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ANNUAL REPORT 1996-97

National Institute of Oceanography Goa, India

ANNUAL REPORT 1996-97

CONTENTS

(5) (6) (7)

Director's Report Highlights Contract Services

(10) Coastal Environment (15) Engineering, Techniques & Technology (19) Offshore Processes & Resources (30) Bilateral Programmes (34) Data, Information & Scientific Services Appendices (36) Scientific Cruises (39) (44) (47) (50) Workshops/Seminars/Meetings Council Members & Staff on Committees Deputations Visitors (42) Awards & Honours

(53) Human Resources & Finances (55) Patents & Publications (60) Staff List

Director's Report

The year 1996-97 was the last year of the VIII Plan. In the past, the start of plan periods used to be times when usually (though not always) old projects were retitled, milestones, SWOT analysis and other project monitoring tools were incorporated, and proposals for large grants were forcefully presented. We took a different tack this year - by having "open week" for IX Plan projects and succeeding in forging some multidisciplinary projects. This exercise, and other associated "restructuring" was no whim. The recently enunciated Vision 2001 by Dr. Mashelkar with its various milestones, could only be realised by a fresh look at ourselves and the way we did research. It was to a degree unsettling as well. In this Director's report I will avoid restating the "highlights" of the year, but will dwell instead on interpreting important events which are factually reported in fine print in the pages inside. An analysis of our publications showed that while the absolute numbers were going down, the quality of the average paper was getting increasingly better. In order to capitalise on this improving trend, the importance of process studies involving multiple disciplines was an obvious next step. The new titles and objectives consequent to "Project Open Week" are written up and we now need only to follow the spirit of the exercise. I am sure we will. Understanding processes, the focus of oceanography today, is equally important in management - either in project team building or in routine administration. The idea has germinated in a few key areas it will I am sure be obvious for all others soon. Our IX Plan exercise and the ensuing projects reflect this focus. The emergence of the coastal zone as critical to our future human settlement patterns and industrialisation, was a boon to our industrial rupee earnings. It also highlighted the larger roles our national laboratory has to play in providing advisories to concerned ministries, modelling and satellite imageries in predictive and monitoring situations, and the importance of proactive research in devising mitigation techniques to the inevitable onslaught of industrialisation. Our IX Plan projects incorporate these new roles for us as a national institute. Our first dollar earnings from the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) for environmental services emphasised the wider economic forces at play and the fine job the institute did in this project was an encouraging indicator that marketing such services further afield may prove profitable. The "welcome mat" policy in hosting international meetings, workshops, seminars and symposia gave us exposure to the many facets of oceanography in other parts of the globe, was a reassuring indicator not only of the ease with which oceanographers are able to communicate and forge international programmes, but also that our own were held at some level of esteem in the community. We need now to practise more vigorously all the multi-disciplinary approaches that we know are being woven into oceanographic programmes abroad.

The valiant, almost missionary zeal, with which a two member group is working to get the institute to adopt quality methods, has the hallmark of the beginning of a cultural change. Their success is critical to our survival in the competitive days ahead, and I am sure that we will begin to roll before they run out of enthusiasm. A sobering thought was our response to Dr. Mashelkar's New Ideas Fund encouraging new, innovative even crazy ideas. Our response could have been better especially since we have a funding crunch and need external funding. We have expressed some bold important initiatives for the Year of the Ocean -1998. It is important to succeed in this venture, because of the multiple benefits that we will reap - nationally, regionally and internationally. The year gone by has been internally stressful as it has challenged many concepts of projects, leaders, hierarchy and empowerment of the working level scientist. I am sure however that we will approach the IX Plan with that resilience for which our scientists are noted, by asking "So what's new?"

Ehrlich Desa

Highlights

· Studies on the mechanisms of N2O production in the upwelling zones precludes nitrification as the major process responsible for N2O production. High concentration of N2O and partial pressure of CO2 (upto 62.5 nM and 700 atm respectively) were off SW Indian coast during summer monsoon. These are the highest recorded for any oceanic surface waters. This reinforces the view that the coastal eastern boundary upwelling serve as significant source of greenhouse gases, particularly N2O. Under JGOFS, we observed higher concentrations of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) in areas of upwelling in the Arabian Sea than in the Bay of Bengal. Despite the negative relation between TEPs and nitrate deficit, an average TEP concentration of ~ 10 mg I-1 in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone indicates that TEPs provide more than enough organic carbon to sustain bacterial activities in the denitrifying layer. Close grid bathymetric surveys and analysis of nodules carried out under Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) to augment data on likely input due to mining in the Central Indian Basin led to the identification of test and references areas.

Coastal Environment · Continuous observations over 15 months in the nearshore waters off Mumbai showed the peak zooplankton production after the monsoons and high phytoplankton production during the monsoon. Omnivores dominated the zooplankton community showing a partial influence by high fluxes of anthropogenic pollutants from the interior of the creek system.

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Abnormal variations in a CTD profile in the Andaman Sea were observed during Cruise SK118. The temperature fell by 4°C while salinity decreased by 35 psu possibly due to tidal solition. Based on the study of a 170 cm long shallow water sediment core (from 22 m), the paleomonsoonal history of the last 2500 years has been reconstructed. Increased precipitation is found to be around 1705 AD and 300 BC and dry climatic conditions around 1565, 1355,1075 & 305 AD.

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Underwater explorations off Poompuhar revealed heavily eroded irregular stone blocks at depths of 5-15 m. Airlift · High-resolution shallow seismic operations indicated presence of more reflection data from the continental such blocks in deeper sediments. shelf sediments off western India from 10°-22°N revealed anomalous seismic signatures of acoustic maskings of Engineering & Technology methane rich horizons. Potential subsurface methane estimates in this · Directional wave measurements made gas charged area are of the order in 15 m water depth off Nagapattinam of 2.6 Tg. during the monsoon and fair weather seasons indicated that the spreading parameter could be estimated from the significant wave height and period corresponding to maximum spectral energy without relating to wind conditions. · Knowhow to prepare liquid biofertilizer from seaweeds was transferred to M/s Pralsher Bio-Products Ltd., Curchorem, Goa. Application of this fertilizer increases the yield of horticultural and agricultural plants besides enhancing overall growth and disease resistance. · Evidences of recent volcanohydrothermal activity were recorded in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) previously considered to be inactive. The ferromanganese crust dredged from the summit of the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount in the North Central Indian Ocean provided evidence that the area was exposed to the subaerial conditions during the Oligocene (~30 Ma) global sealevel drop. Continued studies on neotectonic activity over southern part of ECMI with high resolution sparker data along two E-W tending lineaments off Madras and Nagapattanam provided evidence of recent tectonic activity. Opposing trends were observed in the isotopic composition of 15N and 18O of N2O in upwelled waters with modest departures from the tropospheric values, these indicate that the oceanatmosphere exchange cannot counter inputs of heavier isotopes associated with the stratospheric back flux, calling for additional sources and/or sinks of N2O in the atmosphere.

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Offshore Processes · Analysis of XBT data from the tropical Indian Ocean revealed the presence of a narrow equatorial flow between 2°N and 2°S with changing direction at semi-annual cycle. Analysis of 21 years data on SST anomalies in the region 0-5°N and 8085°E (acquired from UK Meteorological Office) showed that the Indian monsoon shows a positive relationship with the SST anomalies of October and November of the previous year

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Contract Services

The favourable industrial and investment climate in the country catalysed the start of many green field industries in the chemical, petroleum and power sectors. The Institute provided services in the form of consultancies for pre-feasibility studies and in the form of contracted data collection and analyses for full marine environmental impact assessment reports. The earnings accruing from these services continued to show an increasing trend and the commercial rupees earned crossed Rs. 11 crores a 22% increase over the 1995-96 figures. Industrial activity in the Gulf of Kachchh continued increasing and we undertook 5 projects there, some in environmentally sensitive ecosystems, of corals and mangroves. The cumulative data sets from different surveys in this area should allow us in the near future to compute the additive effects from contiguously situated industries and make suggestions for effective monitoring and mitigation measures.

Two projects, of possible future importance to the Institute were started this year: 1. The India Oil Corporation proposed joint venture port with the Kuwait Oil Corporation at Paradip in Orissa brought us our first foreign exchange earnings. This could become an important trend considering the large number of joint ventures power projects expected to be set up in the next few years.

2. The Gas Authority of India interest in the gas hydrates potential in offshore waters fitted us admirably as it utilised our core competancies in geophysical research in a proactive mode. With increasing pressures to remain commercially competitive, this project was a showcase of collaboration between a research lab and industry. These and similar projects are what we see as fore-runners of the next era of environmental impact assessment programmes.

Ongoing projects in different coastal states

Budget vis-a-vis External Cash Flow (ECF) (Rs. in Crores)

Contract Projects - areawise

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Projects Undertaken

Title Sponsoring Agency

A.. Sponsored & Consultancy

1. Environmental Impact Assessment · EIA for branch pipeline from BHR to Budge Budge. · Rapid and detailed marine EIA for proposed Ro-Ro/Lo-Lo of RPL in path finder (Gulf of Kachchh) (Two projects). · Environmental impact assessment of Amba estuary. · Numerical models studies for refinery at Moti Khavdi. · Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment of effluents from GACL complex at Dahej. · Performance evaluation of subsurface wastewater outfall of Atul Complex in Par estuary. · Rapid marine EIA of offshore coal terminal, coal jetty, conveyer system & lighterage operations for SPIC, Chennai. · Oceanographic studies for the marine disposal of treated industrial effluent off Chennai coast (Three projects). · Detailed marine environmental impact assessment of release of effluents from GACL complex at Dahej. · Environmental impact assessment studies at Positra I & II, Bedi Port and nearby regions in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat. · Study of flora and fauna in the BPT area. · EIA for proposed jetty expansion at Dharamtar creek. · EIA & risk analysis studies for SPM, Jetties etc. for Eastern India Refinery Project (EIRP) at Paradip, Orissa (Four projects). · Studies for ensuring compliance to marine environmental requirements related to the construction of RPL's marine facilities. · Marine EIA for effluent discharge. · EIA & Management Plan (marine-riverine site) for Birla - Cellulosic Company Ltd. (Three projects). · Environmental impact assessment off Positra point (Three projects). · Marine EIA for a proposed port at Bedi. · Marine EIA for the proposed port complex at Dahej. · Oceanographic & Environmental studies for the water intake and effluent discharge for Nagarjuna Power Corporation, Mangalore. · Marine Environmental impact assessment studies for the sea water intake and warm water discharge off Vembar, near Tuticorin, Tamilnadu (Two projects). · EIA Studies for Congentrix project (Three projects). · Marine environmental impact assessment for proposed single point mooring (SPM), sub-sea/onshore pipeline. · Marine EIA for proposed product pipeline of RIL between Sikka and Kandla (Gulf of Kachch) and associated facilities. · Marine EIA & Management Plan for TIDC, Ennore (Three projects). · Environmental impact assessment for proposed Offshore Stockyard & berth project (Two projects). · Oceanographic & environmental studies for water intake and effluent discharge for 2x500 MW coal fired thermal power project. 2. Geological and Geophysical surveys Government of Goa. ITC Hotels Ltd., New Delhi. Gas Authority of India Ltd., New Delhi. Engineers India Ltd., Haryana Reliance Petroleum Ltd., Mumbai. Indian Petro Chemicals Ltd., Nagothane. Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd. Vadodara Atul Products Ltd., Gujarat SPIC Electric Power Corporation, Chennai. SPIC Petrochemicals Ltd., Chennai Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd. Vadodara. Gujarat Maritime Board, Ahmedabad. Bombay Port Trust, Mumbai. Tata Risk Management Services, Mumbai. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., New Delhi. Reliance Petroleum Ltd., Mumbai. Trisakthi Energy Pvt., Ltd., Chennai. Birla Cellulosic Co. Ltd., Gujarat. Gujarat Maritime Board, Ahmedabad. Gujarat Maritime Board, Ahmedabad. Gujarat Maritime Board, Ahmedabad. Nagarjuna Power Corporation Ltd., Mangalore. Indian Power Projects Ltd., Chennai.

Mangalore Power Co., Bangalore. Bharat Oman Refineries Ltd., Mumbai. Reliance Petroleum Ltd., Mumbai. Tamilnadu Industrial Development Corporation, Chennai. Mormugao Maritime Ltd., Goa. Nagarjuna Power Corporation Ltd., Mangalore.

· Preliminary assessment on the dredging of river mouths of Goa. · Feasibility studies for a beach resort at Arambol, Goa. · Interpretation of seismic records of 85°E Ridge for hydrate evidence.

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Title · Stability of breakwater sections at Jaighad, Agargule, Vijaydurg and Redi ports. · Preparation of Gas hydrates resource map of India. · Bathymetric and seabed surveys for proposed all weather ports at Reddi, Vijayadurga & Agargule. · Erosional trends along the sea coast off Jafarabad. · Bathymetric and seabed surveys for proposed submarine pipeline route off Dahej, (Ph. I & II). · Post-lay survey for submarine pipeline route off Dahej (Ph. III). · Bathymetric surveys in Nagarjuna lake. · Bathymetric and seabed surveys for Birla Cellulosic Company Ltd., Gujarat · Bathymetric and seabed studies for effluent submarine pipeline route off Dahej (Ph. I) 3. Engineering

Sponsoring Agency Govt. of Maharashtra, Mumbai. Gas Authority of India Ltd., New Delhi. Maharashtra Maritime Board, Mumbai. Narmada Cement Co. Ltd., Gujarat. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara. Naval Science & Technology Lab., Visakhapatnam. Birla Cellulosic Co. Ltd., Gujarat. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara.

· Engineering consultancy for construction of a jetty at Ambolgarh Bay. · Engineering consultancy for sea water intake and outfall structure locations. · Current and tide measurements for design of pipeline from Jamnagar to Kandla route. · Directional wave measurements at Chilka mouth. · Oceanographic studies for the development of ports at Redi, Vijaydurg and Agargule. · Engineering design for the location of warm water discharge into the sea off Visakhapatnam. · Directional wave measurements off Vembar, near Tuticorin, Tamilnadu. · Float tracking studies off Mormugao. · Engineering design review of submarine effluent pipeline of GACL. 4. Miscellaneous

Dempo Engineering Works Ltd., Goa. Dabhol Power Co., Mumbai. Reliance Petroleum Ltd., Mumbai. Government of Orissa. Maharashtra Maritime Board, Mumbai. Masula Marine Services, Visakhapatnam. Indian Power Projects Ltd., Chennai. Mormugao Maritime Ltd., Goa. Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara. Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Margao, Goa. Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Mumbai. International Ocean Institute, Malta. Public Works Department, Goa. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Mumbai. Directorate of Revenue & Intelligence, New Delhi. Streamline Shipping Co. Ltd., Mumbai.

· Chemical analyses of soil and ground water samples for major and minor elements. · Chemical and textural analysis of seabed samples from areas around offshore installations. · The Goa eco-villages project. · Underwater inspection of well. · Ecological studies of flora and fauna for a HPCL virtual jetty at Kandla · Underwater search surveys off Mumbai. · Evaluation of one chemical constituents MAC-22 for its suitability to Indian marine environment. B. Grant-in-Aid · Establishment of Information Centre on Marine Sciences at NIO, Goa. · Production of polysaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by marine micro-organisms particularly thraustochytrid fungi and their use in aquaculture diets. · Underwater exploration off Poompuhar - Tamilnadu coast. · Maintenance of tide station at Mormugao. · Environmental impact assessment study in the pioneer area of CIOB. · Establishing an Indian National Oceanographic Internet Server (INOIS). · EIA Study in the pioneer area of CIOB with the help of chartered ship MV AA Sidorenko during 1996-97. · Evaluation of Horse-shoe crab for the presence of antifouling compounds.

Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi. Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi. Government of Tamilnadu, Chennai. Survey of India, Dehra Dun. Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi. Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi. Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi. Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi.

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Coastal Environment

· Environmental Impact Assessment · Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System · Coastal and Estuarine Dynamics · Biodiversity and Biomedical Potential · Marine Archaeology

Environmental Impact Assessment

Shallow water mining The possible environmental impact of shallow water mining of placer deposits off Chavara (Kerala) was studied. The average current, in general, was greater in April than in other months. In all seasons the surface current speed varied between 1 and 49 cm/s and the bottom current between 1 and 35 cm/s. The tide progresses along the coast from north to south in this area. The direction and speed of the residual currents varied with season, depth and location. In general, the residual current direction at the bottom was towards southsoutheast during November, January and April. But during April-May it was towards south at all stations at the surface as well as bottom. Industrial effluents In similar studies to assess the impact due to effluent discharge from a chemical industry and jetty construction in two locations in the state of Gujarat, sampling was done at Kharach and Positra. The baseline data was collected on water quality parameters, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and trace metals. In addition, sediment and fish samples were also collected for rnetal content analysis. In our first analyses of 22 samples from 11 stations we observed concentration of zinc 2.2 - 5.0 g/g and cadmium 0.070.06 g/g In another such survey in Pulicat backwaters and Ennur estuary we noticed high values for phosphate and ammonia during low tide. The suspended load was high in Pulicat backwaters. In general, the southern arm of the estuary appeared polluted due to the discharge of effluents from industries.

EIA projects in operation along coastal states.

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Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System

levels of oxygen in the bottom waters could be due to the Goa-Mangalore-Alleppy sections eastward spreading of the water layer containing primary nitrite Under this long term programme maximum in the Arabian Sea. funded by the Department of Ocean Development, observaSamples collected at transects tions were made at 8 transects off Goa, Ratnagiri, Malvan, between Mormugao and Karwar and Mangalore were Mangalore. The observations analysed for Cd, Pb and Hg. included salinity, dissolved The suspended paniculate oxygen, suspended particulate matter (SPM) values were low in matter and concentrations of general (<30 mg/l) except at heavy metals - Cd, Pb and Hg. Zuari possibly due to The dissolved oxygen concenresuspension of sediments tration was generally high in during low tide. surface waters but bottom Cadmium and lead did not show waters showed low levels in the any abnormal values whereas northern transects. These low mercury was slightly higher off oxygen bottom waters were Karwar (50 ng/l-150 ng/l), associated with relatively high Between the Mangalore and nutrients, especially nitrite off Alleppey the environmental Ratnagiri (6.5 rnol/l), probably parameters observed were due to the residual effect of within levels encountered for monsoonal upwelling along this coast, by which oxygen depleted other coastal waters, but fairly high oxidising conditions were nutrient rich waters from found with low values of BOD, intermediate depths in the indicative of organic pollution. Arabian Sea are brought to the surface near the coasts. This is Among the zooplankton species, confirmed from the observed copepods dominated and the values of oxygen and nutrients density of benthic organisms which indicate that the presence were highest at Calicut and of nitrite associated with low lowest at Kasargod. The heterotrophic bacterial population showed a high incidence in sediments, indicative of the nutritional status of the ecosystem. Among the indicator bacteria group only coliforms occurred regularly suggesting the faecal contamination of the area. West coast Mumbai waters The nearshore waters sustain a rich and diverse zooplankton fauna. Continuous observations for a period of 15 months indicated peak production of zooplankton during the postmonsoon period and high production of phytoplankton during the monsoon period

Map showing COMAPS network.

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average cell count (28 x 105 r -1). Of the forty two species, Acartia spinicauda dominated the copepod community. Four species of chaetognaths were found in the area with predominance of Sagitta bedoti. Among the penaeid larvae Metapenaeus affinis was the most common species. Population of omnivores dominated the zooplankton community. This appears to be partially influenced by the high fluxes of anthropogenic pollutants reaching the coastal waters from the interior creek system. Metals in zooplankton Among different metals studied in the zooplankton community, Cu and Zn contributed 60-90% of the total elements accumulated, in general, concentration of Zn was higher than Cu in different groups, with levels of Zn in polluted locations being twice higher than the outer zone. The maximum concentrations of metals was observed in gelatinous organisms which included a variety of carnivores. Metal concentration in copepods was lower than carnivores, with the lowest concentrations of metals in decapods probably because of the effective elimination of a part of the concentrated metal

through periodic moulting. The levels of concentration of metals in crabs and shrimps in this area was high, but within the prescribed limits for consumption. East Coast Gautami-Godavari Hydrobiological studies in the Gautami - Godavari estuarine system showed that 20% of inorganic phosphate and total phosphorus was added to the estuary during the pre- and postmonsoon seasons. However, during postmonsoon period total nitrogen showed a near conservative distribution while geochemical processes removed 13% of nitrate. During the postmonsoon period, phytoplankton counts were higher in the estuarine region than in the coastal regions, whereas a reverse trend was observed in the premonsoon period. Based on the mixing characteristics and flow pattern, the estuary behaves as (i) well stratified during NE monsoon, (ii) moderately stratified in postmonsoon and (iii) partially mixed in premonsoon seasons.

Coastal and Estuarine Dynamics

Modelling for pipeline design Time series measurements of currents, tides and bottom temperature were carried out off Sikka and off Mundra in the Gulf of Kutch for 35 days from JuneJuly 1996 using both DCM-12 and RCM-4 current meters. There was no noticeable vertical shear except during the time of strong winds when the currents at the uppermost level were higher.

Using a software package TIDAL the tidal circulation in the Gulf of Kutch was simulated. An open boundary was selected along the Okha point. The model output of current components and tidal height were compared with the currents and water elevation measured using DCM-12 current meter off Sikka and Mundra. The model results showed good agreement with the measured values.

