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saqarTvelo ­ somxeTi

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gamomcemloba artanuji

guram maisuraZe

qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoriografiidan

kavkasiuri saxli

Tbilisi 2008

UDC (uak) 821.353.1.091.821.19 m-178

GEORGIA-ARMENIA 1

The Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology

Georgian Academy of Sciences

Guram Maisuradze

proeqtis avtori mxatvari redaqtori naira gelaSvili kote sulaberiZe istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori devi berZeniSvili recenzentebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori liana davlianiZe istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori aleqsandre dauSvili

FROM THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF GEORGIAN-ARMENIAN RELATIONS

madlobas vuxdiT evropul fond HORIZON-s finansuri daxmarebisTvis Our deep gratitude for financial support to the European Foundation HORIZON

ARTANUJI Publishers Tbilisi 2006 ISBN 978-9941-400-07-0

Sinaarsi

redaqtorisagan ................................................................................................ 9 Sesavali .............................................................................................................. 11 Tavi I Sua saukuneebis somxuri istoriografiis ZiriTadi tendenciebi da misi arekvla Tanadroul qarTul istoriografiaSi ..................................................................................... 15 Tavi II XIX saukunis somxuri istoriografia carizmis antiqarTuli ideologiuri politikis samsaxurSi ................. 95 Tavi III qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis asaxva mezobelTa sabWour istoriografiaSi ........................................ 139 Tavi IV axali xedva Tu Zveli inercia? ..................................................... 246 daskvna .............................................................................................................. 279 From the of Georgian ­ Armenian Resations (Summary) ............................ 285 saZieblebi ....................................................................................................... 296

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redaqtorisagan

guram maisuraZis wigni ­ `qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoriografiidan~, sayuradRebo naSromia, sadac ori mezobeli xalxis urTierTobebze dawerili TiTqmis yvela nawarmoebia ganxilul-Sefasebuli uZvelesi droidan dRemde. avtori vrclad moixilavs Zveli somexi istorikosebis tendenciur Tu gazviadebul cnobebs, romlebic somxeTis saxelmwifos upiratesobas amtkicebdnen amierkavkasiaSi da mis gareTac. g. maisuraZe axsnas uZebnis am tendenciurobas. somexi istorikosebis sapirispirod aqve Seswavlilia Sua saukuneebis qarTvel istorikosTa cnobebi da Sefasebulia isini, rogorc sapasuxo reaqcia. calke TavebSia ganxiluli XIX da XX saukuneebis somxurqarTul urTierTobaTa amsaxveli literatura. obieqturad axsnili da Sefasebulia cilobisa Tu dapirispirebis faqtebi; aRsaniSnavia avtoris zomieri toni paeqrobisas, rac mis argumentacias damajereblobas matebs. sasurveli iqneboda am wignis gamocema ucxo enazec. d. berZeniSvili 5.07.05

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Sesavali

xalxTa istoriul urTierTobaTa Tema yovelTvis aqtualuri iyo amierkavkasiur istoriografiaSi, rac, albaT, TviT am qveynis warsulis TaviseburebebiT unda yofiliyo ganpirobebuli. kavkasia ZvelTaganve msoflio mniSvnelobis savaWro da samxedrostrategiuli magistralebis gzasayars warmoadgenda, ramac is aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis samyaros damakavSirebel oqros xidad aqcia. gangebis mier kuTvnilma am erTob sapatio da, amasTanave, saxifaTo rolma kavkasia did saxelmwifoTa sacilobel qveynad gawira. kavkasiis dauflebisaTvis brZolis istoriis faqtebi cxadyofs, rom mis gasakontroleblad msoflios did saxelmwifoTa metoqeoba adgilobriv xalxebs, Tu erTi mxriv, politikuri orientaciis mixedviT erTmaneTisadmi dapirispirebul nawilebad TiSavda, meore mxriv, saerTo mtris faqtori maT gaerTianebisakenac ubiZgebda. es situacia mTeli sisruliT aisaxa amierkavkasiur istoriografiaSi, sadac erTimeoris gverdiT Tanaarsebobda da adamianTa cnobierebaze zemoqmedebda, rogorc kavkasiis gaerTianebis idea, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo tendenciebis gamovleniT, ise mis sapirispirod, hegemonisturi miswrafebebis Sesabamisad gaazrebuli faqtebisa da movlenebis ara marto subieqturi, aramed zogjer, gayalbebuli warmodgenebi. pirvelma yvelaze mkafio gamovlineba Sua saukuneebSi, leonti mrovelis eTnogenetikur koncefciaSi pova Tavisi adgili, xolo meore, upiratesad Zveli somxuri istoriografiis damaxasiaTebel movlenad iqca. kavkasiis istoriis gadmocemisas istoriografiaSi gamJRavnebuli erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba, ra Tqma unda, obieqturi da subieqturi mizezebiT iyo ganpirobebuli da saSinao da sagareo politikuri faqtorebis rTuli gadaxlarTvis Sedegs warmoadgenda, sadac sagareo faqtori, kavkasiis geografi-

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uli mdebareobis gamo, mainc gansakuTrebul, TiTqmis gadamwyvet rols TamaSobda am qveynis istoriaSi da istoriografiamac, aseT viTarebaSi, politikuri brZolis iaraRis mniSvneloba SeiZina. rogorc, Cvens droSi, mTiani yarabaRis problemebis gamwvavebam gviCvena, konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnaSi arcTu umniSvnelo wili edo istorikosTa erTi nawilis mier istoriuli faqtebis tendenciur gaSuqebas. aseve, afxazTa mier gamogonili istoriuli suraTi daedo safuZvlad afxazuri sazogadoebis gauTviTcnobierebeli nawilis Cabmas imperiis gegmebis realizaciaSi. igive suraTis mowmeni varT Sida qarTlSi datrialebuli ambebisas da sxv. saqarTvelosa da somxeTis, masTan erTad ki, saerTod, kavkasiis istoriis kvlevis politizirebam bevri arakompetenturi piri miizida da miatmasna mecnierebas, ris Sedegadac istoriis subieqtur gaazrebaSi ukve privitivizmmac gaidga Rrma fesvebi. samwuxaroa, agreTve, rom naCqarevi daskvnebi da zogjer susti profesiuli momzadebis mizeziT damaxinjebuli istoriuli suraTia asaxuli saSualo da umaRlesi skolebis saxelmZRvaneloebSi, rac axalgazrdobaSi arajansaRi ganwyobilebis gavrcelebis umTavresi wyaro xdeba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sagangaSoa viTareba amierkavkasiis istoriuli geografiis mecnieruli kvlevis saqmeSi. mdgomareobas isic amZimebs, rom istoriul geografias, rogorc istoriul mecnierebas, zogan (magaliTad, azerbaijanSi) araviTari tradicia ara aqvs. aseT dros mezobelTa gamocdilebisa da miRwevebis gauTvaliswinebloba ukve winaswar ganapirobebs mkvlevris gardauval marcxs. amierkavkasiis istoriis subieqturi gaazrebis mizezebis Ziebisas ar SeiZleba SeumCneveli darCes is sagulisxmo faqtic, rom am tendencias somxeTSi istoriuli tradiciac kvebavs. Zvel somxur wyaroebs aseTi mimarTuleba namdvilad axasiaTebT. sagareo faqtoris zegavleniT somxeTisaTvs Tavsmoxveuli ideologiuri politika sazogadoebis zeda fenebSi xSirad erovnuli interesebis gamomxatveladac aRiqmeboda, rac saTanado asaxvas povebda saistorio mwerlobaSi. raRaca msgavsi xdeba Tanamedrove somxur istoriografiaSic, sadac obieqturi, mecnieruli kvlevis sazianod, gansakuTrebiT, istoriuli

geografiis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas, upiratesoba TiTqmis, yovelTvis politikur mosazrebebs eZleva. XX s-is 90 wlebis dasawyisSi damoukidebeli qarTuli da somxuri saxelmwifoebis aRmocenebam, bunebrivia, istorikosebs Soris politikuri koniunqturisagan Tavisufali, gulwrfeli saubris saWiroeba warmoSva saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili problemebis garSemo. Tavisuflebis pirobebSi saubris msurveli sakmaod bevri aRmoCnda. perioduli gamocemebis, ZiriTadad, gazeTebis furclebi aWrelda momzadebuli Tu moumzadebeli avtorebis, specialistebisa Tu araspecialistebis statiebiT. visac rogor SeeZlo ise icavda sakuTari istoriis Rirsebas. amaSi sagangaSo, ra Tqma unda, araferia. WeSmariteba xom kamaTSi unda daibados. mTavaria mokamaTesTan keTilmosurne damokidebulebis SenarCuneba da sxvisi azris pativiscemis unaris gamomJRavneba, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca saqme istoriul mezoblebTan urTierTobas exeba, miT umetes, aTeuli saukuneebiT erTmaneTTan umWidroesad dakavSirebul saqarTvelosa da somxeTis istorias. didi ivane javaxiSvili jer kidev, XX s-is dasawyisSi werda: `SeuZlebelia qarTveli eris istorias swerde da amasTan ar icnobde da ar afasebde somexTa Zvel da mdidar istorias. marto geografiuli mezobloba rodi akavSirebda qarTvels da somexs. am moZme erTa kavSirurTierToba ara marto aTeul saukuneebs iTvlis, aramed sixarulisa da Wiris TiTqmis ganuyoflobas iTvaliswinebs. istoriuli bedis erTgvarovneba imaSi poulobs Tavis gamoxatulobas, rom arasdros erTi eris bedniereba meoris xarjze ar momxdara da yovelTvis erTi da igive saerTo mteri hyavdaT da Tavs yovelTvis erTad icavdnen* . didi winapris es Segoneba dResac aqtualurad JRers da urTierTsasikeTo TanamSromlobisaken mogviwodebs. warmodgenili naSromi ar iTvaliswinebs dasmul sakiTxze qarTuli da somxuri istoriografiis srul mimoxilvas. is mxolod erTi SedarebiT viwro problemiT ifargleba da ukve xseneb-

*

sergo jorbenaZe, cxovreba da Rvawli ivane javaxiSvilisa, Tbilisi, I981, gv. 502.

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uli im cnobili tendenciis aRmocenebisa da ganviTarebis pirobebis Seswavlas cdilobs, romelic didi xania xels uSlis ara marto qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis obieqtur gaSuqebas, aramed mTlianad amierkavkasiis istoriis realuri suraTis warmosaxvasac. am TvalsazrisiT, yuradReba, ZiriTadad, somxur istoriografiazea gamaxvilebuli, ramdenadac aseTi tendenciis ganviTarebisaTvis Sesaferisi politikuri niadagis arseboba somxeTis istoriul pirobebSi bevrad ufro TvalsaCinod ikveTeba.

Tavi I Sua saukuneebis somxuri istoriografiis ZiriTadi tendenciebi da misi arekvla Tanadroul qarTul istoriografiaSi

somxuri istoriografiis `oqros saukune~ maSin dadga (V s.), roca somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis didma marcxma (erovnuli xelisufleba dasavleT somxeTSi 391 w. gaauqmes romaelebma, aRmosavleTSi ki, sparselebma 428 w.), erovnuli TviTSegnebis dacvas samkvdro-sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis funqcia daakisra. aseT situaciaSi somex istorikosTa patriotul movaleobad iqca Zlierebis xanis somxeTis istoriis mTeli didebulebiT, Tundac gazviadebiT, warmoCena, oRondac mas damoukideblobisaTvis xalxis darazmva da sulierad ganmtkiceba SeZleboda. aqedan gamomdinare somxeTisa da somexTa gamorCeulobis ideam Sua saukuneebis somxur istoriografiaSi myarad daimkvidra adgili da saxelmwifoebrivi marcxiT Selaxuli Rirsebis dacvis erT-erT ZiriTad saSualebad iqca. Zvel somex istorikosTa TxzulebebSi Tavdapirvelad religiur-politikuri uflebebis dacvisaken mimarTulma motivebma imZlavres (koriuni, agaTangelosi, favstos buzandi), ramdenadac somxeTis gayofisa (387 w.) da samefos gauqmebis Semdeg iranmac da bizantiamac es qveyana sakuTari ideologiuri da kulturuli wnexis qveS moaqcies da misi saSualebiT cdilobdnen upiratesad TavianTi batonobis uzrunvelyofas maT kuTvnil nawilebSi. iranelebi, romelTa xelSi somxeTis 4/5 aRmoCnda, TavianTi mTavari metoqis, bizantiis gavlenis Sesasusteblad Seudgnen qristianTa devnas da Seecadnen zoroastruli religiis gavrcelebas somexTa Soris. amave mizniT, krZalavdnen berZnuli enis funqcionirebas da aZlierebdnen siriuli enis poziciebs, romelic sparseTSi qristianTa enad iyo miRebuli. mfarvelobdnen da somxur eklesiaSi awinaurebdnen siriel samRvdelo pirebs. SahinSahis

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gansakuTrebuli mfarvelobis pirobebSi selevkiis sirieli kaTalikosi Tavs ukve mTeli aRmosavleTis qristianTa meTaurad grZnobda da miiswrafoda ra aseTi mdgomareobis mosapoveblad, Tavis titulaturaSi somxeTis garda saqarTveloca da albaneTic Seitana 1 . amis sapirispiro viTareba iyo Seqmnili dasavleT somxeTSi, sadac saxelmwifo da saeklesio enad mxolod berZnuli iyo miRebuli. somxuri eklesiis mdgomareobas isic arTulebda, rom Tavidanve saRvTismsaxuro ena somxeTSi berZnuli da siriuli iyo, ramdenadac qristianoba somxeTSi sirielebisa da berZnebis saSualebiT gavrcelda da somxur eklesiaSi wirva Tavidanve ucxo enaze warmoebda2 , rac sakuTari politikuri xelisuflebis aryofnis pirobebSi, somxur eklesias gadagvarebiT, xolo erovnul TviTSegnebas ganadgurebiT emuqreboda. am didi saSiSroebis winaaRmdeg miimarTa, pirvel rigSi, somxuri eklesiis moRvaweTa mTeli Zalisxmeva, rasac aqtiurad dauWira mxari somex arSakunTa erT-erTma ukanasknelma xelisufalma mefe vramSapuhma. somxuri eklesiis nacionalizacia wirva-locvis, samsaxurisa da qadagebis somxur enaze warmarTvas saWiroebda, risTvisac aucilebeli iyo somxuri damwerlobis da sasuliero literaturis somxursave enaze Seqmna. Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerloba am didi kulturuli amocanis gadaWras kaTalikos sahaksa da meudabnoe bers maStocs miawers. somxuri eklesiis gaerovnebulobasTan erTad, rogorc amis Sesaxeb Zveli somxuri wyaroebi gadmogvcemen, iwyeba misi avtoritetis amaRlebisaTvis farTo propaganda. niSandoblivia, rom Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerlobis warmomadgenelTa didi umravlesoba umaRlesi rangis sasuliero pirebi iyvnen (kaTalikosi, episkoposi da a. S.) da etyoba, amitomac maT Txzulebebs qristianobisa da somxuri eklesiis apologia laitmotivad gasdevs Tavidan bolomde. rogorc m. abeRiani SeniSnavs, magaliTad, agaTangelosis mizani iyo somxuri eklesiis aRmocenebis istoria iseTnairad warmoedgina, rom mas Rrma STabeWdileba moexdina da Rirsi yofiliyo gakvirvebisa... da ramdenadac somxuri eklesia ukve Tavs damoukideblad grZnobda berZnebisa da sirielebis gavlenisagan, saWiro iyo mematianes, aseve,

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eCvenebina, rom is daarsebulia ara wm. grigolis mier III s-sa, Tu IV s. dasawyisSi, ara mociqulebis mier, aramed TviT cidan Camosuli qristes mier3 . aseT wregadasul ambiciebs TavisTavad xeli unda Seewyo ara marto qristianobis winaSe somxuri eklesiis gansakuTrebuli damsaxurebisa da misi upiratesobis gancdisaTvis, aramed, siriuli eklesiis analogiurad, aRmosavleTis qveynebis qristianTa meTauris pretenziebis gaCenisTvisac, ris sababsac bizantiasTan dapirispirebuli sasanianTa iranis politika iZleoda. sasanianebi somxeTs, rogorc aRmosavluri tradiciebis matarebel qveyanas, sakuTari kulturul-politikuri samyaros Semadgenel nawilad miiCnevdnen da TavianTi politikis sayrden bazad iTvaliswinebdnen kavkasiaSi. mazdeanur religiasTan dapirispirebis miuxedavad, somxuri eklesiis dogmaturi uTanxmoeba bizantiasTan, irans saSualebas aZlevda masze dayrdnobiT ideologiuri situacia kavkasiaSi Tavisi mTavari metoqis sawinaaRmdegod waremarTa. amitom, irani sul male somxuri eklesiis SezRudvidan misi mfarvelobis taqtikas daadga, gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac 554 w. dvinis saeklesio krebis dadgenilebiT somxurma eklesiam sabolood gawyvita kavSiri bizantiis eklesiasTan. am droidan iranelTa xelSewyobiT somxuri eklesiis funqciebi qveyanaSi gamudmebiT farTovdeboda. mas gadasaxadebis akrefac ki miendo. male is, somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis ararsebobis pirobebSi, somexi xalxis erTaderTi oficialuri warmomadgeneli gaxda. somxuri eklesia TandaTan iranelTa batonobis sayrden bazad iqca kavkasiaSi, xolo qristianobis monofizituri mimarTuleba bizantiis winaaRmdeg ideologiuri da politikuri brZolis erT-erT umTavres iaraRad. gasagebia, rom somxuri eklesias am funqciis gansamtkiceblad iranis xelisuflebas misi gavlenis sferos geografiuli sazRvrebis gafarToebisTvisac unda ezruna. 6I4 w. ktezifonSi cnobili sparsuli saeklesio kreba Sahis piriT brZanebda: `yvela qristianma, vinc Cems xelmwifobas emorCileba, somexTa sarwmunoeba unda miiRoso~4 . amiT somxuri

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ix. m. abeRianis dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 102-103.

ê»»áëÇ »åÇëÏáåáëÇ å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ« ºñ»õ³Ý« 1939« ¿ç 200; Ëóêîíèí Â. Ã.

Ìàíóê Àáåãÿí, Èñòîðèÿ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû, Åðåâàí, 1975, ñ. 57. iqve, gv. 51-52.

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Äðåâíèé è ðàííåñðåäíåâåêîâûé Èðàí, Ìîñêâà, 1987, ñ. 180-188.

