl § wyfia mqkai| Èiaùu · oyfhka fnfok ixLHdjla foflka fn§u

· m,ila u; isg.;a ñksfil= wyiska hdu · ldishla Wv±uQ úg isri fyda w.h fyda ,eîu · ì;a;rhlska n<,a meáfhl= bm§u

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

·

90 isg 100 f;la ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;a lÜg,hlska m%:ul ixLHdjla ,eîu

182

weuqKqu 31'1'1

lKa v dhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

úh yelshdjg ,l=Kq fouq my; i|yka isoaê lÜg, w;ßka Tn lKavdhug ,enqkq isoaê lÜg,h fj; wjOdkh fhduq lrkak' isoaê lÜg, I A. r;= mEka fmÜáhlska .kakd mEkla r;=mdg tlla ùu' B. me;s yh 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 f,i i,l=Kq lr we;s iunr odÿ leghla Wv ±ófuka 7 ,eîu' C. tlu m%udKfha bÿKq wU f.ä myla yd wuq wU f.ä tlla we;s fmÜáhlska .kakd wU f.ähla bÿKq tlla ùu' D. 2, 5, 7, 11 ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;a lÜg,hlska brÜg ixLHdjla ,eîu' E. iunr ldishla Wv ±uQ úg isri ,eîu' isoaê lÜg, II A. me;s yfha u 1 ,l=Kq lr w;s iunr odÿ leghla Wv ±ófuka 1 ,eîu' B. 2, 4, 6, 8 f,i ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;a lÜg,hlska T;af;a ixLHdjla iys; ldâm;la .ekSu' C. j¾Idêl ld,hl § lsishï Èkhla jeis iys; Èkhla ùu' D. mka;sfha lsishï YsIHfhl= ckjdß udifha Wmka wfhl= ùu' E. tlu m%udKfha ks,amdg fnda,hla yd r;= mdg fnda,hla iys; u,a,lska .kakd fnda,hla r;=mdg tlla ùu' isoaê lÜg, III A. kef.kysßka br mEhSu' B. tlu m%udKfha r;=mdg iy ks,amdg fnda, muKla wvx.= u,a,lska .kakd fnda,hla l¿mdg tlla ùu' C. 2, 5, 7 ,11 ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;a lÜg,hlska T;af;a ixLHdjla iys; ldâm;la ,eîu' D. 2, 5 ,7,11 ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;l brÜg ixLHdjla ùu' E. wxl 1 yd wxl 2 igyka l< ;=Kavq folla w;=ßka .kakd ;=Kavqjl wxl 1 i|yka ùu'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

183

isoaê lÜg, IV A. 2, 4, 6, 8 ixLHd ,shQ ldâm;a lÜg,hlska brÜg ixLHdjla iys; ldâm;la .ekSu' B. niakdysßka br mEhSu' C. msßñ <uqka kj fokl= f.a kï yd .eyeKq <ufhl= f.a ku ,shk ,o ldâm;a w;=frka .kakd ldâm;l msßñ <ufhl= f.a ku i|yka ùu' D. ±ä kshx ld,hla ;=< hï Èkhla jeis iys; Èkhla ùu' E. fodvï ri fgd*shla iy ishU,d ri fgd*shla wvx.= md¾i,hlska .kakd fgd*shla fodvï rie;s ùu' · fm< fmdf;ys isÿùul úh yelshdj mdvfuys isoaêj, úh yelshdj i|yd msßkuk ,l=Kq ms<sn| j fyd¢ka wOHhkh lrkak' · isoaêhla isÿùug we;s yelshdj ms<sn| j ie,ls,su;a fjñka A, B, C, D, yd E i|yd msßkuk ,l=Kg ysñ ia:dk my; f¾Ldfõ igyka lrkak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

· ·

· · ·

0 1$2 1 tu tla tla ia:dk tfia ,l=Kq lsÍug fya;= idlÉPd lrkak' my; ±lafjk tla tla mÍlaIKfha m%;sM, fjk fjku ,shd olajkak' · ljä fn,af,l= Wv ±óu' · iunr ldish Wv ±óu' tu m%;sM,j, úh yelshdj i,lñka tajdg ysñ ia:dk by; wdldrfha f¾Ldjla we| tys ,l=Kq lrkak' tla tla mÍlaIKfha m%;M, f¾Ldj u; ,l=Kq lsÍu i,lñka fm<fmd; mßYS,kh lr s tla tla mÍlaIKh i|yd iqÿiq kï fhdackd lrkak' ks¾udKYS,S iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï jkak'