Biodiversity and Biomedical Potential

Biodiversity Planktonic foraminifera off the Kerala coast Twenty-eight species of planktonic foraminifera were recorded from 46 plankton samples collected from 27 stations of 5 traverses along the Kerala coast. The mean abundance of total foraminiferal specimens of all stations in each traverse showed an increase from south to north. Two distinct foraminiferal assemblages were noted - (i) a summer tropical one typified by species such as Globigerinella aequilateralis, Globigerinoides conglobatus, G. ruber and G. sacculifer, (ii) a summer tropical upwelling assemblage formed by species, viz.Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. The spinose species of the genus - Globigerinoides were the most abundant. The fauna in general is similar to that of the western Sargasso Sea and western north Atlantic in that it is characterised by summer species such as G. ruber, G. sacculifer, G. conglobatus, G. aequilateralis, O. universe and H. pelagica, but differs in having G. sacculifer as the most abundant species in lieu of G. ruber.

diversity of the population, Baypore estuary ranked first; Blackfordia virginica, Eutima commensalis, Eirene cylonensis, Phialidium hemisphacricum and P. brunescens were the commonly occuring species. Ostronmovia inkermanica was recorded from Mumbai estuarine system. Salinity was found to be the limiting factor for the growth and activity of hydromedusae. Biomedical potential Investigations on this national project for development of new and safe drugs from the marine environment was continued. Major emphasis was laid on the isolation of active constituents from a mangrove (NIO-450). Fifteen new extracts and earlier promising fractions were sent to participating laboratories for testing for specific activities. Gorgonian NIO-484 Tricyclic sesquiterpenoid, subergorgic acid, having potent cardiotoxicity (Fenical, et al., 1985) and its hydroxy, acetoxy analogs along with a novel polyhydroxy sterol were isolated. Structural investigation of the sterol is in progress. Soft coral NIO-488

Marine organisms screened for bioactivity.

Species diversity in hydromedusae A comparative study was made of species diversity, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from different estuarine systems of the west coast of India. Maximum species diversity (345 species) was observed from Mumbai harbour and Thane Bassein estuarine complex. Cochin backwaters had 22 species and Baypore estuary had only 6 species. In

Chemical studies of methylene chloride fraction of this soft coral yielded several sterols in addition to fatty acids and their methyl esters reported earlier. The sterols included 24 methyl and ethyl cholesterol, 24 methylene cholesterol, 24 methylene 8 dehydro cholesterol, 24 methylene 5, 8 diene3B-01,24 methylene-5, 22-diene3B, 7B-ol. All these compounds were characterised using spectroscopic techniques.

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Gorgonian NIO-496 Several monohydroxy sterols and fatty acids were isolated from petroleum ether fraction whereas CHCI 3 fraction yielded caffeine, its 2-OMe analog. Nmethyl pyrazole carboxylic acid and 1, 3, 5, 6-tetrahydroxy cholestane. Caffeine had mild antifouling properties, whereas its O-Me analog was devoid of this activity. Mangrove NIO-497 The crude methanolic extract of this mangrove exhibited antibacterial activity located in butanol fraction. Two compounds K006 and K007 (flavonoids) isolated from the active fraction, have shown anti-bacterial activity at 30 mg/ml concentration against six bacteria.

Red alga NIO-499 Detailed chemical investigation of this alga led to the isolation of 24-nor-cholest 5, 22-diene 3B-ol; 24-methylene cholesterol, 24ethyl 5, 22, diene-3B-ol. Further fractions on repeated column chromatography gave a colourless crystalline solid which was tentatively characterised as Nsubstituted pyrazine derivative. Steroids from marine sponge Two sponges studied contained C27-29 mono and diunsaturated sterols. One of them in addition contained cholest-4-ene-3-one. Butyl alcohol, its higher homologue and a heteroaromatic acid, 4 methyl-pyrazole 3(5) carboxylic acid have been identified. The nucleoside from one species was found antiviral and identified as spongoadenosin or Ara-A.

Marine Archaeology

Onshore explorations of the Tamilnadu coast Onshore archaeological explorations were carried out at Ramnathpuram, Rameswaram and Nagarcoil coast in Tamilnadu for ports and ancient settlements. A mooring stone was noted at Algankulam and an ancient port site belonging to Sangam period situated about 3 km from the seashore near Ramnathpuram. Another important site at Aryangundur is situated in Rameswaram island. A high cliff section facing sea was noticed and a lot of pottery was collected. More than two metre deposit of human settlement with remains of shell works suggests a port that was in service for a long period. The discovery of Chinese pottery suggest a habitation of 1Oth-11th century and trade contact with east.

Explorations at Puttan Thurai and Manakudi yielded evidences of habitation from the Medieval period. Evidence of an ancient temple was also traced at Puttan Thurai. Offshore Explorations in Poompuhar waters Underwater explorations off Poompuhar revealed the presence of a few stone blocks in various water depths. Airlift operations revealed the presence of several stone blocks in deeper sediments. Further exploration of a shipwreck off Poompuhar showed a wooden hulled ship with surface badly damaged by borers. A large number of lead ingots found there indicate that the ship of Danish nationality possibly belonged to another East India Company.

Lead ingot from Poompuhar waters (top) and wooden plank from the shipwreck.

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Engineering, Techniques & Technology

· Design Methodology for Coastal Structures · Biofouling & Corrosion · Aquaculture

· Instrumentation

Design Methodology for Coastal Structures

Feasibility studies Pre-feasibility study for construction of a jetty at Ambolgarh, based on the available data on wave climate, tides, longshore currents, sediment transport and a site visit, was carried out. Similar studies were also done for dredging of river mouths at Chapora, Sal, Saleri, Talpona and Galjibag along the Goa coast. Along the east coast, studies on the effects of dredging to improve the salinity of the Chilka lake and better water exchange with the sea was carried out. Locations for sea water intake and warm water discharge for the proposed power project near Dabhol port (Maharashtra) were identified. Directional wave modelling Directional wave measurement carried out at 15 m water depth off Nagapattinam indicated that during the observation period the highest significant wave height was about 2 m and the highest maximum wave height observed was about 3.8 m. The zero crossing wave period varied between 3 and 9 s, and wave direction varied between 100° and 170° during SW monsoon and between 60° and 120° during fair weather period.

The study also showed that the spreading parameter can be estimated from the significant wave height and wave period corresponding to maximum spectral energy without relating to wind conditions. The unidirectional spectra can be modelled using the Scott spectra. Wave directional spectrum Wave direction has for the first time been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated from array measurements using phase/ time/path difference methods of Esteva (1976,1977) in case of polygonal arrays and Borgman (1974) in case of linear arrays. We have used time series measurements of water surface elevation at a 15-gauge polygonal array, in approximately 8 m water depth, operational at the CERC's Field Research Facility (FRF) at Duck, North Carolina, USA. Two modifications were made in the methodology. In one, we use the true phase instead of the apparent phase, and the estimates of wave direction are registered only if the relevant gauges are coherent at 0.01 significance level. PTPD methods assume that in a spectral frequency band, the waves approach from a single

Deployment of DCM12 Current meter

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direction - and are simple, expedient and provide redundant estimates of wave direction. Our estimates of wave direction are in agreement with the results obtained by the FRF using the sophisticated Interative Maximum Likelihood Estimation method, which assumes that at a frequency band, waves can approach from all directions. (Fernandes et al., 1996. Proc. Intl. Conf. in Ocean Engg., IIT Madras, 243-248). Optimal parametric modelling The spectral analysis of measured short waves can be expressed by parametric models namely autoregressive or moving average algorithms which are polynomial functions. Further reduced-order,

autoregressive, moving average spectral estimations are successfully applied to time series waves with different sampling rates. This study emphasised the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Geotechnical studies of marine sediments Undisturbed seabed sediments were collected off Chavara, off Tuticorin, from 35 locations off Ennore, and from several beaches of Goa to study geotechnical properties in connection with dredging of placer deposits, laying of submarine pipeline and beach protection purposes.

Instrumentation

Autonomous Meteorological Data Acquisition System for coastal research vessel Two autonomous Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems for the coastal research vessel of the Department of Ocean Development have been designed and installed on RV Sagar Paschimi and RV Sagar Purvi. The system is based on Motorola 68332 data logger to acquire surface meteorological parameters such as winds, air temperature, barometric pressure, solar radiation and relative humidity. A personal computer is used for on-line display and storage of the data. The computer is also interfaced to a shipboard GPS receiver for position tagging. Ship speed and heading data from the GPS receiver is then used to estimate true winds. Data acquisition software is implemented to run in a windows environment to provide front-end graphical interface. The system supports networking capabilities that can monitor data from other personal computers in the network. Remotely Operable Sea Skimmer (ROSS) ROSS is an autonomous unmanned vehicle designed for use in bathymetric surveys in coastal and estuarine environments to complement manned survey vessels in hazardous environments. Two distinct proofs of concept versions of the ROSS hull have been conceived and implemented in the field using a theter. In ROSS version 1, developed at the IIT Chennai, the vehicle is a standard catamaran hull fitted with stabilising skegs. In a second patented version developed at NIO the hull is made from a free flooding HDPE tube enclosing 3 buoyant sealed bins containing

Weather station

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ROSS version 1.

batteries and electronics. A detachable aluminium frame bolted to a welded rib on the outer hull carries two brushless DC thrusters. Both versions are equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) to measure position on the sea surface. Additional sensors include a low cost echosounder, digital compass, temperature and a UHF radio modem. ROSS is currently being developed to receive commands over the UHF link and io send acquired data to the user controlling it. The project is an ongoing collaborative venture involving NIOT, Chennai, IIT, Chennai and NIO, Goa with funding from the Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi.

PVC protective wells for guided air-acoustic sea level gauges PVC protective wells for airacoustic sea level gauges were fabricated and supplied to Survey of India under the SELMAM project. These wells were installed at the ports of Mormugao, Chennai and Port Blair during April-May, 1996.

ROSS version 2

Installation of the system at Mormugao harbour was undertaken by NIO. Two sources of errors associated with this gauge have been investigated, namely trapping of low density water and temperature gradient in its sounding tube. These effects were investigated by periodic profiling of water density inside and outside of the protective well and air temperature profile external to the sounding tube and within the protective well. It was observed that trapping effect gives rise to overestimation of water level upto 1% of tidal range at Zuari estuary, Goa. The error in sea level measurement due to temperature gradient within the sounding tube of the air acoustic gauge had been found to be maximum (5-6 cm) during summer day times. We have implemented a temperature correction scheme which partially reduces the error from this source. Our studies thus reveal that the so called 'Next Generation Water Level Measurement System (NGWLMS)' does not provide the desired millimeter scale accuracy.

Biofouling & Corrosion

Microfouling Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and the biofilm material on aluminium panels immersed in water were analysed. The diversity of diatom population and that in the fouling film is not reflected evenly indicating that recruitment of diatom cells is not fully controlled by their diversity in the water column. Exopolymers isolated from barnacle shells bearing bacteria and the adult extract were found to promote settlement of cyprids.

Anticorrosion properties of marine sponge In our attempt to explore and develop anticorrosion formulations we made an attempt to study a marine sponge. The aqueous extract of this organism at 1.5 mg/ml concentration was found adequate to produce a passive steel surface. The inhibition mechanism was studied by gravimetric and potentio-dynamic techniques.

Test panels for biofouling studies

Aquaculture

Prawn culture A pilot scale prawn hatchery and aquaculture facility with modern amenities has been established, under the Technology Mission Mode Project on "Semi-intensive Prawn Aquaculture" funded by the Department of Biotechnology. The hatchery has an annual production capacity of 2 million post-larvae. The system was also found to be efficient in breeding and culturing giant freshwater prawn Macrobarchium rosenbergii. Techniques for culturing larval stages of Penaeus merguiensis have been developed and perfected. Techniques have also been developed and standardised for mass culturing of phytoplankton species and Artemia nauplii as prawn larval feed. Experiments were conducted on: - Respiratory metabolism in juvenile Penaeus monodon; - Effect of salinity and pH on growth of postlarval Penaeus merguiensis; - Hatching performance of brine shrimp; - Formulation of cost effective prawn postlarval feed -Antagonistic behaviour of phytoplankton. Culture Technique for HorseShoe Crab A field laboratory has been established at Balramgari, Orissa. Three rearing ponds (30 x 6 m) have been constructed for culturing of horse shoe crab under captive conditions. This will ensure the sustainable supply of the raw material for the preparation of a diagnostic reagent (LAL). A new species has also been found along the Paradeep coast.

Biofertilizer Knowhow was developed to prepare seaweed extract as biofertiiizer to be used in agriculture and horticulture. The extract containing hormones, micronutrients and trace metals when sprayed on plants showed cumulative effect such as increase in the rate of seed germination, leaf & fruit sizes, yield and resistance from insect attack. The knowhow has been transferred to M/s Pralsher Bioproducts Ltd., Curchorem, Goa for commercialization. The product is marketed by the firm under brand name PLANTOzyme. Genetic Studies Isozyme analysis conducted on a few specimens of lantern fish (Myctophidae) collected from the Indian Ocean sector of the Antarctic Ocean indicated very high genetic variation in these species. Information on the population genetic structure of these myctophids will be of vital importance for future large scale fishery programmes, as well as for a more general understanding of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Very clear differentiation between the two species analysed was seen at the LDH and MDH loci, could be used as reliable markers to identify these species. Studies were also undertaken on the genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in 3 species of threadfin breams (Nemipteridae) collected from Goa waters. Four isozyme loci were found to be reliable species specific markers.

Facilities for aquaculture.

A few stages of laboratory hatched horse-shoe crab (incubation - 29 hrs).

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Offshore Processes & Resources

· Physical Processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean · Quaternary Paleoclimate · Geology & Geophysics · Offshore Resources

Physical Processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

Western Indian Ocean

Current systems and transports The XBT data collected along the Mumbai-Mauritius shipping route during 1992-1996 under the TOGA-I XBT programme were analysed and the seasonal upper layer (0-760 m) thermal structure, heat content and zonal flow patterns were determined. The temperature of the surface homogeneous layer (SHL) increased from 28°C to 30°C from winter to summer while its thickness decreased from 40 to 20 m north of the equator. The slope and spatial changes in the thermocline revealed the presence of seasonally variable zonal current systems: North Equatorial Current (NEC), Indian Monsoon Current (IMC), Wyrtki's Jet, South Equatorial Current (SEC) and South Equatorial Counter Current (SECC). The spreading of thermocline at subsurface depths (~100 m) also revealed the presence of equatorial undercurrent (EUC) during winter (February). The equatorial Wyrtki's Jet was evident during summer (May) and the winter transition

(October). The thermal structure sections further showed the presence of a dome between the SECC and SEC called the "Southern tropical Indian Ocean Thermal Front" (SIOTF) with its axis shifting poleward with depth. This front reached up to the SHL and shifted close to the equator during the SW monsoon. The SIOTF intensified with large lateral gradients during January-February (southern summer). Below 200 m, the temperature of the tropical Indian Ocean appeared to be affected by the location of SIOTF with warmer waters to its north and south. This frontal structure was characterised by lower heat content (in the upper 760 m column) compared to its northern and southern sides and its seasonal variation was related to the seasonal variation of SEC transport. (Sarma et al., 1996. Communicated to Oceanologica Acta). The analysis further revealed the presence of a narrow equatorial flow between 2°N and 2°S persisting for the whole year apart from the other current systems of the tropical Indian Ocean. The equatorial

Annual variation in volume for transport of (a) SEC and SECC (b) equatorial flow in 2°N · 2°S zonal belt. Positive values indicate eastward transport while negative ones westward transport.

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flow exhibited semi-annual cycle with a mean westward transport of 19 Sv during February-July and a mean eastward transport of 22 Sv during September-February. The transport of IMC showed variations, with higher (14 Sv) values during July between 3° and 5°N. Similarly, NEC also exhibited wide variations in its transport (7 - 34 Sv) during January-March. Off the SW coast of India, the presence of a warm core eddy during February and a cold core eddy during October were noticed. The SEC was found to be a perennial phenomenon in the southern tropical Indian Ocean with seasonal variability in its transport and northern boundary. The SECC is also a yearround feature whose seasonal transports appeared to be related to the equatorial flow (Murty et al., 1996. Communicated to Deep Sea Res.).

Bay of Bengal Circulation Hydrographic data collected from 3 to 10 September, 1996 along two transects, one along 18°N and the other along 90°E, were utilised to examine the thermohaline circulation and chemical properties of the Bay during the withdrawal phase of the SW monsoon. The surface salinity exhibited wide spatial variability with values as low as 25.78 psu at 18°N/87°E and as high as 34.79 psu at 8°N/90°E. Two high salinity cells (S>35.2 psu) were noticed around 100 m depth along the 90°E transect. The wide scatter in T-S values between 100 and 200 m was attributed to the presence of the Arabian Sea High Salinity Watermass (ASHSW). Though the warm and low salinity conditions at the sea surface were conducive for rise in the sea surface topography at 18°N, 87°E, the

dynamic height showed a reduction of 0.2 dyn.m. This fall was attributed to thermocline upwelling noticed at this location. The geostrophic currents showed alternating flows across both the transects. Relatively stronger and mutually opposing currents were noticed around 25 m depth across the 18°N transect with a velocity slightly in excess of 30 cm.s -1. Similar high velocity (>40 cm.s -1) pockets were also noticed to extend up to 30 m depths in the southern region of the 90°E transect. However, the currents below 250 m depth were weak and in general < 5 cm.s -1. The net geostrophic volume transports were found to be of the order of 1.5 Sv towards the north and of 6 Sv towards the west across the 18°N and 90°E transects respectively. The surface circulation patterns were also investigated using the trajectories of drifting buoys deployed in the eastern Indian Ocean around the same observation period. Poleward movement of the drifting buoy with the arrival of the IMC to about 12°N along the eastern rim of the Bay was noticed in early October. The presence of an eddy in the SW Bay and the IMC along its southern periphery was also evident (Sarma et al., 1996. Communicated to Deep Sea Res.).

Volume transport across 90°E in 0-100 m and 0-1000 m layers. Note that the transport in the upper layer particularly in the Southern Bay is larger.

Arabian Sea Transparent exopolymer particles The biogeochemical significance of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the ocean was studied under the JGOFS programme. Concentrations of TEPs were higher in the Arabian Sea than in the Bay of Bengal. TEP concentrations were higher in the upwelied surface waters of

Trajectory of drifting buoy during June - October, 1996 highlighting 'C' shaped anticyclonic flow initially shifting shoreward then southward upto 8°N where the buoy encounters eastward flow.

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A schematic presentation of TEP formation and implications to biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the oceans.

Dual isotopic composition of nitrous oxide in the Arabian Sea.

the Arabian Sea. The availability of nutrients triggered intense biological production leading to enhanced release of extracellular material. Very high concentrations of TEPs were found at ~ 600 m at 18° and ~ 20°N where upwelling occurred. Such concentration gradients were not seen in the Bay where TEPs varied within a narrow range. The TEPs number was less and the sizes were relatively large in the Arabian Sea due to the stickiness. The bacterial numbers were higher in the Bay facilitating particle breakdown and reduction in stickiness thereby increasing TEP numbers. The small percentage of TEPs that were associated with mineral particles in the Arabian Sea could have been due to the lower inputs of terrigenous particles through rivers and atmosphere. This explains the higher sinking fluxes of organic carbon in the Bay than in the Arabian Sea (2.04 - 3.59 and 1.53 -1.80 gC m-2 y-1, respectively) and provides direct evidence for the mineral ballast hypothesis that links the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean to the organicmineral interactions in the water column. Decreased levels of TEPs coincide with higher secondary nitrite and nitrate deficits suggesting the involvement of TEPs in bacterial respiration / production in denitrifying layers. Despite the negative relation between TEPs and nitrate deficits an average TEP concentration of ~10 mg I-1 persisted in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone. This reveals that TEPs provide more than enough organic carbon to sustain bacterial activities in these denitrifying layers. Consequently, this carbon pool of TEPs may account for the hitherto unknown 'carbon substrate' required to meet the bacterial demand in subsurface

layers of the Arabian Sea. (Kumar et al., 1996. Accepted Geophys. Res. Lett). Prediction of monsoon A detailed investigation of the warm pool and SST anomalies (SSTA) in the equatorial Indian and west Pacific Oceans was carried out using 90 years (1906-1995) data on SST anomalies obtained from the U.K. Meteorological Office, Bracknell. Relationships between the SSTA and monsoon rainfall was also examined using 21 years data on SSTA. It was found that the Indian monsoon rainfall was positively correlated (r = 0.75) with SSTA in the region, 0-5°N and 8085°E during October and November months of the previous year. Dual isotopic composition of nitrous oxide In our Indo-US collaborative investigations, measurements of dual isotopic composition of dissolved N2O in oxygendeficient waters of the Arabian Sea show that denitrification leads to mid-depth enrichments of both 15N and 18O in N2O, that are by far the largest reported from any natural environment. However, this layer is effectively isolated from the atmosphere by the overlying layer which is characterized by high concentrations of tighter N2O. We have also acquired the first data set on isotopic composition of N2O from an intense upwelling zone (off the SW coast of India) where some of the highest concentrations of N2O at the sea surface (up to 62.5 nM, 953% saturation) were observed. The N2O-rich upwelled waters are moderately depleted in 15N (by 6), but slightly enriched in 18O (by 3 ) compared to tropospheric N2O. The observed opposing trends in 15N and 18O, and

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modest departures from tropospheric isotopic composition, clearly indicate that the ocean-atmosphere exchange cannot counter inputs of heavier isotopes (particularly 18 O) associated with the stratospheric back flux, calling for additional sources and/or sinks of N2O in the atmosphere. Our results also provide important insights into the mechanisms of N2O production. As N2O produced by nitrifying bacteria is highly depleted in 1 5 N, the modest depletion of 15N observed by us even within the most active upwelling zones appears to rule out nitrification as a major process responsible for oceanic N2O production. Within the suboxic zone, the 15N of nitrate is lower than the corresponding value for N2O by 4.6-9.70/oo at depths >= 200 m, and higher by 0.6-3.80/oo at shallower depths, suggesting that the mechanisms of intense N2O accumulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the suboxic layer may be quite different. It is proposed that while denitrification may be the principal mechanism for the production of isotopically-heavy N2O in the deeper layer, isotopically-light N2O in the upper water column may be produced dominantly through nitrification-denitrification coupling involving nitric oxide (NO). Upwelling off the southwest coast of India intensive observations made during the SW monsoon of 1995 revealed intense upwelling off the SW Indian coast causing high nitrate concentrations at the sea surface. While denitrification did not appear to occur in the water column, the ratio between nitrate+nitrite and phosphate exhibited consistent decrease with depth at all shallow stations suggesting a

strong sedimentary sink of nitrate. Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (up to 62.5 nM and 700 atm, respectively) were among the highest recorded in oceanic surface waters supporting the view that the eastern-boundary upwelling zones serve as significant sources of greenhouse gases, particularly N2O. Close coupling between nitrification and denitrification might cause extremely high N2O concentrations (reaching up to 138 nM) in near-bottom waters close to the coast. Andaman Sea Abnormal variations in a CTD profile were noticed in the Andaman Sea during SK118 cruise. The temperature fell by 4°C while the salinity decreased by 0.35 psu at 100 m depth at 10°30'N, 93°15'E within about 2 hrs. Sound velocity also decreased by 10 m.s -1 at this depth. The 24.0 ot isopycnal surface shoaled from 120 m to 90 m. An unexpected minimum in dissolved oxygen (34 mol/l) and a peak in silicate (36 mol/l) were noticed at this location. The above features could be due to a solition or a fast moving coldcore sub surface eddy.

