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Teacher's Manual

Dutch Masters of the 17th Century

New Orleans Museum of Art

INTRODUCTION TO THE TEACHER'S MANUAL This learning resource is intended for teachers of students in Grades 1 - 12. It may be adapted for specific grade levels. We hope that you will use the manual and accompanying images to help your students gain an in-depth knowledge of NOMA's collection of Dutch art from the seventeenth century.

cover: Bartholomeus van der Helst, Dutch, 1613-1670 Homo Bulla: A Boy Blowing Bubbles in a Landscape, circa 1665 oil on canvas, 32 x 28¾in. (81.3 x 73 cm.) Gift by exchange of Edith Rosenwald Stern Fund, 95.188

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Dutch Masters of the 17th Century

Teacher's Manual

Written by Kathy Alcaine, Curator of Education Tracy Kennan, Curator of Education for Public Programs

Edited by Allison Reid, Assistant Director for Education

Written 2001; Revised 2004

This workshop and its accompanying materials were underwritten by The RosaMary Foundation

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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The Golden Age: The 17th Century in the Netherlands

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Dutch Art of the 17th Century

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Image List

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Vocabulary

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Time Line

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Curriculum Objectives

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Bibliography

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The Golden Age: Dutch Masters of the 17th Century This workshop will focus on Dutch art (art of the Netherlands) of the seventeenth century. This time has been called their Golden Age because it was an economically, artistically and internationally prosperous time for the country. Examining the history of the area reveals a group of people who defended their home land, gained independence from a foreign monarchy, and experienced enormous wealth and artistic prowess. The Dutch were fiercely proud of their land. The fight for supremacy between Protestantism and Catholicism played a major role in shaping the forces that developed the expanding nation. The Netherlands is a seafaring country with most of the land bordering the North Sea. It is also called the Low Country, with most of the land lying at or below sea level. Rivers and bodies of water flow through the landscape, with most of the towns and cities centered around water areas. Germany is to the east of the country and Belgium is to the south. During the sixteenth century, the area consisted of a group of seventeen self-governing provinces. The original seventeen provinces today consist of what is called the Benelux countries. It can be subdivided into two sections, the Northern Provinces and the Southern Provinces, also known as Flanders. This workshop will focus on art works from the Northern Provinces, also known as the United Provinces. There are seven provinces in this area: Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland and Groningen. Holland, one of the larger provinces, has erroneously been used to signify the entire country of the Netherlands. Since the fifteenth century, the Netherlands has been considered one of the richest areas in Europe. A growing community of merchants made this area commercially strong. The area was called the Hapsburg Netherlands when the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian married Mary of Burgundy in 1477. In 1519, Charles I of Spain was given title of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and received control of Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and Italy. The Protestant religion was sweeping over the land, but the Spanish Kingdom was Catholic and attempted to strengthen control of the Netherlands and enforce the Catholic religion. Charles V brought the Spanish Inquisition into the Netherlands to extend and strengthen the Catholic faith. This attempt at control ultimately led to an uprising of Protestant groups. Philip II of Spain inherited control of the Netherlands in 1555. The Catholic Religion was the main religion for much of Europe in the 15th century. There were factions growing within the faith as people began to vocalize disagreements with the traditional teaching and spiritual practices of the Church. Martin Luther, one of the more well-known reformers, was a trained theologian in early 1500s. On October 31, 1517, Luther posted his 95 Theses on the church doors of the castle of Wittenburg, Germany. His theses were against the traditional practices, and particularly the indulgences of the Catholic Church. This act prompted religious sects to grow and split further from the Catholic religion. Throughout the sixteenth century, Protestant religions increasingly gained converts and power. Differences between the two base religions of Catholicism and Protestantism led to many ideological, social and military conflicts in the sixteenth and seventeenth century.