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eklesiis ierarqiulma pretenziebma kavkasiaSi farTo gasaqani miiRo da msaxurma istoriografiamac ara marto somxuri eklesiis, aramed mTlianad kavkasiis politikuri istoriis suraTis warmosaxvac am Targze scada. somxuri samRvdeloebisa da eklesiis gazrdili pretenziebis kvali sakmaod cxadad atyvia Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerlobis pirvelsave Zeglebs, sadac didi pompezurobiTaa aRbeWdili qristianobis winaSe somxeTis kulturuli rolis gansakuTrebulad warmosaxvis cda da am Zeglebis sxvadasxva redaqciebSi metnaklebi sisruliTaa gamJRavnebuli aRmosavleTis qristianuli qveynebis sulieri meTauris miCemebis survili. somexTa moqcevis berZnul, arabul, qarTul redaqciebSi mocemuli istoriuli suraTis Tanaxmad, somexTa ganmanaTlebeli da somexTa mefe uflebamosilebi Canan, mouxmon iberiisa da albaneTis mefeebs, Semdeg ki maT qveynebSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis gansamtkiceblad iqadagon, daniSnon episkoposebi da organizaciulad moawyon eklesiebi5 . somexTa moqcevis qarTul redaqciaSi, romelic erTerT uZveles Targmans warmoadgens, somexTa ganmanaTlebeli griE goli somexTa garda mTeli aRmosavleTis momqceveladaa gamoyvanili: `esreT ukue ara xolo somxiTi gareSeicva mis (e. i. grigolis) mier qadagebaman cxovrebisaman, aramed sparseTi da asureTi da midni... amaT yovelTagani tkbilsa mas uRelsa qristessa moiyvanna erni mravalni~6 . am Zeglis mixedviT, somexTa damsaxureba qristianobis winaSe berZnebis TanabarmniSvnelovani iyo. Zeglis avtori wers: `da iyvnes ornive ese varskvlav brwyinvale konstantine da Trdat, konstantine kerZoTa dasavlisaTa, xolo Trdat aRmosavliT, da brwyinavdes da gananaTlebdes~7 . am Temam Tavisi Semdgomi ganviTareba gviandel ZeglebSic pova. magaliTad, e. w. `xelSekrulebis wignis~ (`daSanc TuRT~) mixedviT, TiTqos, romsa da somxeTs erTmaneTs Soris gavlenis sferoebad gaeyoT mTeli qristianuli samyaro, romlis ZaliTac dasavleTi roma-

elebs hrgebiaT, aRmosavleTi ­ somxebs. am natyuari Zeglis Tanaxmad, dokuments, Turme, xels awerdnen romis mxridan imperatori konstantine da papi silvestri, somxeTis mxridan ki mefe Trdati da grigol ganmanaTlebeli8 . somexTa moqcevas ukavSirdeba da mis analogiuradaa gadmocemuli somxuri anbanisa da damwerlobis Seqmnis ambavic. grigol ganmanaTleblis msgavsad, somxuri anbanis Semqmnelic saerTo kavkasiur moRvawedaa gamoyvanili da, amis Sesabamisad, masve miewereba, somxurTan erTad, qarTul da albanur anbanTa Seqmnac. koriunis mixedviT, aRmosavleT somxeTSi damwerlobis danergvis Semdeg, maStoci Tavis moswavleebTan erTad iberiaSi gamgzavrebula, iq mas qarTuli anbani Seuqmnia da mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobac gaumarTia (igulisxmeba RvTismsaxurebisTvis saWiro literaturis Targmnis dawyeba). somexi misioneris ganmanaTlebluri saqmianobis xelSesawyobad qarTvel mefesa da episkoposs qveynis sxvadasxva mxridan saswavleblad mravalricxovani axalgazrdoba SeukrebiaT, romelTagan SemdegSi zogierTebi episkoposebadac ki dauniSniaT9 . Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerlobis kritikuli ganxilvisas pirvelad iv. javaxiSvilma SeniSna, rom maStocisa da grigolis mniSvnelobis mTeli kavkasiisaTvis ganzogadeba erTi da imave wrisa da TiTqmis erTi da imave mweral gadamkeTeblis saqme unda yofiliyo... orive ZeglSi erTi da imave mimarTulebisa da Teoriis gamoxatuleba yofila10. niSandoblivia, rom s. eremianis azriTac, wm. grigolis Rvawli qarTvelTa gaqristianebis saqmeSi gansazRvruli politikuri mosazrebebiT aris Setanili ZeglSi daaxloebiT IX-X ss.. erTi istoriografiuli naSromisaTvis gakeTebul SeniSvnaSi igi wers: `Èçó÷åíèå àðàáñêîé âåðñèè èñòîðèè Àãàòàíãåëîñà ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî âåðñèÿ î êðåùåíèè ñâ. Ãðèãîðèåì òàêæå ãðóçèí, àëáàíîâ, àáõàçîâ è àëàíîâ ìîãëà âîçíèêíóòü òîëüêî IX-X ââ., êîãäà àðìÿíñêèå

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¸ ß Ý Ã Ã Û ù Ý õ Ç Ý á Ññ á Ù ³ ³ Î Þ Ñ ³ ³ » Ý « ä ñ ë 16« ³ ³ ó Õ á Ý á Ã õ õ » ù õ Á ñ ñ © ³ Ý ½ ñ³ ó ³ Ç « 82 ¿. 21« 25 ç

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ix. georgika, t. I, Tbilisi, I96I, gv.70-73; Í. Ìàðð. Êðåùåíèå àðìÿí, ãðóçèí, àáõàçîâ è àëàíîâ ñâ. Ãðèãîðèåì, Ñïá, 1905, ñ. 63-211. cxovreba wm. grigol parTelisa, gamocemuli leon meliqseT-begis mier, tfilisi, 1920, gv. 43. iqve, gv. 46.

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Êîðþí. Æèçíü Ìàøòîöà. Òåêñò ðàçíî÷òåíèÿìè ðóêîïèñåé, ïåðåâîä, ïðåäèñëîâèå è êîììåíòàðèè Ì. Àáåãÿíà, Åðåâàí, 1941, ãë. XV. iv. javaxiSvili, Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerloba, Tbilisi, I935, gv. 183.

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Áàãðàòèäû âåëè áîðüáó çà óñòàíîâëåíèå ñâîèõ ñþçåðåííûõ ïðàâ íàä âñåìè õðèñòèàíñêèìè ôåîäàëàìè ñòðàí Çàêàâêàçüÿ~11. pirveli istorikosi, romelic somxuri eklesiis istoriasTan erTad, qveynis saSinao da sagareo urTierTobis istoriasac gadmogvcems aris V s. meore naxevarSi mcxovrebi, m. abeRianis daxasiaTebiT `Taviseburi somxuri patriotizmiT aRsavse~12, favstos buzandi. am avtoris `somxeTis istoria~, faqtobrivad, mamikonianTa sagvareulo istoriis saxotbo Txzulebas warmoadgens, sadac faqtebi da movlenebi xsenebuli `Taviseburi patriotizmis~ prizmaSia gatarebuli. aseTi saxiTaa gadmocemuli am TxzulebaSi arsebuli qarTul-somxur urTierTobaTa amsaxveli fragmentebic. favstos buzandis gadmocemiT, somxeTSi papis mefobisas (369-374) misi xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg somxeTis mTeli rigi olqebi ajanyebulan da misgan gandgoma ucdiaT. sparseTTan omis damTavrebis Semdeg ki sparapet muSeR mamikonians uTavia ajanyebis CaxSoba da somxeTisagan gamdgari qveynebis dabruneba. gamdgarTa Soris asaxelebs `gugarqis~ (qvemo qarTlis somxuri saxelwodeba) xelisufalsac. igi wers: sparapetma muSeRma gailaSqra iveriis mefeze, sastikad Seaviwrova, daimorCila iverTa mTeli qveyana, maxvils misca azatebi da naxararuli gvarebi, vinc ki moixelTa. sparapetma muSeRma brZana jvars ecvaT farnavazianebi, xolo gugarqis bdeSxs, romelic adre somxeTis mefes emorCileboda da bolos aujanyda, Tavi mohkveTa da misi gvaris mamrobiTi STamomavloba gaJlita, qalebi ki tyved waiyvana. mTeli mxare xelaxla daimorCila, waiyvana mZevlebi, danarCenebi ki daxarka. daikava ra teritoria Zvel sazRvramde, romelic iyo somxeTsa da iverias Soris, anu did mdinare mtkvramde, dabrunda ukan13. qarTlis mimarT somxeTis teritoriuli pretenziebi pirvelad, vgoneb, am ZeglSia fiqsirebuli, Tumca, sakontrolo masaliT, favstos buzandis mier emociurad monaTxrobi ar dasturdeba da, albaT, somexi avtoris subieqtur ganwyobilebas

ufro unda mieweros, vidre realur viTarebas, romelTa Sesaxeb avTenturi wyaroebi sul sxva suraTs gvixataven14. ganxilul TxzulebebSi ganviTarebuli somxeTis gandidebis idea Tavis apogeas aRwevs movses xorenacis `somxeTis istoriaSi~, sadac somexTa gamorCeulobis azri koncefciis donezea ayvanili. am ideis ufro mZafrad aRsaqmelad da misTvis praqtikuli mniSvnelobis misaniWeblad naSromi sruldeba e. w. `godebiT~, sadac m. xorenaci iZleva arSakunianTa somxuri samefos damxobis Semdgomdroindel somxeTSi Seqmnili mZime socialur-ekonomikuri, politikuri da kulturul-moraluri dacemis saSinel suraTs. mkveTri kontrasti warsulsa da awmyos Soris qmnis erovnuli Rirsebis mwvaved gancdis saSualebas, rac, cxadia, arsebulisadmi Seurigeblobisa da amboxiskenaa mimarTuli. `godebis~ pirvelsave winadadebaSi aSkarad SeigrZnoba avtoris politikuri amocana ­ didebuli warsulis SexsenebiT protestis grZnobiT ganawyos xalxi usaxuri sinamdvilisadmi: `dagtiri Sen somexTa qveyanav, dagtiri Sen, yovelTa CrdiloelTa Soris gamorCeulo, rameTu aRixocnen (pirisagan miwisa) mefe da mRvdeli, mrCeveli da moZRvari; dairRva mSvidobianoba da fesvi gaidga uwesrigobam, Seirya marTlmadidebloba da ugunurobis wyalobiT ganmtkicda mwvalebloba da a. S.15. warsulsa da awmyos Soris kontrastis kidev ufro gaZlierebas xels uwyobs Txzulebis ZiriTad nawilSi somxeTis istoriis gansakuTrebuli brwyinvalebiT warmoCena, risTvisac avtori faqtebisa da movlenebis araTu Selamazebas, aramed, rig SemTxvevebSi, maT gayalbebasac ar erideba. somxuri istoriografiis mamad saxeldebuli m. xorenacis `somxeTis istoria~ pirveli naSromia, sadac gadmocemulia qveynis gabmuli istoria uZvelesi droidan V s-mde, somex arSakunian-

14

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Êóëüòóðà ðàííåôåîäàëüíîé Àðìåíèè IV-VII ââ., Åðåâàí, 1980, ñ. 45. Ìàíóê Àáåãÿí, Èñòîðèÿ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû, ñ. 106.

ö í ï ë ´ õ ³ ¹ ä ï á Ã á Ý Ñ Û ó º » ³ « 16« ¿ . 22 ³ ë á á ½ Ý « ³ Ù õ Û õ ³ á « ñí Ý 98 ç 5

15

ix. n. janaSia, qvemo qarTlis istoriuli geografiidan, wignSi `istoriul wyaroTmcodneobiTi narkvevebi~, Tbilisi, I986, gv. 5592; a. bogveraZe, qarTlis (iberiis) samefos 369 w. gayofis sakiTxisaTvis, kr. `Ziebani saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriidan~, Tbilisi, 1976, gv. 88-98; daviT musxeliSvili, saqarTvelo IV-VIII saukuneebSi, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 61-64 da sxv. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, al. abdalaZis gamocema, Tbilisi, I984, gv. 240.

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Ta samefos damxobamde. somexTa warmomavloba m. xorenacs bibliuri mamamTavridan gamohyavs, riTac is somxeTis istorias msoflio istoriul process ukavSirebs da iq sapatio adgils uZebnis. m. xorenacisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Txrobis maJoruli toni, somex xelisufalTa warmatebebis kvalobaze, TandaTan, sazeimo JReradobas iZens da bolos, aRtacebaSi gadadis, roca tigran ervandianisa da Trdat III-is sagmiro saqmeebis aRweras iwyebs. misi politikuri idealia iseTi xelisufali, romelsac SeeZleboda somxeTis sazRvrebis yvela mimarTulebiT da yvelaze Sors gatana. am idealis Sesabamisad warmogvidgens m. xorenaci somxuri eTnosisa da erovnuli teritoriis formirebis process, romelic monoeTnikuri samyaros warmoqmniT unda dasruldes. am Temas m. xorenacis TxzulebaSi erTi upirvelesTagani adgili ukavia. somxeTis uZvelesi da Zveli istoriis gadmocemisas m. xorenaci, ZiriTadad, samxreT kavkasiisa da maxlobeli aRmosavleTis mniSvnelovani nawilis asparezze Slis Tavis Txrobas, riTac, Cans, arapirdapir moxazavs somxeTis istoriuli teritoriis navaraudebel sazRvrebsac. misi gadmocemiT, somexTa eTnarqi haiki, babilonSi, vaJis (aramaneakis) SeZenis Semdeg gaeSura CrdiloeTis mxareebSi mdebare araradis qveynisaken (vanis tbis samxreTiT) Tavisi vaJebiTa da qaliSvilebiT, SviliSvilebiT, daaxloebiT samas mZleTa mZle kacTan, agreTve, msaxurebsa da SemokedlebulebTan erTad, mTeli avla-didebiT. igi mivida da damkvidrda erTi mTis Zirs, vakeze, sadac ukve dasaxlebuliyo mcire xalxi adrindeli gafantvis dros. haikma daimorCila isini da aago iq samemkvidreo saxli, romelic saSviliSvilod gadasca kadmoss, aramaneakis Zes. amas Zveli zepirgadmocemebic adasturebeno ­ SeniSnavs m. xorenaci16. somexi mematianis Tanaxmad, amis Semdeg haiki kvlav ganagrZobs STamomavlebisTvis teritoriebis gafarToebas dapyrobebis gziT. igi wers: haiki danarCeni amaliT gaemarTa CrdilodasavleTisaken (igulisxmeba vanis tbis sanaxebi), mivida da damkvidrda zeganze, romelsac daarqva harqi, ramdenadac aq dasaxldnen mamani Torgomis saxlis modgmisa. gaaSena man agreTve erTi sofeli da Tavis saxelis mixedviT uwoda haikaSeni. velis samxreT

nawilSi, erT wagrZelebul mTasTan adridanve cxovrobdnen mcireodeni kacni, romlebic nebiT damorCildnen gmirs17. dawvrilebiT aRwers mematiane titan belze saocari gamarjvebis ambavs, ris aRsaniSnavadac haiks brZolis velze, vanis tbis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT, dastakerti gauSenebia da saxelad misTvis haiqi daurqmevia. amis gamo mTel mxaresac hioc Zori (somexTa xevi) Seurqmevia18. `Cveni winapris, haikis saxelis mixedviT Cven qveyanas haiqi hqvia~-o, dasZens bolos mematiane19. amiT sruldeba Txroba haikis mier gaweul Rvawlze somexTaTvis sakuTari teritoriis SeqmnisaTvis, rac faqtobrivad, vanis tbis midamoebiT Semoifargla. somexTa teritoriis SemdgomSi gafarToeba ukve haikis STamomavlebs miewereba, romlebic CrdiloeTis mxareebSi cdiloben TavianTi samflobeloebis Seqmnas. am procesSi isini saTaves udeben somxuri sanaxararoebis warmoqmnas samxreT kavkasiaSi. haikis STamomavlebis mier axali teritoriebis aTvisebasa da sanaxararoebis daarsebas m. xorenaci ase gadmogvcems: haikis Svili xori gamravlda CrdiloeTis mxareebSi, daafuZvna iq soflebi, amboben, rom misgan momdinareobs xorxorunTa gvaris didi sanaxararo. aseve haikis Svili aramaneaki Crdilo-aRmosavleTisaken mTebiT mozRudul erT tafobze damkvidrda, gaaSena misi Crdilo nawili da mimdebare mTis Ziri. Tavisi saxelis mimsgavsebiT mTas uwoda aragawi, xolo savargulebs aragawis Ziri... aramaneakis vaJma aramaisma aiSena samkvidro saxli mdinaris piras mdebare erT borcvze, romelsac Tavisi saxelis mixedviT armaviri daarqva, xolo mdinares, SviliSvilis erastis saxelisagan erasxi. vaJiSvili Sara mTeli Tavisi saxleuliTa da avladidebiT gagzavna man erT maxlobel, nayofier, mosavlian velze, romelzedac aragawad wodebuli mTis ZirSi, mis CrdiloeTiT, miedinebian wyalni aramciredni. misi saxelis mixedviT gavars Siraki daerqva20. ase TandaTanobiT haikis STamomavlebi iTvisebdnen, m. xorenacis gadmocemiT, Semdgomdroindel somxeTis teritoriebs, romelTa konkretul geografiul sazRvrebs mematiane arsad ar aRniSnavs da mxolod toponimTa mixedviT Tu Seiqmnis mkiTxveli warmod17 18 19

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 70.

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 70. iqve, gv. 72. iqve. iqve, gv. 72-74.

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genas somxeTis Tavdapirveli teritoriis moculobaze. am mxriv, yvelaze ufro Crdilo nawilad matianeSi saxeldeba sevanis tbis midamoebi. m. xorenacis gadmocemiT, haikis erT-erTi STamomavali gelami gaeSura erTi tbis napirze mdebare Crdilo-aRmosavleTis mTisaken. gaaSena man im tbis sanapiro, daasaxla iq xalxi da Tavisi saxelisagan mTas geli daarqva, xolo dasaxlebas ­ gelaquni, romliTac iwodeba zRvac21. amis Semdeg m. xorenaci did samflobeloTagan mxolod sivnieTis warmoqmnaze saubrobs, romlis gaCenasa da saxelwodebas gelamis vaJis sisakis saxelsa da mis sameurneo saqmianobas ukavSirebs sxva SemTxvevebis msgavsad. amiT mematiane asrulebs Txrobas haikis naSierTa, misgan warmoSobili gvarebisa da maTi saqmianobis Sesaxeb, rac, faqtobrivad, kavkasiaSi somexTa Tavdapirveli samkvidrebelis Seqmnis istorias warmoadgens. ase rom, somexTa uZvelesi teritoria kavkasiaSi, m. xorenacis mowmobiT, moicavda did sivrces vanis tbidan sevanis tbamde, ris dasadasturebladac am sivrceSi arsebul toponimebs somexi mematiane somexTa eTnarqisa da misi STamomavlebis SesaZlo saxelebTan aigivebs, Tumca wyaroebis zegavleniT iZulebulia, arapirdapir mainc, am teritoriaze ufro Zveli mosaxleobis arsebobis SesaZleblobac dauSvas. m. xorenacis SeniSvniT, `sakvirvelia mematianes naTqvami, rom Cvens qveyanaSi mraval adgilas gafantulad cxovrobda mcirericxovani xalxi, Cveni Zireuli winapris, haikis mosvlamde~22. m. xorenacis mixedviT, somexTa ZiriTadi samkvidreblis Seqmnis procesi, TiTqos, SedarebiT mSvidobiani da samarTliani xasiaTisa iyo, ramdenadac haiki da misi STamomavlebi ufro xSirad dausaxlebel, Tavisufal adgilebs ikavebdnen da mxolod aqa-iq xvdebodaT maT mosaxleoba, romelic, Tavisi mcirericxovnobis gamo, iZulebuli iyo damorCileboda somxebs. SedarebiT mSvidobiani ganviTarebis am procesis dasrulebis Semdeg somexTa winaprebs, Cans, axali teritoriebis mosapoveblad mezoblebTan brZolebis gadaxda uxdebodaT. istorikosis ganmartebiT, arsebobs gadmocemebi haikiani aramis mamacuri saqmeebis, gmiruli brZolebisa da somexTa sazRvrebis yovelive mimarTulebiT gafar21 22

Toebis Sesaxeb23. aSkaraa mematianis am sityvebs politikuri idealis mniSvneloba aqvs miniWebuli, romliTac, misi azriT, yovelma Rirseulma somexma xelisufalma unda ixelmZRvanelos. aseT gamorCeul xelisuflad somxeTis istoriaSi m. xorenaci mefe tigran ervandians (ervandis Zes) asaxelebs, romelsac uSurvelad aqebs, `brZensa da kacTaTvis saWiro yvela TvisebiT Semkuls~ uwodebs. m. xorenaci aRtacebiT auwyebs Tavis mkiTxvels: tigranma daipyro berZnebic da aramciredi xniT daimorCila isini. tigranis wyalobiT ganivrco Cveni qveynis sazRvrebi imdenad, rom Zvel droSi metisTvis aRar migviRwevia. Tanamedroveebs SurdaT tigranisa, xolo STamomavloba Senatroda mas da mis dros... tigranma Tavisi vaJkacobiT ganadida Cveni eri. Cven, manamde ucxoTeslTa uRlis qveS myofebma, sxvebi davimorCileT da moxarkeebad vaqcieT24. m. xorenacis politikuri koncefcia, rogorc misi am msjelobidan mkafiod warmoCindeba, uaRresad agresiulia. igi iwonebs da axalisebs sxvisi teritoriebis mitacebas, xalxebis damorCilebasa da daxarkvas, miuxedavad imisa, rom TviT somxeTi araerTxel gamxdara amgvari agresiis msxverpli. miT ufro Seusabamo da sakvirvelia, TiTqos, aseTi ideebis xotba istorikosisagan, romelic guldaTuTquli godebs ZaladobiT damxobili mSobliuri samefos gamo. magram, adreuli Sua saukuneebis cnobierebisaTvis, rogorc Cans, sxva RirebulebebTan SedarebiT Zalasa da Zaladobas meti fasi hqonda, ris safuZvelzec es fenomeni yovelTvis poulobda gamarTlebas adamianTa gonebaSi. Tavisi naSromis dasawyisSi m.xorenaci wers: patara eri varT, friad ricxv mcire da uZluri, xSirad ucxo samefosagan dapyrobili, magram Cvens qveyanaSic momxdara bevri Rirssaxsovari sagmiro saqme25. gasagebia, rom am Rirssaxsovar sagmiro saqmeebSi somexTa mier sxva qveynebis dapyroba igulisxmeba, rac savsebiT Seefereboda istorikosis epoqis suliskveTebas. amitomac, m. xorenacis Tvalsazrisi qveynis SesaZlo sazRvrebze, mTlianad, xsenebul agresiul ganwyobas efuZneba. am mxriv, albaT, niSandoblivicaa, rom

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 74. iqve, gv. 73.

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 75. iqve, gv. 88-89. iqve, gv. 58.