Vertical sections of oxygen and nitrate showing the occurrence pf upwelling off Kerala.

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Quaternary

Paleomonsoonal history of the last 2500 years has been reconstructed by studying a 170 cms long shallow water (22 m) sediment core collected near the mouth of the Kali river. River influx intensity was inferred from planktonic forarminiferal and angular asymmetrical morpho-group of benthic foraminiferal abundances. The rate of sedimentation was determined from radio carbon dating. The downcore variation of the above parameters show that the Arabian Sea witnessed increased precipitation around 1705 AD and 300 BC and dry climatic conditions around 1565,1355, 1075 and 305 AD. Interestingly, these periods, coincide with archaeological events and records in ancient scriptures (e.g. Akbarnamah) describing higher rainfall and famine periods. (Nigam and Khare, 1996. An Integrated Approach to Marine Archaeology, 27-30).

Paleoclimate

vegetation along the Western Ghats and decrease of discharge from all major rivers during that period. (Naidu, 1996. Curr. Sci., 71:715-718). Coiling directions in foraminifera and paleoceanography A high-resolution time-series analysis of the coiling patterns of two planktic foraminiferal species, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides has been carried out at ODP Site 723A, beneath the seasonal upwelling region of the Oman Margin in the Arabian Sea. Results indicate that accumulation rates of the sinistral morphotype of N. pachyderma increased during the period of strong upwelling between 10.5 and 5 ka B.P. The dextral morphotype of N. pachyderma shows greater values during the last glacial period when upwelling was relatively weak. Fluxes of both the sinistral and dextral morphotypes of G. bulloides increased during the interval of stronger upwelling. Greater increase in the flux of the sinistral than of the dextral morphotype of G. bulloides during this interval resulted in higher proportions of the sinistral morphotype in the sediment record. Enhanced flux of the sinistral morphotypes of N. pachyderma and G. bulloides during periods of intensified upwelling suggests that the sinistral morphotypes of both taxa are more productive than the dextral morphotypes in the nutrient-rich upwelling waters. These patterns indicate that surface-water temperature may not be the only factor control-

Paleomonsoons in late Holocene Studies on the variability of the Southwest (SW) monsoon strength using the upwelling indices (fluxes of total planktonic foraminifera and Globigerina bulloides) from the western Arabian Sea reveal that the weakening phase of the SW monsoon started about 5 ka B.P. (ka = 1000 years). The intensity of monsoon returned to glacial strength at 3.5 ka B.P., coinciding with the onset of arid climate elsewhere in the tropics. The onset of the weak phase of the monsoon and arid climate at 3.5 ka appears to be a primary reason for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, major changes in

Fluctuations in fluxes of total planktonic foraminiferal shells (>150 m fraction) and Globigerina bulloides (ages based on five AMS14C dates marked by dotted arrows. Solid arrows mark the start of monsoon intensification after glaciation (at 12 ka) and weakening phase (at 3.5 ka).

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ling coiling directions of N. pachyderma and G. bulloides. (Naidu and Malmgren, 1996. J. Foram. Res., 26: 64-70).

Culture of benthic foraminifera A programme for laboratory culture of benthic foraminifera to study their growth was initiated. These experiment assume importance as the foraminifera-based techniques are increasingly being used to generate the high resolution proxy records for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Among the samples studied from the nearshore regions of Goa the benthic foraminifera Rosalina leei were found abundant and have been used for culturing. Erdschreiber medium was found to be conducive for their growth and chamber formation. Excess food supply showed retarded effect on overall growth rates. (Nigam etal., 1996. J. Paleontol. Soc. India, 41:29-35).

Trace and rare-earth elements in the Arabian Sea sediments beneath and outside OMZ and Paieoceanographic implications CaCO3 organic carbon Corg trace and rare-earth elements (REE) have been determined in surface sediments collected from a transect of the WCMI cutting across the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Shale normalized REE patterns, Lan/Ybn ratio and Eu/Eux anomalies indicate that the sediments in the study area are either derived from the adjoining Archaean land masses or from distal Indus source. Sediments from the OMZ record highest uranium contents, indicating that the U may be precipitated as U+4 under the reducing conditions of OMZ.

Sediments deposited beneath the intense OMZ (oxygen <0.2 ml.l-1) and away from the OMZ (oxygen 1-2 ml.l-1) show slightly negative Ce anomalies, though there is no significant difference between the two sets of sediments. The Ce/Ce*shale values are poorly related to U and Corg which is indicative of sub-oxic bottom waters. Normative calculations suggest that two sources, namely, terrestrial and seawater (terrestrial»seawater) contribute to the total Ce anomaly of the sediments. The Ce anomaly values of the calculated seawater derived component are similar to the anomalies reported for the coastal waters and the oxygenated surface waters of the Arabian Sea and do not show any relation to the towered redox state of the overlying water, probably due to the redirection of dissolved Ce into the oxic deeper water. The data on recently deposited sediments from a known oxygen-poor environment suggest that the Ce/Ce*shale in high sedimentation areas of continental margin environments may not be a good paleoredox proxy. U/Th ratios above 1.25 noticed in OMZ are in accordance with the earlier usage of this ratio for identifying reducing environment from ancient sediments. (Nath et al., 1996. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., in press).

Ce anomaly variation across OMZ in the Arabian Sea in relation to other geochemical indicators.

Aeolian input to the sediments of SW continental margin of India Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as the major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of the southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from peninsular India through fluvial

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discharge. Since formation of palygorskite regime needs arid, hot climate and saline condition, occurrence of this clay in the sediments suggests aeolian transport from Arabia and Somalia by the Arabian northwesterly winds. (Chauhan, 1996. Curr. Sci., 71: 233-236). Paleoceanographic interpretation from a study on ferromanganese crust A ferromanganese crust dredged from the summit of the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount in the North Central Indian Ocean (NCIO) had recorded Neogene oceanographic events. The substrate of the crust is composed of fresh water phreatic calcite cement, Terebratulinae casts, rounded ferruginised basalt clasts and weathered coralline algal fragments suggesting an exposure to subaerial conditions during the Oligocene (-30 Ma). The mineralogy, major, trace and REE element geochemistry and co-model age estimates imply three distinct accretionary environments during the crust growth:

(i) a period of contemporary precipitation of Fe-Mn oxide and carbonate fluor apatite (CFA) in intermediate water oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the late Miocene, (ii) a pulse of highest CFA precipitation and detrital input in addition to Fe-Mn oxide accretion at the close of Miocene reflect most intense OMZ and erosion of Himalaya and, (iii) an improvement in the oxidizing condition of ambient water due to contraction of the late Miocene OMZ facilitated an accretion of pure Fe-Mn oxide during Pliocene and later. As a consequence of significant deposition of CFA in addition to Fe-Mn oxide during the intensified OMZ, the normally coherent behaviour of trivalent rare earth elements (3+ REE) is not observed in the crust. La, Yb and Lu show a positive association with the CFA phase elements (Ca and P) and Pr, Nd and Sm with the Mn-oxide phase elements (Mn, Co and Ni). This leads to an abnormal, incoherent behaviour of the 3+ REE in multimineral authigenic system. (Banakar, et al., 1996. Mar. Geol., 136: 299-315).

X-ray diffractograms of sediments showing palygorskite from the study area (between Cape Comorin and Quilon).

Geology & Geophysics

Ferromanganese crust from the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount.

Neotectonic activity over ECMI Magnetic, gravity, bathymetry and high resolution seismic studies of the southern part of ECMI indicated three major lineaments. An E-W lineation off Nagapattanam fits well with a major E-W trend delineated on land as Palghat Tiruchurapalli shear zone which is considered an important tectonic boundry. The

lineation off Pondicherry at 12°15'N correlated with the offshore extension of an onland lineament trending NE-SW between Kambam and Pondicherry with an steep turn near the coast off Pondicherry. Gravity and magnetic data off Chennai showed possible offshore continuation of a transition zone identified over Peninsular India. The offshore fragment of this lineation was

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characterised by a free air gravity rise of about 100 mgals, negative magnetic anamoiy of 200 nT and also associated with a steep bathymetry rise of 2.5 km. Magnetic modelling indicated a shallow basement at a depth of about 5 km flanked by deeper source both from north and south. Geomorphic features such as fault valleys, V-cut channels and sediment slumps were inferred from high resolution sparker data along two E-W trending lineaments off Chennai and Nagapattanam which indicate recent tectonic activity in this part of the eastern continental shelf. Inversion of magnetic data along 40 profiles of the eastern margin between Visakhapatnam and Paradip indicates (i) a shallow and highly faulted basement in the innershelf; (ii) a NE-SW ridge trough configuration in the midshelf; (iii) transition from continental to oceanic basement at the foot of the continental slope; (iv) NW-SE basement upward off Bhimunipatnam to Kalingapatnam and (v) N-S basement trend off Chilka lake. Dual channel echosounding surveys carried out in the shelf area between Gopalpur in the north and Pudimadaka in the south revealed relict morphological features like pinnacle reef system both in the innershelf and outershelf regions. Sedimentological studies carried out on five short cores collected from the deformation zone of the Central Indian Basin (CIB) show two distinct sedimentary facies associated with abyssal plain and abyssal hills.

Crustal evolution of the Bay of Bengal Bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in the Bay of Bengal and in the distal Bengal Fan have thrown more light on break up of India from eastern Gondwanaland and the post-break up events of the northeastern Indian Ocean. The trend of the fracture zones, the location of the major magnetic chron 34, and the Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Zone suggest that Greater India separated from Antarctica in the early Cretaceous (i.e. polarity chron M0 120 Ma) and drifted northwestward. Negative gravity anomalies are associated with basement rises between the continental margin of India and the Ninetyeast Ridge. Magnetic reversals and northward trend of the 85°E Ridge support a hotspot origin of the ridge and that its emplacement took place probably after the Cretaceous quiet period. Juxtaposition of high-amplitude hyperbolic reflections, down-faulted continental blocks buried under thick sediments, and associated gravity and magnetic anomalies indicate the boundary between continental and oceanic rocks at the foot of continental slope, about 80 km seaward of the present continental shelf edge. Eight seismic sequences, as thick as 8.5 km, overlie the early Cretaceous oceanic basement and include four unconformities (lower Eocene, upper Oligocene, upper Miocene, and upper Pleistocene) which correspond to the major geologic/ tectonic events. Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary feature on the eastern flank of the buried 85°E Ridge is interpreted as a carbonate reef. The steep subduction of older (cold)

Multichannel seismic record and magnetic anamaly across the 85°E Ridge depicting seismic structure of the ridge, carbonate build up and fracture zone etc.

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Indian plate beneath the Burmese plate near the Andaman Islands suggest the Sunda Arc in this region to be low to intermediate stress subduction zone. (Gopala Rao and Krishna, 1996. J. Geophys. Res., in press). Western continental margin of India Study of closely spaced marine magnetic profiles in the northern Arabian Sea shows that most of the identified magnetic lineations in the Arabian Sea are segmented by oblique offsets representing pseudofaults associated with paleo-propagating ridges. The early Tertiary seaftoor spreading in the Arabian Sea was characterized by systematic ridge propagation probably caused due to influence of the Reunion hotspot - on the spreading segment. (Chaubey, et a/.,1996, in press). The calcareous deposits on the western shelf of India off Bhatkal, at 50-58 m depth occur as crusts, sheets, cylinders and reddish brown mudstones. This indicates that the particulate matter in the calcareous deposits were initially at the proximity of the coast and cemented by metastable calcites during the Pleistocene interglacial sealevel stands on the shelf. Pedogenic cementation process overprinted and developed them into eolianites and paleospls during the subsequent Late Pleistocene

sealevel regression. (Rao and Thamban, 1997. J. Geol. Soc. India, 49: 297-306) Genesis of apatite in the phosphatised limestones on the western continental shelf of India was studied. The apatite microparticles often adhere to clays and resemble fossilized bacteria hapetites. It appears that abundant flux was transported to the shelf at about 8,300 years B.P. which filled the pores / cavities of corals and coralline algae. Subsequently, microbial organisms colonized the sediment and filled pores of the limestones and favoured rapid precipitation of apatite locally by utilising organic phosphate and phosphate adsorbed on to clays. Phosphatization of the limestones is thus a short event in the Early Holocene influenced by microbial processes. (Rao and Lamboy, 1996, Mar. Geol., 136: 41-53)

Map showing magnetic profiles along the western continental margin.

Carisberg Ridge The Carisberg Ridge was surveyed using the muitibeam bathymetric system. The results show a ridge axial discontinuity with a broad axial valley, depth varying from 4500 to 2200 m. The back scatter amplitude data from muitibeam revealed that the rift valley is sedimented. Mantle rocks such as lherzolites, gabbros, serpentinites were collected from the inner rift valley wall indicating a shallow depth of mantle. (Mudholkar, et al., 1996. Inter Ridge News, 6, 34)

Terrestrial lime stones from continental shelf off Bhatkal: (a) dune - associated calcrete and (b) rhizoliths (calcified roots).

SEM of phosphatised limestones showing (a) phosphatised bacteria within the algal cells (b) and also associated with clay flakes.

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Offshore Resources

Environmental impact Assessment in Nodule Area Indian Deep-Sea Experiment The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) in the Indian Pioneer Area was initiated in 1995 to assess the possible environmental impact on the marine ecosystem due to seabed mining in the Central Indian Basin (CIB). Multidisciplinary studies on geological, biological, physical and chemical aspects were undertaken for establishing the baseline conditions in the CIB area prior to the benthic disturbance. The test and reference areas were identified for the benthic disturbance experiment using close grid bathymetric surveys and nodule abandance data. Detailed geochemical, sedimentological, biological, and geo-technical studies on sediments resulted in understanding the benthic conditions and the distribution of macro, meio and micro fauna. (Sharma, et al., 1996, communicated, ISOPE Proc.) Analysis of ocean currents obtained from the mooring of the current meter arrays (with Russian make POTOK current meters in the CIB area revealed considerable variability in the flow field at different time-scales (inertial to seasonal) even at near bottom depths. The magnitudes (directions) of monthly mean currents at nearbottom depth of 5100 m were estimated to be 3.0 cm.s -1 (104°) in April; 2.6 cm.s -1 (92°) in May; 2.9 cm.s -1 (53°) in June; 2.2 cm.s -1 (228°) in July; 1.3 cm.s -1 (201°) in August and 1.6 cm.s -1 (306°) in September. The preliminary analysis of CTD data collected from the CIB area indicated variations in the thickness of upper oceanic

mixed layer, decrease in surface salinity towards southwest part of CIB and strong near-surface halocline in the upper 25 m water column. A sub-surface salinity maximum and an intermediate salinity minimum around 75 and 1000 m depths were noticed in the area. The temperature and salinity variations were negligible below 2000 m depth. Analysis of chemical data measured from the waters of CIB area indicated low concentrations of nitrate and silicate in the surface mixed layer, while phosphate concentrations increased rapidly. This increase was associated with a corresponding decrease in dissolved oxygen. The shallow oxygen maximum (2.3 - 4.3 ml.!'1) was observed in the depth range 300 - 500 m. It was associated with higher pH, higher alkalinity and lower nutrient content. The deep waters were characterised by high oxygen, high pH and relatively lower content of nutrients. Water samples were analysed for dissolved trace metals. The metal maxima were associated with a maxima in nutrients and a decrease in pH and dissolved oxygen content, thereby indicating that like nutrients, trace metals were also released in the water column during the process of oxidation of organic matter from the surface water column. Zooplankton samples were collected from 11 stations along five transects including the four stations from the test site. The zooplankton biomass showed considerable variations from station to station and along the depth.

Traces of benthic activity in Pioneer area.

28

Numerical abundance of the fauna of the region showed that the test site supports a rich and varied assemblage of organisms. Generally low biomass values were found to coincide with low numerical density and vice versa. Mostly the zooplankton concentrated above the subsurface salinity maxima where the oxygen concentration ranged from 3.7 to 5.52 ml I-1. The WP net collection from deeper layers also showed a reduction in the volume of biomass as well as diversity of groups from 200-500 m exhibiting a general trend of dilution of organisms from the upper layers to lower layers. In general, the euphotic zone of the CIB is found to supports fairly rich and diverse fauna.

High resolution seismic profile (3.5 kHz) of upper continental slope (between Goa - Mangalore). Gpl - gas plumes, BPM and PM - buried and unburiedpock marks, F - fault, TWTT - two way travel time in milli seconds (assumed sound velocity 1500 m/s).

Sub-surface methane in-the eastern Arabian Sea High-resolution shallow seismic reflection data obtained from the continental shelf sediments off western India from 10°N to 22°N reveal the anomalous seismic signatures in the form of acoustic maskings of methane-rich horizons. A conservative estimate of the potential subsurface methane in these gas-charged sediments is of the order of 2.6 Tg, and its contribution to the atmosphere with an annual flux of 0.039 Tg CH4 appears to be quite significant. High seepage of methane from the seabed of the continental shelves should hence be considered for while estimating global oceanic flux of methane. (Karisiddaiah and Veerayya, 1996. J. Geophys. Res., 101:25887-25895). Evidence of Recent hydrothermal activity in the Central Indian Basin The Central Indian Basin (CIB) was considered to be inactive in terms of volcanic eruptions in the recent past. However,

work carried at NIO has provided evidence of recent volcano-hydrothermal activity in the CIB. On detailed investigation of 27 sediment samples from CIB, two samples occurring at the base of an intraplate seamount were found to have high concentration of volcanogenic hydrothermal material (vhm). The vhm consist of ochrous metalliferous sediments, nontronite, volcanic spherules and glass shards. The metalliferous sediments are akin to their counterparts in the active hydrothermal sites in the Pacific Ocean in terms of colour, chemistry and formation. The volcanic spherules which are dominantly magnetite and resemble extraterrestrial spherules are products of liquid immiscibility of a silicicbasic magma or of hydrovolcanic activity. Based on the age of the associated radiolaria with the vhm, an age of ~10 ka is suggested for an episode of volcanic-hydrothermal activity in the CIB. The present finding might have relevance for the type and eruptive mechanism of seamounts and the addition of elements to sea water and manganese nodules and crusts in the CIB. (Iyer et al.,1996. Deep-Sea Res., in press).

SEM(top) & photomicrograph of volcanic spherules from Central lndian Basin.

Bilateral Programmes

· Indo-US · Indo-German · Indo-EC-Dutch

Indo-US

Application of biochemical & molecular techniques to characterise ocean trophic dynamics Nitrogen sources from mangrove detritus Studies on carbon and nitrogen contents of leaves, roots and pneumatophores of Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Avicennia marina and A. officinalis and of the litter fractions of major species of mangroves (A. marina, A. officinalis and Sonneratia alba) are being carried out. Remineralization studies of leaf litter of 4 mangrove species (R. mucronata, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba and A. officinalis) are in progress. Experiments on uptake and assimilation by phytoplankton of nitrogenous nutrients of the water column and sediment, are being carried out at monthly intervals in a mangrove ecosystem. Ammonium was found to be the most preferred nutrient by phytoplankton with a specific uptake rate of 0.201/h, an absolute uptake rate of 2966 ng-at/l/h and a high assimilation index of 571.2 ng-at N(mg chl)-h-1. Nitrate uptake ranked next in importance (specific uptake = 0.01/h), followed by nitrite uptake (0.0004/h) which was insignificant. As with the water column, ammonium uptake was the highest among the four nutrients, with a specific uptake rate of 0.02/h, an absolute uptake rate of 386.67 ng-at g-1 h-1 and an assimilation index of 16.12 ng-at N (mg chl)-1 h-1. Specific nitrate uptake was very low (0.0004/h). Role of exopolysaccharides in particle sedimentation Dissolved carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea showed little variation of monosaccharide

concentrations with depth. Polysaccharides were the most abundant form of dissolved carbohydrates. Carbohydrate concentrations showed significant positive correlations with chlorophyll a (in the upper 150 m), nitrate and phosphate concentrations and a significant negative correlation with dissolved oxygen concentrations. Higher abundance of carbohydrates was found associated with the dissolved oxygen minimum layer. Macroaggregates from various sources of organic carbon serve as a food source for particle feeders and benthic organisms. The chemical composition of macroaggregates showed that mangrove leaves are richer in carbon than nitrogen. Whereas, those obtained macro algae were fairly enriched in nitrogen. As such, macroaggregates derived from macro algae may be a preferred source of food for benthic and other organisms due to enrichment of nitrogenous organic matter. Macroaggregates of algae did not show any particular trend and varied from species to species. Older aggregates of all the species showed a increase in nitrogen and a decrease in carbon content. Such differences in carbon and nitrogen content can play an important role in determining the food values of the macroaggregates. Studies on microfilm formation in relation to physico-chemical, biological and biochemical parameters Variability in microfilm formation Fiberglass and cupro nickel panels were suspended in the water column in coastal station (Dona Paula Bay). The results indicate the dominance of centrales over pennates whereas in the fouling film the reverse was evident. This difference could probably be due to the capability of pennates to foul more readily than centrales as they possess raphe which

help in gliding and crawling over the surface. The diversity of diatom population indicates that the recruitment of diatom cells is not fully controlled by its diversity in the water column. Influence of exopolymers on cyprid metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite Exopolymers secreted by bacteria can also play a major role in the recruitment of larvae of fouling organisms, probably by providing inducing/inhibitory chemical cues. The extract of adult Balanus amphitrite and the exopolymers of the bacteria colonizing B. amphitrite in nature on the cyprid metamorphosis of B. amphitrite was tested. The results obtained indicate that the addition of exopolymers as well as adult extract promoted settlement of cyprids. Physiology of Wood Borers Wooden panels of Mangifera indica were exposed for different periods. We found Martesia striata and Nausitora hedleyi to be the dominant forms of wood borers. The effect of temperature and salinity on embryonic and larval development of Martesia striata was evaluated. The maximum metamorphic success was observed at 30. The thriving duration of the different instars was influenced by both temperature and salinity.