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The Northern Provinces resisted Spanish Catholic control, while the Southern Provinces remained under the Spanish rule. The Protestant religion of Calvinism grew in popularity in the Northern Provinces. Calvinism, named for its founder John Calvin in the 1530s, stressed the virtues of thrift, industry, sobriety and responsibility as a path to salvation. Following the words of Martin Luther, Calvinism believed that the faith of the individual was justified and pursued by the individual. The individual was responsible for his or her actions. In the sixteenth century, the Protestants were in the majority in the Northern Provinces. William of Orange (1533-1584) became the leader of the northern rebellious group that moved to gain independence from Spain. The Dutch Revolt began in 1568 starting the Eighty Years War. William became the governor or stadholder of the Northern Provinces with The Hague as the administrative center. The war lasted for eighty years with most of the conflicts and battles occurring in the late sixteenth century. As an example of the Dutch's persistence and dislike towards Spanish rule, the people in the town of Leiden opened up the dikes, flooding the countryside to make the Spanish retreat from the water logged land. All seven provinces of the Northern Provinces were ruled independently but joined together for their common interest to gain independence. At that time in 1579, they changed their name to the United Provinces and claimed independence from Spain. As stadholders, William and his successors were the leaders of the common interest to promote and pursue religious, economic and political freedom. However, Spain did not recognize the independence until 1609. The United Provinces did not fully achieve formal recognition by the rest of Europe until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 with the end of the Eighty Years War. After the Peace of Westphalia, the United Provinces continued to control their own area under a common governorship. By seventeenth century the Netherlands was at the peak of its powers; this was the Golden Age. The country was a leader in the European community with commercial interests throughout the world. Amsterdam, the largest city in Holland, became the commercial capital of the Netherlands. Dutch banks became the bankers for Europe, offering high interest rates for countries fighting costly wars in Europe or overseas in the New World. The Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company formed early in the seventeenth century. The two companies were privately owned trading empires with posts across the globe. At this time, the Dutch were characteristically proud of their achievements in agriculture, colonization, trade and religious tolerance. In 1626 Dutch traders bought Manhattan Island from Native Americans and called the new colonies New Amsterdam and Haarlem (later, renamed New York City). The United Provinces were prosperous on the homefront, becoming one of the most important trading, shipping and merchant centers in Europe. The wealth of the middle and upper class was growing rapidly. This growth in wealth created a market for luxury items, particularly in paintings for home decorations. The demand for painting was so great that artists could specialize in a particular genre such as landscapes or portraiture to create a special market for him/herself. The Dutch had a great appreciation for material goods despite the Protestant principles of hard work, practical living and dedication to the religion. The Netherlands was a strong, colonial power throughout the seventeenth century, but as the eighteenth century dawned, the strength of the nation waned. In the eighteenth century, France

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and Great Britain gained so much economic and political power, they overshadowed the Dutch. The United Provinces dissolved in the eighteenth century when William III of England, also known as William III of Orange died in 1702. Any chance of a new governor or stadholder of the land failed because strong local landowners did not allow for a central, uniting leader. Individual countries traded directly with other countries, using the Dutch merchants increasingly less. The United States was on the verge of becoming an independent nation during the second half of the eighteenth century and European control of foreign lands was gradually declining. Fortunately, the banks in the Netherlands continued to provide loans and financial backing for European trade. The Golden Age for Dutch art was clearly in the seventeenth century. This prosperous time was focused mainly in the Protestant, United Provinces that were independent from Spanish control; the Southern Provinces remained under Spanish, Catholic control. The merchant middle class grew in wealth and helped employ artists and artisans to decorate their homes. Artists in this period produced a great number of paintings and the artists were supported by an independent, proud, civic-minded population.

Image 7: Portrait of the Martini Family, Jan Mytens

Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century

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Art created in the Netherlands during the seventeenth century was very different from that created elsewhere in Europe. Italian patronage continued to be ecclesiastical, as well as private, and was heavily influenced by the ideas of the Counter Reformation. In France the statesponsored Academy set the artistic style. Catholic Flanders, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands, was ruled by the Spanish Crown and the Catholic Church was the primary patron of the arts. The Protestant Northern Provinces, including Holland, however, developed a bourgeois economy which resulted in a free commercial art market. The expansion of the middle class and their increasing wealth encouraged Dutch artists to create a wide variety of art works. The seventeenth century is remembered as the Golden Age of Dutch art and culture. The Dutch East India Company cornered the market in Indian products such as spices, silks and metals and the Dutch shipping industry thrived. As a result, the Dutch merchant class grew in wealth and supported the growing art market. For the first time artists were able to support themselves by painting for the larger audience of the open market. Art dealers sold works to middle class citizens who were often just as interested in art as an investment as they were in its aesthetic value. Protestant churches were not decorated with paintings and sculptures, but works were bought to decorate the homes of the middle class. While the subject matter of most art works from this period was not religious in nature, many works did reflect Protestant ethics and often contained a vanitas theme, a reminder of the brevity of life. Four distinct categories of paintings are distinguished during this period: landscapes, still life, portraiture, and genre scenes. By specializing in a specific subject matter, artists could establish their own niche in the market. Landscapes were a very popular type of painting for hanging in the home. Several varieties of landscapes were available on the market. Artists might specialize in local or foreign landscapes, winter scenes, or seascapes or city views. Styles could vary from very realistic approaches to romanticized interpretations. Local landscapes were especially popular on the market. The Dutch have a long history of fighting for control of the land in their water-logged, low-lying region, so scenes of the local landscape indicate a certain pride and celebration of the hard-won land. Jan van Goyen, a specialist in local landscapes, tended to paint in subdued tones of ocher, browns and green. Many of his drawings of the Dutch countryside still exist. These were often incorporated with some artistic license into his painted landscapes of the flat Lowlands. Winter scene specialists such as Hendrick Avercamp, who painted at the beginning of the seventeenth century, often populated their works with skaters on the ice and placed important town buildings in the background. These scenes give the viewer a striking view of daily life in the winter when the canals of Holland would freeze over and the villagers would skate and play games on the ice. Landscapes by Aelbert Cuyp almost always included cattle. Cuyp's works are especially remembered for their natural and direct quality. His focus on cattle in the national landscape may point towards Dutch pride in the commercial value of their cattle industry. Whether or not this literal explanation of the prevalence of cows in Cuyp's landscapes is accepted, it is important to realize that viewers may have had patriotic associations with local landscapes which would have enhanced their appreciation of these works.