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m. xorenaci gaurbis geografiuli nomenklaturis gamoyenebiT somxeTis sazRvrebis konkretul Cvenebas, ramdenadac, misi azriT, somxeTis yvela mimarTulebiT gafarToeba Seuqcevadi da mudmivi procesi unda yofiliyo. am Tvalsazriss igi parTiis pirveli arSakidi mefis piriT gadmogvcems teqstis im nawilSi, sadac wers: arSakma Tavisi Zalauflebis simtkicisaTvis mizanSewonilad CaTvala misive Zma valarSaki gaemefebina somxeTSi. sataxto qalaqad gadasca mas nizibini, xolo samflobelod gamouyo dasavleT asureTis erTi nawili, palestina, azia, mTeli Sua xmeleTi, Tetalia, pontos zRvidan im adgilamde, sadac kavkasiis (mTa) uerTdeba dasavleTis zRvas, agreTve atropatina. `sxvac Seni iyoso, uTxra mas, ramdensac Seni goneba da simamace miswvdeba, rameTu vaJkacT iseTive sazRvrebi aqvT, ra zomiTac maTi iaraRi gasWris~26. somxeTis politikuri sivrcis usasrulod gafarToebis survili aq, sabolood, koncefciis saxiT yalibdeba: `ra zomiTac iaraRi gasWris~, imave zomiTve SeiZleba gagrZeldes qveynis sazRvrebio. am koncefciiT, nebismieri mezoblis teritoria SeiZleba miCneuli iyos somxeTis nawilad, Tuki misi iaraRi mezoblisas sZlevs. aseT konteqstSi unda ganixilavdes is kavkasiasac, romelic mTlianad CarTulia mis mierve Semoxazul, parTiis xelSi gadasuli somxeTis sazRvrebSi. mematianisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia, rom kavkasiis qveynebsa da xalxebs ver amCnevs (n. berZeniSvili) da mas mxolod zogadi geografiuli terminiT `CrdiloeTiT~ da `CrdiloelebiT~ aRniSnavs, riTac, etyoba, cdilobs somxeTs daqvemdebarebuli qveynis STabeWdileba Seuqmnas mkiTxvels kavkasiaze. amitomaa mis TxzulebaSi qarTli somxeTis nawilad, xolo qarTveli xelisuflebi somxeTis samefos moxeleebad warmodgenili. magaliTad, `mefem Sehyra kabadokielTa (jari), mTeli rCeuli (meomrebi) qarTvelTa da alvanelTa27; / somexTa mefem / aleqsandres mier iverielTa xelisuflad dadgenil mihrdats miando CrdiloeTis mTebisa da pontos zRvis ganmgebloba~28. igive damokidebuleba grZeldeba kavkasiisa da qarTvelTa mimarT Zv. w. II da I s. naxevris politikuri movlenebis gadmocemisas da

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Semdegac. antonusis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad artavazd II-s, Turme, ubrZanebia `SeekribaT aTi aTasobiT jari atrpatakanSi, agreTve, kavkasiel mTielTa, alvanTa da qarTvelTa Soris~29. qarTlis gamaqristianebel mirian mefes ki m. xorenaci qarTvelTa winamZRols uwodebs da Trdat somexTa mefis erT-erT mxedarTmTavrad warmogvidgens 30. erTi sityviT, rogorc marTebulad adreve SeniSna l. janaSiam, m. xorenacis koncefciiT, qarTli somxeTis erT-erTi mxarea, xolo qarTlis mmarTveli somxeTis mefis qveSevrdomia31. aseTivea m. xorenacis damokidebuleba kavkasiis sxva qveynebis mimarTac. m. xorenaci, misive TqmiT, simarTlis weris momxrea da kidevac qadagebs amas Tavis naSromSi, magram praqtikulad, ramdenadac erTxel SemuSavebuli koncefciis prizmaSi atarebs politikur movlenebs da mas umorCilebs istoriul faqtebs, amdenad mis TxrobaSi araiSviaTad vxvdebiT qronologiisa da faqtebis aRrevas, xolo calkeul SemTxvevaSi pirvelwyaroebis Segnebul gayalbebasac. ase magaliTad, parTel arSakidTa umcrosi Stos pirveli warmomadgeneli somxeTSi ax. w. I s. meore naxevarSi gamefda, m. xorenacis ki es faqti Zv. w. III s. Sua wlebisTvis gadaaqvs, roca es dinastia iranSi damkvidrda, riTac, etyoba, surda somex arSakidTa `erovnulobisaTvis~ uxsovar droSive daedo saTave. m. xorenacis cnoba tigran ervandianisadmi qarTvelTa da alvanelTa daqvemdebarebis Sesaxeb areulia tigran II-is (Zv. w. I s.) epoqis ambebTan, roca qarTvelebi da alvanelebi pontosa da somxeTis samefoebTan erTiani frontiT saerTo mtrebs, romaelebs ebrZodnen. strabonis cnobiT, artaSes I-is dros (Zv. w. II s.) gogarene (qvemo qarTlis samxreTi nawili) somxeTs SeuerTda, ris Sedegadac qarTveli pitiaxSi somxeTis mefis moxeled iqca. magram m. xorenaci azviadebs, roca artaSes I-is xelisuflebas, mihrdatis saxiT, TiTqmis mTel qarTlze avrcelebs. xsenebuli koncefciis bralia, agreTve, rom qarTlis gamaqristianebel

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 67. iqve, gv. 92. iqve, gv. 111.

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. II9. iqve, gv. I70, I84, I86. l.-n. janaSia, lazar farpecis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, I962, gv. I85.

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mirian mefes, faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod, somxeTis politikur sivrceSi Semaval xelisuflad warmogvidgens, maSin rodesac, piriqiT, miriani somxeTis mimarT aqtiur politikas atarebda da sparselTa daxmarebiT iq sakuTari interesebis dacvas cdilobda32. laSa janaSias dakvirvebiTac, omis pirvel periodSi, rodesac iranelebma xelT igdes romis imperiis teritoriis nawili, SesaZlebelia, somxeTi, Tu misi romelime olqi iranelebma sagamgeod Caabares kidec mirians33. somxeTis gandidebis saqmeSi m. xorenaci mniSvnelovnad uswrebs da aWarbebs winamorbed avtorebs. Tu koriunis, agaTangelosis, favtos buzandisa da sxvaTa TxzulebebSi ZiriTadad saubaria qristianebisa da qristianuli kulturis gavrcelebaSi somex moRvaweTa iniciativaze da mezoblebSi maT misionerul rolze, m. xorenaci qarTlsa da masTan erTad kavkasias politikuradac da sulieri kulturiTac somxeTze damokidebul qveynad warmogviCens rogorc Zvel warmarTul, ise qristianul xanaSic. misi mtkicebiT, tigran I-is vaJi ­ vahagni, romelsac vaJkacobiT herakles adarebdnen da sasomxeTSi mis Sesaxeb sazRapro Tqmulebebi yofila gavrcelebuli, Turme, qarTvelebs gauRmerTebiaT, TavianT qveyanaSi misive zomis qandakeba daudgamT, Tayvans scemdnen da msxverpls swiravdneno34. m. xorenacis mier moyvanili gadmocema miT ufro niSandoblivia, rom somxur warmarTul panTeonSi vahagni uzenaes RvTaeba aramazdTan iyo gaTanabrebuli da anaitTan erTad RvTaebaTa pirvel sameuls qmnida35. ufro metic, qarTlSi wm. ninos moRvaweobis ambis gadmocemisas qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis uzenaes RvTaeba armazs, somxuri aramazdiT aRniSnavs36, riTac, etyoba, surs mkiTxveli daarwmunos, TiTqos, qarTlic somxur kulturul sivrceSi Semavali qveyana yofiliyos.

igive mediduri damokidebuleba qarTlisa da gare samyaros mimarT SeiniSneba m. xorenacis TxrobaSi qristianuli religiis aRmocenebisa da misi gavrcelebis ambis gadmocemisas, sadac igi upirveles adgils somxebs akuTvnebs. m. xorenacis mtkicebiT, qristes am qveynad yofnisas somxebs hyoliaT mefe abgari, romelmac, Turme, Tavidanve irwmuna qristes saswaulebrivi moqmedebis RvTiuri unari da masSi namdvilad Ze RmrTisa Seicno. misive gadmocemiT, dasneulebulma abgarma werili gaugzavna qristes da sTxova masTan misuliyo da moerCina. Cvenma macxovarma, wers m. xorenaci, ar miiRo abgaris miwveva, Tumca werilis Rirsi ki gaxadao, da Sehpirda `raJams avmaRldebi SenTan gamovuSveb EerTerT Cems mowafes, raTa gangkurnos sneulebaTagan da moganiWoT cxovreba Senc da Sens garSemo myofTac~ 37 . rogorc iTqva, asrulda kidec. qristes erT-erTma _ mowafem Tadeosma gankurna abgari, ris Semdeg abgarTan erTad mTeli qalaqi moinaTlao. abgarma Tadeoss wasvlisas gaatana firmani, raTa yvelas Seewynarebina qristes saxareba. somexTa mefe abgari amiT ar dakmayofilda da Seecada qristes sarwmunoebaze mezobeli didi xelisuflebic miemxro. man werili miswera romis keisars tiberioss, asureTis mefes nersehs, sparsTa mefe artaSess da urCia maT erwmunaT qriste da misi sityva38. rogorc samecniero literaturaSi kargadaa SeniSnuli mTeli es moTxroba somexi mematianis SeTxzulia, rasac safuZvlad daudo siriuli xalxuri gadmocemebi edesis mefe abgar ukamas Sesaxeb. sinamdvileSi ki gaqristianda ara qristes Tanamedrove abgari, aramed II-III ss. mcxovrebi edesis mefe abgar IX (I79-2I4)39. m. abeRianis TvalsazrisiTac, mTel ganyofilebas abgaris Sesaxeb araferi aqvs saerTo somxeTis istoriasTan da misi moxvedra m. xorenacis istoriaSi saeWvo wyaroebis bralia 40 . miuxedavad imisa, rom qristes

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ix. n. lomouri, narkvevebi qarTlis samefos istoriidan, Tbilisi, 1975, gv. 43. l. janaSia, istoriul-wyaroTmcodneobiTi narkvevebi, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 9. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, al. abdalaZis gamocema, gv. 95. Ìàíóê Àáåãÿí, Èñòîðèÿ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû, Åðåâàí, 1975, ñ. 27. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 171.

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movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 126; ix. agreTve, gv. 122131. iqve, gv. 128-130. literatura sakiTxis garSemo ix. a. abdalaZis wignSi `qarTlis cxovreba~ da saqarTvelo-somxeTis urTierToba, Tbilisi, 1982, gv. 146-147 da sxv. manuk abeRianis dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 157.

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amaRlebis droidan somxeTSi qristianobis gavrcelebasa da sxva xalxTa winaSe am mxriv gansakuTrebul damsaxurebaze mtkicebas realuri safuZveli ar gaaCnda, amgvari gadmocemebi somxeTis eklesias upiratesobis gancdisa da sxvaTa mimarT pretenziebis sababs mainc aZlevda. aseTi damokidebuleba sakmaod mkafiod aqvs gamoxatuli m.xorenacs qarTlSi qristianobis gavrcelebaze saubrisas. am sakiTxs igi calke paragrafs uTmobs Tavis TxzulebaSi, sadac somxeTSi mimdinare procesebis paralelurad da masTan uSualo kavSirSi dawvrilebiT gadmogvcems wm. ninos moRvaweobis calkeul epizodebs, riTac, etyoba, surs qarTlis moqceva somxeTis istoriis nawilad, Tu mis gagrZelebad warmogvidginos. m. xorenacis Tanaxmad, wm. nino (somxur teqstSi nuned iwodeba) somxeTSi wamebul rifsimianTa amxanagi iyo, wamebas SemTxveviT gadarCenili. yuradRebis gamaxvileba ninos rifsimianobaze, aSkaraa, miznad isaxavda qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis somxuri samyarodan warmomavlobaze STabeWdilebis Seqmnas, ramdenadac somxuri tendenciiT, rifsime da misi megobrebi somex wmindanebad da somxebad miaCndaT da ara romaelebad. amitomacaa, rom m. xorenacis mtkicebiT, wm. nino grigol ganmanaTleblis xelqveiTi, misi brZanebebis momlodine da Semsrulebelia. igi wers: `sanatrelma nunem moiTxova sando kacebi da gagzavna isini wm. grigorTan imis gasagebad, Tu ris gakeTebas ubrZanebda mas Semdeg, rac qarTvelebma siamovnebiT Seiwynares saxareba. (nunem) miiRo brZaneba moespo kerpebi, rogorc es Tavad (grigorma) qna da aRmarTa jvari patiosani jer kidev manamde, sanam ufali uwyalobebda maT mwyemss winamZRvrad~41. amasTan erTad, m. xorenaci imeorebs koriunis cnobas mesropis mier qarTvelebisa da albanelebisaTvis anbanis Seqmnis Taobaze42. amgvarad, Tavis winamorbed avtorebTan SedarebiT m. xorenaci kidev ufro metad afarToebs drosa da sivrceSi somxeTis politikuri da kulturuli gavlenis sazRvrebs da mis farglebSi mis mierve, `CrdiloeTad~ wodebul mTel kavkasias aqcevs. es koncefcia erTob mimzidveli aRmoCnda sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisaTvis mebrZoli politikuri

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wreebisaTvis, romelTa saSualebiT, etyoba, misi gavlena mTel somxur istoriografias gadaswvda mraval saukuneTa manZilze. niSandoblivia, rom m. xorenacis Semdeg Zveli somxeTis istoriis dawera aRaravis ucdia da saWiroebis SemTxvevebSi Sua saukuneebis somexi avtorebi, ubralod, SemoklebiT gadmoscemdnen m. xorenacis, ris Semdeg agrZelebdnen Txrobas43. m. abeRianis dakvirvebiT, 1400 wlis ganmavlobaSi, XIX s. miwurulamde, m. xorenacis istoriis sinamdvileSi eWvi ar eparebodaT, somxeTis istorias m. xorenacis mixedviT aswavlidnen da mis calkeul nawilebs TanmimdevrobiT azepirebinebdnen moswavleebs44. CrdiloelTa Soris somxeTis gamorCeulobis m. xorenaciseuli idea Tavs iCens ukve VII s. somexi istorikosis sebeosis TxzulebaSic, sadac somxeTis mmarTveli Teodoros rStuni gansakuTrebuli privilegiebiT aRWurvil piradaa warmodgenili, romlis brZanebebis mixedviT moqmedebdnen qarTveli Tu albaneli xelisuflebi45. amave STabeWdilebis gaZlierebas emsaxureba sebeosis mier motanili erTob saeWvo cnoba, romlis mixedviTac xalifa moaviam, Turme, Teodoros rStunis `uboZa xelisufleba somxeTsa, qarTlsa, albaneTsa da sivnieTze kavkasionamde da Woris cixesimagremde... Tedorosi ki dapirda xalifas, rom am qveyanas mas daumorCilebda46. TviT sebeosis am cnobidan kargad Cans, rom moavia, ubralod, kavkasiis damorCilebis uflebas aZlevda Teodoros rStunis, rac imxanad jerjerobiT arabebisTvisac miuwvdomeli Canda. am cnobis namdviloba saeWvod miaCniaT somxuri istoriografiis zog warmomadgenelsac47. somxeTis gandidebisa da kavkasiaSi misi politikuri da kulturul-ideologiuri primatobis Tema somxur istoriografiaSi axal energias iZens IX-X saukuneebSi, roca arabTa egidiT axlad

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movses xorenaci, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. I70-I7I. iqve, gv. 223-224.

Ì. Ì. Ìêðÿí, Ìîâñåñ Õîðåíàöè, Åðåâàí, 1969, ñ. 38-39. manuk abeRiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 155. el. cagareiSvili, somxuri wyaroebi arabeT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis Sesaxeb `mravalTavi~, I, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 477. el. cagareiSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 478. Þçáàøÿí Ê. Í. Àðìÿíñêèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ýïîõè Áàãðàòèäîâ è Âèçàíòèÿ IXXI ââ. Ì., 1988, ñ. 42.

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aRdgenili somxuri saxelmwifos bagratuniani mesveurebi mfarvelTa politikur interesebTan garkveuli TanxvedriT iwyeben mTeli kavkasiis dasaufleblad brZolas. fsevdo Sapuh bagratuni, hovhannes drasxanakertci da sxvebi TavianT TxzulebebSi somex xelisuflebs Tavidanve somexTa da qarTvelTa xelisuflebad warmogvidgenen, xolo somxur eklesias kavkasiis qristianTa meTaurad. ase magaliTad, fsevdo Sapuh bagratuni araerTgzis amkobs smbat I-s "somexTa da qarTvelTa mefisa da TviTmpyrobelis" tituliT48, asoRikis TqmiT ki, aSot I ocdaaTi wlis ganmavlobaSi iyo somxeTisa da qarTlis xan iSxani da xan iSxanTa iSxani, xolo smbat I memkvidreobiT flobda somxeTsa da qarTls49. kavkasiaSi somxuri eklesiis meTauri rolis saCveneblad ki h. drasxanakertcis Tavis TxzulebaSi mohyavs konstantinopolis patriarqis nikoloz mistikosis werili misdami, sadac somxuri eklesiisa da misi meTauris xsenebul rolze calkeuli miniSnebebi SeimCneva. ufro metic, somexi mematianis mier gadmocemul nikoloz mistikosis werilis mixedviT, TiTqos, bizantia amierkavkasiaSi antiarabuli frontis organizaciaSi gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas somxur eklesiasa da mis meTaurs akuTvnebda. sayuradReboa, rom h. drasxanakertci kavkasiaSi somexTa wamyvan rolze saubrobs iseT araordinalur situaciaSi, roca samSoblodan arabTagan ltolvili kaTalikosi Tavs adarnase qarTvelTa mefesTan afarebda, xolo misive cnobiT, qarTvelTa mefesa da mis jars somxeTis samefo taxtze maTTvis sasurveli kandidati (aSot smbatis Ze) ahyavdaT50. aSkaraa, rom h. drasxanakertci movses xorenecis koncefcias, faqtobrivad, brmad mihyveboda. mTel kavkasiaze somxeTis uflebis IX-X ss. somxur istoriografiaSi dawyebuli mtkicebebi, sxvadasxva formiT, TiTqmis XI s. bolomde grZeldeba. am xanis somex istorikosTa cnobebi CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT teritoriebis gafarToebis Taobaze aSkar-

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Èñòîðèÿ àíîíèìíîãî ïîâåñòâîâàòåëÿ ïñåâäî-Øàïóõ-Áàãðàòóíè, ïåðåâîä ñ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîãî, ïðåäèñëîâèå è êîìåíòàðèè Ì. Î. Äàðáèíÿí-Ìåëèêÿí, Åðåâàí, 1971, ñ. 163-165 è äð. asoRiki, dasaxelebuli gamocema, gv. I07-I08 ioane drasxanakerteli, somxeTis istoria, el. cagareiSvilis gamocema gamokvleviTurT, Tbilisi, I965, gv. 189_I91, I95.

ad scildeba realurobas. isini gazviadebulad warmogvidgenen aSot I-is, smbat I-isa da aSot II-is samxedro-politikur RonisZiebaTa Sedegebis mniSvnelobas. maT SromebSi xotbis Sesxmis survili ZiriTadad gansazRvravs faqtebis dafiqsirebis wess, ris Sedegadac iqmneba kavkasiaSi somexi bagratuni mefeebis ganusazRvreli Zalauflebis iluziuri suraTi. momdevno saukuneebSi, somxuri samefos dasustebisa da TandaTanobiTi gaqrobis kvalobaze, somex avtorTa Txrobis mediduri toni da hegemonisturi midrekilebebi, TiTqos, TandaTan cxreba. V-X ss. ganmavlobaSi Seqmnili mTeli es mravalricxovani somxuri saistorio literatura, ra Tqma unda, Tavis sasargeblo ideologiuri wnexis qveS aqcevda Sua saukuneebis kavkasiis sazogadoebas da somxur mosaxleobaSi amkvidrebda misi gamorCeulobisa da kavkasiaSi gansakuTrebuli moraluri uflebebiT sargeblobis azrs. aqedan gamomdinare, maTive azriT, somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgena, ra formiTa da vis mierac ar unda momxdariyo, unda ganxorcielebuliyo mis `istoriul sazRvrebSi~, anu zRvidan zRvamde, misi CrdiloeTis sazRvari ki kavkasiis mTebs Tu ar miebjineboda, mtkvramde mainc unda gavrcelebuliyo. ZiriTadad, m. xorenacidan momdinare, cocxal miTiur legendad qceuli es Tvalsazrisi, eklesiisa da somxuri mwerlobis garjiT, saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Zlierad zemoqmedebda somexTa gonebaze da am pretenziaTa realizaciis SesaZlebel dros moTminebiT eloda. aseTi ideologiuri foni da kavkasiis istoriis somxuri modeli, gasagebia, SeuTavsebeli iyo kavkasiis gaerTianebis procesSi CarTuli gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos politikuri interesebisaTvis, ris gamoc am istoriis axali modelis Seqmna gadaudebel amocanad unda qceuliyo. kavkasiaSi sarwmunoebrivi primatobisTvis brZolas qarTlisa da somxeTis eklesiebs Soris, gare faqtorebis zegavleniT (iranbizantiis ideologiuri dapirispireba), adridanve Caeyara safuZveli, rac Semdeg kidev ufro ganviTarda qveynis gaerTianebisaTvis mezobelTa metoqeobis pirobebSi. Sua saukuneebis qarTuli sazogadoebis, romelic IX-X saukuneebSive mkafiod avlenda kavkasiaSi mimdinare politikur procesebSi wamyvani mdgomareobis damkvidrebis survils, erovnuli Rirsebis SegnebisaTvis SeuTavse-