184

;lafiarej yd we.hSu

185

ye¢ka ù u bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh u.ska wfmalaIs; bf.kqï M, isiqka úiska idlaId;a lr .ekSu ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd;a isika <Õd lr .;a m%ùK;d uÜgï y÷kd .ekSu i|yd;a mka;s q ldurfha myiqfjka ls%hd;aul l< yels wka;¾ iïnkaO;djlska hq;a jevigyka folla f,i ;lafiarej yd we.hSu yªkajd Èh yelsh' ;lafiarej ksimßÈ isÿjkafka kï mka;fha s s bf.kqu ,nk ish¨ u isiqkag wod< ksmqK;d iïnkaO j wdikak m%ùK;dj j;a ,nd .ekSu wmyiq fkdfõ' wfkla w;g we.hSfuka wfmalaId lrkafka isiqka ,.d lr.;a m%ùK;d uÜgï ljf¾±hs y÷kd .ekSuh' ;la f ia r e ls Í fï fh§ is á k .= r ejrekg ;u is i q k a i|yd fohdldrhl udrf.damfoaYl;ajh ,nd Èh yels h' tu ud¾f.damfoaY fmdÿfõ y÷kajkafka m%;fmdaIKh s yd bÈßfmdaIKh hkqfjks' isikf.a ÿn,;d yd fkdyelshd wkdjrKh lr .;a úg Tjqkf.a q a a bf.kqï .eg¨ uÕ yrjd .ekSug m%;fmdaIKh;a isiq yelshd iy m%n,;d y÷kd .;a úg tu s olaI;d jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug bÈß fmdaIKh ,nd §u .=re ld¾hh fõ' bf.kqï b.ekaùfï lshdj,sfha id¾:l;ajh i|yd úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a ksmK;d % q w;=frka ljr ksmK;d ljr uÜgñka idlaId;a l< yels jQfha ±hs isika úiska y÷kd .ekSu q q wjYH fõ' we.hSï jevms<sfj< Tiafia isiqka ,Õd lr.;a m%ùK;d uÜgï úksYaph lsÍu fï wkqj .=rejrekaf.ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk w;r isika yd fouõmshka we;=¿ fjk;a wod< q md¾Yjhkag isiq m%.;sh ikaksfõokh lsÍug .=rejreka fhduq úh hq;= fõ' Tn fj; bÈßm;a lrk fuu úIhud,d YsIH flakaøSh(Student - centred), ksmqK;d mdol(Competency - based), lshdldrlï ÈYdNsuL(Activity oriented), lr .;a m%fõYhlska % q hqla; fõ' Ôú;h w¾:j;a lr.ekSu i|yd ls%hdfjka bf.kqu .=rejrhdf.a mßKduk N+ñldfõ (Transformation role) yrh fõ' mQ¾jfhka ixj¾Okh l< ls%hdldrl;ï ika;;shla Tiafia ls%hd;aul jk fuu úIhud,dj bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu ;lafiarej yd we.hSu iuÕ ifudaOdkh lsrug W;aidy S ord we;' ta ta ls%hdldrlïj, fojeks mshjf¾ § isiqka lKavdhï jYfhka .fõIKfha fhfok úg Tjqka ;lafiarejg;a lshdldrlïj, ;=ka jeks mshjf¾ § isika iajlSh wkdjrK % q bÈßm;a lsÍug yd úia;drKhg fhduq jk úg Tjqka we.hSug;a .=rejrhdg yels fõ' isika q .fõIKfha fhfok úg isiqka w;r .ejfiñka Tjqka bgq lrk ld¾h ksÍlaIKh lrñka isiqka uqyqKmd we;s .eg¨ mka;s ldurh ;=< § úi|d .ekSu i|yd myiqlï iy ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajh imhd Èu .=rejrhdf.ka wfmlaId lrk ld¾hh fõ' ;lafiarej yd we.hSu myiqfjka l< yels jk mßÈ fmdÿ ks¾Kdhl myla fhdackd flf¾' fuu ks¾Kdhl w;=frka m<uq jk ks¾Kdhl ;=k ta ta ksmqK;dj f.dv ke.Sug talrdYS ù ;sfnk ±kqu wdl,am yd l=i,;d uQ,sl fldg ieliS ;sfí' wjidk ks¾Kdhl fol Ôú;hg jeo.;a jk yelshd folla m%.=K lr.ekSug isika g w; foa' fï ks¾Kdhl q yd iïnkaO p¾hd fjkialï my mka;ldurh ;=< isika ls%hd;aul ùfï § y÷kd .ekSug s q .=rejrhd W;aidy l< hq;= w;r ;lafiarej hgf;a tu p¾hd f.dvke.Su ;yjqre lsÍug;a we.hSu hgf;a tfia f.dv k.d .;a p¾hd ms<n| j úksYphkag t<îug;a .=rejrhd fhduq s a úh hq;= fõ'

186

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

;lafiarej yd we.hSu ms<n| jevms<sfj< jeä ÈhqKq lsÍfuka bf.kqï b.ekaùï lshdj,sh §¾> l< yelsh' fufia bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu oS¾> lsÍu i|yd uq,ku l< hq;f;a % s a a lshdldrlï ika;;shg we;=<;a lshdldrlï ldKav lsymhlg fjkalr .ekSuhs' isiq bf.kqu % % s úlis; l< yels m%fNao lSmhla ta ta ls%hdldrlï ldKav yd nef|k úIh ikaOdrh mokï lr .ksñka fojkqj y÷kd.; hq;=hs' f;dard.;a m%fNao mokï lrf.k .=rejrhdg yd isikg Wmfoia we;=<;a jk mßÈ bf.kqï b.ekaùï lshdj,sh oS¾> flfrk fuu WmlrKh q a % ilid .ekSu B<. mshjr jk w;r iEu ls%hdldrlï ldKavhla wdrïNfha § u fuu WmlrK isikg y\qkjd §u .=rejrhdf.ka wfmalId flf¾. fï wkqj bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu q a a a §¾> lsÍu i|yd .=rejrfhl=g fhdod .; yels m%fNao lsymhla u;= ±la fõ' s · ixl,am is;shu (CONCEPT MAPS) · ì;a;s mqj;am; (WALL NEWS PAPERS) · m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigyka (QUIZZES) · m%Yak iy ms<s;=re fmd;a (QUESTION AND ANSWER BOOKS) · YsIH ld¾h idOk f.dkq (PORTFOLIOS) · isiq ks¾udK m%o¾Yk (EXHIBITIONS) · újdo (DEBATES) · idlÉPd uKav, (PANEL DISCUSSIONS) · iïuka;%K (SEMINARS) · lAIKsl l:d (IMPROMPTU SPEECHES) · N+ñld rx.k (ROLE PLAYS) · idys;H úuiqï bosrm;a lsÍu (PRESENTATION OF LITERATURE REVIEWS) s · lafIA;% fmd;a $ iajNdj wOhk Èkfmd;a$fyd| jev fmd;a (FIELD BOOKS / NATURE DIARIES) · m%dfhda.l mÍlaIK (PRACTICAL TESTS) s .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha ;=kajk fldgi fhdað; bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu §¾> lsÍfï wjia:d yd ta i|yd f;dard f.k we;s WmlrK y÷kajd §ug ie,iqïlr ;sfí' fï wdldrhg ls%hdldrlï ;=<;a tajd w;r ;lafiarej yd we.hSu fohdldrhlska isÿ lsÍfuka bf.kqï b.ekaùï lshdj,sh ;j ÿrg;a mq¿,a jk w;r wdYdfjka yd m%fndaOfhka bf.kqfï % kshe,Sug isiqkg yels fõ'