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Landscape painters could also specialize in foreign views. Italian scenes were popular as they represented prime vacation spots. Jan Both is remembered for his carefully composed mountain scenes with clear paths, carefully placed trees, and lush, warm light. Such scenes were particularly intriguing to the Dutch whose home landscape was usually flat and often chilly. Brazilian landscapes by Franz Post were also popular. That this Dutchman was painting in Brazil signifies both colonial expansion and Dutch mastery of the seas. Such views were considered documentary. Jakob van Ruisdael is probably the most celebrated Dutch painter of romantic landscapes. His works are expressive, emphasizing one aspect of the landscape, such as a waterfall or a windmill, in order to evoke a certain mood or feeling. Meindert Hobbema, a student of Ruisdael, owes a great debt to his master. Hobbema specialized in romantic woodland scenes. A Wooded Landscape (circa 1662) shows traces of Ruisdal's romantic sensibilities in a carefully constructed composition. A large arching tree to the left of the landscape serves as a repoussior device while footpaths lead the viewer's eye Image 12: A Wooded Landscape, Jakob van Ruisdael deep into the landscape. Still life paintings were also very popular for the seventeenth century Dutch home. A still life is an assortment of inanimate objects. The Dutch were especially fond of art that mirrored their world and recorded their values. As wealth increased throughout the seventeenth century, the still life became more and more extravagant, displaying the objects acquired through purchase power and mastery of trade. Artists tended to specialize within the genre, becoming especially adept at flower scenes or breakfast pieces. Painters of still life might specialize in depictions of fruit, flowers, game or fish. This genre was especially inviting to female artists who were forbidden to paint from the nude model and thus challenged in completing figurative work. Cornelis de Heem's Still Life with Fruit on a Ledge from NOMA's collection depicts a carefully arranged pile of fruit including grapes, oranges and lemons with oysters, wheatstalks, and insects. The entire composition is delicately balanced on a ledge. The painting is certainly an amazing technical display, and it can also be considered for its iconographic message. The fruits can be interpreted in a vanitas manner as their imminent decay indicates the transience of life. The butterfly near the center of the painting may represent the human soul and its possibility for redemption. De Heem's still life may come across as very opulent, yet it serves to remind the viewer that these are ephemeral pleasures. This point is perhaps more obvious in Michel Simons's Still Life of Fruit and Lobster with its dead game hanging from the wall. Luxuries abound in both paintings, yet never far away is a reminder that life is short.

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Portraiture thrived in the Netherlands where paintings of individuals and groups became an important part of civic life. The growing middle class was quick to commission individual and family portraits and the many civic guilds often requested group portraits to hang in their meeting halls. Individual portraits could range from busts to full-length. Group portraits might include the four regents of a community hospital, seven students and a doctor surrounding a corpse in an anatomy lesson, or forty-seven banqueters gathered in a hall. Franz Hals and Rembrandt van Rijn are probably the most remembered of the baroque period portraitists, although Rembrandt is the least typical of his contemporary artists as he did not specialize in any one particular subject matter. Hals' A Dutch Lady and its pendant A Dutch Gentleman is fairly typical of this Haarlem painter's style. He depicts the unidentified woman in her predominately black costume with a sheer lace collar. Both portraits are rendered with the loose brush work for which Hals is remembered. Hals' popularity as a portraitist was a result of his ability to capture the liveliness and vitality of his sitters. Hals was often hired to paint group portraits of civic guilds and militia companies. Militia companies had been formed in the sixteenth century to protect the emerging Dutch Republic, but as the need for protection subsided the militia meetings increasingly became social gatherings. Rembrandt's Night Watch (The Company of Captain Image 10: A Dutch Lady, Franz Hals Franz Banning Cocq) is perhaps the most famous example of a militia group portrait. Company members have gathered in the morning for their annual parade and interact in lively and diverse poses. The gradual darkening of this painting over time led to its misnomer. Family portraits were often commissioned to immortalize family members and ancestors. Jan Mytens became a major portraitist in The Hague and is remembered for his elegant figural groups in pastoral settings. His Portrait of the Martini Family features six figures in a landscape setting and also includes representations of family members whose lives were unexpectedly cut short. Jacques Martini, the Commissioner General for the Ammunition of War for the Netherlands, is shown seated with his second wife and surrounded by his children. From an opening in the sky we glimpse cherubs who represent in a uniquely Dutch manner those children who died in infancy. Martini's first wife also appears in the clouds. Mytens' specialty was especially demanding as it demanded high technical skill: the figures had to be variously posed in full length; the faces had to be recognizable although usually small; the compositions and treatment of light were often complicated in the outdoor settings. Mytens succeeded in all respects.