Indo-German Particle flux studies Two sediment trap mooring samples in the central and northern Bay of Bengal were analyzed for planktic foraminiferal abundance. This study has revealed that there are 26 species of planktic foraminifera present of which eight accounted for over 90% of the total foraminiferal flux. In the total, particulate flux of <1 mm size was

30

the largest component and generally increased with water depth. The total participate and planktic flux display similar bimodal distribution patterns related to the monsoon. The highest fluxes were recorded during the SW monsoon. The fluxes during the northeast monsoon are elevated but not to the level seen during the SW monsoon, with G. bulloides dominating the foraminiferal flux. The overwhelming proportion of G. bulloides in the foraminiferal assemblage is suggestive of upwelling activity in the western Bay of Bengal region during the SW monsoon. The reduced productivity of foraminiferal species in the northern Bay of Bengal is related to the injection of fresh water resulting due to the precipitation associated with SW monsoon. Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerinella rubescens exhibited elevated fluxes in the lower

salinity region. Foraminiferal productivity in the Bay of Bengal is one order of magnitude lower than in the Arabian Sea. The temporal distribution patterns of G. bulloides and its significance in different oceanic regimes in the Northern Indian Ocean has been investigated. G. bulloides exhibited a bi-modal distribution pattern related to the summer and winter monsoons. Its fluxes increase from east to west in the Arabian Sea and from north to south in the Bay of Bengal. Particle flux data obtained by time series sediment traps deployed over the years in the Arabian Sea were compared with the wind speeds computed from satellite data. We have inferred that there is a strong relationship existing between physical and biological processes related to the SW monsoon in the Arabian Sea. This enabled

us to recognize the well known upwelling system along the coasts of Somalia and Oman as well as open ocean upwelling at the beginning of SW monsoon. The coastal and open ocean upwelling are most effective in transferring biogenic matter to the deep sea during SW monsoons of moderate strength.

Indo-EC-Dutch Contaminants in the marine environment: their fate in the abiotic and biotic compartments with emphasis on the biological response of organisms The analyses of the data on selected pesticides polychlorinated biphenyls and genotoxic effects of such chemicals continued.

31

VIII Plan Highlights

O Funding

O Projects

O Cruises

RV Gaveshani

ORV Sagar Kanya

32

3 Publications

3 Awards

· Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

· National Mineral Award

· Krishnan Gold Medal

·Young Scientist Award

1 ·First World Ship Trust Award ·Gupta Foundation Award 2 · The Great Son of the Soil Award 3 · Asiatic Society Medal 4 · MASS Young Scientist Award 5 · Zahoor Qasim Gold Medal

O Educational upgradation

(Ph.D / M.Sc).

O Training/ Workshops held

O Deputations

O Infrastructural enhancement

33

Data, Information & Scientific Services

· Data and Information · Library · Training · Publication and Public Relations

Data and Information

Data for more than 10,000 stations in the Indian Ocean on physical, chemical, biological and geological parameters have been added. The creation of a data base for sea truth, drifting buoys and COMAPS programmes have been initiated. The summary of the data acquired, processed and disseminated during the year is given below: Data acquisition Surface - 2623 meteorology CTD - 159 XBT 62 Primary 27 production and chlorophyll a Zooplankton 9 biomass Wave data rolls 14 Sponsored 28 project data reports Drifting buoys 8 (37 files) (surface meteorological data) Surface temp. 10 and tidal observation at Marmagao harbour (fixed location) stns. stns. stns. stns. stns. nos. nos.

(ship drift) and winds for 93 years (1900-1993) was acquired from Japan Oceanographic Data Centre (JODC). · Version 3.2 of Global Geophysical Data Sets (GEODAS) was acquired from National Geological/ Geophysical Data Centre, Boulder, USA. Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) stations handbook data set was also received from National Oceanographic Data Centre, U.K. Data processing · JGOFS (India) data of six scientific cruises of ORV Sagar Kanya were processed. These cruises were carried out in the

eastern Arabian Sea (four during SW monsoon and two during pre-monsoon). The parameters include primary productivity, phyto-zooplankton abundance, the settling fluxes of particulate matter, air-sea exchange fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O and their distribution. A report on JGOFS (India) data management was also submitted to the International JGOFS data management group. Data dissemination Major data requests came from the Universities of Andhra, Goa, Karnataka, Kochi, IITs (Chennai and Mumbai); IISc, Bangalore; SAC, Ahmedabad; DNOM, New Delhi; DOD, New Delhi; ONGC, Mumbai.

Library

sets

NICMAS Centre sets The Library was recognised as the National Information Centre for Marine Sciences (NICMAS) by the National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT), Department of Scientific and Industrial Re-

Data acquired on CD-ROM · Global data on surface currents

search (DSIR), Government of India. The mandate of this centre is to provide information services to all users and create a bibliographic Indian Ocean database. So far around 10,000 references with abstracts have been added.

Databases on the catalogue of Library holdings (OCEANLINE) and contributions by NIO scientists (NIOPUB) are available on the NIO Website. Holdings During the year, the Library added 1082 books (including bound volumes) thus enhancing

the total collection to 23580. Technical reports acquired during the period are 239 (total 7095). The library continued the ASFA CD-ROM and Current Contents search service on diskettes (CCOD). It provided, 870 references on aquatic sciences to the ASFA database.

Training

Outside organisations Mr. B.C. Jhoomuck, University of Mauritius received training on Taxonomy of Marine Phytoplankton with special emphasis on Harmful Species from 4 August to 22 September. Mr. S. Mandary, Meteorological Services, Mauritius received training on operation and maintenance of S4 current meters and wave measuring equipment from 1 August to 30 September. A familiarisation course was conducted for four Naval officers on METOC Instrumentation during 25-26 March. Five Naval Officers were trained in Physical Oceanography from 10-14 June.

Institutional staff Dr. D. Chandramohan and Shri M.R. Nayak attended a course on Management of R&D from 510 August at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. S/Shri P.K. Shaji, P. Rama Rao and Jaydeep Pattanaik Remote Sensing and its Applications to Oceanography, Marine Science & Fisheries from 22 July to 17 August, at Orissa Remote Sensing Application Centre, Bhubaneshwar. Ms. Linda Veliath, S.M. Gorette Fernandes, Fatima Martins and Felcy Alphonso - Improving Secretarial Performance, Efficiency and Effectiveness from 18-20 September, 1996 at Institute of Technology Management Systems, New Delhi.

S/Shri Antonio Mascarenhas and Arif Sardar - Training on UPS System from 16-21 December, 1996 at Tata Libert Limited, Mumbai. Dr. P.S. Rao and Shri K. Aravind Ghosh - How to secure certification for ISO-9000 and its interface with TQM from 22-27 January, 1997 at NISIET, Hyderabad. Shri K. Aravind Ghosh - ISO 9000 Lead Assessor Course from 18-22 March, 1997 at Hotel Mandovi, Panaji. A computer Orientation Course for 50 administrative staff was organised in two batches (15-30 May and 31 May -15 June) by Online Productivity Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Margao at NIO Headquarters. The course covered : DOS, Use of LAN, WINDOWS, MS WORD, FOXPRO and MS MAIL.

Publications and Public Relations

The Institute continued to bring out various publications, including the Annual Report, NIO Bulletin, Technical Reports, Cruise Reports and Sponsored project reports. Visitors, particularly students were encouraged to interact directly with scientists. To bring in an awareness, the Institute participated in a one month long exhibition "Goa Vision 2001" in the city of Panjim.

"Goa Vision 2001"

Scientific Cruises

Highlights

During the year 14 cruises were undertaken, eleven on board ORV Sagar Kanya and the remaining on the chartered Russian vessel A.A. Sidorenko. Five cruises were for collection of geological and geophysical data and for environmental impact assessment studies in the application area (Central Indian Ocean Basin) under the project "Surveys for polymetallic nodules". Two cruises were exclusively for "JGOFS - India Programme" and one for validation of data on ocean colour collected on board the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS P3. We also undertook one cruise in the Bay of Bengal to document the seasonal and annual variability of thermohaline properties and circulation features for World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) programme. ORV Sagar Kanya (owned by the DOD, New Delhi) Overall length: 100.34 m, Breadth: 16.4 m, Capacity: 32 Scientists, Endurance: 45 days. We continued regular pollution monitoring along Ratnagiri-Goa under Coastal Ocean Monitoring & Prediction System (COMAPS) programme on board CRV Sagar Paschimi.

The snapshot observations and preliminary results of these cruises are: · Surface waters of Andaman Sea saturated with atmospheric CO2 indicating that the whole region acts as a source of CO2 with a net flux to the atmosphere. · Central and symmetrical magnetic anomalies over the Carlsberg Ridge segment, the former one conspicuous with 500 nT amplitude. Both these anomalies reveal the age of the crust to be between 0 and 4.77 my. · The sediment temperature beyond 27°C in the axial valley in the Carlsberg Ridge region suggest the possibility of hydrothermal source nearby. · "A Front like structure" at 18°N in the northern periphery of the northern anticyclonic gyre in the central and northern Bay of Bengal. · A striking similarity in distribution of temperature, salinity and light transmission in the upper 200 m water column along 18°N.

Cruise tracks of ORV Sagar Kanya (112 -121) & AA Sidorenko (1B-2B)

36

Cruise No.

Period Chief Scientist (Port - from/to)

Area

Objectives

from

Participants other Organisations

Internal participation

ORV Sagar Kanya

Cr. 112 23 Apr. to 18 May 96 KSR Murthy (Mormugao - Paradip) 23 May to 21 Jun. 96 VV Sarma (Paradip - Paradip) Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) Bay of Bengal To collect gravity data and core samples in basinal and non-basinal areas. 16

Cr. 113

To study: (i) the surface heat fluxes, circulation and volume transport with respect to warm pool and (ii) the composition of particulate matter and zooplankton diversity in the scheduled transects.

14

Cr. 114

26 Jun. to 23 Jul. 96 AB Valsangkar (Paradip - Mormugao)

Carlsberg Ridge in the Arabian Sea

(i) Multibeam Swath Bathymetric mapping of a segment of the Carisberg Ridge (CR) for morphotectonic features and evolution studies of the ridge segment by integrating gravity, magnetic and Swath bathymetric data, (ii) collection of rock and sediment samples from the selected portions of the ridge axis and valleys to understand their formation and (iii) to study airborne particles through aerosols.

8

Cr. 115

2 to 22 Aug. 96 M Dileep Kumar (Mormugao - Mormugao) 26 Aug. to 17 Sep. 96 YVB Sarma (Mormugao - Mormugao) 21 Sep. to 10 Oct. 96 Rajiv Nigam (Mormugao - Mormugao)

Arabian Sea

To study the physical and bio-geochemical processes (under JGOFS programme) along 64°E between 13° and 21°N during southwest monsoon. To document the seasonal and annual variability of thermohaline properties and circulation features in EIO.

7

Cr. 116

Eastern Indian Ocean(EIO)

10

Cr. 117

Eastern Arabian Sea

To assess high resolution paiaeoclimate utilising sedimentological, geochemical and palaeontological data from the eastern Arabian Sea under the Past Global Changes (PAGES) collaborative research programme. Time series mapping of biological and chemical characteristics & sedimentological and geochemical studies.

6

Cr. 118

15 Oct. to 11 Nov. 96 PV Narvekar (Mormugao-Paradip) 15 Nov. to 7 Dec. 96 AS Subrahmanyam (Paradip - Mormugao) 12 to19 Dec. 96 PV Sathe (Mormugao - Mormugao) 27 Dec. 96 to 31 Jan. 97 V Ramesh Babu (Mormugao - Mormugao) 5 to 26 Feb. 97 S Raghukumar (Mormugao - Mumbai)

EEZ of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

12

Cr. 119

Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) Between Goa and Kanyakumari

To collect gravity, magnetic, bathymetric and hydrosweep data of ECMI.

15

Cr. 119A

To validate the ocean colour sensor MOS onboard the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS P3.

10

Cr. 120

Central Indian Basin (CIB)

To collect data on physico-chemical and biological parameters of water column for EIA studies in the Indian Nodule Application Area To collect physico-chemical and biological data in the northern Arabian Sea under JGOFS programme to understand winter cooling phenomenon.

13

Cr. 121

Northern Arabian Sea

9

37

Cruise No.

Period Chief Scientist (Port

Area -

Objectives from/

to)

Participants from other Organisations

M.V. A.A. Sidorenko

1 -B (EIA) 20 Apr. to 24 May 96 B Nagender Nath (Mormugao - Mormugao) Central Indian Basin (i) To select suitable reference and test sites for carrying out disturbance & EIA studies and (ii) to understand the baseline benthic and geological environment in the Indian Nodule Application area. To collect benthic baseline data from the newly selected Area (A1), under the EIA studies for nodule mining.

2A 3 Sep. to 1 Oct. 96 R Sharma (Mormugao - Mormugao) 2B 25 Oct. to 22 Nov. 96 VSN Murty (Mormugao - Mormugao)

Central Indian Basin

Central Indian Basin

To deploy current meter & sediment trap moorings, and drifting buoys for environmental data collection and dredging of manganese nodules.

CRV Sagar Paschimi

1 18-23 Nov. 96 XN Verlencar (Panaji - Panaji Port) West coast of India (Ratnagiri-Goa) To assess the water and sediment quality of the coastal waters of the central west coast under the "Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS)" programme. 1

Participation of other organisations ORV Sagar Kanya

Cr. 112 C.V. Raman, V.V. Syam Sundar, P.S. Rao, P.V.V. Satyanarayana, M.J. Prakash and P.J. Thomas (Andhra University), M. Chandra, Mohd. Rafi M., R. Narayanan, A.R. Ramesh Kumar and C.S. Sajith (Cochin University of Science & Technology), V.S. Raja Raman, K. Balakrishnan and C.A. Lobo (M/s NORINCO, Goa), K. Shepherd and M.S. Gandhi (Tamil University) Cr. 113 I. Nageswara Rao, R. Ratna Kumari, Ch. Satyanarayana and G. Krupanidhi (Andhra University), G.R. Mangalorekar (CMC, Ltd. Mumbai), B.M. Nayal, K.C. Kori, G.S. Murti, D.K. Borthakur and A.Y. Satam (India Meteorological Department), S. Chandrasekharan, C.V. Rama Rao (Indian Navy), C. Rajagopalan and M. Mohandas (M/s NORINCO, Goa) Cr. 114 A.N. Rajan, J. Anthony K.C, K.M. Sethunathan, P.V. Vinod and P. Sanu (Cochin University of Science & Technology), T.P. Benny, S. Kurian and S. Davis (M/s NORINCO, Goa) Cr. 115 Mohan Das, J.P. Joseph and Brian Telles (M/s NORINCO, Goa), R. Rengarajan, T.K. Sunil Kumar, S. Venkataramani and Iqbal Ahmed (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad) Cr. 116 D. Sarkar, S. Benerjee, V.A. Choudhary, N.P. Mrutyunjaya and R.P. Sharma (India Meteorological Department), Lt. P.C. Dash and A.K. Jaiswal (Indian Navy), Biju V. Nair, K. Balakrishnan and K.M. Jayakrishnan (M/s NORINCO, Goa) Cr. 117 C. V. Kamble (Agharkar Res. Institute, Pune), Abu Backer (Mangalore University), Rajaraman, V. Biju Nair, Shellak Davis and Brian Telles (M/s NORINCO, Goa) Cr. 118 I. Nageshwara Rao, Y. Sarojini and G. Krupanidhi (Andhra University), I.K. Pai and Sameer Terdalkar (Goa University), A.V. Saxena and P.S. Rawat (Indian Navy), K.R. Jagadeesan (Mangalore University), K. Balakrishna, Brian Tellis, P. Boopathi and Abdul Nazar (M/s NORINCO, Goa) Cr. 119 S. Jagannatha Rao, P.V.V. Satyanarayana and P. Satyababu (Andhra University), P.S. Bindu, R. Rajani, A. Sivasaravanan, P. Harikumar and Suja Alex (Cochin University of Science & Technology), M.P. Jonathan (Madras University), J.P. Joseph, Shellak Davis, Jayakrishnan and P. Bhoopathy (M/s NORINCO, Goa), N. Ahgusamy and R. Karikalan (Tamil University) Cr.119A S.K. Shyama, C. Rivonkar, Leena Margulhao, Gouri Mahambre, Rani Rajamanickam, Melinda Fernandes, Shelha Almeida and Nafisha Almeida (Goa University), H.U. Solanki and Mini Raman (Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad) Cr. 120 Devdutta S. Niyogi (Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi), V. Gopalakrishnan (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune), L.K. Jain and K. Lal ( Indian Navy, Kochi), K.S. Zalpuri, P.K. Gupta, U.C. Kulsheshtra and T.K. Mandal (National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi), Biju V. Nair, Brian Telles and P. Premachandran (M/s NORINCO, Goa), S. Ramachandran and J.T. Vinchi (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad) Cr. 121 K. Balakrishnan, P. Bhoopathy, Shellak Davis and K.M. Jayakrishnan (M/s NORINCO, Goa), M.M. Sarin, R. Rengarajan, P.K. Patra, M.H. Dixit, T.K. Sunil (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad)

CRV Sagar Paschimi

Cr. 1 A. Padmanabhan (National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai)

38

Appendix - II

Workshops Meetings..

Seminars

Workshops

· As a part of the project - "Study of Goa and its environment from space", a one-day users workshop was held on April 12. The workshop was jointly organised with Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Govt. of Goa and Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad, to apprise user agencies and potential beneficiaries in Goa about the ongoing work under the project and to get feedback to effect changes in the project. · Independent World Commission on the Oceans held a "Hearing on Ocean Affairs" on 6 August, at the Institute. NIO played an active role in organising the programme. Discussions were focussed on four important themes. · Impact of globalisation on coastal zone, · Impact of mega cities on coastal zone · Research and development of coastal zone · Human resource development. · Under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNESCO, Paris and the Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi, a workshop on - "Global Ocean Observing System" (GOOS) was organised during 18-19 November. Delegates from Australia, Bangladesh, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, The Netherlands, Qatar, Republic of Maldives & Sri Lanka participated. The status of the capabilities in each country was presented and future plan of action for capacity building on GOOS in developing countries was proposed. The coastal zone, climate, health of the oceans and marine living resources were identified as priority modules under GOOS. · In continuation of the GOOS workshop, the second session of the IOC Regional Committee for the Central Indian Ocean (IOCINDIOII) was also organised from 20-22 November. The delegates of the GOOS workshop participated.

Dr. B.N. Krishnamurty, Director, DOD, delivering introductory remarks Seated from left are Dr. Jan Stehl, Dr. E. Desa and Mr. W. Erb.

The objective of the IOCINDIO-II Session was to promote and coordinate the implementation of realistic cooperative ocean research programmes, systematic observations and capacity building among the member states in the region. The following programmes were accorded top priority: · Sealevel - development of instrumentation: tide gauges, meteorological sensors & modems. · Storm surge - development of real-time storm surge prediction system for IOCINDIO countries. · Climate module - Regional workshop to be organised on ocean climate. · Health of tropical ocean - to develop expertise through workshops, training and exchange visits. · Marine living resources - to conduct a training course in marine taxonomy and DNA fingerprinting. · Coral reefs - to establish monitoring stations in the IOCINDIO region. · One time expedition of the Indian Ocean - to complete survey through a triangular cruise across the flanks of the Indian Ocean. · A National Workshop on "Nutrient analysis in seawater" was conducted during 18-23 November, at the Regional Centre of NIO, Waltair. All the COMAPS (Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System) units participated and calibration exercises for phosphate, nitrate and silicate were worked out.

Dr. S.Z. Qasim, former Member, Planning Commission delivering presidential address. Seen on his left are Dr. E. Desa, Director, NIO, Dr. G. Kullenberg, Executive Secretary, IOC, Dr. A.E. Muthunayagam, Secretary, DOD & Dr. B.N. Krishnamurthy, Director, DOD.

39

· A workshop on "Assessment of marine and coastal biodiversity" sponsored by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India was held on 5 - 6 Dec. The workshop aimed at bringing together scientists, academics and researchers to a common forum to discuss and identify gaps existing in our knowledge, to assess biological diversity of the oceans and adapt strategies for its conservation, management and sustainable utilization. Experts from the coastal states within the country besides NIO participated.

Dr. E. Desa emphasizing the need for conservation of biodiversity. Seated on dais are Ms. A.K. Ahuja, Jt. Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forests and Dr. G.C. Shrivastava, Chief Secretary, Govt. of Goa.