187

bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh §¾> lsÍfï WmlrK

WmlrKh - 1 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod< úIh ikaOdrh : : : m%:u jdrh 25.1, 30.1, iuñ;sh l=,l 4. 5.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq

: :

ì;a;s mqj;am;g ks¾udK ieliSu oaú md¾Yaúl iuñ;sh ms<n| úuis,u;a s s fjhs. oaú md¾Yúl iuñ;sh iys; Ñ;% ks¾udKh lr rEmj, iuñ;sl wlaI ixLHdj ,shd olajhs. fmdÿ ,laIK mokï lr.ksñka øjH j¾.SlrKh lrhs. w,xldr ks ¾ udK iys ; ì;a ; s mqj;am;la ilia lrhs.

6.

WmlrKh lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd % Wmfoia .=rejrhdg

: ls%hdldrlu 25'1 wdrïNfha § fuu WmlrK ms<n| j isika ±kqj;a s q lrkak. fojk mdvu wjika ù i;shlska muK fuu WmlrKh ilid wjika l< hq;= nj isiqkag ±kqï fokak . iqÿiq mßÈ isiqka lKavdhïj,g fjka lrkak. tla tla YsIHhd úiska ks¾udKh lrk ,o Ñ;% A- 4 fld<hl w,jd lKavdhï ksuejqula ilia l< hq;= njg mka;h ±kqj;a lrkak. s ish¨ u lKavdhïj, ksuejqï ì;a;s mqj;amf;ys m%o¾Ykh lsÍug i,iajkak. ks¾Kdhlhkag wkqj isiqkag ,l=Kq m%odkh lrkak.

188

isiqkag

:

tla tla YsIHhd úiska 8 cm x 8 cm m%udKfha fld<hl oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh iys; w,xldr rEmhla ks¾udKh lrkak. tys iuñ;sl wlaI tlla fyda lsysmhla ;sìh yelsh. rEmhg háka tys we;s iuñ;sl wlaI ixLHdj iy rEmfha ku ,s h ka k . Tn lKavdhfï tla tla YsIHhd úiska ks¾udKh lrk ,o Ñ;% A-4 fld<hl w,jd lKavdhï ksuejqula ilika k . Tfí lKavdhu ks¾udKh l< rEmj,ska ±lafjk iuñ;sl wlaI ixLHdj fyda fjk;a fmdÿ ,laIKhla mokï lr .ksñka tu rEm l=,lj,g fjka lrkak. l=,lj, wjhj iÕ, jryka ;=< A-4 fld<fha my<ska ,shkak. fojk mdvu wjika ù i;shl muK ld,hla ;=< Tfí lKavdhfï ksuejqu ì;a;s mqj;a mf;ys m%o¾Ykh lrka k .

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

7.

,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl

: : oaúmd¾Yaúl iuñ;sh iys; rEmhla ks¾udKh lr iuñ;sl wlaIhh ,shd olajhs . ks u ejq u w,xldr f,i ieliS u g fm<fò. rEm, l=,lj,g fjka lr tajdfha wjhj ,shd olajhs. kshñ; ld,h ;=< ;u ld¾hh wjika lrhs. tla tla whf.a ks¾udK tl;=jla weiqßka .=Kd;aul lKavdhï ksuejqula ieliSug odhl fõ.

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úhhq;hs =

04 03 02 01

189

WmlrKh - 2 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod< úIh ikaOdrh : : : m%:u jdrh 1'2 1'3 6'1 NdcH;d rS;s ^3ka 4ka 6ka yd 9ka fnfok ixLHd& · idOl yd .=Kdldr ^1000 f;la& · m%:ul idOl ^100 f;la& · uyd fmdoq idOlh · l=vdu fmdoq .=Kdldrh · mdoh ùcSh ixfla; jQ n, ye|skajSu

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4. 5.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKQ

: :

ixLHd m%fya,sld · idOl .=Kdldr yd o¾Yl ms<n| s oekqu Ndú; lrhs' · ixLHd m%fya,sldjla iïmQ¾K lsÍfï l=i,;dj ,nd.kS' · ixLHd m%fya,sld ks¾udKh lrhs'

6.

WmlrK lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd % Wmfoia · .=rejrhdg

: · idOl yd .=Kdldr mdvu wdrïNfha § WmlrKh mka;hg y÷kajd s fokak' · ixLHd m%fya,sldjla iïmQ¾K lrk wdldrh ms<n| j isika ±kqj;a q lrkak' · tla fldgqjl tla ixLHdjla muKla ,sùug Wmfoia ,nd fokak' · my; § we;s ixLHd m%fya,sldj lKavdhug tlla ne.ska ,nd fokak' · m%fya,sldj iïmQ¾K lsÍug mjrkak'

190

· È we;s 4 x 4 fldgq cd,fha ixLHd m%fya,sldjla ks¾udKh lsÍug wjYH rel=,amo ,sùug Wmfoia fokak úi÷ï bosrm;a lsrug mjrkak' s S I fldgi · isiqkag : · § we;s m%fya,sldj msgm;a lr .kak'

