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Grades and Applications

KRONOS Information 2.1 March 2009

Your KRONOS partners worldwide

NL

KRONOS B.V. Guldenwaard 133 b, NL-3078 AJ Rotterdam Tel. (+31 10) 4136310 [email protected] KRONOS CANADA Inc. 1255 Rue Université, Bureau 1102 Montreal Quebec, H3B 3W7 Tel. (+1 514) 397 3501 [email protected] KRONOS EUROPE S.A./N.V. Langerbruggekaai 10, Haven 8160 A B-9000 Gent, Tel. (+32 9) 2540311 Sales: (+32 9) 2540368 [email protected] KRONOS Worldwide, Inc. 5 Cedarbrook Drive, Cranbury, NJ 08512, USA Tel. (+1 609) 860-6200 [email protected] KRONOS Limited Barons Court, Manchester road Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 1BQ, UK Tel. (+44 1625) 547200 [email protected] KRONOS TITAN AS P.O. Box 1415, N-1602 Fredrikstad Tel. (+47) 69309000 [email protected] KRONOS TITAN GmbH Peschstraße 5, 51373 Leverkusen, Germany Tel. (+49 214) 356-0 [email protected] SOCIETE INDUSTRIELLE DU TITANE S.A. 45, Rue de Courcelles, F-75008 Paris Tel. (+33 1) 53839360 [email protected] AD Chemia, Jozef Adamec 91910 Bukova 275, Slovakia Tel. (+421 33) 5578216 [email protected] ART CHEMICALS SRL Str. Barbu Vacarescu nr.4, Bl.1, sc. 3 parter, ap. 67, 020281 Bukuresti, sector 2 Tel. (+40 21) 2122493 [email protected] WHITE PIGMENT Kamil Wisniewski ul. Wierzbowa 9/11, lok. 320 00-094 Warszawa, Poland Tel. (+48 22) 8272975 [email protected]

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KRONIA Kimyevi Mad.San.ve Tic.Ltd.Sti. ACARKENT 3.Cad 16.Sok. C-66, 81686 Beykoz-Istanbul, Turkey Tel. (+90 216) - 485 1799 [email protected] Orbis GmbH Harambasiceva 36, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Tel. (+385 1) 2331731 [email protected] Pointner & Rothschädl Ges. m.b.H. Münchner Bundesstraße 121, A-5020 Salzburg Tel. (+43 662) 4315410 [email protected] PORO Additive EOOD Mladost, 1A, Bl. 518, app 21, BG-1729 Sofia Tel. (+359 2) 8840144 [email protected] PORO Additive Kft. Váci út 184, H-1138 Budapest Tel. (+36 61) 2390130 [email protected] B.J. Tricardos SA 16 Xanthippou Str, Holargos 15561, Athens Tel. (+30 210) 6548200 [email protected] URAI S.p.A. Milanofiori - Palazzo E2, I-20090 Assago-Milano Tel. (+39 02) 8923991 [email protected] ZEUS QUIMICA S.A. Santaló 152-154, bajos, 08021 Barcelona Tel (+34 932) 402222 [email protected] ZEUS QUIMICA, LDA Pct. D. Nuno Alvares Pereira No. 20-1° Sala AZ 4450-218 Matosinhos Tel. (+351 229) 397360 [email protected] KRONOS TITAN GmbH Peschstraße 5, 51373 Leverkusen, Germany Tel. (+49 214) 356-0 [email protected] SOCIETE INDUSTRIELLE DU TITANE S.A. 45, Rue de Courcelles, F-75008 Paris Tel. (+33 1) 53839360 [email protected] KRONOS INTERNATIONAL, Inc. KRONOS Export Department Peschstraße 5, 51373 Leverkusen, Germany Tel. (+49 214) 356-0 [email protected]