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beli xdeboda sakuTari qristianuli warsulis mniSvnelobis damcrobis cdebi, ris gamoc is erTmorwmune bizantiis medidurobasac veRar hguobda. etyoba, amitomac, m. xorenacisa da saerTod somxuri istoriografiis ideologiuri wnexis Sesasusteblad da misi zemoqmedebis gasaneitraleblad, adreul Sua saukuneebSive iqmneba qarTuli erovnuli tendenciis matarebeli, kargad argumentirebuli qarTlis gaqristianebis istoria, romelic arsebiTad upirispirdeboda rogorc somxuri, ise erTmorwmune berZnuli eklesiis hegemonistur midrekilebebs. amis saukeTeso magaliTia `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ matianeSi Sesuli qarTlis gaqristianebis istoria, romelic specialur literaturaSi `fsevdoepigrafikuli~ an `Satberdul-WeliSuri~ `ninos cxovrebis~ saxeliT moixsenieba 51 . am Txzulebis avtoris mtkicebiT, saqristianoSi qarTlis gansakuTrebuli roli winaswar, jer kidev qristianobis gavrcelebamde iyo gansazRvruli, ramdenadac erTerTi udidesi qristianuli relikvia `samoseli qristesi yovlad zegardmo qsovili... pirvel mowevn(u)l iyo kuarTi igi qristesi ierusalimiT mcxeTad~52. amave avtoris cnobiT, berZenTa siamayis umTavresi sagnis, qristes Zelis anu jvris flobaSic qarTvelebi berZnebs eziarebian, ramdenadac am Zelis nawilebi qristes `ferxTa ficarni~ da samsWvalni, romliTac qriste jvars iyo gakruli, qarTlSi imyofeboda. pirveli eruSeTis eklesiis, xolo meore manglisis eklesiis saZirkvelSi Cades53. albaT, amitomac iyo, rom jer kidev VIII s., ioane sabanisZe berZenTa gasagonad amayad acxadebda: `ara xolo Tu berZenTa sarwmunoeba ese RmrTismieri moipoves, aramed Cuenca, SorielTa amaT mk¢drTa... aha esera qarTlisaca mk¢drTa aqus sarwmunoeba da wodebul ars dedad wmidaTa~ 54 . qristianuli warsuliT berZnebTan gaTanabrebas gulisxmobda, agreTve, SedarebiT gvian gavrcelebuli azri qarTvelTa qveynis RvTismSoblis `wilxvedrilobaze~, ramdenadac

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m. CxartiSvili, qarTuli hagiografiis wyaroTmcodneobiTi Sesavlis problemebi, `cxovreba wmindisa ninoisi~, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 4. Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, w. I, Tbilisi, 1964, gv. 87. Zeglebi, I, gv. 86-87. iqve, gv. 55.

bizantiis sataxto qalaqi RvTismSoblis sagangebo mfarvelobaSi iTvleboda. aseTi Sedarebisas qarTvelebs araTu msoflio civilizaciis erT-erT umTavres mesveurad aRiarebuli berZnebis Tanabari, aramed kidev ufro meti siamayis sababic eZleodaT. es viTareba ki TavisTavad ukve gulisxmobda upiratesobas somxur tradiciaze, rac damajereblad aisaxa kidec `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ krebulSi Sesul ninos cxovrebaSi. k. kekeliZis dakvirvebiT, am TxzulebaSi gansakuTrebiT gazviadebuli da gandidebulia ninos pirovneba. is, marTalia, aris `tyue~, magram ara ubralo, is `hromi mTavaria~, Svili gamoCenili mxedarTmTavrisa da misioneris zabilonisa, romelmac branjTa mTeli eri moaqcia qristes sarwmunoebaze. ninos biZa dedis mxridan cnobili patriarqia, isic ara romelime Cveulebrivi qalaqisa, aramed ierusalimisa, romelic akvania qristianobisa. nino imdenad didi pirovnebaa, rom TviT elene dedofali mas `uwodda dedoflad da T¢sad sworad~ da `dedoflobiT mociqulad da maxareblad Seamkobda~... ninos wili udevs, TiTqos, TviT elene dedoflis moqcevaSi. Txzulebis mixedviT nino naTlavs somexTa wmindanebad miCneul rifsimesa da misi saxlis 50 wevrs. es kidev cotaa, SeniSnavs k. kekeliZe, nino gamoyvanilia TxzulebaSi mTeli aRmosavluri amierkavkasiis misionerad; qarTl-kaxeTisa da mTiulTa moqcevis Semdeg is, mis mier moqceuli suji dedoflis meSveobiT, monaTlavs bodbeSi, agreTve, mTavrebs iseTi somxuri provinciebisas, rogoricaa sivnieTi da guaspurakani (vaspurakani). ninos samisionero asparezi ­ `queyana¡ Crdiloisa¡~ aris `queyana¡ kavkasiaTa¡~. k. kekeliZe principulad uaryofs, mis dros mecnierebaSi damkvidrebul Sexedulebas, TiTqos, `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ avtori somxuri tradiciis gavlenas ganicdides, ris gamoc mis TxzulebaSi Seugnebel gardanaSTebs vxvdebodeT qarTlisa da somxeTis eklesiebis Tavdapirvel urTierTobaze. aseT gardanaSTad Tvlian, wers k. kekeliZe, ninos moxvedras rifsimianTa sazogadoebaSi da mis, am sazogadoebasTan erTad, somxeTSi misvlas. magram araferi `Seugnebeli~ aq Cven ara gvaqvs, piriqiT, am SemTxvevaSi Cven saqme gvaqvs matianis avtoris savsebiT Segnebul aqtTan; mas surs gvaCvenos, rom somxuri eklesiis safuZveli daido im adamianTa Zvlebze, romelnic ninos mier iyvnen moqceulni da masTan erTad moevlinnen somxeTs. meore aseT "Seugnebel" gardanaSTs xedaven im epizodSi, sadac avtori

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ninos miiyvans saswavleblad ierusalimSi dvinel miaforTan, romelsac is ori wlis ganmavlobaSi `msaxurobs~. arc es faqtia maCvenebeli qarTlisa da somxeTis eklesiebis Tavdapirveli urTierTobisa. nino CvenSi samisionerod gamogzavna ara somexma miaforma, aramed `RmerTma~ da misma biZam, ierusalimis patriarqma. arcTu qristianoba uswavlia ninos am dvineli miaforisagan, ukanaskneli mas uTvaliswinebs bed-iRbals mxolod qristes relikviebisas, rogoricaa juari, tiloni, sudari da samoselni, gansakuTrebiT kuarTi. avtors imitom miuyvania nino dvinel miaforTan, rom ukanasknelma Tavisi sakuTari piriT aRiaros upiratesoba qarTlisa sxva qveynebis winaSe: mas, qarTls, anu ufro zustad, `CrdiloTa mcxeTelTa~, rogorc somexi miafori ambobs, RvTis gangebam wilad arguna iseTi didi siwminde, rogoricaa kuarTi uflisa, is kuarTi, romelsac erTmaneTs ecilebodnen sxvadasxva qveynis qristianebi55. amrigad, qarTveli avtoris daskvniT, qarTlisa da wm. ninos mniSvneloba aRmosavleTis saqristianos winaSe gacilebiT didia, vidre somxeTisa da misi ganmanaTleblis grigol parTelisa. qristianuli rwmenis siZveliTac qarTli win uswrebs somxeTs, ramdenadac qarTlis gansakuTrebuli roli qristianobis gavrcelebaSi winaswar iyo gansazRvruli. amitomac moxda, rom qristianuli rwmenis Casaxvisas somxeTi qarTlze aRmoCnda damokidebuli: somexTa eklesiis safuZveli daido im adamianTa Zvlebze, romlebic ninos mier iyvnen moqceulni da masTan erTad moevlinen somxeTs. erTi sityviT, qarTveli mwerali mTlianad uaryofs ra V s.a da Semdgomi xanis somex mweralTa pretenziebs, kavkasiaSi qristianobis gavrcelebisa da damkvidrebis istoriis Tavis variants gvTavazobs, sadac istoriuli procesis mTavar warmmarTvel Zalad ukve qarTlia gamoyvanili. qarTlis gaqristianebis istoriis somxurisgan sruliad gansxvavebuli da sapirispiro versiis Seqmnis Semdeg, qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebisa da politikuri erTeulebis metoqeobis pirobebSi, erTob saSuri unda yofiliyo msgavsi suliskveTebis qarTvelTa politikuri istoriis dawerac, romelic, Tavis mxriv,

55

Secvlida kavkasiis istoriaze somxuri koncefciiT Seqmnil warmodgenebs. X s. arsebuli istoriuli pirobebi (bizantiasTan ideologiur WidilSi somxuri eklesiis dasustebiT gamowveuli) qarTuli eklesiisa da misi mesveurebis aqtiurobas uwyobda xels. somxur eklesiasTan dogmatur brZolaSi qarTveli moRvaweebi kulturuli faqtorebis moSveliebasac cdilobdnen, sadac mTavar iaraRad qarTul enas irCevdnen. am xanaSi iqmneba ioane zosimes `qeba¡ qarTuli enisa¡~, romlis Tanaxmadac, qarTuli ena araTu berZnulis Tanasworad, aramed masTan da sxvebTan SedarebiT upiratesobis mqonedac cxaddeba56. imave saukunis meore mwerali giorgi merCule ki enisa da konfesiis safuZvelze eTnikuri sazRvrebis miRmac qarTlis usazRvrod gafarToebis SesaZleblobas asabuTebs: `qarTlad friadi queyana aRiricxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis~57. qarTuli eklesiis gavlena dRiTi dRe izrdeba, is hereTsa da sivnieTSic aRwevs, xolo somexTa kaTalikoss vahan I-s somxur eklesiaSi qarTuli wesebis danergvaSi amxelen58. somxuri samefoebis dasustebisa da gaqrobis kvalad (XI s. Sua wlebi) qarTuli eklesia Setevaze gadadis da mTels kavkasiaSi somxuri eklesiis Seviwroebas iwyebs. I046 w. RrtilaSi gamarTul qarTvel-somexTa saeklesio paeqrobaze qarTveli beri eqvTime grZeli datuqsviT ekamaTeba somex winamZRvars sosTens da qarTuli sarwmunoebis upiratesobas umtkicebs. paeqrobis mowme bagrat IV-c, faqtobrivad, Zalas atans da sosTenisgan somxuri sarwmunoebis datovebas da qarTulze moqcevas moiTxovs59. somxuri sarwmunoebis gmobam im xanad qarTul sasuliero literaturaSi farTo xasiaTi miiRo60.

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ix. k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, Tbilisi, 1980, gv. 167. ix. n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, t. VIII, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 277-279.

§ ï ÷ Ý ë î ñ Ý ó á ² á Ï Ýä ï á à õ î » » ³ ³ ¦ä ï ñ á ñ «1 8 « ê » ³ á Ç ³ û » õ Û ë Õ ³ ³ Ù õ Ç Ý Ç½ñ Ï Ý« » » õ · 85 ¿ç. 181-182

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59 60

k. kekeliZe, etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, I, Tbilisi I956, gv. 75-83.

m. sabinini, saqarTvelos samoTxe, peterburgi, 1882, gv. 617-620. Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, II, Tbilisi, 1967, gv. 123; mcire sjulis kanoni, e. giunaSvilis gamocema, Tbilisi, 1972, gv. 33-34, 46-48, 63-64 da sxv.

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aSkaraa, gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos mesveurebi Cqarobdnen qarTuli sarwmunoebis bazis gafarToebas mTel kavkasiaSi, raTa momavalSi qarTuli saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi am qveynis xalxebis Semoyvana ar gaZnelebodaT. magram am politikas erTi mniSvnelovani nakli axlda. konfesiur winaaRmdegobaTa daZleva `sarwmunoebrivi eqspansiis gziT~ SeuZlebeli iyo, miT umetes iseTi mdidari kulturis qveyanaSi, rogoric somxeTi iyo. aseTi gziT politikuri amocanebis gadaWra TviT Zlierma bizantiamac ver SeZlo. konfesiur niadagze ganviTarebul siZulvils ki yovelTvis da yvelgan didi boroteba mohqonda. aseTi finali qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi politikisaTvis, romelic somexTa mindobasa da Tavis garSemo darazmvas cdilobda, ra Tqma unda, yovlad miuRebeli iyo. albaT, amitomac, am xanaSive SeimCneva somxebTan konfesiuri dapirispirebis Serbilebis cdebi, rac mkafiod aisaxa arsen safarelis traqtatSi `ganyofisaT¢s qarTvelTa da somexTa~. arsenis mtkicebiT, somexi xalxi ar aris damnaSave istoriis winaSe. sparseTis mefeebma aiZules somxeTis xelisufalni da eklesiis mesveurni gadaexviaT marTlmadideblobidan da mieRoT `sjuli iakobTa~. amitom saeklesio ganxeTqileba kavkasiaSi moklebulia Sinagan kanonzomierebas da arsen safarelis rwmeniT, xelsayrel politikur situaciaSi kavkasiis qveynebis ideologiuri gaerTianeba SeuZlebeli ar aris61. XI s. 40-ian wlebSi ganviTarebuli politikuri movlenebi sul ufro cxadyofdnen gaerTianebuli saqarTvelosTvis somexTa mxardaWeris gafarToebis mniSvnelobas. bagrat IV-m, marTalia, mcire xniT, magram somexTave daxmarebiT daikava anisis samefos dedaqalaqi cxra cixiTurT da Sirakis vrceli qveyana, faqtobrivad, Tavisi kontrolis TvalsawierSi moaqcia, riTac somxeTis memkvidreobisaTvis brZolaSi mkveTrad daupirispirda bizantias. liparit baRvaSis Ralatisa da bizantiis dawolis garda, Cans, arc somexTa mxardaWera iyo imdenad farTo da myari, rom bagrat IV-s SeZleboda anisis ufro xangrZlivad dakaveba. somxur politikur wreebze da xalxze ufro mniSvnelovani gavlenis mopove61

arsen safareli, ganyobisaT¢s qarTvelTa da somexTa, teqsti kritikulad daadgina, gamokvleva da komentarebi daurTo zaza aleqsiZem, Tbilisi, I980, gv. I76-I78, 200.

bas, cxadia, xels uSlida rogorc konfesiur uTanxmoebaTa simwvave, ise somxuri istoriografiis tendenciebi. kavkasiis momavali gaerTianeba, saiTkenac gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos bagrationi xelisuflebi Tanmimdevrulad iswrafodnen, araqristiani mosaxleobis mindobasac gulisxmobda, ris gamoc qarTuli ideologiuri politika ufro damajerebel argumentebs iTxovda, vidre es qalkedonuri sarwmunoebis bazis gafarToeba Tu dapirispirebuli konfesiebis morigebis saeWvo cdebi SeiZleboda yofiliyo. aseT pirobebSi Tavisi gadamwyveti sityva unda eTqva qarTul saistorio mwerlobas, romelic SeZlebda kavkasiis gaerTianebis pretenziis mqone qveynis istoriis Sesaferi RirsebiT warmoCenasTan erTad, somxurisgan gansxvavebuli, magram kavkasiis istoriis iseTi modelis agebas, romelic Seqmnil istoriul pirobebSi orive xalxis Rirsebas daicavda da misaRebs gaxdida Tanabrad. niSandoblivia, rom XI s., TiTqmis erTdroulad, ramdenime qarTveli istorikosi (leonti mroveli, juanSeri, matiane qarTlisa¡s avtori da sumbat daviTis Ze) wers uZvelesi droidan XI saukunemde Tavisi qveynis gabmuli istoriis sxvadasxva nawilebs, sadac somxur Temas, gansakuTrebiT leontisTan, erTob mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba. rogorc Cans, dasmuli problemis gadaWris ZiriTadi tvirTis simZime leonti mrovels daekisra. amasave mowmobs leontis mTavari Txzulebis `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa~-s qronologiuri sazRvrebic ­ uZvelesi droidan V s-mde, romelSic, agreTve, gaSlili aqvs movses xorenacis Tavisi `somxeTis istoriis~, somxuri istoriografiis suliskveTebis am ZiriTadi wyaros, Txroba. aqedan gamomdinare Cans, rom leontis somxebisTvisac unda gaewia angariSi, raTa misi `mefeTa istoria~ somxebisTvisac misaRebi gamxdariyo. SemTxveviTi arc isaa, rom qarTlis cxovrebis krebulis Seqmnidan sul male, ukve XII s. is somxur enaze iTargmna. aSkara iyo, leonti mrovels Zalze rTuli amocanis gadawyveta uwevda. movses xorenacis didi avtoritetisa da somexi xalxis cnobierebaze misi gansakuTrebuli zegavlenis gamo, m. xorenacis xelaRebiT uaryofa SeuZlebeli iyo. ubralod, aseT simarTleSi somxebs ver daajerebda. m. xorenacis kritikis sxva gza unda monaxuliyo da leontimac genialuri simartiviT gadaWra saWirboroto didi sakiTxi. uaryofis nacvlad m. xorenacis ZiriTadi debulebebi

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da maT safuZvelze gaSuqebuli faqtebi Seaswora, xolo mis eqspansiur koncefcias kavkasiis xalxTa sisxliT naTesaobisa da Zmobis sakuTari koncefcia daupirispira (konfesiur urTierTobaTa gamwvavebis pirobebSi `sisxliT naTesaobis~ argumenti gacilebiT qmediTunariani da upiratesi iyo), riTac ara marto moraluri upiratesoba moipova xorenacize, aramed drois moTxovnebsac ukeT moergo. kavkasiaSi ZvelTaganve gaCaRebul ideologiur brZolaSi qarTveli politikosi-mematiane Tavisi axali koncefciiT aSkarad gamarjvebuli Canda. Tuki leontis koncefcias realuri politikuri situacia umagrebda niadags (selCukiani Turqebis gamaCanagebeli Semosevebis winaaRmdeg kavkasiis xalxTa Zalebis gaerTianebis aucilebloba), somex moRvaweTa erTi nawilis mier xorenacis koncefciis reanimacia im dros, roca somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis ukanaskneli namsxvrevebic qreboda, ubralod anaqronizmad gamoiyureboda. n. berZeniSvilis dakvirvebiT, realurad, leonti mroveli naSromis mTel sigrZeze ebrZvis xorenels, agaTangeloss, asabuTebs qarTls...62. misive TqmiT, leontim marjved gamoiyena xoreneli da originaluri istoria Seqmna. man ar uaryo cxadliv xorenelis istoriuli debulebani, Tumca arsebiTad Seaswora isini da, rac mTavaria, daurTo originaluri Teoria TargamosianTa Sesaxeb da Semdeg mTeli istoria am TargamosianTa urTierTobis fonze gaSala, ramac saSualeba misca originaluri istoriuli cxovreba warmoeCina63, SinaarsiT da formiT iseTi istoria, romelic momavali didi saqarTvelos politikur interesebs Seesabameboda. leonti mroveli `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTas~ swored am Tavisi originaluri koncefciis warmodgeniT iwyebs, riTac mkiTxvelis yuradRebas amaxvilebs rogorc Tavisi Txzulebis mTavar politikur amocanaze, ise mis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobaze qveynis momavlisaTvis: `pirvelad vahsenoT ese, rameTu somexTa da qarTvelTa, ranTa da movaknelTa, herTa da lekTa da megrelTa da kavkasianTa ­ amaT T¢sTa erTi iyo mama, saxeliT Targamos~64. leontis mier kavkasiis xalxTa sisxliT naTesaobis am Teoriis

62 63 64

n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, VIII, gv. 379-380. iqve, gv. 26I. qarTlis cxovreba, IO , gv. 3.