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

r

·

my<g yd yryg oS we;s rel=,a mo wkqj wod< ixLHd ,shñka m%fya,sldj iïmQ¾K lrkak' rel=,a mo my<g (a). 10 g wvq mQ¾K ixLHdjl fojk n,h (b). ^72 x 2& + 15 ys w.h (c). x = 5 yd y = 5 úg x2y4 (e). 9 ka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHdjls (g). 45, 90, 60 ys l=vdu fmdÿ .=Kdldrh (h). 23 x 351 ys w.h (i). 10000g wvq úYd,; u T;af;a ixLHdj (k). 7 ys n,hl w.h fõ (m). 62 ys w.h fõ (p). T;af;a ixLHdjls (r). 100 ys .=Kdldrhls

191

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

yryg (a). 38 fuh 4ka b;sß ke;sj fnfoa (d). brÜg ixLHdjl 4 jk n,fha w.h fõ' (f). fuu ixLHdfõ tla idOlhla 9 fõ' (g). 12 ys .=Kdldrhls' (h). 34 ys w.h' (i). fuu ixLHdj 49 ka fn¥ úg ms<s;=r 2 fõ' (j). 6 ka b;sß ke;sj fnfok ixLHdjls' (l). 3, fuu ixLHdfõ idOlhls' (n). mfya .=Kdldrhlajk T;af;a ixLHdjls' (o). 3 ka 4 ka 5 ka fn¥ úg 1la b;sßjk l=vdu ixLHdj' (q). 100 g wvq úYd,;u m%:ul (s). 6 ys yd 5 ys l=vdu fmdÿ .=Kdldrh fõ' ixLHdj' II fldgi

· · · ·

by; i|yka fldgq cd,h msgm;a lr.kak' m%fya,sldj ks¾udKh lsÍug wjYH rel=,a mo ,shkak' ta wkqj m%fya,sldfõ úi÷ï fidhkak' msgm;a lr.;a m%fya,ldj iy tys s úi÷ï kshu lrk ,o Èkg fmr Ndr fokak'

192

07

,l=Kq §fï l%uh · ks¾Kdhl

: · § we;s m%fya,sldj ksjerÈj iïmQ¾K lrkak' · m%fya,sldjla iïmQ¾K lsÍfï § ixhuhlska l< hq;= nj ms<s.ksS' · m%fya,sld ks¾udKh lrhs' · .eg¨ úi§ug úl,am l%u fhdod .kshs' · ks¾udKYs,S wjika ksuejqula t<s olajhs'

,l=KQ mrdih

:

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs =

04 03 02 01

193

WmlrKh wxl -3 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod< úIh ikaOdrh : : : m<uq jeks jdrh 12.1, 9.1, 21.1, 21.2, 3.1, 3.2 · ld,h

· ialkaOh · fldaK · Nd. 4. 5. WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq : : m%Yk úpdrd;aul jevigyk a ld,h, ialkaOh, fldaK, Nd. ms<sn| j ,nd.;a ±kqu m%Yk ks¾udKh i|yd a Ndú; lrhs' ud;Dldjg wod< j ,shk ,o m%Ykdj,s ì;a;s mqj;amf;ys a m%o¾Ykh lrhs' lKavdhï yeÕSfuka hql;j ;rÕh a i|yd boßm;a fjhs' tÈfkod lghq;j, § ld,h, ialkaOh, = fldaK, Nd. ms<n| j ,nd we;s w;a±lSï s ;=<ka ksjerÈ ;SrKj,g t<fUhs' s 6. WmlrKh lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia : % .=rejrhdg ls%hdldrlu 12.1 wdrïNfha § WmlrKh mka;hg y÷kajd fokak' s mka;h lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak' s my; ±lafjk wdldrhg tla tla lKavdhug wod< úIh fldgia ,nd fokak'

lKavdhu ld,h wêl wjqreÿ ixl,amh Y;lh ixl,amh ld,h tl;= lsÍu ialkaOh tl;= lsÍu yd wvq lsÍu .=K lsÍu fn§u fldaK uekSu we£u kï lsÍu ixl,amh Nd.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

>

1 2 3

>úIu Nd.

Nd. tl;= lsÍu Nd. ixikaokh ñY% ixLHd ixl,amh Nd. wvq lsÍu

ñY% ixLHd

4

wvq lsÍu

tall tall mßj¾;kh ks¾udKh

fldaKhl úYd,;ajh wxYl j,ska

194

tla tla lKavdhug ,efnk úIh fldgia i|yd iudka;r m%Yk my ne.ska a m%Yk 20la iy Bg wod< ms<;re A s = lshdldrlu 3'2 wjika ù i;shla we;=<; % ilia lr Ndr§ug isiqkag Wmfoia fokak' isiqka úiska ilia lrk ,o m%Yakdj,s ì;a;s mqj;amf;ys Èk folla m%o¾Ykh lrkak' tu m%Yakdj,s w;=frka m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigyk i|yd WÑ; m%Yk f;dard.kak' a iqÿiq wjia:djl lKavdhï fol ne.ska f.k ;rÕh mj;ajkak' isiqkag

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

:

Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq úIh fldgig wod< m%Yk 20 la we;=<;a m%Yk m;%hla a a ilia lr .=re;=udg Ndrfokak' tu m%Yak m;%h ilia úh hq;af;a Tn lKavdhug ,enqKq úIh fldgia weiqfrka muKs' Tn lKavdhu ilia l< m%Yak m;%hg wod< ms,;re m;%h o ta iuÕ Ndr fokak' s = ì;a;s mqj;a mf;ys m%o¾Ykh jk m%Ykdj,s a fyd¢ka wOHhkh lr m%Yk úpdrd;au; a jevigyk i|yd iQodkï jkak'