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KRONOS - the company

The KRONOS group is one of the world's leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide. KRONOS has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group owes its significant market position to the quality of its products, innovation, technical experience and reliable customer service around the world. The company's international representation is supported by an effective distribution system. Our manufacturing sites are located in five countries on two continents with European sites at Leverkusen and Nordenham/Germany, Fredrikstad/Norway and Ghent/Belgium; North American sites at Lake Charles, Louisiana/USA, and Varennes, Quebec/Canada. The company has its own ilmenite mine in Hauge i Dalane/Norway, a key raw material in the sulphate process. There are two methods for manufacturing TiO2 pigments, one method uses sulphuric acid for digestion (sulphate process), while the other uses chlorine (chloride process) with KRONOS plants employing both methods. As a result of the raw material used both processes also produce iron salts, which are used to treat potable and process water, as well as for wastewater treatment. The sulphuric acid by-product occurring in the sulphate process at KRONOS is either completely reconcentrated and returned to the process or neutralised. The chlorine from the chloride process is recovered and recycled. Throughout the years, KRONOS has made a commitment to its product quality and customers. Our team of technical service, marketing and sales representatives works together in close cooperation with our customers and suppliers. The latest technological equipment and a team of specialist staff optimise formulations or provide on-the-spot advice. Natural and accelerated weathering tests are also performed. KRONOS is certified to EN ISO 9001, EN ISO 14001 and EN ISO 22000, its' current annual production capacity is approximately 520,000 tonnes TiO2 . This list of grades is designed to help our customers select the most suitable KRONOS titanium dioxide grade for their field of application. In specific cases, KRONOS titanium dioxide grades not listed for a particular field of application can still achieve good results. KRONOS staff, our sales companies and agencies worldwide will be pleased to answer any questions you may have on this subject.

Contents:

Chemical/physical characteristics Plastics Thermoplastics Coatings Industrial coatings Architectural coatings Printing inks Page 4 - 5 Page 4 - 5 Fields of application Page 6 Page 6 - 7 Optical characteristics, description Page 14 - 15 Page 10 - 13

Further KRONOS Pigments Page 4 - 5 Man-made fibres Paper Glass, vitreous enamels, ceramic products Miscellaneous applications TiO2 - photocatalysts Page 4 - 5

Page 8 - 9

Page 16 - 17

Page 9

Page 17

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Chemical and physical characteristics of KRONOS TiO2 grades

Anatase pigments Standard classification1 Stabilised with compounds of these elements TiO2 -content 2 min. [%] Density 2 [g/cm2] Bulk density 3 [kg/m3] Relative scattering power 4 Oil absorption (ISO 787/5) Weather resistance 6

KRONOS 1001 KRONOS 1071 KRONOS 1074 KRONOS 1077 KRONOS 1171

Titanium dioxide E 171

A1 A2 A2 A1 A1

Al, Si Al, Mn, Si -

99.0 96.0 94.0 98.5 99.0

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8

600 700 600 450 600

64 74 73 67 70

20 20 21 20 20

-

Rutile pigments primarily for coatings

KRONOS 2044 KRONOS 2064 KRONOS 2160 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 KRONOS 2305 KRONOS 2310 KRONOS 2315 KRONOS 2360

R3 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2

Al, Si Al Al, Si Al, Zr Al Al Al, Si, Zr Al, Si, Zr Al, Si

82.0 95.0 90.5 94.0 94.5 94.5 92.5 92.5 93.6

3.6 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0

500 850 800 750 850 650 800 850 800

84 102 95 103 101 103 102 105 100

41 18 18 18 16 17 16 16 19

B C A B B B A A A

1 The classification A1, A2, R1, R2, R3 corresponds to DIN EN ISO 591, Part 1. 2 The titanium dioxide content and density of the pigments depend on the type and quantity of the treatment substances used to improve the application properties. Pure rutile has a density of 4.2, while pure anatase has a density of 3.8.

3 The bulk densities of the pigments are approximate values and may vary, depending on the storage conditions. 4 The relative scattering power is the decisive parameter for the tinting strength and hiding power of titanium dioxide pigments. Determination of the scattering power to DIN 53165 is part of quality control at all our plants. An internal standard is used as the reference pigment.

