Read Microsoft Word - 15art3.doc text version

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002)

Education Technology Programmes: Performance Standards and Teacher Certification Considerations

Jeffrey Coupe and Jeffrey Goveia

1. Introduction Worldwide, governments and education systems are considering preferred methods for ensuring that their schools achieve certain technology standards and that their instructional personnel are acquiring technology skill sets that maximise educational performance and leverage technology to its fullest. As other policy notes have emphasised, technology is best used in educational (reform) contexts that foster constructivism, where curricula are inquiry-based and instructional designs are student-centred, ­ engaging students in complex problem-solving and in creating knowledge and meaning.

Figure 1 presents this interaction between educational reform associated with movement towards inquiry-based learning (Y-axis) and technology integration associated with the effective use of digital technologies among others (X-axis).1 Through its middle, a forty-five degree angle suggests an improvement path that balances reform and integration ­ both are proceeding and indeed appear tied. Above this line, reform appears to outpace (and perhaps drive) technology integration. Below the 45-degree line, we travel improvement paths where

The following paragraphs appear in an upcoming article in TechKnowlogia by Coupe and Haichour (2002), summarizing a subset of arguments set forth in Coupe, Goveia, Ilukena and Haichour (2002) to appear in Chapman and Mahlick eds. Technology and School Reform to be published by UNESCO.

1

1

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) technology is being adopted and integrated at rates that exceed the pace of inquiry-inspired reform in the school or system. Organisational capacity and efficient use of scarce resources ­ premium in many developing countries ­ determine how far one can travel along these pathways. Teachers are a key determinant of capacity in education ­ their non-participation and non-mobilisation often mean little movement from the point of origin. Previous technology decisions (about technology assets) and reform decisions influence the future ability of a system to sustain momentum down a path, the flexibility for moving between paths and the potential optima (Pareto) in educational quality achievable.2 The scenarios of a reform path and its xy co-ordinates c-d, and of an integration path (points ab on the axes) are not a typical of situations in various school systems. On the one hand, many school systems begin by adopting and adapting technology without making the institutional context conducive to inquiry-based instructional practice (i.e., the intervention focuses on supply). On the other hand, the pressures for educational improvement prompt reform efforts, after which technology's potential role is discovered as the connections between inquiry-based instructional practice and the technology's utility become clearer (i.e., the technology intervention is driven by demand). In yet another scenario similar to recent reform efforts in the United States, government-mandated school performance standards are put in place to make schools accountable and yet these standards fail to measure educational quality adequately. In the course of evaluation, learners' breadth of content knowledge is given higher value over their depth of knowledge or their ability to think critically and creatively. This drives systems away from constructivist and learner-centred practices and towards teacher-centred instruction.3 In these contexts, desired outcomes are perverted by the systems' evaluation and incentives structures; possibly perverting the uses of technology as well.4 The focus of this policy paper is to examine the issue of technology benchmarks and standards and their potential use in Namibia's education system. Rather than focus on the issue of student technology proficiencies (the domain of the MBESC) this paper examines key issues of concern to NIED ­ teacher technology competencies and professional development for school improvement. 2. Assumptions The assumptions, upon which the following policies are based, are: 1. Teacher demand for technology encourages a better allocation mechanism in the longterm than supply-side technology investments. Furthermore, human capital is best matched to physical capital, including technology. 2. Given the current condition of technology scarcity and limited Ministry funding, proposed technology standards and professional certification should initially be flexible, gradual, and voluntary. 3. Standards and certification systems should be studied carefully in order to limit perversions and they should be regularly updated as technologies change and as the combined effect of technologies and instructional practices on educational performance become clearer.

2

This interaction model draws on institutional political economy. On path dependency and technology, see Douglass North, 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); on interaction model between political and economic liberalization see, Stephan Haggard and Robert Kaufman. 1992. "Economic Adjustment and the Prospects for Democracy," in S. Haggard and R. Kaufman eds. The Politics of Economic Adjustment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 319-350. 3 This would imply movement in another quadrant located below the one shown above. We strongly make the case in various policy documents for movement in this quadrant. 4 For more in-depth discussion of these points, see Coupe, Goveia, Ilukena and Haichour (upcoming).