07

,l=Kq §fï l%uh ( ks¾Kdhl lKavdhug kshñ; m%Yak m;%h ilia lrhs' m%Yak m;%hg wod< ms<s;=re m;%h bÈßm;a lrhs' ,efnk m%Yak i|yd ksjerÈ ms<s;=r ,nd fohs' wNsfhda.d;aul f,i bÈßm;a fjhs' ;rÕfha ch fyda mrdch i;=áka Ndr.ksh' s

195

,l=Kq mrdih (

b;dfyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;=hs

4 3 2 1

196

WmlrKh - 4 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï wod< úIh ikaOdrh : : : fojk jdrh 3.3, 4.1, 5.1 oYu .=KlsÍu yd fn§u oyfha n, j,ska mQ¾K ixLHd j,ska wkqmd;hg fn§u m%;Y; ixl,amh s oYu ixLHd" m%;Y; f,i s 4. WmlrKfha iajNdjh : m%Yk yd ms<;re wvx.= fmd;a msxpla a s = ilia lsÍu. tÈfkod Ôú;fha oYu, wkqmd; yd m%;sY; Ndú; jk ;eka fidhd n,hs. tajd iïnkaO m%ldYk /ia lrhs. fok ,o m%Yk i|yd ms<;re" j.= a s = u.ska bÈßm;a lrhs. oYu, wkqmd; yd m%;Y; we;=<;a m%Yk s a iy ms<;=re iys; fmd;a msxpla ilia s lrhs . 6. WmlrKh ls%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia: .=rejrhdg

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

5.

WmlrKfha wruqKq

:

wod< mdvï b.ekaùug fmr fuu WmlrKh ms<n| j isika ±kqj;a s q lrka k . /ialr .;hq;= úia;r yd f,aLk ms<sn| j myod fokak. m%Yk i|yd ms<;re" m%Yk m;%fha § a s = a we;s Wmfoia wkqj igyka l<hq;= nj mjikak. fï ish,a, we;=<;alr fmd;a msxpla ilia lsÍug Wmfoia fokak. msgljrh .ek úia;r lr fokak.

197

isiqkag :

oYu wkqmd; yd m%;Y; mdvï bf.k s .kakd w;r;=r fj<o ±kaùï w;a m;sld % ^nexl= iy uQ,H wdh;kj,& iy mqj;am;a iÕrd wdÈfha m<jk ,sms uÕska tu mdvïj,g iïnkaO fldgia lmd tl;= lr .kak . lKavdhfï ish¨ fokd úiska imhd.;a úia;r tla tla ud;Dldj hgf;a fjk fjk u msgqj,g we;=<;a jk fia fmd;a msxpla ilia lrkak. fuys my; ±lafjk m%Yakj,g Tn lKavdhu imhk ms<s;=re tys § we;s Wmfoia wkqj wod< j.= iuÕ B<Õ msgqj,g we;=<;a lrkak. fmdf;a msg ljrfha iDcqfldaKdi% yevhla iy jD;a;dldr yevhla w¢kak. iDcqfldaKdi% yevh 1: 2:3: wkqmd;hg fnodf.k fldgia ;=kg j¾K ;=kla fhdokak. jD;a;dldr yevh 1: 3 wkqmd;hg fnodf.k fjkia j¾K folla fhdokak. m%Ykdj,sh a ^1& 0.5, 0.25, iy 7.5hk ixLHd (i) 4ka (ii) 12ka (iii) 10ka (iv) 100ka (v) 1000ka, .=K lrkak. ta i|yd my; ±lafjk j.=j msgm;a lrf.k iïmQ¾K lrkak. X 0.5 0.25 7.5 (2) 0.4, 4.4 iy 1.21hk ixLHd (i) 2ka (ii) 11ka (iii) 10ka (iv) 100ka (v) 1000ka fnokak ms<;re igyka lsÍug s = by; wdldrfha j.=jla Ndú; lrkak. (3) ,la fmdfydr

N:P:K

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4

12

10

100

1000

2:3:5

50kg

198

rEmfha we;s fmdfydr nE.fha i|yka lr we;af;a tu fmdfydr j¾.fha khs g % c ka (N), fmdia m ria (P)iy fmdgEis h ï (k)ixfhda . lr we;s wkqmd;h hs. (a) ta wkqj tys wvx.= khsgcka fmdiamria % yd fmdgEishï m%udK Nd. f,i ,shd ola j ka k . (b) nE.fha we;s fmdfydr ñY%Kfha nr 50kg kï tu nE.fha wvx.=. (i) khsg%ckaj, nr (ii) fmdiamriaj, nr (iii) fmdgEishïj, nr .Kkh lrkak

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

(c) øjH folla fyda ;=kla l,jï lsÍfuka idod.; yels fjk;a ñY% K hla iïnkaOlr by; wdldrfha fjk;a .eg¨jla ks¾udKh lrkak. (d) by; (a) fldgi i|yd ,enqKq Nd.hka yrh 100 jk Nd.j,g mßj¾;kh lrka k . (e) ta wkqj ñY%Kfha we;s tla tla uQ, øjHj, m%;Y; w.hka .Kkh s lrkak. 7. ,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl : : m%udKj;a f;dr;=re imhdf.k wod< mßÈ f.dkq lrhs. tÈfkod lghq;=j, § oYu, wkqmd; iy m%;sY; Ndú; jk nj ms<s.kshs. oYu, wkqmd; iy m%;Y; wdYs; s % .eg¨ ksjerÈj úi|hs. wdl¾YKSh ks¾udKhla i|yd odhl fjhs. Wiia ;;ajfha ksuejqula i|yd lemùfuka lghq;= lrhs. ,l=Kq mrdih : b;dfyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs 04 03 02

ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs 01 =

199

WmlrKh - 5 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod< úIh ixkaOdrh : : : fojk jdrh 21.3, 27.1 iudka;r f¾Ld jD;a;h ljlgqj u.ska fudaia;r 4. 5. WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKq : : ì;a;s mqj;am;a iudka;r f¾Ld, jD;a; iy jD;a; fldgia weiq ß ka fuda i a ; rhla ks¾udKh lrhs. wjia:djg WÑ; mßÈ fudai;r a fhdod .kshs. úúO ia:dkj, we;s fudaia;r ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq lrhs. 6. WmlrKh ls%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia: .=rejrhdg

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iudka;r f¾Ld mdvu wdrïNfha fuu WmlrKh ms<sn| j isiqka ±kqj;a lrka k . iqÿiq mßÈ isiqka lKavdhïj,g fjka lrka k . iudka;r ir, f¾Ld" jD;a; iy jD;a; fldgia ^ljlgq j Ndú;fhka & Ndú;fhka" § we;s wjia:djla i|yd .e,fmk fudaia;r ks¾udKh lsÍug Wmfoia fokak. iEu iudðlfhl= úis k a u tla ks¾udKhlaj;a l< hq;= nj mjikak. 15 jk mdvu wjikalr i;shla we;=<; WmlrKh ilid ksu l< hq;= nj ±kqj;a lrkak.

200

isiqkag

:

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iudka;r f¾Ld, jD;a; yd jD;a; fldgia Ndú; lrñka my; i|yka wjia:djla i|yd iqÿiq fudaia;rhla ks¾udKh lrkak. wjYH wjia:dj, ljlgqj Ndú; lrkak. idrs fndavrhla we| we;sß,a,la jäïnq ,E,a,la mQckSh ia:dkhl f.ìu fyda isú,ssu fiai;la lKavdhfï iEu idudðlfhl= úiska u wju jYfhka tla ks¾udKhhlaj;a bÈßm;a l< hq;= nj i,lkak. ish¨u idudðlhkaf.a ks¾udK tl;= fldg ì;a;s mqj;am;la ilia lrkak. Tn lKavdhfï ksuejqu kshñ; Èkj, § wjika lrkak. iudka;r f¾Ld, jD;a; yd jD;a; fldgia ±ls h yels fuda i a ; r y÷kd.kshs. fudai;rhla wjia:dkql,j ks¾udKh a + l< hq;= nj ms<s.kshs. iqÿiq mßÈ fudai;r ks¾udKh lrhs. a kj ks¾udK bÈßm;a lrhs' w,xldr ì;a;s mqj;am;la ilia lrhs .

7.

,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl

: :

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs =

04 03 02 01

201

WmlrKh - 6 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod, úIh ikaOdrh : : : fojk jdrh 7.1, 7.2, yd 8.1 È. ñkqï tl;= lsÍu; wvq lsÍu .=K lsÍu; fn§u mßñ;sh i|yd iQ;% iup;=ri%h; iDcqfldaKdi%h j¾.M,h ksudkh ixhqla; ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h ^iup;=ri%h yd iDcqfldaKdi%h&

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh

:

f;dard.;a ;, rEmj, mßñ;sh yd j¾.M,h weiqßka jd¾;djla ilia ls Í u. È. wdY%s; ñkqï uQ,sl .Ks; l¾u hgf;a yiqrejhs. iQ ; % N dú;fhka iup;= r i% d ldr" iDcqfldaKi%dldr ;, rEmhl mßñ;sh fidhhs . iup;= r i% h l, iDcq f lda K di% h l mßñ;sh ÿka úg" úh yels È. yd m<, ,shd olajhs. iup;= r i% h l, iDcq f lda K di% h l j¾.M,h ksudkh lrhs. iup;=ri%hl, iDcqfldaKdi%hl yd ixhqla; rEmhl j¾.M,h fidhhs.

5.

WmlrK wruqKq

:

6.

WmlrKh lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia % .=rejrhdg :

13 mdvu wdrïNhg fmr fuu WmlrKh ms<sn| j isiqka ±kqj;a lrka k . isiqka lKavdhï y;rlg fnokak. fuys wod< ld¾hhka isika ;ks ;ksj q l< hq;= nj okajkak.

202

tla tla isijdf.a lafIa;% fmd;a igyka q wkqj j.=j iïmQ¾K lr" mdif,a § jd¾;djla ilia ls Í ug Wmfoia foka k . 14 mdvu wjika lr i;shlg miq fuu jd¾;dj ndr Èh hq;= njg Wmfoia foka k . isiqkag : ksjfia § fyda mdif,a § Tng yuqjk iup;=ri% yev;,hla yd iDcqfldaKi% yev;, folla f;dard.kak. f;dard.;a yev;,j, È. iy m<, cm / mm mßudKfhka uek ,efnk w.hhka Tfí lafIa;% fmdf;a o< igyka we| igyka lrkak. lKavdhfï ish¨ fokdf.a u lafIa;% fmd;aj, igyka lr.;a w.hhka my; ±lafjk mßÈ ilia l< j.=jl we;=<;a lr j.=j iïmQ¾K lrkak. wjYH mßÈ j.=j §¾> lr .kak.

wkq wxlh rEmfha ku È. m<, mßñ;sh È. yd m<, fo.=Khla jQ úg mßñ;sh È. yd m<, nd.hla jQ úg mßñ;sh

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

f;dard .;a tu ;, rEmj, j¾.M,h ksudkh lr ,shkak. 1 jk rEmh -------------2 jk rEmh -------------- wd§ f,i tu rEmj, È. yd m<, wdikak fika á ógrhg f.k j¾.M,h fidhka k . 1 jk rEmh -------------2 jk rEmh -------------- wd§ f,i ksudks; w.fha;a Tng ,enqKq w.fha;a fjki olajkak. lafIa;%fmdf;a igyka lr.;a o< igyka w;ßka folla tla lr ixhql; a rEmhla ilia lr" tys o< igykla we|" ñkq ï ola j d tys j¾.M,h fidhka k .