4

Rutile pigments primarily for plastics

Standard classification1

KRONOS 2211 KRONOS 2220 KRONOS 2222 KRONOS 2225 KRONOS 2230 KRONOS 2233 KRONOS 2450 KRONOS 2500

Rutile pigment primarily for decorative paper laminates

Stabilised with compounds of these elements

TiO2 -content 2 min. [%]

Density 2 [g/cm2]

Bulk density 3 [kg/m3]

Relative scattering power 4

Oil absorption (ISO 787/5)

Weather resistance 6

R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2

Al Al, Si Al, Si Al, Si Al, Si Al, Si Al, Si Al

95.5 92.5 92.5 94.5 96.0 96.0 96.0 97.5

4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.2

900 900 900 750 900 700 900 800

1055 995 1035 1015 1045 1045 1065 1055

13 17 17 16 14 13 14 12

C A A B B B C C

KRONOS 2800

Titanium dioxide without pigmentary properties

R3

Al

88.0

3.8

650

-

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A

KRONOS 3000 KRONOS 3025

Titanium dioxide photocatalysts KRONOS vlp 7000 KRONOS vlp 7001 KRONOS uvlp 7500

-

-

99.0 99.0

3.8 4.2

750 850

-

-

-

A1 A1 A1

-

95.0 95.0 95.0

3.9 3.9 3.9

400 400 400

-

~50 ~50 ~50

-

5 The relative scattering power is determined in a plastisol formulation. An internal standard is used as the reference pigment.

6 A = Maximum weather resistance B = Good weather resistance C = Limited weather resistance

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Fields of application for KRONOS TiO2 grades

Plastics

Thermoplastics KRONOS 2220 2222 2225 2230 2233 2450 2500 PVC, exterior PVC, interior Polyolefins/Masterbatches Polystyrene and copolymers Polycarbonates Other engineering plastics

Coatings

Industrial coatings KRONOS Industrial coatings, waterborne, interior Industrial coatings, waterborne, exterior Industrial coatings, solvent-based, interior Industrial coatings, solvent-based, exterior Powder coatings, interior Powder coatings, exterior UV coatings Low-VOC systems Coil coatings Can coatings Marine coatings, automotive finishes Wood protection coatings 2064 2190 2300 2315 2360

= strongly recommended KRONOS grades not strongly recommended in these tables may nevertheless be highly efficient in specific cases. Ask our Application Technology Center.

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Coatings

Architectural coatings KRONOS Emulsion paints, interior Emulsion paints, exterior Trade decorative paints, waterborne Trade decorative paints, solvent-based Silicone paints Silicate paints Plasters, emulsion-bound 2044 2190 2300 2315 2360

Printing inks KRONOS Screen-printing inks Gravure inks Flexographic inks, glossy Flexographic inks, matt 2044 2064 2190 2300

= strongly recommended KRONOS grades not strongly recommended in these tables may nevertheless be highly efficient in specific cases. Ask our Application Technology Center.

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Further fields of application

Man-made fibres KRONOS 1071 1074 1077 Acrylic Polyamide Polyester Viscose

Paper KRONOS 1001 2800 Decorative paper laminates Paper pulp

Glass, vitreous enamels, ceramic products KRONOS 1001 3000 3025 Electroceramics Vitreous enamels Glass Glazes

= strongly recommended KRONOS grades not strongly recommended in these tables may nevertheless be highly efficient in specific cases. Ask our Application Technology Center.

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Others KRONOS Cosmetics Foodstuffs Pharmaceuticals

1171 E171

KRONOS 1171 is approved as food colorant E 171 and is thus a "foodstuff" as defined in the EC Regulation on Food Safety.

TiO2 photocatalysts

Emulsion paints, interior Silicone paints Silicate paints Plasters, interior Plasters, exterior Fibres Paper Water treatment Air purification (filters) Concrete Paving stones

KRONOS

vlp 7000

vlp 7001

uvlp 7500

= strongly recommended KRONOS grades not strongly recommended in these tables may nevertheless be highly efficient in specific cases. Ask our Application Technology Center.