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Genre painting was one of the most popular of the Dutch styles and found renewed popularity in the seventeenth century. Several sub-genres exist within this group including scenes of merrymaking, domestic scenes, depictions of brothels and smoking scenes. Many of these works contain strong moralizing admonitions, but cast in a light hearted manner. Jan Steen is a master of genre painting. A School for Boys and Girls of 1670 depicts a schoolroom gone berserk. The inattentive schoolmaster and his wife pay no attention to children who dance, sleep and fight in the classroom. The room is a mess, with pages torn from a book scattered on the floor along with the contents of rucksacks. A young boy to the right of the composition offers a pair of spectacles to an owl perched near a lamp, acting out a Dutch proverb: "What is the need for a candle or glasses if the owl refuses to see?" Such literal interpretations of proverbs were often included in Steen's genre scenes. Even in the Netherlands today the phrase Image 5: A School for Boys and Girls, Jan Steen "Jan Steen household" is used to denote a messy disorganized home full of mayhem. Brothels, smoking rooms and other such merry-making scenes were frequently portrayed by Dutch baroque painters. These images of merry company included portrayals of the upper and lower classes and are revealing in their inclusion of the furniture and dress of the day. Hendrick Geritz. Pot's A Bordello Scene is typical of this type of genre scene. Three characters are portrayed: the patron, the prostitute and the procuress. They appear in a large black and white tiled room with the not-so-subtle inclusion of a large bed in the background. All three characters laugh and make merry, as the patron grabs the prostitute and the procuress reaches toward his pockets. The pitchers on the table beside them are probably filled with some intoxicating beverage and we can easily imagine the progression of the evening. Perhaps the contemporary viewer enjoyed such views of debauchery and intoxication on two levels. The contemporary viewer would have appreciated the moralistic overtones implicit in merry-making scenes with their representation of vices such as smoking, drinking and prostitution. Secondly, the audience would have enjoyed this peek at such unsavory behavior. Artists in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century were able to explore their own styles and specialize in a particular subject matter as no artists had done before. The economic and political factors that contributed to the Netherlands's glorious Golden Age helped to establish an art market which could satisfy taste of the emerging middle class. The development of landscapes, still life, portraiture and genre scenes and each of the sub-genres within each of these categories, assured that a variety of art works would be available to decorate the lives and homes of the Dutch republic.

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Image List

I. Still Life 1. Cornelis de Heem (Dutch, 1631-1695), Still Life with Fruit on a Ledge, n.d., oil on canvas, 26½ x 21½in (67.3 x 54.6cm), New Orleans Museum of Art. Still life paintings were popular during the Golden Age in the Netherlands. The Dutch population was fond of images which reflected their surroundings and their values. While images such as this one may seem like simple reflections of the surrounding world, there are usually undertones of moralistic and religious meanings. Cornelis de Heem incorporated the inanimate objects found in his contemporary world: oranges, oysters, lemons, wheat shafts, grapes and insects. The butterfly at the center of the composition can also be interpreted as symbolizing the redemption. The ripeness of the fruit and the presence of insects serve to demonstrate the transience of life. The precarious placement on a ledge of the entire composition further illustrates the theme of vanitas, a gentle reminder that life is short. Still life paintings such as this one also indicate the wealth and trade power of the low-lying country as they often incorporated goods from disparate lands. 2. Michel Simons (Dutch, d. 1673), Still Life of Fruit with Lobster and Dead Game, n.d.,

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oil on canvas, 39¼ x 56¼in, New Orleans Museum of Art. Paintings in the still life tradition included a variety of inanimate forms. In this example from NOMA's collection the artist combined the bounties of land and sea. Lobsters, dead birds and a hare are combined with fruits, vegetables and a glass of wine. The artist is thus able to display his technical skill in dealing with the various textures and surfaces. The work is carefully composed and creates a large diagonal across the canvas. The vanitas theme is not so subtle here, where the dead game dangle in front of the viewers eyes. The gentle spiral of the lemon peel can also be interpreted as symbolic of the transience of life. Inviting on the outside but sour on the inside, the lemon is a symbol of luxury which alienates man from God.