2

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) 3. Proposed NIED Technology Standards and Statement Should NIED choose in the future to develop technology standards for educators, it might be useful to adopt standards that focus on core technology competencies ­ operational standards ­ as well as teacher competencies to use technology effectively in instructional practice ­ integration standards. The following standards and statement is a model provided by the Virginia Department of Education (U.S.), and modified for the Namibian education system (see following page, Table 1). The Virginia State government is responsible for certifying and accrediting teachers in the U.S. system. In the 1990s, the state's Department of Education developed the "The State of Virginia's Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel (TSIPS)." The TSIPS are a state directive to local school districts, requiring them to ensure that all their instructional personnel (in-service) meet basic proficiencies in the operation and use of technology in education. In Virginia, the TSIPs are mandatory ­ all instructional personnel must pass these standards by 2004 in order to keep their teacher certification. It is likewise expected that all instructional personnel being trained in the state's public colleges graduate with these requisite skill sets. Consequently, such a standards statement in the Namibian context would conceivably and progressively apply to both in-service and pre-service training, to teacher-training colleges (TTCs) as well as to users of teacher resource centres (TRCs). As is evident in Table 1, the Virginia standards reflect a model of indicative educational planning. They provide sufficient flexibility for each school and school district to interpret the policy guidelines, therefore modelling a more decentralised approach to policy-making. Each school district in the state (at the county level) must submit a plan to the state's education department detailing how it plans to adhere to these state requirements. It should be emphasised that flexibility is required in terms of operational standards because not all schools within a district or all school within the state share the same types of hardware and software. They also are not necessarily endowed with similar quantities of technology. It should be equally emphasised that Virginia schools do not share similar textbooks or educational philosophies, although all must meet the state's "standards of learning." As you will note in Table 1 below, the standards fall into two general categories: operational standards and integration standards. For illustrative purposes we have taken the liberty to customise the statements for the Namibian context for this draft. While we believe these standards to be adequate, their content and their level of specificity should be the subject of debate ­ at the point where NIED is ready to adopt such standards.

3

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Table 1: Voluntary Education Technology Standards for Educators at TRCs Established for the ED'S Net Programme on a Provisional Basis a). Operational Standards 1. Demonstrate effective use of a computer system and utilise computer software. 2. Demonstrate knowledge and use of terms associated with educational computing and technology. 3. Apply computer productivity tools for professional use, including collaborative exchange and in the course of programmes designed for continuing professional development (action research, school improvement, community outreach, reflective practice, etc.). 4. Use electronic technologies to access and exchange information from the TRCs, (and by 2005), from the primary and secondary schools. b). Integration Standards 1. Identify, locate, evaluate, and use appropriate instructional hardware and software to support the Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture's curricular objectives. 2. Use educational technologies for data collection, information management, problem solving, inquiry, decision-making, communication, and presentation as guided by the curriculum. 3. Plan and implement lessons and strategies (constructivist, learner-centred strategies) that show potential for the future integration of technology in order to meet the diverse needs of learners in a variety of educational settings. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical and legal issues relating to the use of technology, and the responsibilities associated with participation in an international education community. Adapted from the Virginia State Department of Education (U.S.). 4. Verifying Compliance/Certification The state of Virginia is not unique in requiring its teachers to demonstrate their competencies in education technology. But each of these states and their school districts vary in terms of what they will accept as evidence that their teachers meet minimal state standards. States and districts in the U.S. will often use some of the following instruments: a. A system-administered examination that, for the Namibian context, could be administered at the TRC computer centres. b. Submission of signed statements certifying that a certain number of professional development hours were devoted to education technology-related learning (e.g. attendance at a technology workshop, registration and passing grade in pre-approved courses, etc.). c. A portfolio of professional work demonstrating elements of reflective practice that contains evidence that teachers are fully functional in communications, in the technology environment provided by the education system (e.g. web, intranet, Internet, support services, etc.), and in developing and implementing technology-supported lesson plans.