203

iDcq f lda K di% d ldr ìï lene,a , l mßñ;sh 30m 50cm kï tys È." m<, úh yels w.h hq., lsymhla fhdackd s lrka k . 7. ,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl : la f IA ; % fmdf;a igyka lr .;a f;dr;= r e wkq j j.= j ks j erÈj iïmQ¾K lrhs. mßñ;sh tlu jqj o úúO È. yd m<,ska hq;a iDcqfldaKdi% we;s nj ms<s.kshs. iDcqfldaKdi%hl È., m<, uek tys mßñ;sh yd j¾.M,h .Kkh lrhs. kshu lrk ,o ksYaÑ; ld,hl § ld¾hh wjika lrhs.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

lKavdhfï wjika jd¾;dj meyeÈ,sj l%uj;aj ilia lr bÈßm;a lrhs.

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs =

04 03 02 01

204

WmlrKh - 7 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod, úIh ikaOdrh : : : f;jk jdrh 17.1, 19.1, 18.1 iólrK f.dvke.Su ax ± b = c wdldrh (a,b,c iólrK úi£u .e,Sï igyka uÕska ùÔh l%u uÕska ir, iQ;% f.dv ke.Su wiudk;d úi¢u ax < b wdldrh >

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

z+

)

x± a < b > ixLHd f¾Ldj u; ksrEmKh ax b, x ± a < b wdldrfha úi\qï > ksÅ, jk 4. 5. WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKQ : : m%Yk yd ms<;=re f.dkqj a s ,eî we;s o;a; wkqj iólrK f.dv kÕhs . .e,Sï igyka Ndú;fhka iólrK úi|hs . ùÔh l%u uÕska iólrK úi|hs. x ± a < b, ax < b wdldrfha wiudk;d > > ,shd úi|hs. by; wdldrfha wiudk;dj, úi÷ï ixLHd f¾Ldjla u; ksrEmKh lrhs. 6. WmlrKh ls%hd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia: .=rejrhdg :

lshdldrlu 17.1 wdrïNhg fmr fuu % WmlrKh mka;shg y÷kajd fokak . fuh ;ks ;ksj l< hq;= njg Wmfoia fokak. weuqKfuys i|yka ldâm;a iys; q Wmfoia m;s%ld msgm;a wjYH m%udKhg ilia lr.kak. 17.1 wdrïNfha § Wmfoia m;s%ld isiqkag fnod fokak.

205

ls % h dldrlu 18.1 wjidk ùfuka i;shlg miq ksuejqu Ndr Èh hq;= njg ±kqj;a lrkak. isiq ksuejqï" § we;s ks¾Kdhl wkqj ;lafiare lrkak. isiqkag : Tng ,enqKq ldâm;a iys; Wmfoia m;s%ldj fyd¢ka wOHhkh lr wod< ld¾hfhys fhfokak. ksuejqu" kshñ; ld,h ;=< f.dkqjla f,i ks ¾ udKYS , S j ,s h d bÈßm;a lrka k .

7.

,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl

: : ir, iólrK yd wiudk;d f.dvkÕhs . ir, iólrK i|yd úi÷ï tlla o wiudk;djhka i|yd úi÷ï lsymhla s o we;snj ms<s.kshs. ir, iólrK yd wiudk;d ksjerÈj úi|hs . úi÷ï ±laùu i|yd rEmsl ksrEmKh fhdod .kshs. ksuejqu ks¾udKYS,Sj bÈßm;a lrhs.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs =

04 03 02 01

206

weuqKu Q 2x 5 4p 2p 10 15 +, -, <, >, = 30 1 6 5p 6m 4a 3x 30 3y 20 2 12 3a 12 x

ldâmf;ys i|yka ùÔh mo, ksh; mo ^ixLHd& iy .KS; l¾u fhdod .ksñka ir, iólrK yels;dla ,shkak . bka iólrK 10 la .e,Sï igyka Wmfhda.s lr.ksñka úi|kak. ùÔh l%u Ndú; lrñka" ,shk ,o iólrK úi|kak.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

úi÷ï mQ¾K ixLHduh jk iólrK;a mQ¾K ixLHduh fkdjk iólrK;a fjka fjkaj ,shkak. ldâmf;ys i|yka mo fhdod .ksñka wiudk;d 10 la ,shkak. 10 g wvq mQ¾K ixLHduh úi÷ï ,efnk wiudk;d f;dardf.k tu úi÷ï ixLHd f¾Ld u; ksrEmKh lrkak . ir, iólrKj, úi÷ï yd wiudk;dj, úiªï ms<sn| j Tfí woyia olajkak.

207

WmlrKh - 8 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod< úIh ikaOdrh : : : f;jk jdrh 13.1, 27.2 mßudK rEm ks¾udK 4. 5. WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKQ : : .fõIKd;aul wOHhkhla f.dvke.s,,l ìï ie,eiau i|yd o< a igykla w¢hs. mßudK rEm we£u i|yd iqÿiq mßudK fhdackd lrhs.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

iqÿiq mßudK Ndú; lrñka mßudK rEm w¢hs. 6. WmlrKh lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia : % .=rejrhdg

ls%hdldrlu 13.1 wfrïNfha § fuu WmlrKh mka;shg y\qkajd fokak. iqÿiq mßÈ isiqka lKavdhïj,g fjka lrkak. ;u mka ; s ldurh ;s f nk f.dvke.s,af,a ie,eiafï o< igyk we£ug isiqka fhduq lrkak . WÑ; ld,iS u djla ;= < tu f.dvke.s,af,a È. iy m<, uek .ekSug isiqkag mjrkak. iq ÿ iq mßudKhla wkq j tu f.dvke.s,f,a ìï ie,eiafï mßudK a rEmhla we£ug Wmfoia fokak. fi,a , ï ñÿ,la " lS % v dms á hla " u,amd;a;hla jeks iDcqfldaKdi% yeve;s s ìï fldgila isiqkag fmkajd tu ia:dkfha mßudK rEmhla we¢ug mjrkak. tÈfkod Ôú;fha mßudK rEm Ndú; lrk wjia:d ms<sn|j f;dr;=re /ia lsÍug isiqkag mjrkak. ksuejqu NdrÈh hq;= Èkh ms<n|j isika s q ±kqj;a lrkak. isiqka f.a ksuejqu § we;s ks¾Kdhl wkqj ;lafiare lrkak.