II. Genre Scenes

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3. Andries Andriesz Schaeck (Dutch, d. ca. 1682), The Latest News, n.d., oil on canvas, 21 ¼ x 19½in , New Orleans Museum of Art. The Latest News by Andries Andriesz Schaeck is a merry company genre scene set in a tavern. Three men have gathered to smoke their pipes and discuss the news. Genre scenes depict images of everyday life and often contain moralizing admonitions. Schaek's image is somewhat comical in the exaggerated gestures of the patrons of the tavern and the revelation that at least one of the gentlemen is probably drunk. This figure stares straight out to the viewer, his flushed cheeks and exuberant expression probably indicate that he has been drinking alcoholic beverages. Pipe smoking was also considered intoxicating, and there is evidence of this activity. The Dutch viewers enjoyed such scenes of debauchery, most likely because they could appreciate depictions of merry- making while haughtily disdaining such behavior.

4. Hendrick Gerritsz. Pot (Dutch, ca. 1585-1657), A Bordello Scene, n.d.,

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oil on oval panel, 14½ x 19in, New Orleans Museum of Art. Brothel scenes were also a popular sub-genre of merry company paintings. A Bordello Scene represents the exchange of money for affections. Three characters are shown in the interior of a bordello, a large room with a white and black tiled floor and a large bed looming in the background. The prostitute, the patron and the procuress are seated on each others' laps and the patron reaches for the prostitute as the procuress reaches toward the man's pocket. Scenes such as this are tongue-in-cheek, mocking the aberrant behavior of the characters while chuckling at their foolishness.

5. Jan Steen (Dutch, 1625/26-1679), A School for Boys and Girls c. 1670,

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oil on canvas, 32 x 42¾in (81.7 x 108.6cm), National Gallery of Scotland. Jan Steen is probably the most remembered of Dutch genre painters. He often painted a topsyturvy world whose inhabitants sit amongst the messes they have made. In A School for Boys and Girls the students engage in a variety of activities including fighting and sleeping while the schoolmaster and his wife seem to pay no attention to their students. Genre scenes such as this one illustrate the opposite of Dutch thrift and Protestant ethics. Cleanliness was a very important aspect of the Dutch aesthetic and way of life, yet in Steen's works mayhem reigns. Even today a disorderly household is referred to as a "Jan Steen household."

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6. Abraham Bloemaert (Dutch, 1564-1651), St. John the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness, circa 1632 , oil on canvas, 35½ x 51in (90.2 x 129.5cm), New Orleans Museum of Art. St. John the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness is unusual in its Biblical subject matter. Protestant churches were not adorned with paintings and art work, so Biblical interpretations such as this fell out of favor. Bloemaert, however, integrates the traditionally academic theme of a religious subject with the Dutch liking for casual groupings in a landscape. A diverse crowd of peasants, journeymen and soldiers gathers around to listen to the preaching of the nearly nude John the Baptist. Even the clouds and trees seem to strain inward to hear the words of the Saint.

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III. Portraits 7. Jan Mytens (Dutch 1614-1670), Portrait of the Martini Family, 1647, oil on canvas, 48 x 60in (121.8 x 152.4cm), New Orleans Museum of Art. This is an example of a group portrait, typical to Dutch painting. Mytens was a well known portraitist and genre painter in The Hague. In this portrait, Jacques Martini is painted with his second wife and his children from his first wife; the painting was completed the year Martini married his new bride. Martini's middle son and young daughter stand with the married couple. These two children offer the new wife grapes which symbolized chaste love in marriage. The oldest son, the one who will inherit the land and wealth, stands alone to the right of the portrait. The open landscape beyond the oldest son is an interesting contrast to the more compact scene on the left. Martini's deceased first wife is painted in the upper right hand corner in the clouds surrounded by cherubs. Typical to Dutch paintings, the cherubs symbolized children who died in childbirth.

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8. Jan Lievens (Dutch 1607- 1674), Portrait of an Old Man, 1640, oil on canvas, 30½ x 25in, New Orleans Museum of Art. Jan Lievens painted in the Netherlands and had a great reputation in his lifetime. Unfortunately, his reputation has been overshadowed by the more well-known artist, Rembrandt. Lievens, a child prodigy, worked closely with Rembrandt both in training and in practice. Their styles are very similar from the period when they worked together as can be seen in this portrait of an old man. The man's face emerges out of the dark background, a painting style similar to Rembrandt. The portrait is a delicate study of age which can be seen in the etched face of the man and the wisps of gray hair and thick beard.

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9. Bartholomeus van der Helst (Dutch 1613-1670), Homo Bulla: A Boy Blowing Bubbles in Landscape, circa 1665, oil on canvas 32 x 28¾in, New Orleans Museum of Art. Van der Helst practiced in Amsterdam and became one of the more fashionable portrait artists of his time. He became well-known for his painting of opulent fabrics and flattery of his sitters of which this painting is an excellent example. The portrait of the boy is playful and informal as he stands in a landscape holding a shell and straw for blowing bubbles. But, an underlying symbolism is present. Following a long tradition, "homo bulla" was a reference to the frailty of life, and more specifically, that human life is as transient as a soap bubble. Following the morals of the Protestant religion which discourages material gain, it is ironic that a child dressed in fine clothing is presenting the lesson of cherishing life.