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KRONOS pigments for coatings

KRONOS 2044 is a special pigment for emulsion paints, as well as matt flexographic inks. As a result of its high surface, KRONOS 2044 produces the highest hiding power in interior emulsion paints due to a pronounced dry-hiding effect. It is additionally characterised by outstanding storage stability in waterborne systems. KRONOS 2064 displays low abrasiveness and is an outstanding pigment for high-gloss gravure and flexographic inks. Additionally it is a universal pigment for use in industrial coatings. It is characterised by high tinting strength and hiding power, a high degree of gloss can be achieved when used in both waterborne and solventbased systems. KRONOS 2160 can be used as a universal pigment and meets very high demands on weather resistance. It achieves high hiding power in waterborne industrial coatings. In solvent-based two-pack polyurethane systems it has a positive influence on the pot life and is therefore particularly suitable for vehicle refinish paint. KRONOS 2190 is a universal pigment for waterborne and solvent-based paint systems. The principal properties of this pigment are its outstanding dispersibility and excellent tinting strength, together with high gloss. KRONOS 2300 is a universal pigment for industrial coatings and architectural paints. This grade produces particularly bright, neutral tones, as well as glossy coatings in whites. It is particularly recommended for packaging coatings. KRONOS 2305 was developed specifically for use in electrodeposition coatings, it possesses high hiding power together with high resistivity. KRONOS 2310 produces coatings with very good tinting strength and hiding power, as well as outstanding weather resistance and very good processing properties. These characteristics make KRONOS 2310 a pigment for universal use, especially in waterborne and solventbased systems for all outdoor applications. KRONOS 2315 provides excellent weather resistance performance in combination with outstanding tinting strength, hiding power and very high gloss. It is a special pigment that meets the toughest demands in exterior industrial applications. KRONOS 2360 can be used universally and meets the highest weather resistance performance for the latest and most demanding coatings. It is equally suited to both waterborne and solvent based systems, providing ultimate hiding power and tint strength compared to similar pigment types. It also has very good dispersibility that enables production of high gloss coatings with little gloss haze.

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Optical characteristics Coatings

Test formulation: stoving enamel based on an acrylic/melamine system (pigment volume concentration: 18%)

Brightness and tone in white

Brightness L* KRONOS 2064 KRONOS 2160 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 KRONOS 2310 KRONOS 2315 KRONOS 2360 Tone b* 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.4 1.9 98.1 98.2 97.6 98.4 98.4 98.5 98.4

Relative tinting strength and tone in grey

Relative tinting strength KRONOS 2064 KRONOS 2160 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 KRONOS 2310 KRONOS 2315 KRONOS 2360 - 7.1 - 6.8 -7.0 - 7.1 - 7.0 - 7.2 - 7.0 Tone b* 105 95 103 102 100 104 100

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Coatings

Test formulation: waterborne, eggshell-gloss emulsion paint based on acrylic resin (pigment volume concentration: 28%)

Brightness and tone in white

Brightness L* KRONOS 2160 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 KRONOS 2310 KRONOS 2315 KRONOS 2360 Tone b* 96.6 2.0 97.1

2.1 1.5 1.5

97.4 97.3 97.3 97.2

1.4 1.5

Relative tinting strength and tone in grey

Relative tinting strength KRONOS 2160 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 KRONOS 2310 KRONOS 2315 KRONOS 2360 - 2.6 - 2.8 - 2.8 - 2.8 - 2.9 - 3.0 Tone b* The colorimetric values L* and b* characterise the brightness and tone of the coating samples pigmented with titanium dioxide (DIN 55983). The higher the L* value found for a pigment in white coatings, the greater the brightness at equal pigment volume concentrations. The higher the b* value found, the greater the yellowness of the white system. 99 103 102 101 104 103