Symposium

Seminars

· A National Seminar on "Recent advances in biological oceanography" funded by CSIR, DST, NIO and DOD was held during May 29-31. The seminar had 8 technical and 2 poster sessions. A total of 138 scientific papers under oral and poster sessions were presented. The themes were · Biological productivity assessment, · Microbial processes and activities, · Ecologically sensitive ecosystems - their resources and conservation & biomedical potentials, · Environmental impact assessment - biological perspectives, · Biodiversity and fishery resources - their exploitation and conservation · Aquaculture in the sea - potentials and challenges.

Shri Ramakant D. Khalap, Union Minister of State for Law, Legal Affairs & Justice, delivering inaugural address. Seen on his left are Shri R.R. Nair, Dr. E. Desa, Dr. Wilfred D'Souza (Dy Chief Minister, Govt. of Goa) and Dr. Ch.M. Rao. Inset: Dr. D'Souza felicitating Shri Nair. · An international symposium on "Geology and Geophysics of the Indian Ocean" to commemorate the completion of three decades of oceanographic research in India was held from 21-25 October. The objectives of the symposium were to bring the results of various studies to a common platform, to promote exchange of ideas, to find out the gaps in existing knowledge and to develop collaborative programmes

40

Meetings

for a better understanding of the Indian Ocean. The main sponsors of the symposium were the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Department of Ocean Development, Office of Naval Research, USA, Department of Science and Technology, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Gas Authority of India Ltd. and International Lithosphere Programme. One hundred and eighty members participated in the symposium (USA-15, Japan-4, UK-2, Russia-2 and one each from Canada, Norway, Denmark, The Netherlands and Sweden, the remaining participants from India). Six keynote addresses and 6 invited talks were delivered besides 59 oral presentations and 41 posters. The technical sessions covered · Structure and Tectonics · Particle Flux and Sedimentary Processes · Sea-level Changes and Paleoceanography · Non-living Resources and Technology · Policy & Economics. During the symposium, Mr. R.R. Nair, Deputy Director and a well recognised geological oceanographer known for several important contributions to the understanding of sedimentological processes on the Western Continental Shelf, particle fluxes in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and the national programme on polymetallic nodule exploration, was felicitated. · A joint meeting of TOGA-TAO Implementation Panel and CLIVAR - Monsoon Panel was held during 18-22 November. Thirty Scientists including 27 from abroad participated. The meeting was · to review the present status of TAO array · to address technical and logistic issues related to its maintenance · to provide a forum for discussion of possible expansion of the array to other tropical oceans · to promote scientific utilization of TAO data. · The Second Meeting of the Indo-Russian Subworking Group on Oceanology was held during 26-29 November. The progress of ongoing projects was reviewed to finalise new work plans. The four member Russian delegation was led by Dr. Igov Shaboneev of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Science and Technology, Moscow. Academician G.I. Marchuk, who was on visit to India also participated in the working group meeting. The Indian delegation was led by Dr. E. Desa, Director, NIO. Work plans were drawn for the following projects: · Studies on air-sea interaction processes and development of a coupled seaair model for the tropical Indian Ocean · Variability of surface circulation on the Indian Ocean using altimetry · Deep crustal study of the Arabian Sea · Identification of the presence of antiviral drug (MUHY) in the Indian green mussel. An Aide-Memoire was also signed. · An international planning meeting on INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment) was held during January 8-9. The main objective was to finalise the design of an experimental programme for the main pre-lndoex cruise to be organised during February-March 98, in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Nine US scientists and eleven Indian scientists representing various organisations in the country participated in the above meeting. The US team was led by Prof. V. Ramanathan, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego. The meeting deliberated extensively on the various surface and upper air meteorological measurements to be carried out during the cruise, data requirements for the entire INDOEX, objectives and the data management programme. At the end of the meeting a tentative experiment design document on INDOEX and the cruise programme for ORV Sagar Kanya to be organised during February-March 1998, was finalised. · A meeting of the working group on Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) - Ocean Programme component covering in-situ observations, satellite and modelling aspects was held during 26-27 March. Six members including three from outside organisations participated in the deliberations.

41

Appendix - III

Awards & Honours

Seven of our colleague were honoured with awards and fellowships. The country's most coveted "Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize" (instituted by CSIR) comes to the institute for the third time. Dr. Shyam M. Gupta received the Rajiv Gandhi Research grant from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. Bangalore for developing innovative ideas in Paleoclimate and Dr. Shridhar Iyer was awarded the Raman Research Fellowship to work on "Volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean". at the Michigan Technology University. Houghton, USA.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

·

Dr. S.VV.A. Naqvi was honoured with the country's most prestigious scientific award, the "Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize", for 1996 in Earth. Atmosphere. Ocean and Planetary Sciences. His research in biogeochemical cycling has greatly improved the understanding of the processes unique to the hypoxic environments with implications on ocean productivity, atmospheric composition and climate. His results have provided new insights into tne transformations within the coupled carbon and nitrogen systems and important constraints on the global budgets of these elements including their fluxes across tne airsea interface. Dr. Naqvi receiving the prize from the Prime Minister Shn Deve Gowda.

National Mineral Award

·

Drs. Shyam Murty Gupta and OS. Chauhan received the National Mineral Award of the Ministry of Mines. Govt. of India for 1995 for their contributions in Marine Geology. Dr. Guptas contribution was in the field of micropaleontology & paleoceanography while Dr Chauhan's contribution was in physiography, tectonics and sedimentary processes.

Drs. Gupta and Chauhan receiving the award from Shri Birendra Prasad Baishya, Union Minister of Steel and Mines.

42

· Dr. Kolluru Sree Krishna, was awarded the M.S. Krishnan Gold Medal for 1996 for his significant contributions in the field of marine geophysics. His studies on the intracontinental breakup of eastern Gondwanaland, the lithospheric plate boundaries and motions and spreading centers have addressed many unresolved problems. Felicitation from Dr. H.K. Gupta, President IGU & Director, NGRI.

· Dr. Baban Ingole was awarded the Zahoor Qasim Gold Medal by the Society of Biosciences for the year 1994-95 for his useful contributions to water management in aquaculture systems and environmental assessment.

Ph.D

Title of the thesis University Guide

Anthony Joseph K.

Analysis of the performance of a Pressure Transducer for sea-level measurement. Heavy mineral placers in the nearshore areas of South Konkan, Maharashtra - Their nature of distribution, origin and economic evaluation. A study of the volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean Basin and their relationship to ferromanganese deposits. Humic substances in the marine environment of India. Studies on some aspects of antifouling in the marine environment. Study of the ports and maritime activities of Kalinga.

Goa University, Goa.

Dr. J.A.E. Desa, Goa University.

Gujar Anup R.

Tamil University, Thanjavur.

Prof. G. Victor Rajamanickam, Tamil University, & Dr. B.G. Wagle, NIO, Goa. Prof. A.D. Mukherjee, Jadavpur University and Shri R.R. Nair, NIO, Goa. Dr. R. Sen Gupta, NIO, Goa. Dr. A.B. Wagh, NIO, Goa.

Iyer Sridhar

Jadavpur University

Sardessai Sugandhini Sawant S.S. Tripati Sila

Bombay University, Mumbai. Goa University, Goa. Berhampur University, Orissa.

Dr. L.N. Raut, Berhampur University.

Appendix - IV

Council Members & Staff on Committees

Councils

Research Council (August 1994-July 1997) Dr. S.Z. Qasim (Chairman) Chairman, Board of Governors Delhi Institute of Technology Kashmiri Gate Delhi-110 006 Dr. S.K. Singh Head Institute of Engg. & Ocean Tech. Oil & Natural Gas Corporation P.B. No. 123 Panvel-410 221 Dr. P.K. Rudra Chairman Consultancy Development Centre International Trade Tower Nehru Place New Delhi-110 019 Prof. V.S. Raju Director Indian Institute of Technology Hauz Khas Road New Delhi-110 016 Dr. S.A.H. Abidi Director Central Institute of Fisheries Education J.P. Road, Versova Andheri (West) Mumbai - 400 061 Dr. George John Director Department of Biotechnology CGO Complex, Block 2, 7-8th Floor Lodi Road New Delhi-110 003 Dr. Dilip Biswas Chairman Central Pollution Control Board Parivesh Bhavan East Arjun Nagar New Delhi-110 032

Dr. H.K. Gupta Director National Geophysical Research Institute Uppal Road Hyderabad - 500 007 Prof. K.S. Valdiya Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Indian Institute of Science Campus Bangalore-560 012 Shri S. Gopalan Development Advisor Ministry of Surface Transport Parivahan Bhavan Sansad Marg New Delhi -110 001 Shri M.B. Goswami Scientist Planning Coordination Division Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Anusandhan Bhavan Rafi Marg New Delhi-110 001 Dr. E. Desa Director, NIO Dona Paula Goa - 403 004 Dr. M.D. Zingde (Secretary) Scientist-in-charge NIO Regional Centre Sea Shell Building, Versova Mumbai - 400 061 Dr. M. Dileep Kumar (Local Secy) Scientist, NIO, Goa

Management Council (August 1994-July 1997) Dr. E. Desa (Chairman) Director, NIO Dr. R.N. Singh Director Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulations NAL, P.B. 1779 Bangalore-560 017 Dr. Vijaykumaran Nair Scientist Regional Research Laboratory Industrial Estate P.O. Thiruvananthapuram - 695 019 Shri L.V.G. Rao Scientist F, NIO, Goa Dr. Lata Raghukumar Scientist, NIO, Goa Dr. M. Dileep Kumar Scientist, NIO, Goa Dr. P. Chandramohan Scientist, NIO, Goa Shri C M . Dias Sr. F&A O, NIO, Goa Shri M.R. Rajan Pillai (Secretary) COA, NIO, Goa

Staff on Committees

a) International Committees · Dr. E. Desa - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Ocean Chapter - WG-II J-GOSS-Joint IOC/WHO Working Committee, Group of Experts on "Operations and Technical Applications" - Oman-India Pipeline Project, Texas, USA - Commonwealth Science Council Programme on Cooperation in Oceanography - Indian delegation member to Executive Council & General Assembly of IOC - Indo-Russian sub-working group on Science & Technology Cooperation in Oceanology - Editorial Board, Indian Journal Marine Sciences - Independent World Commission on the Oceans - Science & Technology Panel · Shri R.R. Nair - Indian Ocean Planning Group (IOPG) of JGOFS - Editorial Board, Marine Geodesy (Taylor & Francis), Washington · Dr.A.B. Wagh - Editorial Board, International Journal of Biofouling (Harwood Academic Publishers), UK · Shri LV.G. Rao - Chairman, International Buoy Programme of WMO/IOC for Indian Ocean · Dr. A.G. Untawale - Executive Council, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystem (ISME), Japan - Editorial Committee, Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems (John Wiley), England - Expert Committee for Identification of Mangrove Germplasm Centres in Asia, Pacific and Africa, ITTO · Shri M.R. Nayak - Editorial Board, The Global Atmosphere & Ocean System, USA - Editorial Board, Journal of Coastal Research, USA - Instrumentation of Electronics & Electrical Engineers (IEEE) Technical Committee on Standards, USA - IEEE Test Technology Cosultative Committee, USA - IEEE Computer Soc. Multiple-Valued Logic Committee, USA - Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) Committee of the Marine Technology Society, USA - World Ocean Circulation Experiment Surface Velocity Programme (WOCE-SVP) Committee on Drifting Buoys, UK · Dr. Sumitra Vijayaraghavan - Nominated Member from India on

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) - Training, Education & Mutual Assistance (TEMA) Committee. · Dr. D. Chandramohan - Editorial Board, Journal of Marine Biotechnology (Springer Verlag), Netherlands - National representative for Marine Biotechnology · Dr. D. Gopala Rao - International Committee to study the oceancontinent boundary lithosphere (ILP) - International Network of Scientists on Ocean Drilling Programme - Inter Ridge Programme, !CSU · Shri J.S. Sarupria - National Co-ordinator for International Oceanographic Data/Information Exchange Committee (IOC/UNESCO) - International Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies, Data Management Task Team (DMTT) · Dr. N.B. Bhosle - Editorial Board, International Journal of Biofouling (Harwood Academic Publishers), UK. · Dr. M. Madhupratap - Advisory Board, Journal of Plankton Biology and Ecology, Tokyo. · Shri M.P. Tapaswi - Group of Experts on Marine Information Management of IOC · Dr. S.W.A. Naqvi - International Evaluation of JGOFS - JGOFS/IGAC Task Team for Biogeochemical Ocean Atmosphere Transfer · Dr. R. Nigam - Co-ordinating Scientist, IPAGES-II of Indian Programme of IGBP · Dr. S.R. Shetye - Indian Ocean Panel on Coastal Ocean Advanced Science & Technology Studies (COASTS), IOC - IOC Group of Experts on Global Ocean Sealevel Observing System - Co-ordinator, lOC-UNEP-WMO-Pilot Project on Sealevel Changes and Associated Coastal Impacts in the Indian Ocean · Dr. Maria R. Menezes - Member of a Population Genetics Working Group of the "International Genetics Working Group of SPACC (small pelagic fish and climate change)" · Dr. R. Mukhopadhyay - SCOR Working Group 99 on Ridge Research, ICSU · Dr. S. Prasanna Kumar - Implementation Panel, Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere -GOOS/GSCO/CLIVER

b) National Committees · Director (Dr. E. Desa) - Task Force for Examining CZM Plans for all Coastal Stretches of the Country, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India - Scientific Committee on Oceanographic Research, SCOR - India - Indian Climate Research Programme - Naval Research Board, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Directorate of Naval Research Development, New Delhi - Coastal Protection & Development Advisory Board, Water Resources, Govt. of India - National Science Museums - Governing Council and Governing Body, National Institute of Ocean Technology, DOD, New Delhi Data Buoys Committee for DOD Ocean Information Services of DOD Sea truth validation programme of DOD Research Council of National Geophysical Research Institute - Advisory Committee on Environment, ONGC, Dehradun - Editorial Board, Indian Journal of Marine Sciences - State Committee on Science, Technology and Environment, Thiruvananthapuram - Goa Chapter of Science Museums - Academic & Executive Councils of University of Goa - Hindi Implementation Committee, Goa - Technical Advisory Council, Economic Development Corporation, Govt. of Goa - Governing Board, Water Resources, Govt. of India · Dr.A.B.Wagh - Expert Group on Water Transport constituted by the Science Advisory Council of Prime Minister · Shri L.V.G. Rao - Programme Coordinator for WOCE (Implementation of IOC programmes) - Steering Committee on Remote Sensing for Ocean Development (MARS1S) - Member-Secretary, DOD Working Group on Seatruth Collection - NNRMS/DOD Working Group on Oceansat Series Programme (OSP) - DST-MONTCLIM Project Advisory and Monitoring Committee (PAMC) · Dr. V.N. Sankaranarayanan - Board of Studies in School of Environmental Studies, Cochin University of Science & Technology - Board of Studies, Mariculture School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science & Technology · Dr. A.G. Untawale - Editorial Board, Conservation of Biodiversity in India, Min. of Environment & Forests - Editorial Board, Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

45

· Shri M.R. Nayak - Fellow, Instruments of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineers. - Fellow, Int'l. Inst. of Management Sciences, Calcutta. - Indian Physics Association. - Society of Electronics Engineers. - Syllabus Committee, Govt. Polytechnic, Goa. · Dr. D. Chandramohan - Expert Group on "Marine Environment and Coastal Zone" for formulation of IXth V year Plan Programmes of DOD · Dr. D. Gopala Rao - Board of Post-Graduate Studies in Marine Geology and Geophysics, Cochin & Mangalore Universities - Expert Committee on Bay of Bengal Fan Studies, DOD, New Delhi · Dr. N.H. Hashimi - Board of Studies for Post-Graduate Studies in Marine Geology and Geology, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri - Board of Studies in Geology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - Governing Council of Indian Association of Sedimentologists · Shri J.S. Sarupria - Steering Committee, Marine Satellite Information System (MARSIS) of DOD. - Steering Committee and Working Group on National Oceanographic Information System (NOIS) of DOD. · Dr. C.T. Achuthankutty - Goa State Expert Committee for Prawn Farms - Executive Committee, Indian Society of Crustacean Biology

· Dr. C.G. Naik - Board of Studies in Chemistry, Goa University · Dr. R. Nigam - Executive Council Paleontological Society of India · Dr. S.R. Shetye - Editorial Board of Current Science - Editorial Board of Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (Earth & Planetary Sciences) - Research Advisory Committee, Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi - Member-Secretary, National Committee for IUGG, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi · Dr. N. Bahulayan - Working Group of DOD - Board of Studies in Oceanography, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi - National Committee for WRCP constituted by the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi - Member, Doctoral Evaluation Committee, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi · Shri V. Ramesh Babu - Member, Working Group of National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) - Standing Committee on Ocean Resources (SC-O) on Retrieval of Ocean Parameters from Microwave Satellite Data. · Dr. N.B. Bhosle - Board of Studies in Microbiology, Goa University - President, Association of Alumni of Microbiologists of Goa University - Board of Studies in Marine Biotechnology, Goa University

· Dr. M. Madhupratap - Associate Co-ordinator, National Committee (JGOFS-INDIA) · Dr. Z.A. Ansari - Committee on Working Group on Satellite Derived Potential Fishery Zone Forecast - Subgroup II and III of Working Group on Potential Fishing Forecast. PFZ Modelling with Satellite and Seatruth Data · Dr. S. Raghukumar - President, Association of Micro-biologists of India, Goa Chapter - Council, Mycological Society of India · Shri M.P. Tapaswi - Co-ordinator for Committee on Bibliographic and Referral Data Format Standardization for Biodiversity Information Network of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India · Shri M.C. Pathak - High Power Committee on Coastal Mapping, Department of Science and Technology - Committee on Development of Inland Waterways, ASOCHEM, New Delhi - Committee on Fixation of High Water Line, Govt. of Goa · Dr. V.K. Dhargalkar - Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) - CSIR - Steering Committee on Antarctic Research · Dr. R. Mukhopadhyay - Central Geological Programming Board, Geological Survey of India

46

Appendix - V

Deputations

Country visited

Duration

Purpose

Meetings Dr. Ehrlich Desa France Germany Shri R.R. Nair & Dr. V. Ramaswamy Shri M.R. Nayak Germany France May 14-17 Dr. Sumitra Vijayaraghavan France Jul.8-10 Dr. S.W.A. Naqvi Dr. A.G Untawale Thailand Dr. E. Desa Switzerland The Netherlands and France Jul. 8-16 Aug. 19-20 Sep. 10-13 Apr. 23-25 Apr. 26-28 Apr 26 - May 4 Apr. 26 - Jun. 26 The third meeting of J-GOOS. Meeting on Indo-German Bilateral Co-operation. Indo-German collaborative programme at Hamburg University, Hamburg. WOCE (WCRP) Surface Velocity Programme (SVP) meeting in Toulouse, France. Meeting of TEMA Expert Group on Capacity Building in Marine Sciences and Services. Meeting of the Oceanography Society's (TOS) and CEREGE, University of Aix-Marseille III. General Assembly on ISME and Symposium on Significance of Mangrove Ecosystems for Coastal People. International Meeting on - In Situ Observations for the Global Observing System Development of an Integrated Strategy & Identification of Priorities for Implementation. Meeting of the Executive Council IOC, Paris. Twenty third General Meeting of SCOR. Review Meeting of ONR (Office of Naval Research) Programme on Research in the area of minimally adhesive polymers and fouling release coating . Second preparatory meeting of International Buoy Programme for Indian Ocean. Certification for Auto Analyser. Meeting of GCOS, GOOS and GTOS. The Meeting of Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS), London and University of Anglia, Norwich. Meeting of JGOFS Data Management Task Team Bidston, Birkenhead, U.K.

Paris Dr. R. Mukhopadhyay Drs. A.B. Wagh A.C. Anil UK USA

Sep. 29 - Oct. 6 Sep. 16-20 Sep. 21-28

Shri L.V.G. Rao

La-Reunion

Sep. 23-25

Dr. S.N. de Sousa Dr. Elgar Desa Dr. M. Dileep Kumar

The Netherlands Switzerland UK

Sep. 24 - Oct. 1 Oct. 16-18 Jan.11-15,'97

Shri J.S. Sarupria

UK

Jan. 25-28

Workshops/Conferences Shri K. Santanam Malaysia May 13-21 Technology Transfer Workshop on the use of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Conducted jointly by Commonwealth Science Council, UK and Radarsat International, Canada. Workshop on Biological & Chemical Data Management.

Shri K. Arvind Ghosh

Germany

May 19-24

47

Country visited

Duration

Purpose

Shri M.P. Tapaswi Dr. M.R. Ramesh Kumar & Shri A.V. Mandalia Dr. Anupam Sarkar Dr. M.R. Ramesh Kumar Shri T. Pankajakshan Dr. M. Veerayya Dr. Vishwas Chavan Shri K.H. Vora

Italy Cairo

May 27 - Jun. 7 Jun. 22-27

Conducting training programme on ASFA Input Methodology at FAO. Joint Workshop/Meeting on Oceanography and Fisheries under Indo-Egypt S & T Agreement. Conference on 'Water Quality International -1996'. Workshop on El-Nino, Southern Oscillation and Monsoon. Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC '96). Master Workshop on Gas Hydrates. International CODATA Conference and General Asssembly. Annual Conference of IGCP-367 on Late Quaternary Coastal Records of Rapid Changes, Application to Present and Future Condition. International Conference on Long Term Environmental Effects of the Gulf War. American Geophysical Union Conference. Workshop on Geodetic Fixing of Tide Gauge Bench Marks at the JPL, California Inst.of Tech., USA. V IOC meet on Global Sealevel Obseving System.