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10. Frans Hals (Dutch, c. 1580/5-1666), A Dutch Lady, 1643-5, oil on canvas, 45¼ x 33¾in (115 x 85.8cm), National Gallery of Scotland. Frans Hals was the unrivaled master of portraiture in Haarlem in the seventeenth century, painting the elite and wealthy merchant class. His family originated from the Southern Provinces but fled to the Northern Provinces after the Spanish were ousted. Characteristic of Hals' quick brush style, this portrait shows his talents of creating depth and space with a limited range of color. In his time he was praised for the ability to reveal the personality of his sitters. This portrait is a pendant piece with the National Gallery of Scotland's A Dutch Gentleman; the sitters' identities are unknown.

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IV. Landscapes 11. Jan Van Aken (Dutch 1614-1661), Dune Landscape with Gypsies, 1650, oil on canvas, 15¼ x 22½in, New Orleans Museum of Art. The dunes in this landscape probably represent the area around Haarlem with the Church of St. Bavo visible on the horizon. Not much is known about the artist Van Aken, but the painting is a typical landscape scene of the Netherlands. An artist would specialize in a particular style of landscape painting such as seascapes, city views or country sides. Landscapes were popular home decorations in a Dutch house. The Dutch appreciated landscape paintings as a reminder of how hard they fought for their land against foreign rule. Also, it is a reminder to the Dutch of their dedication and prowess of working the land.

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12. Meindert Hobbema (Dutch 1638-1709), A Wooded Landscape, c. 1662-3, oil on canvas, 37 x 51½in (93.7 x 130.8cm), National Gallery of Scotland. Hobbema is considered one of the last great Dutch landscape painters of the seventeenth century. His specialty in landscapes was that of woodland scenes. Although not an actual scene, Hobbema carefully constructed the scene by darkening the foreground and allowing the middle scene appear to be lit by a break in the clouds. The wooded scene is lush and dense with cottages and people scattered through the landscape. Hobbema uses the repoussoir technique by framing the painting with the tree on the left. The tree frames the highlighted central, middle ground, drawing the viewer's eye to observe this area. Hobbema worked as an artist in Amsterdam and trained under Jacob van Ruisdael to whom Hobbema owed much of his success.

Vocabulary

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Academy- The French Royal Academy in Paris, which stressed traditional draftsmanship, somber color and beauty with classical or historical themes. baroque- A period in western art history c. 1580-18th century. In Catholic countries the style formed out of a revolt against Mannerism and a desire to serve the religious impulse of the Counter-Reformation by creating religious artworks that were accessible to the masses. In Northern countries the style reflected the ideas of modern philosophy and the scientific revolution with a move toward greater naturalism. Baroque style is characterized by having dynamic movement and theatrical effects. breakfast piece- A still life showing various items of food and drink, usually arranged in some disorderly fashion. Benelux countries- The unified countries of Belgium (BE), Netherlands (NE) and Luxumbourg (LUX) Calvinism- the religion based on the teachings of John Calvin (1509-64) emphasizing the depravity of man and characterized by an austere moral code Counter Reformation-The movement within the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century in reaction to the Protestant Reformation. expressive- having qualities which evoke a mood or feeling genre scenes- art which shows scenes from daily life iconographic- the study of the subject matter in an artwork or symbolism found within it that relates to the narrative landscapes- paintings representing a natural scenery or setting merry company- a type of genre scene which shows the figures in acts of merriment, often drinking, smoking, eating or dancing pendant - one of a pair of paintings or other works of art which had been conceived by the artist as related and interdependent in subject and composition, often portraits of a man and his wife portraiture- representation or likeness of an individual repoussoir- an object or figure placed in the immediate foreground of a pictorial composition to direct the spectator's eye into the picture stadholder - the governor or unified political leader of land in the Netherlands. In this case it was the leader of the United Provinces in the Netherlands vanitas- Latin term for vanity used to describe the allegorical aspect of a painting in which all of the objects depicted are meant to be reminders of the transience of human life.

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Timeline Key Events in Netherlands

1400-1500 1384 Philip of Burgundy acquires Flanders 1430s Van Eyck Brothers invent oil paint 1474 Caxton prints first book in English at Bruges 1477 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian obtains Hapsburg Netherlands 1505 Bosch paints The Garden of Earthly Delights 1519 Charles I of Spain is elected as emperor of Spain, the Low Countries, Germany, Austria and Italy as Charles V. 1522 Charles V introduces the Spanish Inquisition to the Netherlands

North America

1492 Christopher Columbus lands in the Caribbean

Europe and the World

1453 The Byzantine Empire ends when Constantinople Falls to the Turks 1491 Portuguese missionaries and artisans go to the Kongo, Africa 1498 Vasco de Gama is the first European to sail around Africa to reach India