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Coatings

Test formulation: high-hiding interior emulsion paint based on polyvinyl acetate (pigment volume concentration: 78%)

Brightness and tone in white

Brightness L* KRONOS 2044 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 Tone b* 1.7 2.2 2.3 97.8 97.2 97.7

Relative tinting strength and tone in grey

Relative tinting strength KRONOS 2044 KRONOS 2190 KRONOS 2300 - 2.5 - 2.8 Tone b* - 1.6 136 103 100

The higher the L* value found for a pigment in grey coatings, the greater is its relative tinting strength. The more negative the b* value found, the greater the blueness of the grey system. The figures given are mean values over extended production periods. The mill base composition and the dispersing machinery are essential parameters in paint manufacture. The stabilised KRONOS pigments are readily dispersed under a wide variety of formulating and manufacturing conditions.

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KRONOS pigments for plastics

KRONOS 2211 is a universal rutile pigment for use in indoor applications. It is mainly used in PVC and linoleum, in addition to which it is also recommended for masterbatches. KRONOS 2220 is the leading KRONOS rutile pigment for the plastics industry. It meets the most exacting demands for material handling, dispersibility, optical properties and weather resistance. It has been a market leader for many years, particularly in the field of PVC profile industry. KRONOS 2222 is an advanced development of the time-proven KRONOS 2220. It confers maximum brightness and a neutral tone in white PVC specimens. It is characterised by high tinting strength and a more pronounced bluish tone in pastel shades, as well as very high weather resistance, comparable to that of KRONOS 2220. KRONOS 2225 is a rutile pigment that confers high weather resistance on plastic films used externally, for example agricultural films. It is very easily dispersed and permits production of highly concentrated polyolefin masterbatches. It also possesses high tinting strength and gives films good opacity. KRONOS 2230 is a rutile pigment that has been specifically developed for pigmenting polycarbonate. Due to its special composition polymer degradation in polycarbonate is minimised. It is readily wetted and easily dispersed and guarantees high brightness and a neutral tone in whites. Surface flaws in injection mouldings with a high TiO2 content are prevented and pure whites in translucent applications are possible. KRONOS 2233 is an advanced development of the proven KRONOS 2230 for pigmenting polycarbonate blends. It possesses very high tinting strength and produces pure, brilliant tones. Due to the optimisation of the organic surface treatment excellent colour properties are retained even at high processing temperatures, especially in whites. KRONOS 2450 is a universal pigment with very good flow properties. It has good dispersibility and is characterised by a combination of excellent tinting strength and a strong bluish tone. Applications range from polystyrene, copolymers and PVC films to polyolefin masterbatches. KRONOS 2500 was developed to meet the exacting demands of a masterbatch pigment. It is characterised by its high process throughput and is particularly suited for highly pigmented masterbatches. Lacing resistance properties makes this grade very suitable for hightemperature extrusion coatings and the production of thin films.

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Optical characteristics

Brightness and tone in white PVC-P film

Brightness L* KRONOS 2211 KRONOS 2220 KRONOS 2222 KRONOS 2225 KRONOS 2230 KRONOS 2233 KRONOS 2450 KRONOS 2500 Tone b* 2.7 2.7 98.4 98.3 98.2 98.0 98.1 98.0 98.7 98.4

Plastics

2.9 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.0 3.1

Relative tinting strength and tone in grey

KRONOS 2211 KRONOS 2220 KRONOS 2222 KRONOS 2225 KRONOS 2230 KRONOS 2233 KRONOS 2450 KRONOS 2500 -1.2 -1.2 -1.3 Tone b* -1.0 - 0.2 - 0.1

Relative tinting strength 107 103 103 105 103 104 109 112

- 0.1 - 0.1

The optical properties were determined on white and grey PVC-P films according to the KRONOS standard method, based on DIN 53775.