Singapore Italy Canada Belgium Japan Australia

Jun. 23-28 Jul. 15-26 Aug. 13-16 Sep. 18-20 Sep. 29 -Oct. 5 Nov. 1-10

Dr. S.P. Fondekar

Kuwait

Nov. 18-20

Dr. P.V. Narvekar Dr. S.R. Shetye

USA USA

Dec. 15-19 Mar. 17-18,'97

Mar. 19-21

Training I Visiting Scientist Ms. Vani B. Peshwe Sweden Apr. 10-May 15 Training programme on Coastal & Marine Pollution and Prevention conducted by M/s SSPA Maritime Consultants, Sweden. Paleoclimatic studies at the Institute of Baltic Sea Research, University of Rostock, Germany. Visiting scientist at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, USA. Familiarisation with techniques in Genetic variability in zooplankton at University of Charleston & Rosential School of Marine Science, Miami. Familiarisation with techniques in Genetic variability in zooplankton at University of Charleston & Rosential School of Marine Science, Miami. Training on the Mechanisms of denitrification/nitrification using molecular probes. Familiarisation course in Biochemical and Molecular Techniques at Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences. Familiarisation in Bioturbation techniques at Marine Science Research Centre, State University of New York. Familiarization with biochemical techniques applicable to trophic dynamics studies at University of Delaware.

Dr. A.L. Paropkari

Germany

Apr. 27 - Jun. 28

Dr. P.S. Parameswaran Dr. S.C. Goswami

USA USA

May 1 - Oct. 31 May 22 - Jul. 9

Dr. Usha Goswami

USA

May 22 - Aug. 31

Shri Amal Jayakumar

USA

May 27 - Nov. 27

Dr. C.T. Achuthankutty

USA

Jul. 8 - Oct. 7

Dr. S.N. Harkantra

USA

Jul. 15,'96Jan. 15, '97. Jul. 24 - Nov. 26

Dr. P.A. Loka Bharati

USA

48

Country visited

Duration

Purpose

Dr. B. Nagendra Nath Dr. N.B. Bhosle

Denmark USA

Aug. 1 -14 Nov. 25 May 19, '97 Feb. 15-22

Visiting Scientist at Riso National Laboratory, Denmark. Familiarisation with technique for studies on exopolysaccharide in particle sedimentation Under Indo-US project. DOD delegation for finalisation of distrubance programme under PMN - EIA studies.

Dr. Z.A. Ansari Dr. S.N. de Souza Dr. R. Sharma Cruise participation Shri K. Amarlingeswar Rao

Russia

Bombay-Mauritius

Aug. 2-15 Sep. 15-30

XBT (TOGA) cruise. XBT (TOGA) cruise. XBT (TOGA) cruise. XBT (TOGA) cruise. XBT (TOGA) cruise. Cruise on board R.V. Sonne under Indo-German collabortion.

Shri A. Suryachandra Rao S/shri M.S.S. Sarma and V.B. Gawas Shri V.V. Gopalakrishna S/Shri G. Parthiban and Areef Sardar Dr. V.V. Gopalakrishna and Shri A. Suryachandra Rao

Bombay-Mauritius Bombay- Mauritius Bombay - Mauritius Singapore - Cochin

Oct. 15-Nov. 4 Nov. 19 - Dec. 4 Dec. 20 - Jan. 3, '97 Feb. 8-25

Seychelles and Mauritius

Feb. 27-Apr. 10

XBT (TOGA) cruise.

Appendix - VI

Visitors

·3 June Prof. G.U. Shenxing, Counsellor, Science & Technology and Mr. Cao Jianye, Second Secretary, Embassy of the People's Republic of China. ·21 June Mr. Alain Boismery, Cultural and Scientific Counsellor, French Embassy. ·12 July Gen. Sunit Rodrigues (Retd.). Delivered the Dr. Pannikkar Memorial Lecture on "India ahead'. ·13 July Dr. Ivan Robson, Consultant, British Deputy High Commissioner, British Council Division, Calcutta. Information on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. · 26-27 September An Italian delegation consisting of Prof. G. Cimino, Prof. G. Dallaporta and Dr. Stefano Masi to explore Indo-ltalian scientific collaboration. · 4-7 October Prof. H. Latsch and Prof. Sicker, German Scientists under CSIR exchange programme on air-sea interaction and monsoon studies using Satellite data. · 28 October Prof. Rodey Batiza, University of Hawai, USA. Delivered a talk on Submersible study of hyaloclastites on seamounts : implications for explosive volcanism in the deep sea. Warm reception to Gen. Rodrigues by Dr. E. Desa, Director, NIO

· 2 November Dr. Premsai Singh, Minister of Fisheries and Dairy Development, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh. Visited the aquaculture laboratory and prawn hatchery facilities. ·12-14 November A five member Chinese delegation - Profs. Zhao Minguiang, Tong Daoyu, Chang Qiug, (Mrs.) Xu Jaiamin and Zhang, S., under the CSIR-NSFC China programme on S & T cooperation to explore the possibility of joint collaboration. ·13 November Dr. Annie M.L. Michard, Director, CNRS, University of Marseille, France. Delivered a talk on strontium and neodymium systematics of the eastern Mediterranean sapropels. · 14 November Dr. John M. Morrison, Associate Professor, Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State Univ., USA. Delivered talks on (i) Preliminary results from JGOFS and WOCE work in the Indian Ocean and (ii) The role of coupling between the oceans and atmosphere in global climate change. · 20 November Drs. W.S. Kessler, PMEW, Seattle, USA, J.P. Me Creary, Nova University, USA and S. Godfrey, CSIRO, Hobart, Australia, to attend climate variability studies (CLIVAR) meeting. · 23 November Dr. M.R. Srinivasan, Member Planning Commission

Shri R.R. Nair apprising Dr. Srinivasan, Member, Planning Commission. Seen on his left is Dr. A.E. Muthunayagam, Secretary, DOD.

50

· 27 November Academician G.I. Marchuk, former Deputy Prime Minister of USSR and President of USSR Academy of Sciences. Delivered a talk on "Conjugate equations and analysis of complex systems".

· 3 January '97 Dr. Masafumi Lima, Professor, Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan. Delivered a lecture on "Seaweed utilisation as food". · 8 January Her Excellency Ms. Olga Chamero Trias, Cuban Ambassador.

Academician Marchuk in discussion with NIO scientists.

· 29 November Prof. Govind Swarup, FRS, Director, GMRT Project, Pune. Delivered a talk on "Are we alone in our galaxy?"

Apprising to H.E. Ms. Trias.

· 13-18 January · 3 December Shri Prashant Naik, Information Scientist, Bioinformatics Centre, University of Poona. Delivered lectures on (i) Internet and publishing over net and (ii) Expert system for identification of organisms. · 5 December Prof. Bess B. Ward of University of California, USA. Delivered a talk "Nitrification and denitrification: what we have learned about their biogeochemistry from molecular biology?" ·18 December Dr. Jerome Dyment; CNRS and University of Brest, France. Delivered lectures on: (i) A new plate tectonic evolution model of the Arabian and Eastern Somali Basin and (ii) Deccan Reunion hotspot history revisited. Prof. Shin Kubota, Associate Professor, SETO Marine Biological Laboratory, Koyoto University, Japan for collaborative work.

· 3 February Shri Bali Rama Bhagat, Governor of Rajasthan.

· 24-25 December Prof. Y.K. Alagh, Union Minister for Planning, Programme Implementation and Science & Technology and VicePresident of CSIR.

Hon'ble Governor Shri Bhagat enquiring about the Dwarka antiquities.

Interaction with Prof. Alagh.

51

· 3-8 February An American team comprising Drs. Bernard J. Zahuranec, ONR, Jim Coyer, Monterey Bay and Mr. S.K. Dutt, Consultant, New Delhi in connection with the Indo-US project on Trophic Dynamics. ·11-12 February The CNRS (France) delegation consisting of Dr. Daniel Cadet and Dr. Alain Deroulede, Direction des relations internationales. ·21 February A Norwegian team from Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) consisting of Profs. Bjorn Landmark, Ola M. Johannessen, Geir Evensen, Miss Vibeke Jensen and Dr. Paul Samuel. · 24 February- 24 April Prof. Yu. P. Neprochnov, Dr. T. Tchernov and Dr. Boris Grinko, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, under the IndoRussian collaboration project "Study of the Indian Ocean Lithosphere". ·21 March His Excellency Luiz Filipe De Macedo Soares, Ambassador of Brazil and His Excellency Mr. Ousman Ali, High Commissioner of Trinidad and Tobago. ·31 March Twenty-three foreign diplomats (trainees) from Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Panama, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Suriname, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan, visited through Ministry of External Affairs for exposure in oceanographic activities.

Dr. Cadet (Centre) indicating possible areas of Indo-French collaboration.

52

Human Resources & Finances

The total staff in position during 1996-97 was 638, consists of 217 scientific, 272 technical and 149 administrative personnel. During the year ten members of our staff superannuated and three left us for ever.

Goa-518

Human resource at Regional Centres and Head Office.

53

The budget allocation from CSIR was Rs. 12.98 crores and the external cash flow through contract services Rs. 11.01 crores.

NIO budget vis-a-vis external cash flow for the last three years.

54

Appendix - VIII

Patents & Publications

western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. (A: Phys. Sci.), 62: 325347. Banakar, V.K., 1996. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean. Curr. Sci., 70:11-13. Bhattathiri, P.M.A., A. Pant, S. Sawant, M.U. Gauns, S.G.P. Matondkar and R. Mohanraju, 1996. Phytoplankton production and chlorophyll distribution in the eastern and central Arabian Sea in 1994-1995. Curr. Sci., 71: 857-862. Chakraborty, B., D. Pathak, M. Sudhakar and Y.S.N. Raju, 1997. Determination of nodule coverage parameters using multibeam normal incidence echo characteristics : A study in the Indian Ocean. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 15(1): 33-48. Chauhan, O.S., 1996. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India. Curr. Sci., 71: 233236. Clabby, C, U. Goswami, F. Flavin, N.P. Wilkins, J.A. Houghton and R. Powell, 1996. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal location of a satellite DNA from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Gene, 168:205-209. DeSouza, S.N., M. Dileep Kumar, S. Sardessai, V.V.S.S. Sarma and P.V. Shirodkar, 1996. Seasonal variability in oxygen and nutrients in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71:847-851. DeSouza, S.N., K. Sawkar and P.V.S.S.D.P. Rao, 1996. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25:115-119. DeSouza, M.J.B.D., S. Nair, J.J. David and D. Chandramohan, 1996. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. J. Mar. Biotechnol., 4(2): 91-95. Dileep Kumar, M., S.W.A. Naqvi, M.D. George and D.A. Jayakumar, 1996. A sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the northeast Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. {C Oceans), 101 (C8): 1812118125. Everaarts, J.M. and K. Saraladevi, 1996. Cadmium distribution in the sediment and Lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 57: 771-778. Fernandes, B. and C.T. Achuthankutty, 1997. Role of salinity on food conversion efficiency and growth in juvenile penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Crustacea/Arthropoda). Indian J. Mar. Sci., 26: 31-34.

Gauns, M.U., R. Mohanraju and M. Madhupratap, 1996. Studies on the microzooplankton from the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 7 1 : 874-877. Goswami, S.C. and G. Padmavati, 1996. Zooplankton production, composition and diversity in the coastal waters of Goa. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25(2): 91-97. Gupta, G.V.M. and V.V. Sarma, 1997. Biogenic silica in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon. Oceanologica Acta, 20(3): 493-500. Gupta, S.M., A.A. Fernandes and R. Mohan, 1996. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles. Geophys. Res. Left., 23(22): 3159-3162. Gupta, S.M., 1996. Quantitative radiolarian assemblages in surface sediments from the Central Indian Basin and their paleomonsoonal significance. J. Geol. Soc. India, 47: 339-354. Jagtap, T.G. and A.G. Untawale, 1996. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 277-279. Jayasree, V., K.L. Bhat and A.H. Parulekar, 1996. Occurrence and distribution of soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 93: 202-209. Karisiddaiah, S.M. and M. Veerayya, 1996. Potential distribution of sub-surface methane in the sediments of the eastern Arabian Sea and its possible implications. J. Geophys. Res. (Atmosphere), 101: 25887-25895. Kunte, P.D. and B.G. Wagle, 1996. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study. Curr. Sci., 72: 239241. Madhupratap, M., S. Prasanna Kumar, P.M.A. Bhattathiri, M. Dileep Kumar, S. Raghukumar, K.K.C. Nair and N. Ramaiah, 1996. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Nature, 384(6609): 549-552. Madhupratap, M., T.C. Gopalakrishnan, P. Haridas, K.K.C. Nair, P.N. Aravindakshan, G. Padmavati and S. Paul, 1996. Lack of seasonal and geographic variation in mesozooplankton biomass in the Arabian Sea and its structure in the mixed layer. Curr. Sci., 71: 863-868. Mascarenhas, A., 1996 Significance of peat on the western continental shelf of India. J. Geol. Soc. India., 49:145-152

Patents filed Anil, A.C., C. Venugopal and A.B. Wagh. A process for the preparation of an extract from sponge Ircinia ramosa, useful as a corrosion inhibitor (No. 2503/DFL/96 dated 15/11/96). Sawant, S.S., P.S. Parameswaran, G.Anita, B. Das and S.Y. Kamat. An improved process for isolation of carboline from the sponge Tedania anhelans.

Papers in refereed journals Ansari, Z.A. and M.U. Gauns, 1996. A quantitative analysis of fine scale distribution of Intertidal meiofauna in response to food resources. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 259-263. Bahulayan, N. and C. Shaji, 1996. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and

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McCreary, J.P., W. Han, D. Shankar and S.R. Shetye, 1996. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (C6): 13993-14010. Mishra, P.D., S. Wahidulla, L D'Souza and S.Y. Kamat, 1996. Lipid constituents of marine sponge Suberites carnosus. Indian J. Chem. (B Org. Med.)., 35: 806-809. Mislankar, P.G. and S.D. Iyer, 1996. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India. J. Geol. Soc. India., 47: 499-502. Muraleedharan, P.M. and S. Prasanna Kumar, 1996. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions. Curr. Sci., 71: 842-846. Murthy, K.S.R., M.M. Malleswara Rao, K. Venkateswarlu, A.S. Subrahmanyam, S. Lakshminarayana and T.C.S. Rao, 1997. Marine magnetic anomalies as a link between the granulite belts of east coast of India and Enderbyland of Antarctica. J. Geol. Soc. of India, 153-158. Murty Ramana, T.V., Y.K. Somayajulu and C.S. Murty, 1996. Reconstruction of sound speed profile through natural generalised inverse technique. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 328-334. Nair Maheswari, K.K. Balachandran, V.N. Sankaranarayanan and Thresiamma Joseph, 1997. Heavy metals and fishes from coastal waters of Cochin. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 26: 98-100 Nasnolkar, C.M., P.V. Shirodkar and S.Y.S. Singbal, 1996. Studies on organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments of Mandovi Estuary, Goa. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25(2): 120-124. Navelkar, G.S., Y.K. Somayajulu and C.S. Murty, 1996. Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 179-183. Padmavati, G. and S.C. Goswami, 1996. Zooplankton distribution in neuston and water column along west coast of India from Goa to Gujarat. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 85-90. Padmavati, G. and S.C. Goswami, 1996. Zooplankton ecology in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 268-273. Parameswaran, P.S., C.G. Naik, B. Das, S.Y. Kamat, A.K. Bose and M.S.R. Nair, 1996. Constituents of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)-ll. Indian J. Chem. (B Org. Med.)., 35: 463-467. Prasad, T.G. and N. Bahulayan, 1996. Mixed layer depth and thermocline climatology of the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 189-194. Prasanna Kumar, S. and T.G. Prasad, 1996. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71:834-841.

Ramaiah, N., C. Raghukumar, G. Sheelu and D. Chandramohan, 1996. Bacterial abundance, communities and heterotrophic activities in the coastal waters off Tamil Nadu. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25:234-239. Ramaiah, N. and V.R. Nair, 1997. Distribution and abundance of copepods in the pollution gradient zones of Bombay harbour - Thana creek Bassein creek, West coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 26: 20-25. Ramaiah, N., S. Raghukumar and M.U. Gauns, 1996. Bacterial abundance and production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71: 878-882. Ramaiah, Neelam, A. Chatterji and M. Madhupratap, 1996. A study on the zooplankton of the Burhabalanga Estuary, Orissa Coast. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. (B. Biol. Sci.), 62(1): 1-4. Rao, Ch.M. and B.R. Rao, 1996. Phosphorite concretions in a sediment core from a bathymetric high off Goa, western continental margin of India. Curr. Sci., 70(4): 308-312. Rao, V.P.C. and M. Veerayya, 1996. Submarine terrace limestones from the continental slope off Saurashtra-Bombay : Evidences of Late Quaternary neotectonic activity. Curr. Sci., 71: 36-41. Rao, V.P.C. and M. Lamboy, 1996. Genesis of apatite in the phosphatized limestones of the western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 136:41-53. Rao, V.P.C. and M. Thamban, 1997. Dune associated carcretes, rhizoliths and paleosols from the western continental shelf of India. J. Geol. Soc. India, 49: 297-306. Rao, V.P.C, M. Veerayya, M. Thamban and B.G. Wagle, 1996. Evidences of Late Quaternary neotectonic activity and sea-level changes along the western continental margin of India. Curr. Sci., 71(3): 213-219. Sadhuram, Y, 1997. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature. Curr. Sci., 72(3): 166-168. Sajeev, R., V.N. Sankaranarayanan, P. Chandramohan and K.S.N. Nampoodiripad, 1996. Seasonal changes of the sediment size distribution and stability along the beaches of Kerala, Southwest coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25:216-220. Santhakumari, V. and K.J. Peter, 1996. Relative abundance and diurnal variations of zooplankton from Southwest coast of India. J. Indian Fish. Ass., 23: 73-85. Sarma, V.V., S.J.D. Varaprasad, G.V.M. Gupta and U. Sudhakar, 1996. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, East coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 148-150. Sarma, V.V.S.S., M. Dileep Kumar, M.D. George and A. Rajendran, 1996. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71: 852-856.

Sarma, Y.V.B., P. Seetaramaya, V.S.N. Murty and D.P. Rao, 1996. Influence of the monsoon trough on air-sea interaction in the head of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon of 1990 (monsoon trough boundary layer experiment-90). Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 82: 517-526. Sawant, S. and M. Madhupratap, 1996. Seasonality and composition of phytoplankton in the Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71: 869-873. Sawant, S.S. and C. Venugopal, 1996. Effect of exposure angle on the marine atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Corros. Prev. Cont., 43(1): 35-37. Shaji, C and N. Bahulayan, 1996. Diagnostic circulation model for the sensitivity of eddy viscosity coefficients in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25:195-203. Shankar, D., J.P. McCreary, W. Han and S.R. Shetye, 1996. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 1. Analytic solutions forced by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C6): 13975-13991. Shetye S.R., A.D. Gouveia, D. Shankar, S.S.C. Shenoi, P.N. Vinayachandran, D. Sundar, G.S. Michael and G. Nampoothiri, 1996. Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C6): 14011-14025. Shirodkar, P.V. and X. Yingkai, 1997. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications. Curr. Sci., 72: 74-77. Sreepada, R.A., C.U. Rivonkar and A.H. Parulekar, 1996. Particulate carbohydrate and proteins in the Bay of Bengal. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 43(3): 295-310. Subbaraju, L.V. and B.G. Wagle, 1996. Gascharged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India. Curr. Sci., 71:416-419. Sudhakar, M. and B. Vijaykumar, 1996. A new international order on oceans- Indian perspective. Curr. Sci., 71: 432-438. Suresh, T, 1996. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating Fast Fourier transform. Defence Science Jour., 46: 253-255. Suresh, T, E.S. Desa, R.G.P. Desai, A. Jayaraman and P. Mehra, 1996. Photosynthetically available radiation in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Curr. Sci., 71: 883-887. Tripati, S., A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and P. Gudigar, 1996. Marine archaeological explorations in the Kaveripoompattinam region : Fresh light on the structural remains. Man and Environment, 21(1): 86-90. Varkey, M.J., 1996. Richardson number, stability and turbulence - A coherent view. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25: 160-162. Varkey, M.J., V.S.N. Murty and A. Suryanarayana, 1996. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., 34: 1-70.

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Vora, K.H., B.G. Wagle, M. Veerayya, F. Almeida and S.M. Karisiddaiah, 1996.1300 km long late Pleistocene-Holocene shelf edge barrier reef system along the western continental shelf of India: Occurrence and significance. Mar. Geol., 134(1-2): 145-162. Wagle, B.G. and M. Veerayya, 1996. Submerged sand ridges on the western continental shelf off Bombay, India: Evidence for Late Pleistocene Holocene sea-level changes. Mar. Geol., 136(12): 79-95.