208

isiqkag

:

Tfí mka ; s ldurh ;s f nk f.dvke.s,af,a ìï ie,eiafï o< igykla w¢kak. .=rejrhd úiska ±kqï fok fõ,djla ;=< tu f.dvke.s,af,a È. yd m<, uek.ka k . f.dvke.s,f,a fjkalr we;s ia:dkj, a ^mka;sldur, fldßfvda ñkqï fjk fjk u ,nd .; hq;= nj i,lkak iq ÿ iq mßudKhla f;da r df.k f.dvke.s,af,a ìï ie,eiau i|yd mßudK rEmhla w¢kak. by; i|yka lshd ms<fj< wkq.ukh % s lrñka .=re;=ud $ ;=ñh úiska kshu lrk ,o wfkla ia:dkfha o mßudK rEmhla w¢kak.

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

tÈfkod Ôú;fha mßudK rEm Ndú; lrk wjia:d ms<sn| f;dr;=re /ia lrka k . Tfí ksuejqu wod< ld, isudj ;=,§ .=rejrhdg Ndr fokak. 7. ,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl : : mßudK rEmhla we£ug isÿjk wjia:d kï lrhs. tÈfkod Ôú;fha úúO lghq;= j,§ mßudK rEm we£ug is ÿ jk nj ms<s.kshs. iqÿiq mßudKhla f;dard mßudK rEm w¢hs. ffoksl lghq;j,§ ksjerÈ ñkqï ,nd = .ks h s . Wiia ;;a j fha ks u ejq u la i|yd lemùfuka lghq;= lrhs .

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs =

04 03 02 01

209

WmlrKh - 9 1. 2. 3. we.hSï wjia:dj wdjrKh flfrk ksmqK;d uÜgï WmlrKhg wod, úIh ikaOdrh : : : f;jk jdrh 23.1, 23.2, 22.1 , 22.2, 26.1 ;s%fldaK j¾. mdo wkqj fldaK wkqj nyq wi% W;a;, $ wj;, $ iúê Y=oO fgi,dlrKh a

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

4. 5.

WmlrKfha iajNdjh WmlrKfha wruqKQ

: :

m%o¾Yk úúO yev;, Ndú;fhka fgi,dlrK ks¾udKh lrhs. úúO >kjia;= tla lsÍfuka w,xldr WmlrK ilia lrhs. ks¾udKlrKh ;=<ska kj ksmehqï i|yd fm<fUhs.

6.

WmlrKh lshd;aul lsÍu i|yd Wmfoi : % .=rejrhdg

ir, f¾Çh ;, rEm mdvu wdrïNfha § fuu WmlrKh mka;shg y÷kajd foka k . iq ÿ iq mßÈ is i q k a lKa v dhïj,g fnoka k . fuu WmlrKhg wod< ld¾hh isika q úiska ;ks ;ksj l< hq;= nj okajkak. bj; ouk øjH j,ska wjYH foa imhd .ekSug Wmfoia fokak. fgi,dlrKh mdvu wjidkfha kshu

210

lrkq ,nk Èklg fmr fuu WmlrKh ksu l< hq;= nj mjikak. fgi,dlrKh yd >k jia;= wdYs%; úúO wdlD;s weiqßka m%o¾Ykhla i|yd isiqka iqodkï lrjkak. m%o¾Ykh i|yd Èkhla" ia:dkhla mjika k . isiqkag : ì;a ; s ieris , a , lg iq ÿ iq jk fia fgi,dlrKh Ndú;fhka w,xldr ks¾udKhla lrkak. Tn fuf;la W.;a >k jia ; = Ndú;fhka ,dïmq wdjrKhla, myka l+ v q j la a, ks j i w,xlrKh i|yd WmlrKhla ilia lrkak. Tn ilia lrk WmlrK i|yd wjYH wuqøjH bj;,k øjH j,ska imhd .ekSug W;aidy .kak. by; ilia lrk ,o WmlrK m%o¾Yk ;;ajfha ;sìh hq;= nj i,lkak. .=rejrhd úiska kshu lrk ,o Èkg fmr m%o¾Ykhg iEÿ WmlrK Ndr foka k . 7. ,l=Kq §fï l%uh ks¾Kdhl : : jdr wjidk m%o¾Ykhla i|yd iqÿiq NdKav ks¾udKhg wjYH úIh lreKq y÷kd.kshs. id¾:l m%o¾Ykhla meje;aùu i|yd fm<fò. ir, f¾Çh ;,rEm iy >k jia;= ms<n| lreKq Wmfhda.S lr .ksñka s ks¾udKlrKfha fhfohs. ld¾hlaIu j lghq;= lrhs. wdrïN lrk ,o lghq;;la a id¾:lj ksulrhs.

211

Copyright © 2007 National Institute of Education - Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.

,l=Kq mrdih

:

b;d fyd|hs fyd|hs uOHia:hs

04 03 02

ixj¾Okh úh hq;hs 01 =

212

Information

220 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

851308