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Further KRONOS pigments

KRONOS 1001 is an anatase pigment for use in white concrete, paper pulp and fillers, as well as electroceramics and glazes. Piezoelectric ceramics are a noteworthy special application. It is very bright, characterised by a neutral tone and for paper applications provides high opacity. KRONOS 1071 is an anatase pigment for delustering polyacrylic and acetate fibres. It is readily dispersed. The inorganic surface treatment with aluminium and silicon compounds enables this grade to impart better light fastness to pigmented materials than other untreated anatase pigments. KRONOS 1074 is an anatase pigment that is primarily for delustering of polyamide fibres. Due to its surface treatment with aluminium, silicon and manganese compounds the delustered polyamide fibres display very high lightfastness. KRONOS 1077 is an anatase pigment that is particularly suitable for delustering viscose and polyester fibres. The untreated pigment contains no coarse particles and is substantially less abrasive than other anatase pigments. KRONOS 1171 is an anatase pigment and approved for pigmenting foodstuffs, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, tobacco products, etc. It complies with the following purity criteria: European Union: 94/36/EC, 95/45/EC (food colorants), 78/25/EEC (pharmaceuticals), 76/768/EEC, 96/335/EC (cosmetics), European Pharmacopoeia. USA: FDA Regulation 21 CFR 73.2575 (cosmetics), US Pharmacopoeia XXIV. UN: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO). KRONOS 2800 is a rutile pigment for decorative paper laminates. It is characterised by outstanding hiding power, together with very good retention. It can be used very economically in both white and coloured paper laminates. It imparts very good greying resistance to melamine laminates and possesses very good high-temperature yellowing resistance in paper laminates.

16

Further KRONOS products

KRONOS 3000 is a free-flowing, granular anatase without pigmentary properties for applications in glass, vitreous enamels, ceramics and electroceramics. It is readily dissolved in the melt and gives glass a high refractive index and high UV absorption. It improves opacity and resistance to breaking when used in glass ceramics. KRONOS 3025 is a coarse rutile without pigmentary properties for use in ceramics, electroceramics, vitreous enamels, glass and welding rods. It improves the sintering properties when used in ceramics, as well as enhancing mechanical, thermal and acid resistance. For electric arc welding applications excellent ionisation and re-ignition of the electrode is achieved

TiO2 photocatalysts

KRONOS vlp 7000 and KRONOS vlp 7001 are photocatalysts that display activity not only in UV light, but also pronounced photoactivity in visible light. They are suitable for use in applications for eliminating unwanted odours (e.g. kitchen smells) and dirt on surfaces (e.g. nicotine), for air purification (amines, aldehydes, nitrogen oxides, mercaptans, etc.) and for improving room air quality (interior paints) in conjunction with paper, plastic films, window profiles, fibres, etc. KRONOS uvlp 7500 is a photocatalyst designed for use in combination with UV radiation. It is suitable for eliminating unwanted odours (e.g. vehicle emissions) and dirt on surfaces (e.g. soot), for air purification (nitrogen oxides, sulphoxides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc.) and for improving air quality (exterior paints) in conjunction with plastic films, window profiles, paints, fibres, etc.

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Manufacturing and handling of titanium dioxide

Composition

Titanium dioxide is chemically inert and insoluble in aqueous and organic solvents. Hot, concentrated sulphuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, or acidic or alkaline melts, are needed for the digestion process, e. g. for analysis. The majority of KRONOS TiO2 pigments are surfacetreated. Such treatments are primarily carried out using aluminium compounds, but also with silicon, zirconium and manganese compounds, and are aimed at specifically at improving certain pigment properties. The treatment substances are also insoluble under normal conditions. Strong acids or bases are needed to dissolve them. Small quantities of organic substances are also added to almost all KRONOS pigments in order to improve their wettability. None of the substances used constitutes a health hazard under the given conditions.