In the case of (b) and (c), the advisory services and NIED personnel might be responsible for verifying the submitted materials and recommending certification to the MBESC and NIED in Windhoek and Okahandja. These would be examples that most closely parallel the various U.S. systems in place. It should be said that the three means of verification can be included within a flexible system of certification, in which teachers can either go through a, b, or c in order to meet the conditions.

4

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) 5. Portfolio Assessment: Option C The portfolio approach has important advantages over the other means of verification and certification. First, it does not involve the MBESC or NIED in offering mandatory technology courses, nor does it necessitate the creation of an objective test. Second, it is "teacher friendly" in that it does not place advisory services in the role of being technology police. In this sense, the portfolio approach is more in keeping with the institutional changes and new support roles that the advisory services are soon to provide. Third, the portfolios demonstrate signs of actual, professional application of the tools ­ not just practical familiarity or presence at technology training. Portfolios stress both learning and doing. Below, we have adapted an application for certification from the Arlington County School system in Virginia. We chose Arlington County because it allows us to examine what the possible relationships would be between the voluntary standards proposed above and a district's proposed system for complying with those standards. Again, the application has been modified to reflect the situation in Namibia and the role of the professional development division at NIED.

5

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Form 1: Application for Education Technology Certification NIED Pilot Programme for Continuous Professional Development in Education Technology Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture (MBESC) TRC: ________________ Name: Surname: TRC: TRC ID: Year: (circle one below) Pre-service: In-service: Field of Study: Education Region:

Please submit a portfolio with the following materials to the training committee at your Teacher Resource Centre (TRC). The committee will be responsible for certifying your completion of the introductory programme in education technology, and for defining the following standards, based on the importance and presence of technology in your region. The following instructional (voluntary) standards have been adopted for the training programme for the years 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. 1. A copy of your final self-competency evaluation scores/presence in regional technology trainings offered by the technology teams at the TRCs. 2. An example of your writing composed in a word processing programme. 3. A printout of an e-mail that you have sent to a colleague on an educational topic. 4. A copy of a posting on the ED'S Net discussion board on an education-related topic. 5. Three lesson plans that employ technology in instruction. 6. Implementation of at least one of the three lessons employing technology in instruction. 7. Implementation of at least one of three lessons that uses OSSIAR or other pedagogical approaches to technology as guiding framework for use of technology to meet instructional objectives. 8. An evaluation of this lesson or instructional design. 9. A multimedia presentation (e.g. PowerPoint, web page) of action research or school improvement processes in which you have been involved. 10. Use of the ED'S Net web site to complete School Managers, ISC, or BETD programmes. 11. A multimedia product that exhibits your professional projects, reflections on pedagogy, etc., such as might be found on a professional website page. Demonstrate 3 of the following skills with the training committee at your local TRC:5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ability to use a digital camera and download a picture to a PC ability to use digital video and download a movie using Dazzle ability to use Macromedia Director for advanced production ability to connect a PC to a television Check below and Initial initial _____________ initial _____________ initial _____________ initial _____________ ability to capture TV content on a CD-ROM initial _____________ ability to use the scanner for manipulating images initial _____________ ability to archive one source of information about initial education gained from the Internet in the TRC _____________ computer centre. (Mandatory)

Please note that these competencies are provided for illustrative purposes only. A more thorough discussion of more appropriate competencies would need to be developed for the Namibian context. In particular, competencies related to the hardware and software provided by SchoolNet would need to be developed.

5

6

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Demonstrate your knowledge of the following responsibilities for the maintenance of the computer network: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Check below and Initial initial _____________ check the space available on various drives and initial disks _____________ clear the print queue initial _____________ ftp files to server spaces available to you initial _____________ copy all your portfolio material onto a 3.5" floppy initial disk _____________ reboot the computer and log out of programmes initial _____________ run the anti-virus programme

The committee will review the education technology portfolio you submit promptly, and a programme certificate will be issued to you. With this certificate, and subsequent training certificate programmes, the Ministry and its partners hope to be able to offer you discounts on purchases of computer hardware and software, preferential use of the multimedia centres for class and professional development activities, consideration when making investments in education technology in schools, and priority for enrolment in enrichment classes.