wamoyeneba ukve niSnavda movses xorenacis koncefciis uaryofas da mis kritikas. Tu qarTveli mematiane kavkasiis xalxebis warmomavlobas erTmaneTTan mWidro kavSirSi ganixilavda, m. xorenaci kavkasiaSi somxebis garda veravis amCnevda, somexTa eTnogenezi misTvis iyo monoeTnikuri samyaros warmoqmnis procesi, romelic somexTa eTnikuri ganviTarebis orbitaSi aqcevda maT samoqmedo teritoriaze somexTa mosvlamde dasaxlebul mcirericxovan xalxebs da somxur samyarosTan Serwymas ganapirobebda. ase rom, m. xorenacis monoeTnikur samyaros leonti erTmaneTis monaTesave mravalerovan kavkasias upirispirebda. kavkasiis xalxebis mravalsaukunovani xangrZlivi Tanacxovreba da saerTo politikuri Tavgadasavali met damajereblobas sZenda leontis Teorias. XI s. meore naxevrisaTvis m. xorenacis koncefcias praqtikuli mniSvneloba aRar SeiZleboda hqonoda, radgan kavkasiis xalxTa Zmobis mowodeba cocxali politikuri programis mniSvnelobas iZenda. im dros, roca moZalebuli mtris winaaRmdeg kavkasiaSi erTaderTi angariSgasawevi politikuri Zala gaerTianebuli qarTuli samefo iyo, masTan Zmobis damadasturebeli Teoria Tavdacvisa da TavSesafris ZiebaSi myofi somxeTisaTvis araTu misaRebi da sasurveli, aramed aucilebelic iyo. kavkasiis xalxTa naTesaobis idea sasargeblo iyo imdroindeli qarTuli sagareo politikisTvisac. somxeTis memkvidreobisTvis brZolaSi bizantiasTan dapirispirebuli gaerTianebuli saqarTvelo leontis Teoriis saxiT axal damatebiT arguments iZenda somxeTze kanonieri uflebis dasamtkiceblad. mTavari politikuri amocaniTve iyo gansazRvruli kavkasiis xalxTa mamamTavrad Targamosis dasaxeleba im dros, roca berZnul-laTinuri da somxur-qristianuli mwerloba mas mxolod somexTa mamamTavrad miiCnevda. miuxedavad amisa, leonti sxvagvarad ver moiqceoda, radganac mxolod Targamosis saxlis wevrs SeeZlo `somxeTis memkvidreobaze~ kanonieri pretenziis gacxadeba. Tavis koncefciaze dayrdnobiT leonti TanmimdevrobiT asworebs da cvlis m. xorenacis umTavres debulebebs qarTul-somxur istoriul urTierTobaTa Taobaze da axali SinaarsiT avsebs kavkasiis istoriis yvelaze mniSvnelovan furclebs. maT Soris upirvelesi, ra Tqma unda, iyo erovnuli teritoriis formirebis sakiTxi. m. xorenacis mier somexTaTvis Semoxazul vrcel teri-

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torias, misgan gansxvavebiT, leonti Targamosis wilxvedril qveynad acxadebs: `xolo qveyana igi, romeli wiliT xdomoda (Targamoss), ese ars sazRvari queyanisa misisa: aRmosavliT zRua gurgenisa, dasavliT zRua pontosa, da samxriT zRua oreTisa, da CrdiloT mTa kavkasia~65. Targamosis samflobelos samxreTis sazRvari "zRua oreTisa" vanis tba an xmelTaSua zRva SeiZleba iyos, rac, faqtobrivad, emTxveva somxeTis pirveli arSakidi mefisaTvis mizomil teritorias. leonti ki, ramdenadac kavkasiis xalxebis uklebliv yvela eTnarqs Targamosis Svilebad miiCnevs, am vrcel teritoriaze uflebas, somexTa garda, kavkasiis sxva xalxebsac unawilebs, ra Tqma unda, Sua saukuneebSi miRebuli ufrosumcrosobis sayovelTao wesis mixedviT, sadac ufros vaJs, momdevno ZmebTan SedarebiT, mniSvnelovani upiratesobani gaaCnia. miuxedavad imisa, rom am wesis Tanaxmad, ufrosi vaJi mamis uflebisa da qonebis uSualo memkvidrea da is ikavebs mamis rezidencias da iRebs xelisuflebas misgan. sxva Svilebic inarCuneben memkvidreobis uflebas mamis qonebaze. leontis mixedviT, TviT Targamosma gaunawila Tavisi qveyana da naTesavi Tavis gamorCeul rva Svils, romelTac gmirebs uwodebs. igi wers: `... ganuyo Targamos queyana da naTesavi T¢si rvaT amaT gmirTa: naxevari naTesavisa misisa da naxevari da umjobesi queyanisa misisa misca haoss, xolo S¢dTa amaT misca xuedri maTi arZangebisaebr maTisa: warmoiyvanna S¢dni igi CrdiloT kerZo da ganuyvnna queyanani Rirsebisaebr maTisa. misca qarTloss da uCina sazRvari: aRmosavliT hereTi da mdinare berdujisi; dasavliT zRua pontosi, samxriT mTa, romeli mihyvebis berdujis mdinaris Tavsa, da mTa, romeli mihyvebis dasavliT kerZo, romlisa wyali gardmodis CrdiloT kerZo da mierTvis mtkuarsa, romel mihyvebis mTa Soris klarjeTsa da taos vidre zRuamdis; da CrdiloT sazRvari Rado, romeli gamovlis Stod kavkasisagan da mohkidavs wueri dasasrulsa Radosa, romelsa aw hq¢an lixi. da amaT sazRvarTa saSual misca yoveli qarTloss66.

leontis Tanaxmad, Targamosis SvilebSi haosi pirveli Svili da `umetesi gmiri~ iyo, ris gamoc mama mas Tavis qveynis naxevarsa da umjobes nawils akuTvnebs, Tumca qarTveli mematiane am `umjobesi~ naxevris arc sazRvrebs asaxelebs da arc mis gansakuTrebul sikeTeze iZleva raime cnobas. qarTveli mematianis yuradReba, m. xorenacis sapirispirod, ZiriTadad, amierkavkasiiskenaa mipyrobili, romlis centralur nawilSi is qarTul qveynebs ­ qarTls, egriss da hereTs aTavsebs da detalurad aRwers TiToeuli maTganis sazRvrebs. gansakurebiT ki, yuradRebas amaxvilebs am qveynebis somxeTisagan gamomyof samxreTis sazRvarze, romelic misi aRweriT, md. berdujis saTaveebidan iwyeboda da mtkvrisa da araqsis auzebis wyalgamyofs gahyveboda mTels sigrZeze mtkvris saTaveebis CaTvliT (provincia `kola~), xolo aqedan qeds, romelic gahyofda klarjeTs (md. Woroxis qvemo dinebis auzi) taosagan (md. Woroxis Sua dinebis auzi). leontis am CvenebaTa antikuri xanis ucxouri wyaroebiT damowmebis Sedegad d. musxeliSvili askvnis, rom qarTuli erovnuli tradicia Semonaxuli leonti mrovelis mier, arsebiTad swori unda iyos67. qarTlsa da somxeTs Soris gamaval sazRvars `xunaniTgan vidre zRuamde sperisa~ 68 leonti mravalgzis axsenebs, rac, albaT, imasac niSnavs, rom, misi azriT, uZvelesi droidanve somxeTisa da qarTlis samijno zonad ucvlelad mtkvrisa da araqsis wyalgamyofi qedi rCeboda. ufro metic, araqsis auzSi mdebare rig teritoriebs, is zogjer, qarTlis farglebSi aTavsebs. magaliTad, leontis cnobiT, farnavazis mefobisas aboci samSvildis saerisTavos SemadgenlobaSi iyo da, amdenad, misi azriT, qarTlis samxreTis sazRvris md. araqsamde gavrcelebasac kanonieri safuZveli gaaCnda. misive cnobiT, am sasazRvro zolis Tavis sasargeblod SecvlisaTvis qarTvel da somex xelisuflebs Soris konfliqtebic yofila, magram ZiriTadi sazRvari mainc, sabolood, ucvleli rCeboda, romelic Semdeg saerTaSoriso aRiarebiTac yofila dakanonebuli. am aqts leonti miawers bizantiis imperators konstantine dids, romelmac Turme `ganuCina

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qarTlis cxovreba, I gv. 4. iqve, gv. 4-5.

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d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, I, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 79-80. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 8.

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sazRvari mirians da Trdats esreT: romelTa queyanaTa mdinareni dian samxreTiT da mierTvian ra£ssa, ese queyanani Trdatis kerZad dayarna; da romlisa queyanisa mdinareni CrdiloT dian da mierTvian mtkuarsa, ese mirianis kerZad dayarna. da ese ra ganugo konstantine mefeman da Suamdgomel eqmna maT, da warvida T¢sad samefod 69 . amiT leonti, saerTod, asrulebs saubars somexqarTvelTa sazRvris Sesaxeb anu, rogorc TviTon ambobs, `Ziebas sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa~. niSandoblivia, rom leontis mier dasaxelebuli es sazRvari Sua saukuneTa mTel sigrZeze sinamdvileSic ucvleli darCa. amrigad, leonti mrovelisa da m. xorenacis TxzulebebSi warmodgenili Tvalsazrisi saqarTvelosa da somxeTis kuTvnili teritoriebis Taobaze erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebuli da arsebiTad sapirispirocaa. m. xorenaciT somexTa kuTvnili qveyana moicavda vrcel teritorias xmelTaSua zRvidan kavkasiis wyalgamyof qedamde, romlis meCxerad dasaxlebuli erTi nawili babilonidan vanis tbis midamoebSi mravalricxovani SvilebiTa da SviliSvilebiT gamosaxlebulma haikma da Semdeg misma STamomavlebma TandaTanobiT aiTvises samxedro moqmedebebisa da sameurneo saqmianobis Sedegad. amas garda, wina aziis mniSvnelovani nawili da mTeli kavkasia maT parTiis mefe arSakma miakuTvna. ase rom, m. xorenacis azriT, kavkasiisa da wina aziis erTi nawilis momcveli es teritoria somxebs savsebiT kanonier safuZvelze ekavaT da moziare aravin hyavdaT. leonti mroveli, faqtobrivad, imave vrcel teritorias `kavkasiis mTidan oreTis zRvamde~ qarTvelTa da somexTa, agreTve, kavkasiis sxva xalxebis, saerTo winapris Targamosis wilxvedril (igulisxmeba RmerTisgan) qveynad miiCnevs, rac imas niSnavs, rom Targamosis Svilebi (gamorCeuli rva Svili) yvela erTad, mamis qonebis memkvidreebi arian da mamis wilxvedrili maTi saerTo qonebacaa, sadac TiToeul maTgans sakuTari wili udevs maxloblobisa da ufros-umcrosobis sayovelTaod miRebuli wesis mixedviT. SesaZloa, amitomac leonti yovel maTgans Sesabamis rigiT nomers akuTvnebs: `pirvelsa erqva haos, meoresa qarTlos, mesamesa bardos~ da a. S.70.

69 70

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 70. iqve, gv. 4.

aseT viTarebaSi bunebrivad Tavs iCens Targamosis Svilebs Soris uflebrivi Tanafardobis sakiTxi. ufros Svils, e. i. gvarSi ufross, saerTo qonebis umetesi nawili ­ mTeli naxevari da, rac mTavaria, xelisuflebis gamomxatveli mamis sayofeli (e. i. taxti) gadaecema, ris gamoc, albaT, qonebis es nawili `umjobesad~ iTvleba. mamis Semdeg is gvaris, anu saxlis ufrosi, e. i. mamasaxlisi xdeba, amasTan danarCeni Zmebis samiznec, romlebic memkvidreobis wesis safuZvelze TavianT rigs elian mamis samyofelis dasakaveblad. amdenad, leonti mroveli ara marto asworebs m.xorenacis versias somxuri teritoriis warmoqmnaze da e. w. `somxur CrdiloeTs~ qarTvelebTan erTad ZvelTaganve kavkasiis xalxebiT asaxlebs, aramed mtkvrisa da araqsis wyalgamyofi zonis samxreTiT mdebare teritoriazec momavlisaTvis pretenziasac acxadebs, rogorc Targamosis rigiT meore memkvidris STamomavali. aSkaraa, rom sagangebod Txzulebis dasawyisSi gaJRerebuli mTavari idea (`ambavi rva ZmaTa~), romliTac leonti mroveli m. xorenacs upirispirdeba, aris kavkasiis xalxTa saerTo warmomavlobisa da, amdenad maTi Zmoba-naTesaobis idea, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobda saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg gaerTianebuli ZalebiT SebrZolebas. leontis dros am ideis legitimacias myar niadags uqmnida selCukiani Turqebis moxSirebuli TavdasxmebiT Seqmnili udidesi safrTxe, romelic gadagvarebiTa da ganadgurebiT emuqreboda mTel kavkasiur civilizacias, sadac wamyvan kulturul Zalas saqarTvelo da somxeTi warmoadgendnen. amasTan, is savsebiT pasuxobda kavkasiaSi hegemonobisaTvis gamarTul mravalsaukunovan brZolaSi, faqtobrivad, gamarjvebuli gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv interesebs, romelic amjerad (XI s. II nax.-Si) somxebisgan gamijvnas ki ar eswrafoda, aramed maT mindobasa da Tavis garSemo darazmvas cdilobda. aseT pirobebSi kavkasiis xalxTa naTesaobis Tvalsazriss SedarebiT advilad unda SeeRwia adamianTa cnobierebaSi da misaRebi gamxdariyo leontis mier Seqmnili legenda Targamosisa da misi rva Svilis Sesaxeb. Tu xsenebul garemoebaTa zegavleniT, qristianul mwerlobaSi arsebul versiebTan leontis versiis SeTavseba ase Tu ise mainc SesaZlebeli iyo, somexTa winapris haikis miCqmalva da misi mniSvnelobis damcroba im ubralo mizeziT ver moxerxdeboda, rom berZnul-

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laTinuri da mravalsaukunovani somxuri tradiciiT, ukve karga xniT damkvidrebuli azriT, Togarma-Targamosis erTaderT memkvidred haiki-haosi iTvleboda da mis adgilas romelime Zmadwodebulis gadmonacvleba, somxur mosaxleobaSi mainc, eWvs qveS daayenebda, saerTod, leontis versiis siswores, rac imdroindeli qarTuli politikisTvis erTob saWiro kavkasiis xalxTa gamaerTianebeli ideis diskreditacias gamoiwvevda. Targamosis samkvidrod miCneul teritoriazec (araratis mTis midamoebi) ZvelTaganve somxebi saxlobdnen, rac memkvidreobis wesebze Sua saukuneebSi arsebuli warmodgenebi somexTa winapars, upirobod, mamis pirmSod warmoaCenda. amitom, undoda Tu ara es leonti mrovels, somexTa eTnarqi ­ haosi Targamosis pirvel Svilad da ZmaTa Soris `umetes gmirad~ da maTze `gamgeblad da uflad~ unda ecno. Targamosis pirvel Svilad haosis cnobam da, amdenad, ierarqiis saTaveSi misma Cayenebam leontis Txzulebas formalurad, TiTqos, `prosomxuri~ mimarTuleba misca, magram, sinamdvileSi, is m. xorenacisa da misi TanamoRvawe somexi avtorebis mier warmodgenili suraTisgan ara marto gansxvavebuli, aramed arsebiTad sawinaaRmdego iyo. m. xorenaci da V-X ss. somxuri saistorio mwerloba kavkasiis istorias miTiuri haikidan dawyebuli somxuri samefoebis arsebobamde, anu XI s. naxevramde, somxeTis sruli politikuri batonobis xanad saxavs, sadac qarTveli xelisuflebi somxeTis morCil moxeleebad gamoiyurebian. istoriis asparezze haosis Zmebis SemoyvaniT ki, qarTvelebi da kavkasiis sxva xalxebi haosis sagmiro saqmeebis Tanamonawiled da gamarjvebebis Tanaziarad gamohyavs leontis. amasTan, somexTa am upiratesobas miTiuri xanis irealuri samyaros farglebiT zRudavs. haosis Semdeg Txzulebis dasawyisSi warmodgenili ierarqia sadRac qreba, leonti gamorCeulad aravis asaxelebs da yvelas maT saerTo saxeliT TargamosianebiT aRniSnavs, haosis STamomavlebi calke ar saxeldebian. iqmneba Tanabaruflebianobis sruli STabeWdileba. Targamosianebi karga xans erTad arian, erTad moqmedeben, erTad icaven Tavs. faqtebi: xazarebi gaZlierdnen da kavkasianebi Seaviwroves. am ukanasknelebma daxmareba sTxoves danarCen Targamosianebs. radganac im dros, leontis ganmartebiT, isini `iyvnes mS¢dobiT siyuarulsa erTmaneTisasa~, Seikribnen `yovelni naTesavni Targamosianni, da gardavles mTa kavkasia da motyuennes

yovelni sazRvarni xazareTisani, da aRaSennes qalaqni pirsa xazareTisasa, da wamovides~ 71 . Cveni avtoris warmodgeniT, Targamosianebs gaaCndaT erTi mTliani qveyana, romlis dacva yvelas saerTo sazrunavia. xazarebi kvlav da ufro metad gaZlierdnen, maTi simravlis gamo Targamosianebma winaaRmdegoba veRar gauwies da xazarebma "wartyunes queyana TargamosianTa, da Semusrnes yovelni qalaqni araratisani da masisisani da Crdilosani. da daurCes cixe-qalaqni Tuxarisi, samS¢lde da mtueris cixe, romel ars xunani, Sida qarTli da egrisi~72. motanil teqstSi TargamosianTa qveynis orgvari gagebaa mocemuli. viwro gagebiT esaa TiToeuli Targamosianis kuTvnili calke samkvidro, romelic Targamosma Tavis droze SemousazRvra Tavis Svilebs. farTo gagebiT ki es am qveynebis erTobliobaa da saerToa yvela TargamosianisTvis. swored am saerTo qveyniTa da misi erTiani ZalebiT warsdgebian xolme isini gare samyaros winaSe. niSandoblivia, rom axla ukve, miTosuri xanisgan gansxvavebiT, TargamosianTa Soris ufros-umcrosobaze ubralo miniSnebasac aRar vxvdebiT, saerTo personaluri winamZRoli maT aRar hyavdaT. magram, Targamosianebic yvela erTnairi SesaZleblobisa da unaris, ra Tqma unda, ar iyo da leontic TargamosianTa saerTo masidan am niSniT gamoarCevs qarTvelebsa da somxebs `somexTa da qarTvelTa da yovelTa TargamosianTa~ 73 , romlebzec, misi azriT, damokidebuli iyo TargamosianTa da maTi saerTo bedic. amitomac, yvela kritikul momentSi Cveni avtori maT erTad axsenebs, rogorc TargamosianTa saerTo politikis mTavar ganmsazRvrel Zalas. magaliTad, Targamosianebze gabatonebuli sparsTa mefe TurqebTan iwyebs brZolas. leontis TqmiT, `maSin poves Jami marjue somexTa da qarTvelTa, da ganudges sparsTa da ganamagres cixeni da qalaqni maTni. da SeerTnes yovelni naTesavni Targamosianni~74. ramdenime wlis Semdeg sparsTa mefe did laSqars agzavnis `somexTa da qarTvelTa da yovelni TargamosianTa zeda~75. igive suraTi ixateba sxva epizodebis gamocemisasac: `ver wina71 72 73 74 75

qarTlis iqve, gv. iqve, gv. iqve, gv. iqve.

cxovreba, I, gv. 11. 11-I2. I4. I4.