1501-1550

1513 Florida discovered and claimed by Ponce de Leon for Spain. 1538 The city of Havana, Cuba is burned by slaves and French pirates 1541-42 Hernando de Soto earns his place in history as the European discoverer of the Mississippi River (Spanish explorer A. de Pineda discovers the mouth of the Mississippi in 1519)

1508 Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel Ceiling 1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany 1519 Magellan begins circumnavigating the globe 1530s John Calvin begins Protestant Reformation in France and Switzerland 1547 Ivan the Terrible is crowned Czar of Russia

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1550-1600

1555 Philip II of Spain inherits the Hapsberg Netherlands 1568 Beginning of the revolt of the northern Low Countries against Philip II, King of Spain The Eighty Years War begins 1579 The Northern Provinces join together to form the United Provinces and claim independence from Spain 1583 William of Orange becomes ruler of the Netherlands

1565 St. Augustine, Florida founded by Pedro Menendez 1587 Second English colony forms on Roanoke Island off North Carolina

1558 Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England Her rule lasts until her death in 1603 1564 John Calvin and Michelangelo die, Galileo and Shakespeare born 1562 Britain begins slave trade in Africa 1598 Edict of Nantes revoked, sends Protestants fleeing France 1599 Globe Theater, famous as Shakespeare's playhouse, opens in London 1609 Galileo demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers 1605 Cervantes writes Don Quixote 1644 Ming Dynasty ends in China 1649 Charles I of England beheaded by Cromwell

1601-1650

1602 Dutch East India Company is established 1610 A Dutch East India company brings lacquer furniture to Holland 1625 Holland begins involvement in slave trade 1626 Dutch traders buy Manhattan Island and found colonies of New Amsterdam and Haarlem 1648 Peace of Westphalia recognizes Netherlands' independence from Spain

1607 Jamestown is founded, John Smith elected president of Jamestown colony council the following year 1608 Samuel de Champlain found the village of Quebec 1619 First African slaves brought to Virginia 1620 The Mayflower with 102 people seeking religious freedom land in Plymouth Rock 1642 Montreal, Canada founded

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1650-1700

1652 Dutch establish colony at Cape of Good Hope, South Africa 1663 Dutch render map of Africa 1670 Spinoza, one of the most controversial thinkers of the 17th century, publishes Tretise on Religious and Political Philosophy 1683 Van Leewenhoek discovers bacteria 1700s The United Netherlands dominate the financial community of Europe by providing loans and money for European trade The Netherlands do, however, lose influence as a political, maritime, and domestic industries power.

1701-1750

1664 Dutch lose American colonies to the British; New Amsterdam renamed New York 1682 Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, claimed the entire Mississippi watershed for France and named it for King Louis XIV 1690 First paper money in America issued in colony of Massachusetts 1712 Slaves united for the New York Slave Rebellion 1718 The "Casket Girls" of New Orleans begin to arrive from France with caskets full of dowry articles to marry settlers 1746 Princeton University chartered 1751 Sugar cane is first introduced into Louisiana 1755 The French and Indian War begins, 11,000 Arcadians are deported from Canada in the next 6 years 1776 Declaration of Independence is signed 1789 George Washington becomes the first US president; The French Revolution begins

1654 Louis XIV crowned King of France 1660 The monarchy is restored in England 1687 Isaac Newton's Prinipia published 1689 Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia 1693 Dom Perignon invents champagne 1703 St. Petersburg founded by Peter the Great 1707 The Act of Union joins Scotland and England into the United Kingdom of Great Britain 1709 Ancient Herculenium is discovered 1754 St. Andrews Golf Club is founded in Scotland 1755 Samuel Johnson publishes Dictionary of the English Language 1786 The British government announces its plans to make Australia a penal colony 1799 The metric system is established in France

1750-1800

28

Curriculum Objectives Geography:

· Discuss and describe the various geographic formations of the Netherlands. (G-1A, G-1A, G-1D) · Draw a map of the Netherlands and denote the type of climate, agricultural products and common vegetation for each province. (G-1C, G-1D, G-1B). · On your map of the Netherlands denote the major bodies of water and discuss each type of body of water. Compare the canal system of Amsterdam to that of New Orleans. (G-1B, G1C, G-1D) · During the Golden Age, the Dutch were masters of the sea and leaders in trade. Examine and discuss trade routes from the Netherlands to Asia, Africa and the Americas. Calculate distances between ports. What goods were exchanged? (G-1A, G-1D, E-1A, E-1B, H-1C-Era 6)

· What are the major cities of the Benelux today? What were the major cities in this area

during the 17th century? (G-1C, G-1D, H-1C-Era 7, Era 6)

Mathematics:

· Calculate distances between major cities of the Netherlands in miles and kilometers. Consider The Hague, Amsterdam, Haarlem, and Utrecht. (M-1, M-4, M-5) · Have fun with ratios. Use a current atlas or almanac to calculate current population ratios for the Netherlands, the Benelux, and Europe. Draw a pie chart showing the percentage of Dutch citizens in the Benelux and in Europe. How has the population changed since the 17th century? (N-9-E, N-5-M, N-8-M, N-6-H, Data Analysis) · Discuss lines and shapes within the still life works in the image list. What shapes can be found in the paintings? Discuss overall composition in the works. What shapes are dominant? (Geometry Benchmarks) · Find the average yearly temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of The Hague, Amsterdam, New York, and Calcutta. Convert these temperatures to Celsius. (M-1, M-4, M-5)

29

Social Studies:

· Discuss the purchase of Manhattan Island by the Dutch from Native Americans. How much did the Dutch pay for the Island? What did the Dutch originally call the area? What Dutch names remain today? (H-1B-Era 1, H-1C-Era 6, H-1A)

· Research religious history in the Netherlands. During the seventeenth century, what

percentage of the Dutch were Calvinist, Lutheran, Catholic or other religions? Draw a bar graph showing the results. (N-2-E, N-2-M, H-1C-Era 6, H-1A) · Research the Dutch Golden Age and write a report on your findings. You may want to focus on one aspect of the history and culture such as trade, home life, civic guilds, or religious life. (H-1A, H-1C-era 6, ELA-1, ELA-2)

Science:

· Discuss environmental issues as they have affected the Netherlands since the seventeenth century. Discuss issues of global warming for the low-lying country. Compare Dutch issues to those in Louisiana. (SE-E-A5, SE-M-A8, SE-H-A11, SE-H-C2, SE-H-D2, LS-H-D4) · Discuss the ecology of the Netherlands. Use the landscapes and still life paintings provided in the slide list to discuss local vegetation. (LS-E-C, LS-M-C, LS-H-D) · Experiment with water displacement using a bucket and an assortment of rocks. Discuss ways in which the people of the Netherlands had to alter their environment and reclaim the land from the ocean. (SE-E-A3, SE-H-C1)

Language Arts:

· Choose a painting from the slide list with more than one figure (Bloemaert, Steen, Martini) and write an explanation about the characters in the painting. Create the story emphasizing the theme, the people, and the setting. (ELA-1, ELA-2, ELA-4) · Write a poem describing a portrait or landscape from the image list. (ELA-2) · Write a story incorporating at least six paintings from the image list as if they were book illustrations. (ELA-1, ELA-2)

· Dutch painters of the seventeenth century often incorporated moralizing tales into their works

even though they were not specifically religious in nature. Use the image list to discuss examples of this trend (Steen, Geritz. Pot, Schaeck). How do such works illustrate nature? What is the moral? Does the moral apply today? (ELA-1, ELA-2)

30

Visual Arts: · Discuss the use of vanitas symbols in 17th Century Dutch painting. What are some of the

symbols common in today's world? Create your own symbol and incorporate it into a collage. (HP-3VA-3, HP-3VA-5, CA-4VA-2, CA-4VA-4, CE-1VA-1)

· Discuss the symbols and subject matter in a Dutch still life or genre scene. How does the

painting reflect the society in which it was made? (CE-1VA-1, AP-2VA-5, HP-3VA-3)

· What did you have for breakfast this morning? How would you artfully arrange your meal?

Create your own breakfast piece and draw your breakfast in a carefully balanced composition. (CE-1VA-1, CE-1VA-3, AP-2VA-1, HP-3VA-3)

· Draw or paint a picture of your house. Include its surroundings like trees, other houses, plants

and flowers. (CE-1VA-2, AP-2VA-5)

· Research your family tree and create a family portrait. Discuss Jan Myten's Portrait of the

Martini Family. How did Myten's portray deceased family members?(H-1B-E1, CE-1VA, HP-3VA)

· Paint three landscapes: one of your favorite place in Louisiana, one of your favorite vacation

spot and one from your imagination. Write a story to accompany your work describing the land and what goes on there. (CE-1VA, HP-3VA, CA-4VA, ELA-1, ELA2)

Bibliography

31

Fleming, William. Arts and Ideas, ninth ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1995. Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage, Volume 1, to 1715. New York: Mazimillan Publishing Company, 1987. Haak, Bob. The Golden Age: Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1996. National Gallery of Scotland. Scottish Treasures: Masterpieces from the National Gallery of Scotland. Ghent, Belgium: Snoeck-Ducaju and Zoon, 2001.

The New Orleans Museum of Art. The New Orleans Museum of Art Handbook. New Orleans, 1996. Rosenberg, Jakob, Seymour Slive, and E. H. ter Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600-1800.

Maryland: Penguin Books, 1966.

Schama, Simon. The Embarassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Schwartz, Gary. The Dutch World of Painting. The Vancouver Art Gallery and the Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst, 1986.

32

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