7

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) SECTION B: (To be filled out by the Committee)

The Ministry of Basic Education, Sport and Culture in the Region of _________________, (accepts) the portfolio for certification; (does not accept) the submitted portfolio because of one of the following: 1. 2. The portfolio is incomplete The submission ____________ requires further refinement.

Specific notes or commendations: This application is hereby approved by the technical committee at the TRC on behalf of the EDS Net programme in education technology. A programme certificate will be issued to the educator named on this application. Date of Approval: Signatures of Committee Members: ED'S Net Committee (2001-2002) Mr. Alfred Ilukena Adapted from Arlington County Public Schools TSIP Application. In the Arlington County example, in-service teachers work with the instructional technology coordinators (ITCs) assigned to their schools. The ITCs assist the teachers in acquiring the necessary skills (although much of the formal training is provided by the county's education technology department) and in compiling their portfolios. These portfolios are reviewed and approved at the county level and then submitted to the state department of education, which then awards formal certification to the individual teacher. It is not the case however that all in-coming teachers ­ say from Virginia universities ­ will have met the standards through a portfolio approach to education. In the opinion of the authors, a portfolio approach to certification would be preferable for the following reasons: (a) it requires teachers to actually use technology in instruction, (b) it is in keeping with action research promoted by NIED in in-service and pre-service research training, and (c) it reinforces the types of educational reforms outlined in the MBESC's Ten-Year Plan for Educator Development and Support. 6. Technology Planning and School Improvement Planning (SIPs) As noted in the application form above, there are not only implicit links to action research but also to school improvement planning. The MBESC's School Improvement Planning initiatives, piloted by projects such as BES II are one vehicle for delivering continuing professional development opportunities. Education technology planning can be effectively integrated (as one aspect) into school improvement planning processes and the whole school approach to improving educational quality. One framework that emphasises school planning and technology integration is the CEO Forum's StaR Chart for professional development. Its principal application is as a tool for school improvement, enabling school faculties to pinpoint where they might lie on the curve between inquire-based reform and technology integration. It is multi-dimensional in its conception of education technology planning ­ it includes support issues, connectivity, computer-to-student ratios and pedagogical use of computers among others. It also provides suggested levels of technology and suggested uses of technology in instruction. But rather than being seen as immutable, the CEO Forum StaR Chart is

8

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) adaptable to local conditions, values and needs. RETT Training using the OSSIAR model9 has specifically placed inquiry-based learning at the forefront of its training, thus inducing constructivism into low-technology environments. We therefore encourage NIED to adopt a similar planning tool for use with school improvement, but challenge NIED as well to adapt the framework in innovative ways to meet its institutional needs.

For a more detailed explanation of the OSSIAR model, see Paper 4 in this series or visit the Educational Development and Support Network (ED'S Net) website at http://www.ednet.na/Edutech/Training Docs.html

9

9

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002)

Table 2: THE CEO Forum STaR Chart: A New Look at Professional Development

Indicators

Indicators

Equipment

Students per Compute r 8 to 20 students per compute r 5 to 11 students per compute r 4 to 8 students per compute r 2 to 5 students per computer Students per Multi-media Computer Students per CDROM Maintenance

Connectivity

LAN ­ Local Area Network Internet Connection Speed of the Connect-ion

Contents

Availability of Repetiti ve Exercis es Yes Availability of Software for Developin g Applications Maybe Availability of Simulation Applications Maybe Availabi lity of Research Resources No Availability of Internet Connections No

Low-Tech

More than 17 students per multimedia computer 8 to 33 students per multimedia computer 5 to 13 students per multimedia computer 3 to 6 students per multimedia computer

More than 100 students per CDROM More than 50 students per CDROM Plus de 17 élèves par CDROM 6 to 25 students per CDROM

Off-Site maintenane; not regular Off-Site maintenance; not regular Off-Site Maintenance; regular On-Site maintenance; conti nuous with replacements