Underwater Acoustics, Greece, 24-28 June 1996, Heywood, K.J. and Y.K. Somayajulu, 1997. Eddy 99-104. activity in the South Indian Ocean from ERS-1 Altimetry. Proc. Third ERS Symposium held at Chandramohan, P., V. Sanil Kumar, D. llangovan Florence, Italy, 18-21 March, 1997. and S. Jaya Kumar, 1997. Location of marine outfall and design of diffuser for a shore based Lalithambika Devi, C.B., Rosamma Stephen, P.N. industry off south east coast of India. Proc. Aravindakshan and P.P. Meenakshikunjamma, National Conference on Environmental 1996. Ichthyoplankton from Andaman and Hydraulics and Free Surface Flows, 25-30. Nicobar Seas. Proc. Second Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Chatterji, A., A.H. Parulekar and S.Z. Qasim, Pillai, et. al., (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 239-248. 1996. Nesting behaviour of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller) (Xiphosura). In: India's Exclusive Economic Zone: Resources, Exploitation, Management, S.Z. Qasim and G.S. Roonwal (Eds.), G.S. Omega Scientific Publ., New Delhi, 142-155. Fernandes, A.A, Y.V.B. Sarma and H.B. Menon, 1996. Wave directional spectrum from array measurements. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 243-248. Gaur, A.S., 1997. Ceramic industries of Poompuhar. In: An Integrated Approach to Marine Archaeology, Proc. Fourth Indian Conf. on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, Society for Marine Archaeology, Goa, 127-132. Madhupratap, M., 1996. Some special features of the trophic relationships in the Arabian Sea. In: India's Exclusive Economic Zone: Resources, Exploitation, Management, S.Z. Qasim, G.S. Roonwal (Eds.), Omega Scientific Publ., New Delhi., 87-93. Mandal, S., 1996. Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 237242. Mandal, S., P. Chandramohan, N.S.N. Raju and K.C. Pathak, 1996. Ocean outfall off Mangalore, west coast of India. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 537- 540. Nair, V.R. and N. Ramaiah, 1996. Zooplankton characteristics of the coastal ecosystem off Bombay, India. Pelagic Biogeography ICoPB II. Proc. Second International Conference, IOC/ UNESCO, i-vii. Nambirajan, M. and A.S. Gaur, 1997. River ports and other archaeological sites on the river banks of Goa. In: An Integrated Approach to Marine Archaeology, Proc. Fourth Indian Conf. on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, Society for Marine Archaeology, Goa, 115-120. Pattanayak, A.K. and S. Tripati, 1997. Role of Chilka Lake in the Maritime History of Orissa. In: An Integrated Approach to Marine Archaeology, Proc. Fourth Indian Conf. on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, Society for Marine Archaeology, Goa, 83-86. Prasanna Kumar, S., Y.K. Somayajulu and T.V. Ramana Murty, 1997. Acoustic characteristics and tomography studies of the northern Indian ocean. In: Acoustic Remote Sensing Applications, S.P. Singbal (Ed.), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 549-579. Ranu Gupta, 1996. Effect of oil spill on the microbial population in Andaman Sea and Nicobar Island. In: Proc. of Second Workshop on the Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Pillai, er al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 85-90. Ranu Gupta, 1996. Growth and viability of marine yeasts exposed to different strength of stress solutes. In: Proc. Second Workshop on the Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Pillai, ef. al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 91-95. Ramana, M.V., V. Subrahmanyam, K.V.L.N.S. Sarma, M. Desa, M.M.M. Rao and C. Subrahmanyam , 1996. Record of the Cretaceous magnetic quiet zone in the distal Bengal fan and its significance in understanding

Contributions in Proceedings and Books

Ansari, Z.A., B.S. Ingole and A.H. Parulekar, 1996. Reassessment of bottom communities of estuarine complex at Goa in relation to Anthropogenic charges. Proceedings of X Annual Conference of National Environmental Science Academy, 33-36. Ansari, Z.A. and P. Farshchi, 1996. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis. Proc. Recent Advances in Biosciences, 147-152.

Anthony, Joseph and Ehrlich Desa, 1997. Acoustic Ghosal, S.K. and D. Pathak, 1996. Modelling of an interoperable parallel file system. In : Trends remote sensing of ocean flows. In : Acoustic in Advanced Computing (ADCOMP 96), P.S. Remote Sensing Applications, S.P. Singbal (Ed.), Nagendra Rao and Ravi Mittal (Eds.), Tata Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 19: 407McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., 52-55. 446. Antony, J., J.A. Erwin Desa, E. Desa, Jim Mckeown and B. Vani Peshwe, 1996. Wave effects on a pressure sensor. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 568572. Gopalakrishnan, T.C., K.K.C. Nair and V.N. Sankaranarayanan, 1996. Zooplankton standing stock off south of Great Nicobar Island during an oil spill incident and after. Proc. Second Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Pillai, et. al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 205-216.

Aravindakshan, P.N. and Rosamma Stephen, 1996. Composition of heteropods in the Andaman Sea. Proc. Second Workshop on Goswami, S.C., 1996. Zooplankton biomass and Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. fishery potential of the EEZ of India. In: India's Exclusive Economic Zone: Resources, Pillai, et. al.. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 193-196. Exploitation and Management, S.Z. Qasim and G.S. Roonwal (Eds.), Omega Scientific Ashok Kumar, K. and S.G. Diwan, 1996. Publishers, New Delhi, 94-104. Directional waverider buoy in Indian waters experiences of NIO. Proc. International Conf. in Goswami, S.C. and Y. Shrivastava, 1996. Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 226- 230. Zooplankton standing stock, community, structure and diversity in the northern Arabian Baban Ingole. Coastal Aquaculture : Prospects Sea. In: Proc. Second Workshop on Scientific and problems. In: Voices for the Ocean; A report Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Pillai, et. to the Independent World Commission on the al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 127-137. Ocean, R. Rajagopalan (Ed.), International Ocean Institute, Madras, 131-132. Bahulayan, N., 1996. On the various approaches to the modelling of 3-D circulation in the ocean. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Developments in Mathematics, Karnataka University, Dharwad, 15-21. Chakraborty, B., 1996. Transducer. In: Encyclopedia of Microcomputers, Allen Kent and J.G. Williams (Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 18:335-360. Chakraborty, B., R. Hagen and H.W. Schenke, 1996. Determining seabed backscatter parameters using Multibeam-Hydrosweep System. Proc. Third European Conference on Haake, B., T. Rixen, T. Reemtsma, V. Ramaswamy and V. Ittekkot, 1996. Processes determining seasonality and interannual variability of settling particle fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea. In : Particle Flux in the Ocean, Ittekkot et. al. (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons, Sussex, 252-270. Illangovan, D., S. Jaya Kumar and R.L. Naik, 1996. Geotechnical properties of marine soil off North Konkan coast. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 361- 365. Jaya Kumar, S., P. Chandramohan, B.K. Jena and P. Pednekar, 1996. Engineering parameters for expansion of MPT berth, Goa. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 372376.

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the evolutionary history of the northeastern Indian Ocean. In: Proc. of the Second International Seminar and Exhibition on Geophysics beyond 2000, Assoc. of Explor. Geophys., Hyderabad, 292-295. Reddy, N.P.C., K. Mohana Rao, S.V.S. Pavana Putra and Ch.M. Rao, 1997. Lithological and mineralogical changes observed in a core from the western Bay of Bengal. Proc. IGBP Symp. on Changes in Global Climate due to Natural and Human Activities, S.M. Das and R.S. Thakur (Eds.), Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 180-198. Rosamma Stephen and P.P. Meenakshikunjamma, 1996. Distribution of Ostracods of Andaman Sea. Proc. Second Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Pillai, et al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 217-221. Sanil Kumar, V., M.C. Deo, N.M. Anand and R. Gowthaman, 1996. Directional wave spectra off southeast coast of Tamil Nadu. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 254-258.

Varkey, M.J., R. Vaithiyanathan and K. Santanam, 1996. Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hind casting. Proc. International Conf. in Ocean Engineering, IIT, Madras, 502-506. Veerayya, M. and F. Almeida, 1996. Acoustic basement : Its relevance to Karwar Port development. In: Proc. of International Conference in Ocean Engineering, IIT.

NIO/SP-1/97. Shetye, S.R. et al. Tidal circulation in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine System. NIO/SP-2/97. Singbal, S.Y.S. and Classy D'Silva. Evaluation of the oil spill dispersants MAC-22. NIO/SP-3/97. Rajagopal, M.D. Rapid environmental impact assessment for the proposed marine facilities for the Eastern Indian Refinery at Paradip. NIO/SP-4/97. Vijaykumar, R. Fish Spawning and breeding grounds in the marine environs of Pillaiperumalnallur, Nagapattinam. NIO/SP-5/97. Achuthankutty, C.T. Design and specifications of a pilot scale prawn hatchery. NIO/SP-6/97. Verlenkar, X.N. Impact of heated effluents on marine biotic communities as evaluated by laboratory bio-assay studies. NIO/SP-7/97. Chandramohan, P. Oceanographic studies for the disposal of effluents. NIO/SP-8/97. Pathak, M.C. Bathymetric and seabed studies for acceptability of proposed sites for demarcation of submarine effluent pipeline corridor and the diffuser off Dahej (Phase -1). NIO/SP-9/97. Kotnala, K.L. Bathymetric and seabed surveys for proposed all weather ports at Redi, Vijaydurg and Ganeshgule (Parts I, II and III). NIO/SP-10/97. Vora, K.H. Search surveys for contraband silver dumped off Mumbai, Maharashtra. NIO/SP-11/97. Babu, M.T., M.R. Rameshkumar, P.M. Muraleedharan and R. Vaithiyanathan. Current measurements for the proposed all weather ports at Redi, Vijayadurg and Agargule, Maharastra. NIO/SP-12/97. Ansari, Z.A. Ecobiological, toxicological and environmental impact assessment studies of the effluent discharge from MRL-CBR in the marine environs off Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu. NIO/SP-13/97. Gaur, A.S. Marine archaeological explorations off Poompuhar (Tamil Nadu). NIO/SP-14/97. Singbal, V. and Ramesh Babu. Report on baseline studies on ocean currents in the central Indian Basin prior to benthic disturbance. NIO/SP-15/97. Murty, C.S. Comprehensive EIA for captive port facilities at Pipavav, Gujarat. Kesava Das, V., P. Chandramohan, K.L. Kotnala, V.T. Paulinose and V. Sanil Kumar. Environmental Impact Assessment of shallow water mining of Chavara. Phase I: Baseline studies, sponsored by National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai. Sankarnarayanan, V.N. et al. Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment for cooling water intake and discharge for North Madras stage III, Thermal Power Project, Ennur, sponsored by Trisakthi Energy Pvt. Ltd., Chennai.

Technical Report

Sadhuram, Y. and N.C. Wells, 1996. The warm pool in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Its implications for the large scale ocean/ atmosphere/land system. Univ. of Southampton, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, U.K.

Atlas

Pankajakshan Thadathil, Jaydeep Pattanaik and Arvind Ghosh K., 1997. An atlas of upwelling indices along the east and west coasts of India, 1-55.

Santhakumari, V. 1996. The Medusae from the sea around Laccadive group of islands (7-18°N/ 69°-76°E). Proc. of Second Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada, V.K. Sponsored Project Reports Pillai, et al. (Eds.), DOD, New Delhi, 249-255. NIO/SP-17/96. Chandramohan, P. Rapid environmental impact assessment for the Sarupria, J.S., 1997. Marine data and information proposed fishing jetty at Chicalim. management system for the Indian Ocean. Proc. IGBP Symp. on Changes in Global Climate due NIO/SP-18/96. Banakar, V.K. Chemical analyses to Natural and Human Activities, S.N. Das and of soil and water samples for major and minor R.S. Thakur (Eds.), Allied Publishers Ltd., New elements. Delhi, 243-247. NIO/SP-19/96. Singbal, S.Y.S., S.P. Fondekarand Sarupria, J.S. and K. Aravind Ghosh, 1997. Classy D'Silva. Evaluation of chemical Chemical and biological oceanographic data and dispersants for their suitability to Indian marine information management at the Indian NODC. environment. Proc. International Workshop on Oceanographic NIO/SP-20/96. Chandramohan, P. Studies on Biological and Chemical Data Management, volume of dredging at Chilka lake. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 87, Washington D.C., 157. NIO/SP-21/96. Parulekar, A.H and Z. A. Ansari. Toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine Schafer, P., V. Ittekkot, M. Bartsch, R.R. Nair and ecosystems, marine food chain and marine living J. Tiemann, 1996. Freshwater influx and particle resources. flux variability in the Bay of Bengal. In : Particle Flux in the Ocean, Ittekkot et al. (Eds.), John NIO/SP-22/96. Gopala Krishna, V.V. Routine monitoring of the Indian Ocean thermal structure Wiley and Sons, Sussex, 271-292. - XBT observations under TOGA-I programme Sudhakar, M., V.N. Kodagali and S. Jaishankar, (Bombay - Mauritius route). 1996. A model for relative ranking of blocks for selection of candidate minesite for manganese NIO/SP-23/96. Anthony, M.K., G. Narayanaswamy, M. Veerayya, A. Suryanarayana and V. nodule mining. Proc. Offshore Technology Krishnakumar. Beach erosion due to a freshwater Conference, Houston, Texas, 475-487. stream and its mitigation at Majorda, Goa. Suresh,T., K.H. Vora, R.G. Prabhu Desai and S.R. NIO/SP-24/96. Singbal, S.Y.S., S.N. De Sousa, Rao, 1997. Multimedia information system of Classy D'Silva, Sujata Kaisary, Analia Mesquita, marine archaeology, In: An Integrated Approach Jyoti Borkar. Coastal Ocean Monitoring and to Marine Archaeology, Proc. Fourth Indian Prediction System (COMAPS). Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries, Society Archaeology, Goa, 37-40. for Marine NIO/SP-25/96. Rao, L.V.G. and P. Vethamony. Current and tide measurement for the design of pipeline from Jamnagar to Kandla Route. NIO/SP-26/96. Ramana, M.V., V. Subrahmanyam, K.V.L.N. Sarma, Maria D'Sa and K.S. Krishna. Crustal studies of the Bay of Bengal.

Tripati, S. and S.K. Patnaik, 1996. Trade routes and communication pattern of ancient Orissa. Gauravam, In: Recent Researches in Indology, K.V. Ramesh, et al. (Eds.), Delhi, 396-404.

58

Sankarnarayanan, V.N. et al. Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment of offshore Coal Terminal, coal jetty conveyance system and lightrage operations for SEPC thermal power plant at Tuticorin, sponsored by M/s. SPIC Electronics Power Corporation Ltd., Chennai. Sankarnarayanan, V.N. et al. Rapid environmental impact assessment of heated cooling water discharge and ash disposal from SEPC Thermal Power Plant at Tuticorin, sponsored by M/s. SPIC Electronics Power Corporation Ltd., Chennai. Marine Environmental Impact Assessment studies for the construction of sea water intake and warm water discharge of a power plant at Tuticorin, Vembar, sponsored by the Indian Power Projects Ltd. Studies on the pre-mining environmental conditions in the Central Indian Ocean with reference to Secondary Standing Stock 1997, sponsored by Department of Ocean Development. Zingde, M.D., K. Govindan, R.V. Sarma, A.N. Kadam, P.D. Gore and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Comprehensive marine EIA/EMP for wastewater release and captive jetty for Indo Gulf Copper Smelter at Lakhigam. Sponsored by Indo Gulf Fertilizers & Chemicals Corporation Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., N.M. Anand, S.N. Gajbhiye, A. N. Kadam and S. Mandal, 1996. Marine environmental impact assessment for proposed jetty of IFFCO at Kandla. Sponsored by Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Ltd., Kandla. Zingde, M.D., S.N. Gajbhiye and A. N. Kadam, 1996. Monitoring of Amba River estuary (MayJune 95) Part II. Sponsored by Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd., Nagothane. Zingde, M.D., K. Govindan, M.M. Sabnis, R.V. Sarma, A.V. Mandalia and Prashant Sharma, 1996. Marine environmental impact assessment of coastal waters off Thal in relation to release of wastewater from RCF. Sponsored by Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd., Thal. Zingde, M.D., R.V. Sarma, J. Ram, A.V. Mandalia and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Release of wastewater in Amba estuary during monsoon. Sponsored by ATV Projects India Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., V.R. Nair, R.V. Sarma, P.D. Gore and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Erosional trends of limestone sea cliffs along Jafarabad and coastal environmental quality. Sponsored by Narmada Cement Company Ltd., Jafarabad. Zingde, M.D., S.N. Gajbhiye, R.V. Sarma, A.N. Kadam and P.D. Gore, 1996. Marine EIA for proposed expansion of NDIL jetty and foreshore facilities at Dharamtar (Amba estuary). Sponsored by Tata Risk Management Services, Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., J.R.M. Ram, Prashant Sharma and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Impact of wastewater release

on the ecology of Vashisti estuary. Sponsored by Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation, Mahad. Zingde, M.D., M.M. Sabnis, S.N. Gajbhiye and Prashant Sharma, 1997. Impact assessment of release of wastewater from Tata Chemicals Limited on the ecology. Sponsored by Tata Chemicals Ltd., Mithapur. Zingde, M.D., S.N. Gajbhiye and A.N. Kadam, 1996. Monitoring of Amba river estuary (December 1995): Part III. Sponsored by Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd., Nagothane. Zingde, M.D., V.R. Nair, R.V. Sarma, A.N. Kadam, P.D. Gore and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Marine EIA due to release of wastewater from GHCL soda ash plant at Sutrapada. Sponsored by Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd., Veraval.

Popular Article

Varkey, M.J., 1996. Waves in the seas. Science Reporter, May 1996, 9-13.

Other Publications

Dhargalkar, V.K., S.G. Prabhu Matondkar and X.N. Verlencar, 1996. Seasonal variation in carbon budget in water column off Princess Astrid coast. Scientific Report XII Indian Expedition to Antarctica, DOD, New Delhi, Tech. Publ. No. 10: 259-266. Ingole, B.S and V.K. Dhargalkar, 1996. Comparative account of benthic community at two different locations in the continental Antarctica. Scientific Report XII Indian Expedition to Antarctica, DOD, New Delhi, Tech. Publ. No. 10: 195-206. Prabhu Matondkar, S.G., V.K. Dhargalkar and A.H. Parulekar, 1996. Ecosystem characterization in Indian Ocean Sector, Antarctica. Scientific Report XII Indian Expedition to Antarctica, DOD, New Delhi, Tech. Publ. No. 10: 207-231. Parthiban, G. M.V.S. Guptha and V.K. Banakar, 1997. Particle fluxes in the Central Indian Ocean. Report submitted to Department of Ocean Development on the Environmental Impact Assessment in CIB (Index Programme-Baseline data collection). Verlencar X.N. and V.K. Dhargalkar, 1996. Ecobiological studies of the fresh water lakes at Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. Scientific Report XII Indian Expedition to Antarctica. DOD, New Delhi, Tech. Publ. No. 10: 233-257.

Consultancy Reports

NIO/CON-2/96. Jagtap, T.G., 1996. State of art report: The impact on flora and fauna, due to the construction of Virtual jetty at Kandla, Gujarat. Zingde, M.D., S.N. Gajbhiye, A.N. Kadam, P.D. Gore and Prashant Sharma, 1996. Ecological studies of flora and fauna for HPCL Virtual jetty at Kandla. Sponsored by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., S.N. Gajbhiye, A.N. Kadam, P.D. Gore and Prashant Sharma, 1996. Ecological studies of flora and fauna for HPCL Virtual jetty at Kandla. Part II - Marine environmental impact assessment. Sponsored by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., K. Govindan, A.V. Mandalia and Prashant Sharma, 1996. Marine EIA for the proposed pipelines across Narara Bet for ESSAR Oil Refinery, Vadinar. Sponsored by ESSAR Oil Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., K. Govindan, M.M. Sabnis, R.V. Sarma, Prashant Sharma and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Environmental impact assessment of accidental spillage of crude oil at pipeline crossings of water bodies (MDAJ Hook-up). Sponsored by Engineers India Ltd., New Delhi. Zingde, M.D., V.R. Nair, R.V. Sarma, V.S. Naidu and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Environmental impact assessment of accidental spillage of petroleum products at pipeline crossings of water bodies (Kochi-Tiruchchirappalli pipeline). Sponsored by Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Mumbai. Zingde, M.D., M.M. Sabnis, R.V. Sarma, J.R.M. Jaiswar, V.S. Naidu, A.V. Mandalia and M.A. Rokade, 1996. Rapid marine EIA for release of effluent from GACL in the coastal waters of Lakhigam. Sponsored by Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd., Vadodara.