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47

aRudges somexni da qarTvelni~, `maSin dauteva spandiat brZola somexTa da qarTvelTa~, `ganTavisufldes somexni da qarTvelni~ da a. S.76. erTi sityviT, leontisaTvis kavkasiaSi politikuri situaciis ganmsazRvreli yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtori somexTa da qarTvelTa kavSiria da cdilobs Semdgomi xanis (ukve saxelmwifoTa urTierTobis doneze) istoriis gadmocemis drosac mkafiod warmoaCinos qarTvel da somex xelisufalTa umWidroesi kavSiri da TanamSromloba istoriis mTel manZilze. qarTvel mkvlevarTa erTma nawilma yuradReba miaqcia im faqts, rom qarTvelebisa da somxebis erTad moxseniebisas, somexTa xseneba yovelTvis win uswrebs qarTvelebis xsenebas, rac leonti mrovelis subieqturi ganwyobilebis gamovlenad miiCnia. marTalia, `somexni da qarTvelni~ ­ aseTi TanamimdevrobiT, vidre piruku, qarTvelTa da somexTa xseneba SedarebiT ufro xSiria (12 jer 4-is winaaRmdeg), magram is mainc myar safuZvels ver iZleva xsenebuli daskvnisaTvis. jer erTi, ar Cans, rom leontis teqstSi eTnosebis dasaxeleba ierarqiuli principis TanamimdevrobiT xdebodes, ramdenadac erTad moxseniebisas osebi or SemTxvevaSi qarTvelebs win uswreben, Tumca maT upiratesobaze aranairi miniSneba ar aris da arc SeiZleboda yofiliyo, asevea gamoTqma `Turqni da qarTvelni~77. ierarqiul princips rom udebdes safuZvlad eTnosTa dasaxelebas leonti aRar ityoda laSqarze `berZenTa, somexTa, ovsTa, megrTa da qarTvelTao78. anda `ovsTa, lekTa da qarTvelTa~79. yvelas rom Tavi davaneboT, CamoTvlaSi megrTa win mainc unda daeyenebina qarTvelni, radganac misive, mtkicebiT, quji farnavazs Tavis uflad cnobda. aSkaraa, rom haosis miTiuri epoqis gadmocemis Semdeg, eTnosTa CamoTvlas leonti ierarqiuli sqemis mixedviT aRar unda awarmoebdes. safiqrebelia, leonti kavkasiis xalxTa warmomavlobis Tavisi versiis logikidan gamodiodes, roca somxebisa da qarTvelebis erTad moxseniebisas haosis STamomavlebi win uswreben qarTvelebs. haosma mamis samkvidreblis naxevari miiRo, meore

76 77 78 79

naxevari ki misma Zmebma gainawiles, ris gamoc qarTlosis STamomavlebis qveyana Tavisi moculobiT haosis STamomavlebis qveyanasTan SedarebiT ufro mcire unda yofiliyo. realuradac, istoriis sakmao periodSi, somxeTi qarTlze gacilebiT vrcel qveyanas warmoadgenda. es viTareba, Cans, aiZulebda leontis somxebi qarTvelebze win moexsenebina, rogorc ufro didi qveynis warmomadgenlebi. aseTi varaudis SemTxvevaSi, dasmuli sakiTxisadmi leontis subieqturi damokidebulebis SesaZlebloba, vfiqrob, gamosaricxia. Txzulebis dasawyisSi mocemuli haosis ufrosobiT Seqmnili STabeWdileba, romelic ZiriTadad miTiuri periodiT ifargleba, am eTnarqis Semdeg TandaTan fermkrTaldeba da qarTlSi saxelmwifos warmoqmnisTanave mTlianad qreba. leontis mier moTxrobili qarTlisa da somxeTis samefoebis politikuri urTierTobis uZvelesi istoria arsebiTad gansxvavdeba da, faqtobrivad, upirispirdeba kidec Zveli somxuri saistorio mwerlobis didmpyrobelur ideologias, romlis sanacvlod qarTveli mematiane TanamSromlobis da naTesaobis ideas amkvidrebs. umTavresad, am TvalsazrisiT alagebs da aSuqebs is Zveli istoriis, TviT somxur wyaroebSi dacul faqtebsac ki. saqarTveloSi saxelmwifos warmoqmnisa da ganviTarebis process leonti kavkasiaSi aleqsandre makedonelis SesaZlo laSqrobasa da mis mier gatarebul RonisZiebebs ukavSirebs. misi TqmiT, daipyro ra al. makedonelma `yovelni kideni qveynisani~ sikvdilamde cota xniT adre, sicocxleSive oTx Tanatomels gaunawila Tavisi uzarmazari samflobelo. maT Soris `misca antioqozs asurastani da somxiTi, da kerZo aRmosavleTisa uCina mas~80. xolo `bizantioss misca saberZneTi da qarTli, da uCina kerZo Crdilosa~81. ase rom, aleqsandre makedonelis dapyrobiTi omebis Sedegad saqarTvelo da somxeTi, leontis Tanaxmad, sxvadasxva politikur sivrceSi aRmoCndnen, rac, TiTqos, qmnida maT Soris dapirispirebis sababs, magram situacia male icvleba da qarTvelebi da somxebi kvlav erT politikur garemoSi, kerZod, selevkidebis samefos gavlenis sferoSi aRmoCndebian da maT Tanam80 81

qarTlis iqve, gv. iqve, gv. iqve, gv.

cxovreba, I, gv. 16. 15. 57. 46.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. I9. iqve, gv. 20.

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49

Sromlobas Zveleburad xeli ewyoba. aleqsandres mier qarTlis patrikad daniSnulma azonma ukiduresad daamZima misi batonobis uReli, rasac win aRudga qarTlis mosaxleoba mcxeTis mamasaxlisis ZmisSvilis farnavazis meTaurobiT. kacTmoZule azoni qarTlidan gandevnes. farnavazi daeufla qarTls `T¢nier klarjeTisa". gamarjvebis bolomde misayvanad ki, radganac azons berZnebi umagrebdnen zurgs, asurastanis mefes antioqoss ZRveniT mimarTa daxmarebisaTvis da aRuTqva mas msaxureba. antioqosma `Seiwynara ZRueni misi, da uwoda Svilad T¢sad, da warmosca g¢rg¢ni. da ubrZana erisTavTa somxeTisaTa, raTa Seeweodian farnavazs~82. am brZanebis Sesabamisad `moerTnes erisTavni antioqozisni somxiTiT~83 da farnavazis sakuTar laSqarTan erTad, romelic qarTlis mxedarTa garda egrisisa da osTa meomrebisagan Sedgeboda, Seuties da sZlies berZnebs, azoni ki mokles. amis Semdeg, ganagrZobs qarTveli mematiane, `farnavaz uSiS iqmna yovelTa mterTa T¢sTagan da mefe iqmna yovelsa qarTlsa da egursa zeda. da ganamravlna yovelni m£edarni qarTlosianni, ganawesna erisTavni rvani da spaspeti~84 . Semdeg CamoTvlis saTiTaod yvela saerisTavos Tavisi administraciuli sazRvrebis CvenebiT da SeniSnavs, rom `esreT ganawesa ese yoveli farnavaz mimsgavsebulad samefosa sparsTasa~85. leontis gadmocemiT, `ocdaSvidi wlisa mefe iqmna, da samocdaxuT wel mefobda nebier. da msaxurebda igi antioqoss, mefesa asurastanisasa... da aRaSena da ganavso qarTli... da ese farnavaz iyo pirveli mefe qarTlsa Sina qarTlosisa naTesavTagani~86. qarTlSi saxelmwifos warmoqmnisTanave e. w. TargamosianebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki somxebTan, qarTvelTa urTierTobaSi axali etapi SeiniSneba. am urTierTobaSi TandaTanobiT Tavs iCens qarTvelTa upiratesoba da iniciativa. rogorc vnaxeT, haosis Semdeg, leontis mixedviT, TargamosianTa Soris iniciatori da winamZRoli aravin Cans. isini erTad iReben gadawyvetilebas da

82 83 84 85 86

qarTlis iqve. iqve, gv. iqve, gv. iqve, gv.

cxovreba, I, gv. 23. 24. 25. 25-26.

erTad moqmedeben: `Sekrbes yovelni naTesavni Targamosianni~, `SeerTnes yovelni naTesavni Targamosianni~ da a. S. Targamosianebidan iniciativis mqoned leonti, zogjer asaxelebs somxebsa da qarTvelebs erTad, magram amaTgan romelimesTvis STamomavlobiTi upiratesobis miniWebas sulac ar cdilobs, Tu ar CavTvliT somexTa da qarTvelTa erTad xsenebisas moyvanil Tanamimdevrobas, ris Sesaxebac ukve iTqva, sayuradRebo ufro sxva momentia. qarTlSi mirvanis gamefebamde leonti somexTa mefesa Tu misi administraciis ZiriTad warmomadgenel erisTavs niSandoblivad arsad axsenebs, romlebic somxur saxelmwifoebriobas ganasaxierebdnen. Cans, qarTlSi mirvanis gamefebamde leonti arc varaudobda somxeTSi samefos arsebobas. asurastanis mefesTan farnavazis urTierTobis WrilSi naxseneb `somxeTis erisTavebs~ rom somxuri administraciis warmomadgenlebad ar miiCnevs, amas leonti savsebiT gasagebad gamoTqvams, roca wers: `moerTnes erisTavni antioqozisni somxiTiT~, e. i. es erisTavebi antioqiis administraciis warmomadgenlebi yofilan somxeTSi da amitomac ubrZanebs maT asurastanis mefe farnavazisTvis daxmarebis aRmoCenas. farnavazamde qarTlSi, leontis Tanaxmad, mamasaxlisTa mmarTvelobis sistema iyo gabatonebuli. aseTsave viTarebis arsebobas, etyoba, gulisxmobs Tanadroul somxeTSic, ramdenadac iq mefis an mis administraciaze araviTar miniSnebas ar iZleva. farnavazis meTaurobiT da antioqosis daxmarebiT qarTli Tavisufldeba berZenTa damokidebulebisagan da sakuTar saxelmwifoebriobas qmnis, romelic organizaciulad sparsTa samefos msgavsad ewyoba. es saxelmwifo wyobileba, faqtobrivad, iseTivea, rasac m. xorenaci xatavs somxeTisaTvis, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom is droSi win uswrebs somxurs da amiT SesaZlo somxur gavlenas emijneba. haosis ufrosobidan momdinare STamomavlobiT miRebuli privilegiebi aq ukve sabolood kargavs Zalasa da mniSvnelobas. marTalia, farnavazi da misi memkvidreebi asurastanis mefes msaxurobdnen, e. i. vasalur damokidebulebaSi imyofebian, magram leontis Tanaxmad, es `msaxureba~ imdenad msubuqi da formaluria, rom maT Soris urTierToba ufro samokavSireo da me-

87

saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 465.

50

51

gobrulia sagulvebeli87. ase rom, farnavazis samefo damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifo iyo da mas ukve saerTaSoriso aRiarebac hqonda mopovebuli, ramdenadac farnavazs TviT asurastanis mefe antioqosma gamougzavna samefo gvirgvini. gasagebia, rom aseTi xelisuflebis winaSe somxeTis mamasaxlisis (rogoradac leontis unda warmoedgina im drois somexTa xelisufali) SesaZlo STamomavlobiTi privilegiebi arafers niSnavda, radganac es ukanaskneli mefesTan SedarebiT bevrad ufro dabali rangis xelisufali iyo. qarTlis mesame mefe mirian I-is mefobis dasasrulisaTvis, leontis cnobiT, `amis-ze miicuala antioqisa mefoba babilons. da mas Jamsa Sina mefe iqmna somxiTs romelsa erqua arSak (aSkaraa, gulisxmobs Zv. w. 190 w. magneziasTan antioqos III-is sastik marcxs romaelebisagan, ris Semdeg Zv. w. 189 w. artaSesma Tavi somxeTis mefed gamoacxada), ezraxa mirvan arSaks, da misca asuli T¢si Zesa arSakissa, arSaks~88. g. meliqiSvilis SeniSvniT, qarTuli wyaro savsebiT samarTlianad ukavSirebs somxeTis samefos warmoqmnas antioqosis mefobis dasasruls89. somxeTSi samefos warmoqmnisTanave, leontis mowmobiT, mezobeli qveynebis samefo saxlebi moyvrdebian, rac uSualod gamomdinareobs qarTveli mematianis koncefciis ZiriTadi Sinaarsidan, kavkasiis xalxTa da gansakuTrebiT qarTveli da somexi xalxebis naTesaobisa da TanamSromlobis ideidan. es idea leontis naSroms Tavidan bolomde gasdevs da warmodgenili TiTqmis yvela siuJeti mis gaSuqebas emsaxureba. m. xorenacisgan gansxvavebiT, Txroba didi taqtiTa da orive mxaris Rirsebis dacviT mihyavs. rodesac somxeTSi mefe gaCnda da amis gamo qarTveli da somexi umaRlesi xelisuflebi rangiT gaTanabrdnen, STamomavlobiT miRebuli privilegiebis mniSvneloba mkiTxvelis TvalSi kvlav somexTa sasargeblod unda warmarTuliyo. etyoba, amitomac, vidre somxeTSi mefobis gaCenis ambavs gadmogvcemdes, winaswar gvauwyebs mesame qarTveli mefis mirvanis nebroTianobas (radganac qarTvelTa meore mefe saurmags vaJi ar hyavda, Tavis memkvidred da Svilad mouyvania Tavisi

colis naTesavTagani `sparseTiT Svili nebroTisi~, romelsac erqva saxeli mirvan)90. axla ukve STamomavlobiT gansazRvruli upiratesoba, rogorc qveynierebis pirveli mefis nebroTis STamomavlisa, qarTvelTa mxares iyo da haosis STamomavlebis pretenziebs safuZveli gamoclili hqonda. qarTveli mefis es upiratesoba Tumca aSkarad xazgasmulad ar aris gacxadebuli, magram misi da STamomavlebis nebroTianoba TavisTavad gulisxmobda maT gamorCeulobas. aseTi siuJetis SemotaniT leonti ostaturad xsnis mezobel xelisufalTa urTierTobaSi ierarqiuli damokidebulebis SesaZleblobas da, faqtobrivad, ukuagdebs m. xorenacis qedmaRlur damokidebulebas saqarTvelosa da qarTvel xelisufalTa mimarT. amis Semdeg leonti mroveli Tavisi Txzulebis TiTqmis bolomde, ZiriTadad, qarTvelsomexTa TanamSromlobisa da danaTesavebis faqtebs gadmogvcems, riTac mkiTxvelis yuradRebas kavkasiis xalxebis erTianobis sasargeblod warmarTavs. danaTesaveba, leontis Tanaxmad, pirvel rigSi, mezobeli qveynebis samefo saxlebs Soris myardeba, ris Sedegadac farnavazianTa qarTuli dinastia parTuli warmoSobis arSakianTa somxur dinastias ukavSirdeba. aseTi dakavSirebis leontis cdebi kargad aqvs SeniSnuli p. ingoroyvas. misi dakvirvebiT, `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡~-is qarTvel mefeTa siaSi moxseniebuli arsok da arsuk leonti mrovelTan Secvlilia saxeliT `arSak~. p. ingoroyvas azriT, varianti `arSak~ aris mwignobruli interpretacia saxelisa arsok (arsuk), im mosazrebiT, raTa es pirni daekavSirebinaT arSakidebis dinastiasTan, Tumca aseTi dakavSirebis safuZvels ver xedavs91. saxeli `arSak~, leontis warmodgeniT, Zveli somxeTis Zlierebis xanis samefo dinastias ganasaxierebs92 da mas, e. i. arSakunianTa dinastias erTgan ganmadidebeli epiTetiTac `didebulTa arSakunianTa~ moixseniebs93. amis gamo zogi mkvlevari leontis mikerZoebaSi adanaSaulebs, TiTqos, aseTi damokidebuleba

90 91 88 89

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 28. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 466.

92 93

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 27. pavle ingoroyva, TxzulebaTa krebuli, t. IV. Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 513. ix. agreTve, saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 466. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 63.

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arSakunianebisadmi misi subieqturi ganwyobilebis gamoxatuleba yofiliyos. sagulisxmoa, rom sumbat daviTis Ze kidev ufro maRal xarisxSi warmogvidgens arSakunianTa dinastias. bagrat IVis dedis mariam dedoflis keTilSobilebisa da gansakuTrebuli Rirsebis warmosaCenad bagrationTa dinastiis mematiane wers, rom mariami `naSobi iyo brwyinvaleTa maT ZlierTa da didTa mefeTa arSakunianTa~94. miuxedavad imisa, rom mariam dedofali mamiT vaspurakanis samefo dinastiis arwunebis, xolo dedis mxridan bagratunebis warmomadgeneli iyo, qarTveli mematiane amiT ar kmayofildeba da dedoflis gansadideblad misi azriT, ufro sapatio arSakunianobas miawers. aSkaraa, rom Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi arSakunianTa dinastiaze maRali warmodgena hqondaT da maTTan kavSiri sapatiod miaCndaT. sagulisxmoa, rom somex arSakunianebs basil I-is winaprad asaxelebs bizantiuri istoriografiac95. ase rom, leontis TxrobaSi farnavazianebisa da arSakunianebis calkeuli warmomadgenlebis damoyvreba da amis safuZvelze Semdeg qarTlis samefo taxtze arSakuniani ufliswulis aRmoCena arafers saCoTiros maSin ar Seicavda. sayuradRebo sul sxvaa. msgavsi faqtebi m. xorenacisTvis ucnobia. Zneli warmosadgenia romelime periodSi farnavazianTa taxtze somexi arSakunianebi msxdariyvnen da amis Sesaxeb m. xorenacs araferi eTqva. es xom somexi mematianis koncefciis sruliad sawinaaRmdego moqmedeba iqneboda? isRa dagvrCenia qarTlis taxtze arSakuniani mefeebis arseboba, ZiriTadad, leontis iniciativas mivaweroT. es, sxvaTa Soris, leontis TxrobaSic igrZnoba, ramdenadac ama Tu im arSakuniani ufliswulis qarTlis taxtze moxvedra da maTi warmomavlobis istoria xelovnuri SenaTxzobis daRs atarebs. qristianobamdeli xanis qarTlis 23 mefidan I7 arSakuniani gamohyavs, Tumca maTi umravlesobis arSakunianoba damajereblobas savsebiT moklebulia. leontis Tanaxmad, pirveli arSakuniani qarTlis mefe somexi mefis vaJi arSaki yofila (leonti ar asaxelebs am somexi mefis saxels, magram Tu mis miniSnebebs gaviTvaliswinebT selevkianTa samefos dacemis Sesaxeb, maSin is artaSes

I-s unda gulisxmobdes), romelic qarTlis erisTavebs mouwveviaT farnajomis nacvlad, radganac am ukanasknels qarTvelTa rjulisTvis uRalatia da sparsulis danergvas Sesdgomia. arSakis Semdeg qarTlis mefe, leontis Tanaxmad, xdeba misi vaJi artagi, mis Semdeg ki am ukanasknelis vaJi bartomi. e. i. qarTlis taxti STamomavlobiT gadaecemoda mamidan Svilze arSakunian mefeebs. faqtobrivad, aq wydeba arSakunianTa zeoba qarTlis taxtze, ris Semdeg qarTlis taxts sparselTa daxmarebiT ikavebs farnajomis vaJi mirvan nebroTiani. am ukanasknelis vaJs taxts ecileba aderkis Ze qarTami, asulis wuli bartom mefisa, romelic Tavis mxriv egriseli qujis Ziswulia. aderkis mxolod deda hyavda arSakuniani da, miuxedavad amisa, gamefebis Semdeg leonti mas arSakunianad naTlavs rogorc bartomis Zes, Tumca, sinamdvileSi, bartoms Ze ar hyolia da amitom qujis STamomavali qarTami iSvila, romlis Svilic iyo aderki. ase rom, aderki bartomis Svilobilis Svilia da warmomavlobiT arSakuniani ver iqneboda. winaaRmdegoba leontis TxrobaSi sruliad aSkaraa. gaugebrobas iwvevs isic, rom aderkis yvela momdevno mefe qristian mirianamde, misi pirdapiri STamomavalia da isinic arSakunianTa rigSi arian CaTvlili. amas garda, nebroTiani qarTveli mefeebic somxeTis arSakunianebTan danaTesavebas cdiloben: aZleven maT TavianT qalebs colad an TviTon irTaven colad arSakunianTa qalebs96. erTi sityviT, qarTuli samefo dinastiis kavSiri somxeTis arSakunianebTan uZvelesi istoriis TiTqmis arc erT etapze ar wydeba. leontis daJinebuli cdebi qristianobamdeli xanis qarTveli mefeebis umetesi nawilis gaarSakianebisa sruliad aSkaraa. aseT mcdelobas, ra Tqma unda, raRaca motivi unda gaaCndes da ramdenime mniSvnelovani amocanis gadawyvetas unda emsaxurebodes. rodesac bizantiuri istoriografia axali (makedonelTa) dinastiis damaarsebels, ubralo warmomavlobis adrianopolel basil I-s (867-886) Soreul winaprebs somex arSakunianTa Soris uZebnida da Trdat I-is STamomavlad saxavda, cxadia, amiT bizantia Tavis pretenziebs acxadebda warmoqmnis procesSi myof bagratunTa somxeTze 97. leonti mrovelis droisTvisac

96 97

94 95

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 386. ix. Ê. Í. Þçáàøÿí, Àðìÿíñêèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ýïîõè Áàãðàòèäîâ è Âèçàíòèÿ IX-XI ââ., Ìîñêâà, 1988, ñ. 101-105.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 28, 33, da sxv. k. iuzbaSiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 100-105.