No

Maybe

Dial-up access through standard phone line Dial-up access through standard phone line Dial-up and dedicated lines

Medium-Tech

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Maybe

Maybe

High-Tech

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Maybe

Target Tech

Yes

Yes

Dedicated high-speed line

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

10

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Indicator s Professional Development

Content Training Low-Tech of Professional Development Practices Training occurs in isolated, short "stand alone" sessions; Training delivered by nonteachers (technology and pedagogy are not linked or connected) Most teachers not engaged in technology-related professional development; No long term professional development plan in place Technology Access Usage Patterns and

Integration and Use

Role Teacher of Pattern of Student Technology Use Irregular individual use Class Length Short

Educational Benefits

How to use basic technology tools and applications (i.e. word processors, spreadsheets, productivity applications, LCD projectors)

Most teachers at "entry" and "adoption" phases (see definition above) Most teachers do not have access to appropriate technology in their work areas A few teachers use technology to enhance productivity Technology used as substitute for manual work "fits" into existing work.

Teachercentred, teacher as lecturer of the whole group

Master basic skills through older drill and tutorial software

11

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Indicator s Professional Development

Content Training Mid-Tech of Professional Development Practices Training occurs in isolated, short, "stand-alone" sessions; Some teachers engaged in technology-related professional development; No long-term professional development plan in place Technology Access Usage Patterns and

Integration and Use

Role Teacher of Pattern of Student Technology Use Regular individual use for some Class Length Short

Educational Benefits

How to use basic technology tools and applications; How to use stand-alone software; Limited introduction to the Internet.

Some teachers at "entry" and "adoption" phases; a few teachers at "adaptation" phase; Some teachers have access to appropriate technology in their work areas; Some teachers use technology regularly, as a substitute for manual tasks (i.e. word processors used to construct assignments); A few teachers use technology sporadically as an add-on, supplementary education tool (i.e. standalone software used as supplementary educational tool); Internet use is limited and sporadic

Teacher directed, whole group learning

Improve higherorder critical thinking with access to multimedia content Master basic skills through drill and tutorial software Greater information resources available for research and education from Internet and CDROM but constricted due to lack of access

12

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Indicator s Professional Development

Content Training High-Tech of Professional Development Practices Training occurs in regular, consistent sessions integrated into regular school schedule; Teacher trainers provide coaching and model best practices ("train the trainer"); Most teachers participate in technology-related professional development; Most teachers participate in virtual or fact-to-face peer discussion groups; Most teachers have access to in-school training as well as on-line distance learning resources; Long-term professional development plan is in place Technology Access Usage Patterns and

Integration and Use

Role Teacher Teacher facilitated of Pattern of Student Technology Use Irregular group use for short collaborative activities; regular individual use for most students Class Length Extended

Educational Benefits

How to integrate technology into the curriculum; How to use technology for classroom management; How to identify and use grade, age, and subject specific multi-media materials; Training on basic technology tools and applications also available for small subset of new teachers

Most teachers at "appropriation" phase; some teachers at "adaptation" phase; a few teachers at "entry" and "adoption" phases; Most teachers have access to appropriate technology in their work areas; Most teachers use technology regularly for administration and in the curriculum; Most teachers select, use and integrate technology tools in constructing of student assignments; On-line resources used and integrated into curriculum

Improve higherorder thinking and research skills Greater information resources available for research and education from Internet and CDROM Most students/teachers able to communicate with parents, experts, other students and teachers outside the school

13

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) Indicator s Professional Development

Content Training Target Tech of Professional Development Practices Delivery of training is customised to needs of individual teacher Training is one-on-one, just-in-time and ondemand All teachers participate in on-going technologyrelated professional development All teachers have access to in-school training as well as on-line, distance learning resources All teachers engage in ongoing self-assessment Long term professional development plan is developed with teacher participation and institutionalised Technology Access Usage Patterns and

Integration and Use

Role Teacher Teacher guide, studentcentred learning of Pattern of Student Technology Use Regular individual and group use of technology as tools when needed Class Length Extended

Educational Benefits

Subject of training is customised to needs of individual teacher; How to create new technology supported learning activities and lesson plans; How to identify, use and evaluate grade, age and subject specific multi-media materials; How to meet special, individual needs using technology; How to identify, use and evaluate new student assessment methodologies.