Health and safety information

KRONOS titanium dioxide pigments have been produced and processed for over 90 years and no acute or chronic harmful effects attributable to titanium dioxide have become known 1). The Occupational Exposure Standards (OES) for titanium dioxide in the air at the workplace have been set at 3 mg/m3 total respirable dust 2). Titanium dioxide is not expected to have any mutagenic, carcinogenic, fibrogenic, toxic or allergenic effects if this value is adhered to. A study by the World Health Organization (WHO) determined that inhaled titanium dioxide behaves in a biologically inert manner 3). Studies carried out by the US National Cancer Institute reveal that titanium dioxide is not carcinogenic 4). This finding is confirmed by epidemiological studies in Europe and the USA, which demonstrate that the risk of cancer does not increase as a result of handling titanium dioxide 5). The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) was nevertheless obliged to classify titanium dioxide in IARC Group 2b due to the assessment criteria applicable there.

1)

H. Valentin, K. H. Schaller: Human biological monitoring of industrial chemicals, 3. Titanium. Commission of the European Communities, EUR 6609, 1980. Data checked by the Titanium Dioxide Manufacturers Association Technical & Environmental Committee, a sector group of CEFIC. Environmental Health Criteria 24, Titanium. World Health Organization, Geneva 1982. Bioassay of Titanium Dioxide for Possible Carcinogenicity: National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series No. 97, 1979. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare P. Bofetta et al.: Mortality among workers employed in the titanium dioxide production industry in Europe. Cancer Causes and Control 15: 679-706, 2004.

2)

3)

4)

5)

Registrations and standards

EINECS No.: CAS No.: Colour Index: International Standard: 236-675-5 titanium dioxide 13463-67-7 77891 Pigment White 6 ISO 591-2001 The International Standard divides titanium dioxide pigments into two types, which are then classified in groups: Type A, anatase / Groups A 1, A 2 Type R, rutile / Groups R 1, R 2, R 3

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REACH

All the requirements of REACH Regulation 1907/2006/EC are met. Pre-registration for KRONOS TiO2 was completed punctually. The Pre-Registration No. - and the Registration No. following registration can be found in the current Safety Data Sheet for TiO2. These declarations are valid for all KRONOS locations in Europe.

Laws and regulations defining purity requirements for TiO2 pigments

I. Colouring of foodstuffs, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals KRONOS 1171 (titanium dioxide E 171) is intended for use in these products. It complies with the following purity specifications: European Union EU Directives for the harmonisation of regulations in the Member States* 76/768/EEC 96/335/EC on the definition of a list and a common nomenclature of the components of cosmetics on cosmetics USA FDA Regulation 21 CFR 73.575 (foodstuffs) FDA Regulation 21 CFR 73.1575 (pharmaceuticals) FDA Regulation 21 CFR 73.2575 (cosmetics) US Pharmacopoeia II. Colorants for use in packaging material for foodstuffs and in other articles of daily use All KRONOS titanium dioxide pigments meet the purity requirements for pigments for colouring such articles. European Union EU Directives for the harmonisation of regulations in the Member States* 2002/72/EC 88/378/EEC EN 71-3 on materials and objects made of plastic which are intended to come into contact with foodstuffs on the safety of toys Safety of toys (Part 3: Migration of certain elements)

2002/34/EC 78/25/EEC 1333/2008/EC 2008/128/EC 2002/178/EC UN

Annex VII, Part 1, No. 27 = Titanium dioxide as a UV filter on substances which may be added to pharmaceuticals for colouring purposes

on colorants which may be used in foodstuffs

on the definition of specific purity criteria for food colorants

met by HACCP certificate (GMP) to EN ISO 22000

USA FDA Regulation 21 CFR 178.3297 (colorants for polymers)

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) WHO (World Health Organisation)

Packaging of KRONOS TiO2 pigments

KRONOS TiO2 are delivered in: Standard 25 kg bags, Intermediate Bulk Containers ("Big Bags") holding up to one metric ton titanium dioxide, Dry-bulk tankers. The packaging complies with the requirements of Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste.*

* In the currently valid version (3/2009)

19

www.kronostio2.com

DS 2206E/3093.0E

KRONOS Titanium Dioxide White - for a colourful world

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