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somxeTis memkvidreobis dauflebis amocana savsebiT realurad idga bizantiisa da saqarTvelos winaSe, romlis realizacia safuZvlian samarTlebriv dasabuTebasac iTxovda. qarTvel da somex bagrationTa saerTo warmomavlobis gverdiT, Zvel qarTul da somxur dinastiaTa naTesaobis warmoCenas, erTi mxriv, xeli unda Seewyo politikuri azris qarTvelTa pretenziebis sasargeblod warmarTvisaTvis da, meore mxriv, somxuri sazogadoeba qarTuli saxelmwifosadmi ndobiT ganewyo. Tu ara aseTi mizani, umotivo da gaugebari iqneboda somexi arSakunianebisa da farnavazianebis dakavSirebis leonti mrovelis daJinebuli cdebi. leonti mroveli, Cans, iTvaliswinebda, rom farnavazianTa gaarSakunianebis misi diplomatiuri xerxi, SesaZloa gamaRizianebeli yofiliyo qarTuli sazogadoebis mniSvnelovani nawilisaTvis, romelTa ganviTarebuli Rirsebis grZnoba Znelad unda Segueboda Zveli qarTuli samefo dinastiis Tundac nawilis somxur warmomavlobas, ris gamoc, etyoba, Tavis am legendarul gadmocemas sagulisxmo ganmartebebs urTavs. arSakuniani ufliswulebis gamoCena qarTlis samefo taxtze, leontis Tanaxmad, araa dakavSirebuli mezoblebs Soris omebTan an somexTa mxridan Zaladobis raime gamovlenasTan. qarTlis taxtze maT qarTveli erisTavebi iwveven. qarTlis taxtze asvlis umTavresi da gadamwyveti piroba qarTlis `mk¢drTa da erisTavTa~ Tanxmobis garda, aris pretendentis farnavazianoba. leonti sagangebod SeniSnavs: `qarTvelTa didi saTnooba aqunda farnavazianTa mimarT; da ara unda sx¢sa naTesavisa mefoba, romelsamca ara Sesdgmida farnavazianoba~98. am principis Sesabamisad, leontis mier dasaxelebuli qarTlis taxtis pretedentebi, saidanac ar unda moewviaT isini erisTavebs ­ sparseTidan, somxeTidan, Tu TviT saqarTvelos mxareebidan, naTesaobis romelime xaziT (mamis an dedis) yovelTvis farnavazianebi arian. amitom qarTlis arSakuniani mefeebic warmoSobiT naxevrad mainc qarTvelebi arian, xolo TavianTi moRvaweobiTa da saqmianobiT sruli qarTvelebi, qarTuli politikuri interesebis, sarwmunoebisa da kulturis erTguli damcvelebi. magaliTad, leontis mixedviT, qarTlis erisTave98 99

bi somexi mefis Ze arSaks imitom iwveven, rom gandevnon sparsuli sjulis SemomRebeli farnajomi da daicvan mamapapuri sarwmunoeba99. aseve sxva arSakunianebic zrunaven qarTlis ZlierebisaTvis `dajda mefed arSak... da mefobda igi nebierad, da umata yovelTa simagreTa qarTlisaTa. da umetes moamtkicna zRudeni javaxeTs, qalaqsa wundas~100, e. i. somxeTTan sazRvrispira mxareebi. bartom arSakunianma ki `umata zRudeTa mcxeTisaTa da yovelTa simagreTa qarTlisaTa~101. aderki arSakuniani `dajda mcxeTas da mefobda keTilad~102. leontis gadmocemiT, qarTlis arSakuniani mefeebi wlebis manZilze Tavdauzogavad ebrZvian ervandian somex mefeebs qarTlis samxreTis sazRvrebis dasacavad da, sabolood aRweven kidec mizans. qarTveli mematianis TqmiT, `sim£niTa maTiTa ukumoixunes sazRvarni qarTlisani~103. ase rom, leontis mixedviT, qarTlis arSakunian mefeebs mxolod saxeli uCanT araqarTuli, Torem TavianTi arsiT Tavankara qarTvelebi arian. Tavisi istoriuli koncefciidan gamomdinare, leonti mroveli sakmaod did adgils uTmobs TxzulebaSi qarTvel-somexTa samxedro-politikuri TanamSromlobis faqtebis aRweras, romelTa mizani rogorc saSinao, ise sagareo-politikuri amocanebis gadawyveta iyo. swored am konteqstSia warmodgenili arSakuniani ufliswulebis aRzeveba farnavazianTa qarTlis taxtze. qarTlis meoTxe mefe farnajomi religiuri reformis gatarebas Seudga, ramac qveyanaSi politikuri krizisi gamoiwvia. farnajoms zurgs Zlieri sparseTi umagrebda, amitom mefiT ukmayofilo qarTlis erisTavebma daxmarebisaTvis somxeTis mefes mimarTes da qarTlis taxti mis Svils SesTavazes, romelsac colad `farnavazianTa naTesavi~ hyavda. im dros qarTuli sazogadoebis SexedulebiT ucxo Zalis gamoyeneba Sinapolitikur brZolaSi Cveulebrivi da misaRebi iyo, Tuki mizani amarTlebda aseT moqmedebas104. simar-

100 101

.

qarTlis cxovreba, I gv. 32. iqve, gv. 29.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 30 iqve. 102 iqve, gv. 35. 103 iqve, gv. 50. 104 n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, II, Tb., 1965, gv. 11-12.

56

57

Tle ki erisTavebis mxares iyo, romlebic mamaTa sjuls icavdnen da sparsuli wesebis danergvas ewinaaRmdegebodnen. qarTvel-somexTa samxedro kavSirma mowinaaRmdegeze gaimarjva, daicva erovnuli sarwmunoeba. amitom somexi ufliswulis gamefeba da somexTa Zalis gamoyeneba Sua saukuneebSi miRebuli TvalsazrisiT savsebiT gamarTlebuli iyo. amis Semdeg, leontis gadmocemiT, qarTlis taxtis garSemo iwyeba gaafTrebuli brZola pretendentebs Soris, romlebic aqtiurad iyeneben ucxo Zalas, xan sparselebisa da xan somxebis saxiT. mkvlevrebi yuradRebas aqceven im faqts, rom qarTlis taxtze somxeTis samefo saxlis warmomadgenelTa yofnisas es brZolebi ufro xSirad qarTvel-somexTa gaerTianebuli laSqris gamarjvebiT mTavrdeba, rasac somexTa upiratesobad aRiqvamen da leontis subieqturi ganwyobiT, anda somxuri tradiciis gavleniT xsnian105. leonti mrovelis istoriuli koncefcia amgvari axsnis sababs, vfiqrob, maincdamainc ar unda iZleodes. g. meliqiSvili, romlis azriT, leontis Txzulebas `armenofiluri daRi azis~, SeniSnavs, rom teqsti dawerilia keTilganwyobiT rogorc somexTa, ise qarTvelTa mimarT 106 da es savsebiT gasagebia. leontis koncefciis mizani kavkasiis xalxTa, gansakuTrebiT ki qarTvelTa da somexTa, TanamSromlobisa da erTianobis propagandaa. amitomac somex-qarTvelTa gaerTianebul Zalebs ufro xSirad amarjvebinebs, raTa am kavSiris upiratesoba da mniSvneloba cxadyos qarTvelTa nebismieri sxva SesaZlebeli aliansis winaSe. aqedan gamomdinare, iseTi faqtebis gadmocemisas, sadac somexTa roli SedarebiT gamokveTilad moCans, Cveni avtori cdilobs Seqmnili STabeWdilebis Semamsubuqebel garemoebebiT gawonasworebas. magaliTad, qarTlis taxtze arSakuniani mefeebis aRzevebis kanonzomiereba gamarTlebulia maTi farnavazianobiT dedis an mamis xaziT, xolo qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris warmoqmnili saomari moqmedebebis aRwerisas orive mxares rig-rigobiT, daaxloebiT, Tanabar warmatebas miawers, riTac dapirispirebuli mxareebi sabolood dazavebamde da `status qvos~ aRdgenamde mihyavs. am epizodebis

105

leontiseuli moTxroba imiTacaa sayuradRebo, rom faqtebisadmi damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT, is mkveTrad upirispirdeba m. xorenacis analogiur moTxrobas da mTlianad uaryofs Zveli droidanve kavkasiaSi somexTa ucilobeli politikuri batonobis xorenaciseul koncefcias. qarTlze somxeTis politikuri upiratesobis drois monakveTs leonti konkretuli qronologiuri CarCoebiT sazRvravs, qarTlSi ormefobis dasawyis periods amTxvevs da qarTvel-somexTa urTierTobis istoriaSi mas mokle da SedarebiT umniSvnelo epizodad miiCnevs. igi wers: `aderkisiTgan vidre amaT mefobamde (e. i. aderkis SviliSvilebis, farsman da kaosis mefobamde) iyvnes morCilebasa Sina somexTa mefisasa. da umetes armazelni mefeni Seeweodes somexTa yovelTa mterTa maTTa zeda. maSin mefe iqmna somxiTs didi igi mefe iarvand. da daiviwya man keTili qarTvelTa, emZlavra farsmans armazelsa, da mouRo sazRvarsa qarTlisasa qalaqi wunda da artani mtkuramde~ 107 . moyvanili teqstidan gamomdinare, qarTlis somxeTisadmi daqvemdebarebis periods leonti, TiTqos, qarTlis mefeTa ori Taobis mmarTvelobis droiT sazRvravs (aderkisiTgan farsman da kaosis mefobamde), magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT leontis cnobebs aderkis Svilebis, bartamisa da qarTamis mefobis mSvidobiani da uSfoTveli xasiaTis Sesaxeb `da mefobda ese bartom da qarTam mS¢dobiT da siyuarulsa zeda erTmaneTisasa~108, Cans rom somexTadmi morCilebis xsenebuli periodi qarTlis mefeTa meore wyvilis, farsman da kaosis mmarTvelobis xanaze, aderkis SviliSvilebze modis, amasTan somexTa morCili mTlianad qarTli ki ara, aramed mtkvris marjvena mxare, farsmanis sammarTvelo nawili yofila: `umetes armazelni mefeni Seeweodnen somexTa yovelTa mterTa maTTa zeda~-o. TavisTavad TargamosianTa urTierTSewevna saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg uCveulos arafers Seicavda, magram amjerad es `Sewevna~ calmxrivi da amasTan iZulebiTic iyo, radganac `mefe iarvand... emZlavra farsman armazelsa, da mouRo sazRvarsa qarTlisasa qalaqi wunda da artani mtkvramde~. aseTi damokidebuleba qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris ki leontis koncefciisaTvis miuRebeli iyo, ris gamoc somexTa mefis saqciels

107 108

saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 63-65; a. abdalaZe, `qarTlis cxovreba~ da saqarTvelo-somxeTis urTierToba, Tb., 1982, gv. 62-63 da sxva. 106 macne, # 3, 1967, gv. 56.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 44. iqve, gv. 44.

58

59

saZraxisad miiCnevs da saqarTvelo-somxeTis tradiciuli urTierTobis darRvevaSi iarvands adanaSaulebs: `daiviwya man keTili qarTvelTao~. erTob sagulisxmoa, rom somexTa mefis mier javaxeTis nawilis mitacebas m.xorenaci ar aRniSnavs, rac, TiTqos, gansazRvrul eWvs unda aRZravdes moyvanili faqtis namdvilobaze. magram sasazRvro konfliqtze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, rac TavisTavad qarTlis damoukidebeli saxelmwifos arsebobis aRiarebasac niSnavda, romlis suverenuli uflebebi somexTa mefem uxeSad daarRvia, ra Tqma unda, m. xorenacis politikur angariSebSi ver Sevidoda. m. xorenacis TvalsazrisisTvis qarTlis arseboba mxolod somxeTis SemadgenlobaSia dasaSvebi, rasac leontis mier daxatuli somxeTTan sasazRvro konfliqtis suraTi mkveTrad ewinaaRmdegeboda. amitomac aris, rom leonti mrovelisa da m. xorenacis mier am periodis saqarTvelosa da somxeTis urTierTobis istoriis faqtebis gadmocema erTmaneTisagan mkafiod gansxvavdeba SinaarsiTac da formiTac, romelTac urTierTisagan gansxvavebuli, erTmaneTisagan sapirispiro politikuri koncefciis daRi azis. somexTa mefis iarvandis Zaladoba, gasagebia, qarTlis xelisufalTa sapasuxo moqmedebas iTxovda da leonti mrovelic dawvrilebiT gadmogvcems mezobelTa Soris im dros ganviTarebul sabrZolo peripetiebs. qarTlis mefeebis, farsmanisa da kaosisgan gansxvavebiT, maTi memkvidreebi, armazel da azork leontis daxasiaTebiT mamacni da marjveni iyvnen da Seecadnen kidec somexTa mier mitacebuli qarTlis teritoriebis dabrunebas. rogorc Cveni mematiane gvauwyebs `ganizraxes Zieba sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa~109. maT miimxres CrdiloeTis xalxebi: osebi, paWanikebi, jiqebi, lekebi, durZukebi, didoelebi da vidre somxebi amis Sesaxeb gaigebdnen, farulad Sekribes uricxvi laSqari, moulodnelad SeiWrnen somxeTSi da mTeli rigi olqebi ­ Sirakuani, bagrevandi basianamde da naxWevanamde moaoxres, uamravi tyve da didi nadavli, qoneba-ganZi Caigdes xelSi da ukan gabrundnen. somexTa sardali smbat bivritiani daedevna da brZola gaumarTa qarTvelebsa da osebs. amjerad ukve somxebma moaoxres qarTli. magram qarTlis mefeni azork da armazel, leontis TqmiT, `si109

ficxliTa gulisa maTisaTa ara SeuSindes, ara dascxres kirTebisagan somexTa zeda~. qarTvelebTan damegobrebuli osebic erToblivad utevdnen da aviwroebdnen somxebs, ris gamoc somxebisa da qarTvel-ovsTa laSqars Soris brZola orive mxaris cvalebadi upiratesobiT karga xans gagrZelda, bolos ki, roca qarTvelebma somexTa laSqaris winamZRoli da mefis Ze zareni daamarcxes javaxeTSi, daatyveves celis tbasTan da darialis cixeSi gamoketes, daiwyo molaparakeba dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris. qarTvelma mefeebma gaanTavisufles somexi ufliswuli da aRuTqves, saWiro SemTxvevaSi, samxedro daxmareba `xolo amisT¢s somexTa ukmosces sazRvari qarTlisa, qalaqi wunda da cixe demoTisa, javaxeTi da artani. da mieriTgan iqmnes moyuare somexni da qarTvelni da ovsni. da samnive erTobiT brZodes mterTa~110 ­ sazeimod acxadebs leonti mroveli, riTac kvlav da kvlav yuradRebas amaxvilebs misi koncefciis umTavres Tezisze: kavkasiis xalxTa urTierTobaSi ZiriTadia TanamSromloba da moyvroba maT Soris. qarTvel-somexTa omebis istoriis leontis msgavsad gadmocema, gasagebia, rom m. xorenacs xels ar miscemda. misi koncefcia aseT moTxrobas ubralod, ver iguebda. amitom is xsenebul movlenebze saubrisas mxolod zogadi SeniSvnebiT kmayofildeba, misTvis uxerxul faqtebs ki saxeSecvlili SinaarsiT warmogvidgens, ase magaliTad, mis TxzulebaSi qarTvel-somexTa omebi alan-somexTa omebadaa monaTluli, xolo qarTvelebi, isic mxolod erTi nawili, am omis uneblie da pasiur monawiledaa gamoyvanili. m. xorenaci wers: `im xanebSi alanebi SeuTanxmdnen yvela mTielebs, miimxres qarTvelTa naxevari qveyanac da didZali laSqriT moefinnen Cvens miw-awyals. artaSesma Sehyara Tavisi mravalricxovani jari da atyda omi or mamac mSvildosan naTesavs Soris~111. rogorc vxedavT, m. xorenaci ar asaxelebs omis mizezebs, somexi mefis mier javaxeTis nawilis mitacebas, laSqrobis moTaved alanebi gamohyavs da ara qarTvelebi da maTi mefeebi azorki da armazeli, mkiTxvels uqmnis STabeWdilebas, rom qarTvelebi sulac ar apirebdnen somxebTan SebrZolebas da mxolod misi erTi naxevari miimxres alanebma,

110

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 45.

111

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 45-49. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 141.

60

61

meore naxevari ki, igulisxmeba, somexi mefis erTgulebas SerCa. erTi sityviT, qarTli somxeTis daqvemdebarebul qveynadaa nagulisxmevi, amitomac, arc qarTvelTa mier kavkasielebTan erTad Sirakuanisa da bagrevandis dalaSqvraze da arc qarTlis dasapyrobad somexTa sardlis smbat bivritianis mravalgzis laSqrobaze ambobs raimes. somxeTTan dapirispirebul Rirseul Zalad, mxolod alanebs miiCnevs: `atyda omi or mamac mSvildosan naTesavs Soris~. misi damokidebuleba qarTlisa da qarTvelebis mimarT aSkarad qedmaRluria, rac kidev ufro mkafiod iCens Tavs im epizodSi, sadac saubaria qarTvelTa mier somexi ufliswulis zarehis datyvevebaze. m. xorenaci wers: `zarehi iyo pativmoyvare kaci, mxecebze nadirobaSi marjve, xolo omSi mxdali, uvargisi. igi gamocdili hyavda qarTvelTa mefes, vinme qarZams, /romelmac/ aujanya qveyana, Seipyro da kavkasiis mTaze cixeSi Casva zarehi. (qarZams) SeebrZolnen artavazdi da tirani smbatis TanxlebiT da gamoiyvanes Zma talaxidan~ 112. teqstis am nawilSi yuradRebas iqcevs qarTveli mefis kninobiTad moxsenieba ­ `vinme qarZami~, rac uSualod gamoxatavs avtoris damokidebulebas qarTlis uZvelesi istoriis mimarT. miiCnevs ra qarTvel mefeebs bevrad ufro naklebi mniSvnelobis xelisuflebad, zarehis datyvevebas maT warmatebad ki ar miiCnevs, aramed somexi ufliswulis uvargisi TvisebebiT xsnis da qarTveli mefeebis brZolas somexTa Zaladobis winaaRmdeg mxolod antisomxur ajanyebad ganixilavs. aseTi Tvalsazrisis Sesabamisia zarehis ganTavisuflebis garemoebaTa xorenaciseuli aRwerac. misi mtkicebiT, somexi ufliswulis ganTavisufleba dapirispirebuli mxareebis molaparakebis Sedegad da orivesTvis misaReb safuZvelze ki ar momxdara, aramed zarehis Zmebsa da mTavarsardal smbat bivritians samxedro Zalis gamoyenebiT auZulebiaT qarZami daeTmo maTTvis tyve. am mxriv niSandoblivia isic, rom qarTvelTa tyveobaSi yofnas somexi ufliswulisTvis samarcxvino movlenad miiCnevs, ris gamoc mis ganTavisuflebas talaxidan amoyvanas uTanabrebs. leonti mroveli Tavisi koncefciis Sesabamisad mkiTxvelis yuradRebas umTavresad mainc saerTo mtrebis (ZiriTadad sparselebis) winaaRmdeg qarTvel-somexTa erToblivi brZolis epi112

zodebze amaxvilebs. amasTan damaxasiaTebelia, rom, Tu miTiur xanaSi erToblivi brZolis winamZRoli somexTa eTnarqi iyo, mezobel saxelmwifoTa TanamSromlobis periodSi ukve aqtiurni qarTvelebi Canan. aseTi suraTi ixateba, magaliTad, leontis TxzulebaSi farsman qvelis moRvaweobis aRwerisas. Txroba gaSlilia mirdat da farsman mefeebis dapirispirebis fonze. `mirdats Seeweodes sparsni, xolo farsmans somexni~113. mirdati borot Zalas ganasaxierebs: `ese mirdat iyo kaci urvili da mosisxle~114, farsmani ki ­ keTils. mis dasaxasiaTeblad leonti ar iSurebs mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobis aranair saSualebas: `xolo farsman queli iyo kaci keTili da uxuad momniWebeli da Semndobeli, asakiTa Suenieri, taniTa didi da Zlieri, m£ne m£edari da SemmarTebeli brZolisa, uSiSi viTarca u£orco da yoveliTave umjobesi yovelTa mefeTa qarTlisaTa, romelni gardacvalebul iyvnes uwinares missa~115. leontis mtkicebiT, farsman qveli TviT mirdatis mxaris qarTvelebsac uyvardaT da sZuldaT mirdati `mesisxleobisa da medgrobisaTvis~, ris gamoc maTgan umravlesi gadaudga patrons. farsman qveli qarTlisa da somxeTis mxedrobiT ebrZvis sparselebs, magram kritikul situaciebSi mainc farsmanisa da misi spaspetis _ farnavazis moxerxeba da gmiroba wyvets brZolis beds. leontis TqmiT, mraval did gamarjvebaTa Sedegad `ganiTqua saxeli farsman quelisa da spaspetisa misisa farnavazisi. da winamZRuar eqmna igi spaTa qarTlisa da somxiTisaTa. da iwyo brZolad sparsTa da Seslvad sparseTs. da verRaraodes vin winaaRudga farsman quelsa~116. am teqstSi leonti mroveli erTgvari SeparviT uaRresad mniSvnelovan cnobas gvawvdis. qarTlTan erTad somxeTis jaris winamZRvroba (e. i. sardloba) ar iyo qarTvel-somexTa urTierTobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Cveulebrivi movlena da Tavisi SinaarsiT mkafiod gansxvavdeboda samxedro daxmarebis im pirobebisagan, romlis dasaxasiaTeblad mematianeebi iyenebdnen gamoTqmas `moirTo Zali somxiTiT~, spaseTiT Tu sxva mxridan. somxeTis

113 114

movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 144-145.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 51. iqve. 115 iqve. 116 iqve, gv. 52-53.