Most teachers at "appropriation" phase; a few teachers at "invention" phase; All teachers have access to appropriate technology in their work areas; All teachers select, use and evaluate information technology tools as needed to create lesson plans and communicate and collaborate with students, peers, experts, parents and community; Daily work, teaching and learning are not possible without technology; "Individualised," studentcentred curriculum created and used in classroom; Technology is fully integrated into the curriculum and fundamentally changes process of teaching and learning

as

·

Student-centred authentic projectbased learning · Improve higherorder thinking and research skills · Universal access to greater information resources available for research and education from Internet and CDROM · Collaborative learning that allows students to develop teamwork/communication/ problem-solving skills · All students/teachers able to communicate with parents, experts other students and teachers outside the school

14

Reform Forum: Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Volume 15 (April 2002) 7. Ensuring Investment in Professional Development ­ the 30% Rule The U.S. Department of Education has recognised the importance of teacher training in the promotion of reform and education technology. Under its current grants programme, created by the newly signed education act, all grant awards require that 25-30% of the grant be used to train teachers.10 In the future, NIED may want to consider a mandatory threshold for investments in teacher technology training, provided the training be constructivist in orientation and married to larger issues of pedagogy and inquiry. In order to compensate for resource scarcities in Namibia, we believe the percentages of resources earmarked for teacher training could be set higher, and paired with policies that put technology directly in the hands of educators. Lowering training costs, through partnerships with SchoolNet and the promotion of advisory services are critical to optimising the deployment of training monies. 8. What Type of Training? As with any training intervention, there are issues of both quantity as well as quality. While aiming for a 30% investment in professional development, policy makers must seriously consider issues surrounding the quality of such training. As these technologies should be introduced for the purposes of educational improvement and to foster educational reform, the training should seek to foster creative uses of technologies both by teachers as well as by learners. Unfortunately, traditional models of technology training tends to focus on expert-centred or transmission approaches. Unfortunately, as the project has frequently suggested, these models too frequently leaves professionals and learners with the belief that they need expert trainers to learn the technology. Further, the models tend to be quite prescriptive with the instructors frequently guiding the trainees through a series of exercises designed to train the trainees in how to accomplish specific predetermined tasks. In other words, the training does not model constructivist or learner-centred practices and does not encourage the trainees to experiment with the technologies or to determine how they might be useful in different contexts and for different purposes. As this type of pedagogical approach is discouraged elsewhere by Namibia's education reform policies, the Ministry should avoid procuring or providing such training for its professionals11 9. Conclusions Standards and teacher certification considerations will soon be on NIED's agenda as technology spreads throughout the Namibian education system. While technology is still scarce, it is worthwhile to put into place a system of flexible, indicative, and voluntary policies that prepare teachers to use technologies in classrooms. Pairing such a system with in-service and pre-service training is advisable, as is the use of portfolio assessments to achieve voluntary certification. Adaptation of the CEO Forum STaR Chart for professional development should be explored, as should its use in conjunction with whole school approaches to educational improvement. These may prove to be important policy measures for guaranteeing that technology integration works in the service of progressive education in Namibia.

10

For examples of research findings that support the need to provide professional development, please see Jeffrey Archer, 2001. "The Link to Higher Scores," in Jossey-Bass ed. Technology and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 112-123 and Larry Cuban, 1999. Oversold and Underused, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 11 Once again, for an example of a more learner-centred and constructivist approach to ICT training for education professionals, see Paper 4 in this series.

15

Information

Microsoft Word - 15art3.doc

15 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

302289


You might also be interested in

BETA
2010 New Jersey School Report Card
HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS:
Microsoft Word - Arain and Tipu pdf.doc
LOS ANGELES UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT
Microsoft Word - EURASIA_v7n3_Eilks.doc