-.59

Appendix - IX

Staff List

(as on 31 March, 1997)

Director Dr. Desa Ehrlich

T.O.(A) Shri Almeida Michael A Shri Krishnakumar V

A. Headquarters

Physical Oceanography Remote Sensing

Sc.F Shri Rao LVG

Chemical Oceanography

Sc.F Dr. Singbal SYS

Sc.EII

Dr. Kamat SY

Sc.EI

Dr. Naik CG Dr. George MD Dr. De Souza SNAG Dr. Naqvi SWA Dr. Wahidullah Solimabi Shri Rajagopal MD Dr. Poi Fondekar SN Smt. D'Silva Classy Dr. Sardesai Sugandha Dr. Dileep Kumar M Dr. Narvekar PV Smt. Mesquita AM Smt. Kaisary Sujata Dr. Parameswaran PS Sc.C Dr. D'Souza Lisette M Dr. Sarkar Anupam Dr. Sawkar Kalidas Dr. Shailaja MS Dr. Shirodkar PV T.O.(C) Smt. Dias Caroline Sc.B Shri Durga Prasad PVSS Shri Nagarajan R T.O.(B) Shri Femandes Blasco T.O.(A) Shri Amal Jaya Kumar D Smt. Rao Anuragini K STA Shri Alagarsamy R JTA Shri Bhobe Datta Prasad Shri Ravishankar R Jr. Deckhand Mandrekar Uday DR SLA Shri Gauns Fotu Shri Gilbert MJM JLA Shri Dalvi Hanumant S Jr. Steno Patil Rajaram

Sc.EII

Dr. Varkey MJ Shri Gopinathan CK Dr. Shetye SR Dr. Bahulayan N Shri Ramesh Babu V

Sc.EI

Shri Sathe PV Shri Gouveia AD Shri Krishnamacharyulu RJ Shri Gopalakrishna W Dr. Shenoi SC Dr. Ramesh Kumar MR Dr. Murty Suryanarayana V Shri Sarma YVB Dr. Vethamony P Shri Femandes AA

Sc.C

Shri Sarma MSS Shri Nampoothiri GE Dr. Unnikrishnan AS Dr. Muraleedharan PM Sci.B Dr. S. Doraiswamy T.O.(A) Shri Babu MT Shri Selvan Michael G Shri Santanam K Shri Sundar Damodar STA Shri Vaithiyanathan R JTA Shri Gawas Vasant B Smt. Date Vaijayanti SLA Shri Monteiro Antonio Jr. Steno Kum. Alphonso Felecidade

Shri Bhattacharya GC Shri Subbaraju LV Shri Almeida FMS Dr. Ramana MV Dr. Hashimi NH Dr. Paropkari AL Dr. ValsangkarAB Dr. Karisiddaiah SM Dr. Wagle BG Shri Vora KH Dr. Ramaswamy V Dr. Rao Purnachandra V Dr. Sudhakar M Dr. Mukhopadhyay R Dr. Sharma Rahul Dr. Banerjee R Dr. Jauhari Pratima Dr. Pattan JN Dr. Nagender Nath B Dr. Gupta SM Shri Shyam Prasad M Dr. Rao Prattipati S Dr. Borole DV Dr. Kamesh Raju KA Dr. Iyer Sridhar D Dr. Chauhan OS Dr. Mudholkar AV Dr. Naidu Divakar P Dr. Mascarenhas A Dr. Subramanyam V Dr. Banakar VK Dr. Kodagali VN Shri Ram Prasad T Shri Ranade GH Shri Afzalpurkar S Dr. Chakraborty B Dr. Sree Krishna K Shri Chaubey Anil K Shri Khadge NH Sc.C Dr. Sarma KVLNS Shri Murty GPS Shri Pathak Devashish Shri Naik Gajanan P T.O.(C) Shri Pathak MC Shri Kotnala KL Shri Dias ECA Shri Marathe Prakash Sc.B Shri Mislankar PG Shri Ambre NV T.O.(B) Shri Nanyasi SK Shri Muralinath AS Shri Sonawane AV T.O.(A) Shri Janakiraman G Shri Phadte GM Shri Tata Sudhakar Shri Venkatesan R Shri Prabaharan N Shri Khedekar VD Shri Gracias DG Shri Rao Lingeswara BR Shri Gaonkar SS Shri Parthiban G Shri Pattanshetti SS Shri Srinivas Kariapati Shri Walker Gavin A Shri Ganesan P Shri Sivakholundu KM

Shri Naik DK Shri Fernando Vijayan Shri Vijayakumar B Shri Prakash Babu C STA Shri Gowthaman V Shri Sardar Areef A Smt. Desa Maria Ana Shri Prabhu Girish Anand Shri Jai Shankar S Shri Sivakumar D Shri Ramani K Shri Luis RAA JTA Shri Sukumaran NP Shri Senthilkumar G Shri Moraes Cesar NR Shri Naik Kamlakant L SM Shri Desai Gajanan Tech. Gr.ll Kum. Fernandes Aida Sr.Steno Smt. Fernandes Maria G Smt. Sudhakar Alison M Peon Shri Gauns Nani

Biological Oceanography

Sc.F Dr. Untawale AG Dr. Devassy VP Dr. Goswami SC

Sc.EII

Dr. Chandramohan D Dr. Bhattathiri PMA

Sc.EI

Dr. Harkantra SN Dr. Achuthankutty CT Dr. Madhupratap M Dr. Goswami Usha Dr. Loka Bharathi PA Dr. Ansari ZA Dr. Krishnakumari L Dr. Chatterji Anil K Dr. Ramaiah N Dr. Raghukumar S Dr. Raghukumar C Dr. Dhargalkar VK Dr. Wafar Sayeeda Dr. Verlencar XN Dr. Menezes Maria Dr. Ingole BS Dr. Prabhu Matondkar SG Dr. Jagtap TG Dr. Achuthankutty Shanta

Acoustic Tomography & Coastal Space Utilization

Sc.F Dr. Murty CS

Sc.EII

Dr. Swamy GN

Sc.C

Dr. Wafar MVM Dr. Rathod Vijayakumar P Dr. Goes Joaquim T.O.(C) Shri Subramaniam V Sc.B Dr. Mohandas C STA Shri Anantha Sreepada R Smt. Gurrala Sheelu

Sc.EI

Dr. Antony MK Dr. Somayajulu YK Dr. Prasanna Kumar S Dr. Suryanarayana A Dr. Ramanamurty TV Sc.C Shri Saran AK Sc.B Shri Navelkar Gajanan S Shri Saji PK

Geological Oceanography

Sc.F Dr. Rao Madhusudana Ch.

Sc.EII

Dr. Rao Gopala D Dr. Veerayya M Sc. El Dr. GujarAR Dr. Nigam Rajiv Dr. Gupta MVSN

60

JTA Smt. Ramaswamy Philomena Shri Naik Laxman B Shri Thalkatnal YS Shri Gauns Madhu O Shri Sajjad Hussain Mir Sr. Steno Smt. Afonso Bella

Sc.C Shri Mascarenhas Antonio AMQ Shri Menezes Andrew A T.O.(C) Smt. Peshwe Vani B Shri Tengali Suryakant B Sc.B Shri Madhan R Shri Mehra Prakash T.O.(A) Shri Chodankar VN STA Smt. Nagvekar Surekha G Shri Prasad MMV Shri Ramdasan K Smt. Prabhu Geeta S JTA Shri Vijayakumar Kannojia Smt. Rodrigues Ancy Tech.Asst. Shri Madaswamy B Fine Mech. Shri Surlekar Manohar Shri Rodrigues Dennis JTA Shri Mascarenhas Luis S Jr. Fitter Shri Monteiro Robert KPO Shri Dias Mathew Jr. Mech.(AC) Shri Fernandas Milton Jr. Mech. Shri Pednekar SS Turner Shri D'Silva EO Fitter Shri Fernandes Peter P Tech.(lnst) Gr.ll(3) Smt. Vimalakumari Damodaran Tech. Shri Shirgaunkar Anil V Model Maker Gr.ll(4) Shri Kalangutkar Shyam D Lab. Bearer Shri Sheikh Yacub Workshop Asst. Shri Naik Vasudev B Shri Sawant Raghunath Sr.Steno Smt. Veliath Linda Helper Gr.A Shri Jogale Arjun H Watchman Shri Desai KB Helper Sasi EK

LabAtt. Shri Dongrekar ST LDC Kum. Fernandes Terezinha Helper Gr. A Shri Gawde Shivaji

STA Shri Bandodkar Shrinivas N Tracer Shri Chitari Satish B Jr. Steno Smt. Shettigar Sunita S

Marine Corrosion & Materials Research

Sc F Dr. Wagh AB Sc El Dr. Bhosl NB Sc.C Dr. Anil AC Dr. Raveendran TV Dr. Sawant SS T.O.(C) Shri Paneer Selvam Sc.B Shri Venugopal C STA Shri Krishnamurthy P Venkat Smt. Garg Anita JTA Shri Nagvekar Shyam SLA Shri Prabhu N Sitaram Jr. Steno Smt. Subhashini S Engine Dr. Shri Kurle PR

Training Division

ScF Dr. Sumitra Vijayaraghavan R SLA Shri Naik Gurudas A Librarian Shri Fernandes Cajetan Jr. Steno Smt. Martins Fatima Jr. Deckhand Shri Gonsalves Rosario

Planning

Sc.EII Dr. Dalai SG Sc.B Shri Sarma PVSSR T.O.(B) Smt Singh Kavita T.O.(A) Smt. Simon Soja STA Shri Patil Manohar P Machine Oper. Shri Pednekar Babuso H

Publication & Reprography

ScEl Shri Bhat SR Photo. Off.(C) Shri Date VM T.O.(C) Shri Wahidullah Md Shri Sharma SP Smt. Thomas Rosy STA Shri Mahale Arun Y Sr.D/Man Shri Punj HD JTA Shri Fernandas Bruno Smt. Ribeiro Christalina SLA Smt. Duggal Vijaya Printing Mech. Gr.ll(3) Shri Naroji Subhash S Compositor Gr.ll(3) Shri Mochemadkar MV Tracer Shri Akerkar SG Shri Uchil R Shri Pawaskar Pramod Shri Javali Udaykumar Shri Chavan RL Shri Chitari KG PhotoAsst Gr.ll(4) Shri Sirsat Umesh PhotoAsst. Shri Karim Shaikh Ali Lab. Bearer Shri Parulekar Atmaram S Book Binder Shri Sirvoikar Chandrakant Helper Gr. A Shri Gonsalves Graciano Z P.S. Kum. Cardoz Milagrine Receptionist Gr.lll(2) Smt. Almeida Shanti

Library

Doc. Off. Gr.lV(4) Shri Tapaswi MP Ub. Off. Smt. Oka SH Shri Sainekar GH Cataloguer Shri Gawas Atmaram K UDC Shri Pereira Edward Helper Gr. A Shri Gauns Dinu P

Ocean Engineering

Sc.EII Dr. Anand NM ScEl Dr. Chandramohan P Shri Diwan SG Dr. Mandal S Shri Ashok Kumar K Sc.B Shri Bhat Subraya Shankar Shri Illangovan D Shri Jayakumar Slvam Shri Sanil Kumar T.O.(A) Shri Mandal HC Shri Pednekar PS Shri Pathak KC Shri Raju NSN JTA Shri Gowthaman R Shri Naik RL Shri Mochemadkar MV Shri Naik Ganesh N Shri Tari MK Shri Mochemadkar SV Sr.Steno Shri Bhinge RS

Ship/Boat Management

TechAsst. Gr.lll(2) Shri Rodrigues Lucano Bosun Shri Garudi RR Peon Shri Arlekar Pradeep

Establishment & General Administration

COA Pillai Rajan MR AO KS Dayanidhi SO Shri Dalvi MG Shri D'Souza Paul S Shri D'Silva Peter I Shri Duggal RK Shri Fernandes TC Hindi Officer Shri Singh Umesh Kumar Asst.(Gen.) Shri Fadte SR Smt. D'Silva Regina Shri Fernandas Agnello Shri Lourenco Francisco G Smt. Subramaniam Susheela Smt. Fernandas MF Shri Sirvoikar Onu Smt. D'Souza Ana J Shri Vemekar RG Shri Kurtarkar Ratnakar Shri Rajiv Sharma Smt. Rego Sacramento M

Data & Information

Sc.EII Shri Sarupria JS ScEl Shri Reddy Venkata G Shri Ghosh Arvind Kolli Sc.C Shri Pankajakshan T Shri Kunte PD STA Smt. Lasitha Ratnakaran KPO Shri Naik Suryakant R Shri Prabhu RK

Marine Instrumentation & Computer

Sc.F Shri Nayak MR Sc.EII Dr. Desa Elgar S Shri Prabhu Desai RG ScEl Shri SureshT Dr. Antony Joseph K

Marine Archaeology

T.O.(B) Dr. Tripati Sila Shri Sundaresh T Shri Gaur Aniruddh Singh Diver Arch. Shri Gudigar Puttaswamy

61

Sr.Steno Smt. Korde Vanamala P Shri Khanapuri Mahadev Security Asst. Shri James P UDC Shri Narvekar Dilip K Shri Cota Caitaninho Shri Verenkar Madan J LDC (Hindi) Shri Sawant RR Lab. Supervisor Shri Patil MN Record Keeper Shri Gad Suriya V Jr. Garden Chowdhary Shri Gawali Dhondu B Shri Ali Mohmad Dr. Cum Mech. Shri Fernandas Bernard Shri Nadar Kasi Shri Chorat BG Sr. Gest. Operator Shri Shettigar RB Staff Car Driver Shri Martins Vasu Shri Naik Baboi N Shri Shet RP Shri Poi RT JLA Shri Goudar RGK Farash Shri Gauns Keshav Guest House Att. Shri Kamat DS Cook Shri Godinho Jose Khalasi Gr.l(4) Shri Femandes Aquino Mali Shri Estrocio Vrthoba Shri Kunkolkar Dinker Smt. Shirodkar Susheela Smt. Shinde Ambubai Shri Sirvoikar Shamu G Shri Sirvoikar Hanuman Shri Gaunco Anant M Shri Jamal Sahib Peon Shri Gonsalves Joseph Shri Gauns Nanu Shri Gauns Digambar Watchman Shri Poi NT Shri Gaikwad Eknath Shri Mahale Jaidev G Shri Gaonkar HN Shri Gawas Pundalik Shri Parsekar SB Shri Kalelkar Eknath Shri Sebastian Baby Shri Kerkar Madhav Shri Pereira Rama F Shri Nair Sanilkumaran R Shri Gaikwad Kashinath S Safaiwala Shri Khedekar HV Smt Beg Subhadra Smt Fernandes Luisa A Smt. Sirvoicar Minaxi Smt. Sirvoicar Jaivanti Shri Pereira Laxman Shri Satelkar Sabaji Shri Naik Mahadev H Shri Gauns Bodu Shri Viegas Caitan Shri Tang Devichand Shri Khade Ramesh M

Smt. Braganza Maria Smt. D'Souza Maria Quiteria Smt. Ghanki Shanti Smt. Dias Nhali M Shri Gauns Dattaram Smt. Ratos Santana Shri Gauns Mukund Smt. Surlekar S. Sumitra

Civil Engineering

Asst. Exe. Engr. (Elect.) Shri Kulkarni KB Asst. Exe. Engr. (Civil) Shri Kubasad RB Asst. Engr. (CMI) Shri Mathew Chacko P STA Shri Parmar UA Tech. Asst. Shri Goudar MGK Jr. Electrician Shri Mahajan SN Pump Operator Shri Patil ML Meter Reader Shri Amaral Jose AN Plumber Shri Karelkar Laxman RC Carpenter Shri Naik Gurudas P Electrician Shri Cruz Ruzar Works Mistry Shri John PP Shri Krishnaiah K Shri Sardesai RB Sr.Deckhand Shri Toraskar Namdev B Shri Dhavjekar Maheshwar V UDC Smt. Amaral Vijaya A Helper Gr.A Shri Gawas Laxman B Shri Gawas Monu G Shri Martins Nagesh Khalasi Gr.l (4) Shri Kotharkar Shanta Shri Jogale Vithal A Khalasi Shri Shariff Md Shri Vijayan P Mason Shri Gawas Mohammad

Canteen

SLA Shri Ribeiro Melwin Asst. Manager Shri Toraskar DT Bearer Shri Dias Ghanasham Shri Coelho Reginaldo Shri Femandes Cerilo Shri Varghese Thomas Shri Kharde Ramesh T Shri Tuyekar Gopal Nhanu Asst. Halwai Shri Tervankar Rama B Washboy Shri Estrocio Francis Safaiwala Smt. Dias Ana Conceicao

Finance & Accounts

Sr.F&AO Shri Dias CM SO(F&A) Shri D'Mello JL Asst(Gen) Smt Mascarenhas Nancy Shri Ghanti Shivappa Shri Murthy VS Smt. D'Mello Vilma Asst.(F&A) Shri Gonsalves John Jr. Steno Smt. Cardoz Cleta UDC Shri Vijayakumar G Smt. D'Costa Edith Smt. Mochemadkar Mamta LDC Smt. Femandes Ita ML Stores Bearer Shri Gaunco Vasu Khalasi Shri Lemos C

B. Regional Centres

Kochi

ScF Dr. Sankaranarayanan VN (Scientist-in-Charge) Dr. Sivadas P

Sc.EII

Shri Josanto V Dr. KR Pillai

Sc.EI

Dr. Nair KKC Dr. Paulinose VT Dr. Devi Lalithambika CB Dr. Gopalakrishnan TC Dr. Santhakumari V Dr. Balachandran T Shri Arvindakshan PN Shri Rao Kameshwara K Smt. Rosamma Stephen Smt. Saramma UP Smt. Jayalakshmy KV Smt. Meenakshi Kunjamma Dr. Haridas P Shri Kesava Das V Dr. Devi Sarala K Shri Balasubramanian T Sc.C Shri Dinesh Kumar PK Shri Ravichandran C Smt. Joseph Tressiamma T.O.(C) Shri Venugopal P Shri Mohanan VN Sc.B Dr. Gupta Ranu Dr. Arti Noor T.O.(B) Shri Pylee Abraham Shri Raveendran O Shri Narayanan B Shri Kumaran S T.O.(A) Shri Tony Joseph T Shri Balachandran KK Shri Vijayan PR Lib. Asst. Shri Thampi KE JTA Dr. Nair Maheshwari Shri Nair Sivaraman KK Shri Shaji AK Pre. Mech. Shri Valson TR JTA Shri Sudhakaran TK Shri Xavier KP

Stores & Purchase

Dy.SPO Shri Ramankutty TK Shri Wase RC Shri Naik KS SPA(Gr.lll) Shri Sanke SG Shri Mascarenhas Johnny Shri Rao Siva PV Shri Chodnekar BL Shri Tardelkar Surendra Shri Mujawar Yusuf SPA(Gr.lV) Smt. Peshwe Melita Shri Sukumaran A Shri Maijikar Harish Shri Lopes Craveiro Shri Hasanwale Ashraf Asst(Gen) Kum. Shahapurkar Meena Smt. Lobo Pia G Shri Sreenath Jena UDC Shri Naik Umesh B Sr.Steno Smt. D'Souza Lucinda V Jr.Deckhand Shri Kankonkar PJ Khalasi Shri Vaz Antonio X Peon (Group 'C') Shri Pereira Peter Peon Shri Martins Dacu Stores Bearer Shri Manickam S Shri Barreto Mahadeo Shri Gawas Bhiku

Director's Office

Sr. Steno Shri Simon TP STA Shri Reddy Sreenivasulu Ch Smt Prabhu Beena S JTA Shri Naik Suresh N KPO Shri Jakhi SPN Lab Bearer Shri D'Souza Francis

Dispensary

RMO Dr. Bhandari LV MO Dr. Netravalkar MGS Nursing Sister Smt. Menezes Thelma Sister Smt. Mochemadkar Kanchan M Compounder Smt. Fernandes Maria Angela Peon Shri Shirodkar Govind

62

Technician Gr.ll Smt Grace Joseph Dr. Cum Mch. Shri Chakkapan CP Staff Car Driver Shri John Luis Fitter Shri Gopalan K Sr. Deckhand Shri Thankappan K Jr. Gest. Operator Shri George Thomas Lab.Att. Shri Peter KP Lab Bearer Smt. Geethakumari PG P.S. Shri Gopinathan KK Asst.(Gen.) Smt. Pillai Swarnakumari Shri Sivadasan K Peon Shri Hamza KH Kitchen Clerk Smt. Mary PK Tea Maker Shri P.V. Kannan Wash Boy Smt. Rejani CL

Mumbai

Sc.F Dr. Zingde MD (Scientist-in-Charge) Sc.EII Dr. Nair Vijayalakshmi Dr. Govindan K Dr. Sabnis MM Shri Sharma RV Dr. Gajbhiye SN Dr. Kadam AN ScC Dr. Jiyalal Ram MJ Sc.B Dr. VS Naidu T.O.(B) Shri Sharma Prashant Shri Mandalia AV T.O.(A) Kum. Gore PD Shri Rokade MA STA Shri Mehta PN Shri Chauhan Gopal K SLA Shri Patel Babu G Shri Anirudh Ram Shri Bagde DS Smt. D'Souza Rosaria Asst.(Gen.) Shri Tharawal R Shri Date AS Sr.Steno Shri Nair PB Smt. Subramanian Geeta

SPA (Gr.IV) Smt. Fernandes Carmina UDC Smt. PriolkarAlka Staff Car Driver Shri Dige Anant Shanker Shri Sable Baban V Shri Sawant Subhash Chavan Helper Gr.A Shri llyas Md Watchman Shri Singh Omkar R Jr.Sec.Asst. Shri Ram Khilawan Das Tea/Coffee Maker Shri DP Gupta Dish Wash Boy Shri Ramesh N Nayika

Sc.B Shri Sudarshan R Shri Lakshimi Narayana S T.O.(B) Dr. Devi Padmini Shri Premakumar MK Shri Venkateshwarlu K T.O.(A) Shri Raju YSN JTA Shri Jawahar Kumar Ch Shri Rao Koteswara A Shri Prasad Ranga TV SLA Shri Babu Suri A Dri. Cum Mech. Shri Polichetti N Lab. Att. Shri Sheik Mustafa B Sr. Steno Smt. Radhakrishna K Asst(Gen) Shri Rao Ramakrishna Ch UDC Smt. Rao Syamaia Helper Gr. A Smt. Kondamma N Mali Shri Rao Subbha K Tea Maker Shri Rao Rama D Wash Boy Shri Appala Raju K

Sc.EI

Visakhapatnam

Sc.F Dr. Rao DP (Scientist-in-Charge) Sc.EII Dr. Murthy KSR

Sc.EI

Dr. Sarma W Shri Rao Malleswara MM Shri Subramanyam AS Dr. Sadhuram Y Shri Reddy Purnachandra N Sc.C Shri Rao Narasimha TV Shri Rao Prabhakara B Shri Rao Mohana K

Acronyms

Asst. Engr. --Assistant Engineer Asst. Exe. Engr. -- Assistant Executive Engineer Asst. -- Assistant COA -- Controller of Administration Doc. Off. -- Documentation Officer Dr. Cum Mech. -- Driver Cum Mechanic F & AO -- Finance & Accounts Officer Fine Mech. -- Fine Mechanic JLA -- Junior Laboratory Assistant Jr. Steno -- Junior Stenographer JTA -- Junior Technical Assistant Jr. Tech -- Junior Technician KPO -- Key Punch Operator Lab. Att. -- Laboratory Attendant LDC -- Lower Division Clerk Lib. Asst. -- Library Assistant Lib. Off. -- Library Officer MO -- Medical Officer Photo. Asst. -- Photographic Assistant Pre. Mech. -- Precision Mechanic P.S. -- Private Secretary RMO -- Resident Medical Officer Sc. -- Scientist SLA -- Senior Laboratory Assistant SO -- Section Officer SPA -- Stores & Purchase Assistant Sr. D/Man -- Senior Draughtsman Sr. Steno -- Senior Stenographer Sr. Fine Mech. -- Senior Fine Mechanic STA -- Senior Technical Assistant Tech. Gr. II -- Technical Grade II TO -- Technical Officer UDC -- Upper Division Clerk

J53

31st Annual Report (1996-97) National Institute of Oceanography, Goa

India

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