62

63

jaris sardloba qarTlis mefes am qveynis daqvemdebarebis Semdeg SeeZlo mxolod, miT umetes, rom leontis dasturiT es SesaZlebeli gamxdara farsman qvelis gaxmaurebuli gamarjvebebisa da misi gavlenis gazrdis Sedegad. niSandoblivia, rom farsman I-sa (I s. 30-60-iani ww.) da farsman II-is (II s. 30-50-iani ww.) brZolas somxeTisaTvis parTiis winaaRmdeg TanxmobiT adasturebs ramauli wyaroebi (tacitusi da sxvebi)117, ris gamoc leontis es cnoba damajereblobas imsaxurebs. ramdenadac leonti miznad isaxavda orive xalxisTvis qarTvel-somexTa erTianobis gansakuTrebuli sasikeTo mniSvneloba eCvenebina, albaT, amitomac gverds uvlis farsman qvelis mier somxeTis daqvemdebarebisa Tu Tavisi politikuri gavlenis qveS moqcevis istoriis detalebs da yuradReba gadaaqvs aseTi kavSiris warmatebul Sedegebze Zlieri saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. leontis mtkicebiT, farsman qvelis sardlobiT qarTvel-somexTa laSqars TviT didi da Zlieri sparseTic ki veRar igeriebda da mxolod muxanaTi mzareulis mosyidviT SeZles farsmanis mowamvla, ris Semdeg sparselebi bartamisa da misi momxreebis daxmarebiT ipyroben qarTls. somexTa mefe berZnebs ukavSirdeba, romelTac dasavleT saqarTveloc uerTdeba. brZola spars-qarTvelebisa (bartamis momxreTa) da somex-berZen-qarTvelTa laSqars Soris sabolood am ukanasknelTa gamarjvebiT Tavdeba118, rac aseve qarTvel-somexTa kavSiris upiratesobas cxadyofs. amis sapirispiro koncefciis Semoqmedi m. xorenaci, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, dumiliT gverds uvlis somxeTis istoriaSi farsman qvelis rolsa da mniSvnelobaze saubars, miuxedavad imisa, rom berZnul-laTinur wyaroebSi kargad gaTviTcnobierebul mwerals, safiqrebelia, unda scodnoda is mdidari masala, romelic laTin avtorebs gaaCndaT kavkasiaSi saxelganTqmuli qarTveli mefis Sesaxeb. m. xorenaci farsmans mxolod erTxel axsenebs, isic somexi mefis erT-erTi mxedarTufrosis rangSi, romelic SezRuduli warmatebiT monawileobs somexTa saSinao dinastiur brZolaSi taxtis erT-erTi pretendentis mxares119. m. xorenacisTvis qarTvel-somexTa Tanabaru117 118

flebiani kavSiri miuRebelia. misgan gansxvavebiT, leonti ganagrZobs gareSe ZalasTan qarTvel-somexTa erToblivi brZolis epizodebis gadmocemas. farsman qvelis Svilis SviliSvili amazaspic Zlieri da `msgavsi farsman quelisa~ iyo 120 . igi warmatebiT ebrZoda moZalade osebs, magram gadamwyveti da saboloo upiratesoba maSin moipova, roca, mematianis sityviT, `moirTo Zali somxiTiT~. leontis Tanaxmad, amis Semdeg amazaspi galaRda, gaampartavnda, didad Seaviwrova warCinebulni, ris gamoc qarTlis erma is moiZula. amasTan, `mter eqmna igi somexTa, da Seiyuarna sparsni~121. amis pasuxad dasavleT saqarTvelos xuTi erisTavi ganudga amazasps da molaparakeba gamarTes somexTa mefesTan. gaimarTa brZola da amjeradac sparselebi damarcxdnen qarTvel-somexTa gaerTianebuli laSqris winaSe, romelsac berZnebic da osebic uWerdnen mxars. sparselebis winaaRmdeg qarTvel-somexTa samxedro TanamSromlobis erTob STambeWdavi suraTi aqvs daxatuli leontis ukanaskneli farnavaziani mefis asfagurisa da somexTa mefe kosaros (xosros) urTierTobis epizodebis gadmocemisas. igi wers: `kosaro somexTa mefeman uwyo brZolad qasre mefesa sparsTasa, da Seeweoda mas asfagur, mefe qarTvelTa, da aman asfagur ganuxunis karni kavkasianTani da gamoiyvannis ovsni, lekni, da xazarni, da mividis kosaro mefisa Tana somexTasa brZolad sparsTa. ... d a pirvelsave Seslvasa sparseTad ewyo qasre, mefe sparsTa, da aotes igi da mosres spa misi. da mieriTgan verRara winaaRudga amaT mefe igi sparsTa, da ganamravles Seslva sparseTad da tyuevna sparseTisa.... viTar iotes somexTa da qarTvelTa da Crdilosa naTesavTa mefe sparsTa, da ganamravles Seslva sparseTs da o£reba sparseTisa; da verRara odes winaaRudga mefe sparsTa~122. somxeTis istoriis am mniSvnelovan movlenaze saubari aqvs m. xorenacsac, magram mis TxrobaSi qarTvel-somexTa samxedro TanamSromlobis faqtebma asaxva ar pova. igi ZiriTadad saubrobs iranSi parTuli samefo dinastiis sasanuriT Secvlaze da am movleniT gamowveul reaqciaze arSakidul somxeTSi. mxolod erT

120 121

ix. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 511-568; 643-776. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 53-54. 119 movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. I37-I38.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 55. iqve, gv. 57. 122 iqve, gv. 59-60.

64

65

winadadebaSi gakeTebuli miniSnebiT SeiZleba mixvedra, rom igi im brZolebsac gulisxmobs, romelTa Sesaxeb vrclad mogviTxrobs leonti mroveli. m. xorenacis TqmiT, somxeTis mefe xosrovma, rogorc ki Seityo iranSi dawyebuli areulobis Sesaxeb, maSinve gaemarTa parTiis ukanaskneli mefis, misi naTesavis artabanis gadasarCenad. igi romaelTa daxmarebiT fiqrobda parTuli samefo dinastiis aRdgenas, magram ar gaumarTlda. ardaSir sasaniani aqtiurad amoqmedda, miimxro iranis yvelaze gavleniani gvarebi, xolo xosrovis naTesavi karen fahlavis gvari gaanadgura. politikuri garTulebebis gamo veRarc romaelebi daexmarnen somexTa mefes. miuxedavad amisao ­ wers m. xorenaci ­ man (e. i. xosrovma) "Tavis jariTa da keTilmosurneebis, agreTve, Crdiloel tomTa SewevniT sZlia artaSirs, aota igi indoelTa qveynamde"123. somexTa gamarjvebiT dasrulebuli brZolebis detalurad da mxatvruli xerxebiT aRweris moyvaruli somexi mematiane, amjerad, rogorc vxedavT, metad sityvaZunwia. aSkaraa, somexTa mTavari damxmaris rolSi qarTvelTa warmoCena mis koncefcias ewinaaRmdegeboda, ris gamoc iZulebuli gaxda am SemTxvevisTvis bundovani da gaurkveveli Sinaarsis epiTeti `keTilmosurneebi~ gamoeyenebina qarTvelTa magier. sasanianTa winaaRmdeg somexTa brZolis am epizodSi qarTvelTa monawileobis cnobam Zvel somxur saistorio mwerlobaSi mainc SeaRwia, Tumca am istoriografiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli tendenciurobiT. grigol parTelis cxovrebis mixedviT, somexTa mefem (xosrom) `Sekriba mxedroba Zlieri alvanTagan da qarTvelTa da sxvaTa naTesavTagan~ da am ZalebiT sasanianTa saxelmwifos teritoriis rbeva-TareSi, Turme~ mTeli aTi weli gagrZelebula124. moyvanil teqstSi qarTvelebis monawileoba somexTa brZolaSi isea warmodgenili, TiTqos, qarTli III s. somexTa mefis xelqveiTi yofiliyos, rac simarTlisgan Zalze Sorsaa. am droisaTvis iranSi sasanianTa gabatonebamde qarTlis samefo imdenad Zlier politikur erTeuls warmoadgenda, rom araTu romsa da parTias ar emorCileboda, aramed zogjer maT

123 124

winaaRmdeg mtrul aqciebsac ar erideboda125. am droisaTvis ki qarTli isev damoukidebeli da Zlieri saxelmwifo iyo126, rasac leontis mier moxmobili cnobebic adasturebs. am SemTxvevaSic leonti mroveli asworebs movses xorenacisa da, saerTod, Zveli somxuri istoriografiis monacemebs qarTvel-somexTa urTierTobis istoriaze da Rirseulad warmoaCens am urTierTobaSi qarTvelTa rolsa da istoriul mniSvnelobas. qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebis mowmobiT, qarTvel-somexTa laSqris aTwliani erToblivi TareSiT imdenad Sewuxebula iranis Sahi, rom iZulebuli gamxdara migzavnili mkvlelis, arSakunianTa monaTesave surenianTa gvaris warmomadgenlis anakis xeliT moecilebina somxeTis mefe, ris Semdeg Sahma am qveynis dapyrobac SeZlo127. somxeTis dapyrobiT sparselTa jars gza gaexsna qarTlSi SesaWreladac. Seqmnili kritikuli situaciis aRwerisas leonti mroveli kidev erTxel aviTarebs msjelobas Tavisi koncefciis erT-erTi umTavresi debulebis ­ saqarTvelosa da somxeTis TanamSromlobisa da urTierTkavSiris istoriuli aucileblobisa da kanonzomierebaTa sasargeblod. leontis Tanaxmad, somxeTis dapyrobis Semdeg sparsTa mefe qarTlSi Semovida. qarTlis mefe asfaguri oseTisken gaemarTa, raTa damxmare laSqari gamoeyvana cixe-qalaqTa gasamagreblad. magram oseTSi Sesuls sikvdili ewia. mdgomareoba imiTac damZimda, rom asfagurs vaJi ar hyavda da amis gamo farnavazianTa mefoba qarTlSi kidec dasrulda. Seqmnili krizisis pirobebSi politikuri gadawyvetilebis misaRebad qarTlis erisTavebi mcxeTaSi ikribebian maeJan spaspetis winaSe. situaciis analizisas kvlav Tavs iCens qarTlisa da somxeTis urTierTobis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba orive qveynisTvis. Zalebis gaerTianeba maT yovelTvis aZlevda saerTo mtrebTan aqtiuri moqmedebis saSualebas (rac araerTgzis cxadyo qarTvelma mematianem wina TavebSi moyvanili magaliTebiT), sul bolosac asfaguris SewevniT somxeTma did warmatebas

movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 159. cxovreba wm. grigol parTelisa, leon meliqseT-begis gamoc. tfilisi, 1920, gv. 7; Zveli metafrasuli krebuli, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 470-471.

125 126

saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv. 5I0-537. iqve, gv. 568. 127 movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 158-162; qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 59-62.

66

67

miaRwia sasanianebTan brZolaSi. maTi kavSiris gawyveta ki ara marto warumateblobis mizezi xdeba, aramed Tavdacvisunarianobis moSlasac iwvevs, rasac maeJan spaspetis piriT leonti mroveli ase gamoxatavs: `rameTu moikla sparsTagan didi igi mefe somxiTisa, waRebul ars somxiTi, romelsa ekida samefo Cueni, da aRuRia piri misi sparsTa mefesa STanTqmad yovlisa queyanisa. aravin ars Cuen Tana winaaRmdgomi misi~128. qarTlisa da somxeTis politikuri urTierTobis xasiaTis gamomxatveli leontis mier aq gamoyenebuli zogadi termini `ekida~ araerTgvarovnadaa aRqmuli samecniero literaturaSi. mkvlevarTa mniSvnelovani nawili, gansakuTrebiT is, romelic leontis koncefcias armenofilurad miiCnevs, mas qristianobamdeli saqarTvelos somxeTze daqvemdebarebis dasadastureblad moyvanil terminad aRiqvams129, rasac piradad leonti mrovelis subieqturi ganwyobilebiT xsnis. daqvemdebarebis gadmosacemad leonti ZiriTadad or termins iyenebs ­ `morCilebasa~ da `monebas~. magaliTad, `ese yovelni iyvnes morCil haosisa~; `da ese rvanive erTobiT hmonebdes nebroTs gmirsa~; `ese oTxive iyvnes morCil misa~; `xazarTa iCines mefe, da daemorCilnes yovelni xazarni~; `monebda igi azo bizantioss~; `somexni da qarTvelni iyvnen morCil aJRalanisi sparsTa mefisa" da sxva. 130 amave `morCileba" terminiT gadmogvcems, rogorc iTqva, somxeTze qarTlis daqvemdebarebis erT gansazRvrul mcire periodsac131. iyenebs, agreTve, termin `msaxurebas", magram, etyoba, ufro msubuqi, vasaluri damokidebulebis gamosaxatavad. magaliTad, `msaxurebda igi (farnavazi) antioqoss~132. termini `ekida~ amaTgan sruliad gancalkevebuladaa warmodgenili da amitom mas gansxvavebuli Sinaarsic unda hqondes. sxva adgilas sityva `mokidebas~ iyenebs SeerTeba, Semovlebis azriT: `mohkida kirizRude cixesa armazisasa~ xolo `mokidebuls~ ­ mosazRvris

128 129

azriT133. sulxan saba sityva `mokidebas~ ganmartavs, rogorc `moyuareT mobmas~. amaze dayrdnobiT, CvenTvis saintereso winadadebas `qarTlis cxovrebis~ leqsikonis Semdgeneli sityva `ekidas~ qveS, axal qarTulze ase xsnis: `sparselebma daipyres somxeTi, romelTanac Cveni samefo, qarTli, megobrul urTierTobaSi iyoo~ 134 . xsenebul terminSi daqvemdebarebis moments gamoricxavda mari brosec, romelic sityva `ekida~-s mWidro kavSirad gaiazrebda. amasTan dakavSirebiT n. berZeniSvili SeniSnavda, rom am terminSi brose iuridiul Sinaarss ar xedavdao135. xsenebuli terminis (`ekida~) politikuri daqvemdebarebis SinaarsiT gadmocemisas leontis kritikosebi ZiriTadad emyarebian n. berZeniSvilis avtoritets, romelmac I944 w. waikiTxa da I949 w. dabeWda moxseneba `mokidebulis~ institutis Sesaxeb, sadac man leontis mier gamoyenebuli am terminis Sinaarsze Tavisi azric gamoTqva. igi werda: Cven vfiqrobT, rom `ekida~ leontis ar esmis materialuri mezoblobis anu mosazRvreobis azriT. maSin maeJan spaspeti am zmnas namyo droSi ar ixmarda: maeJani aRniSnavs im urTierTobas, romelic iyo (`ekida~), da exla ki aRar aris, somxeTis mosazRvred ki saqarTvelo iyo da aseTadve darCa is mas Semdegac rac, somxeTi qasrem daipyro... miT ufro TanasworTa kavSiris azriT ar esmis leontis `ekida~: amis winaaRmdegia misi istoriuli koncefcia (SeiZleba swored am koncefciis gamoxatulebac iyo maeJan spaspetis pirSi somexTa mefis wodebuleba `didi mefe~). darCa erTaderTi Sinaarsi, politikuri damokidebuleba da swored am SinaarsiT, vfiqrobT Cven, xmarobs aq am sityvas leonti mroveli136. ra Tqma unda, mezoblis da mosazRvreobis azriT termin `ekida~-s leonti ar da verc gamoiyenebda, radganac saqarTvelosa da somxeTis mezobloba imdenad cnobili faqti iyo, rom is damatebiT ganmartebas, ubralod, aRar saWiroebda. isic bunebrivia, rom xsenebuli terminis Sinaarsis

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 62-63. m. lorTqifaniZe, ra aris "qarTlis cxovreba", Tbilisi, I989, gv. 79; a. abdalaZe, "qarTlis cxovreba" da saqarTvelo-somxeTis urTierToba, gv. 63-64. 130 qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 6,9, II, 20, 43. 131 iqve, gv. 44. 132 iqve, gv. 25.

133 134

qarTlis cxovrebis simfonia leqsikoni, I, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 127. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 439. 135 n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, III, gv. 127, Sen. 38. 136 iqve, gv. 126-7.

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gaxsnas n. berZeniSvili mematianis istoriul koncefcias udebs safuZvlad. Tuki miviCnevT, rom leontis koncefcia Zvel kavkasiaSi somexTa upiratesobas aRiarebda da, Cans, XX s. 40-ian wlebSi n. berZeniSvili ase fiqrobda, maSin savsebiT logikuria misive daskvna, rom leontis TanasworTa kavSiris azriT ar esmoda `ekida~. leontis teqstze Semdgomi xangrZlivi dakvirvebisas n. berZeniSvilma, vfiqrob, mniSvnelovanwilad Seicvala Tavisi adrindeli damokidebuleba qarTveli mematianis istoriuli koncefciis mimarT. 50-60-iani wlebis CanawerebSi, dasrulebul Tu dausrulebul naSromebSi mecnieri araerTgzis aRniSnavda, rom leonti mroveli mTeli Sromis sigrZeze ebrZvis da arsebiTad asworebs da upirispirdeba xorenels da somexTagan damokidebulebas gaurbis137. aseTi xedvisas, cxadia, sxva axsnas hpovebda sadavo terminic. misTvis, albaT, ufro Sesaferisi iqneboda sulxan sabas ganmarteba, romlis Tanaxmad, sityva `ekidas~ identuri `mokideba~ `moyvareT mobmas~ niSnavda. didi qarTveli leqsikografis am ganmartebis komentirebisas n. berZeniSvili SeniSnavda, rom saba CvenTvis saintereso xaziT `mokidebaSi~ mxolod `moyvared mobmas" aRniSnavda, magram sabas rom `mokidebulis~ socialur-politikuri Sinaarsi kargad esmoda, es Cans mobma sityvis ganmartebidan: `mobma zurgad moyuare anu didi vinme moikidos~. aq ukve saba orbeliani moyvrobis garda sxvagvar mokidebasac gulisxmobs da aseTi aqtis mizansac asaxelebs: esaa `zurgi~. feodaluri institutis `mokidebulis~ kvlevisas n. berZeniSvili ganixilavs mokidebis mraval sxvadasxva variants da ganmazogadebel daskvnaSi CamoTvlis maTTvis damaxasiaTebel ZiriTad niSnebs. igi wers:... mokidebuli im TaviTve farTo moculobis sazogadoebriv gaerTianebas warmoadgenda. mokidebulis damaxasiaTebeli iyo misi wevrebis Tavisufleba da interesTa Tanxmoba.... qarTuli feodalizmis yvela safexurze mokidebulis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi (interesTa Tanxmobis niadagze met-naklebad Tavisufali gaerTianeba) ucvleli darCa138. Tavisufleba da interesTa Tanxmoba ki mxolod Tanabaruflebian pirTA Sorisaa SesaZlebeli, ris gamoc, vfiqrob, leontis TanasworTa kavSiris azriT unda esmodes termini `ekida~.

137 138

leontis drosTan SedarebiT axlo periodSi (XII s.), roca n. berZeniSvilis dakvirvebiT termini `mokiduli~ ukve didi xnis win Camoyalibebuli da savsebiT garkveuli Sinaarsis Semcveli cneba iyo, konkretuli faqtebis analizi mkvlevars ar aZlevs saSualebas terminis SinaarsSi maincdamainc daqvemdebarebulis niSnebi amoicnos. n. berZeniSvilis SeniSvniT, arc aqedan, e. i. 1190 w. ambebidan Cans, rom `mokidebuli~ qveSe-dawesebuls, xelqveiTs niSnavda139. XII s. termini `ekida~, rom daqvemdebarebis SinaarsiT ar esmodaT, amis dasturia `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Zveli somxuri Targmanis Sesabamisi teqstic, sadac qarTlis somxeTTan mimarTebis gamomxatveli nawili saerTod gamotovebulia140. somexi mTargmneli, romelic ilia abulaZis dakvirvebiT, cdilobs Tavisi qveyana da Tanamemamuleebi yvelgan gandidebiT warmoadginos, risTvisac TviTnebur redaqciul cvlilebebsac ar erideba, cxadia, uTargmnels ar datovebda somexTa upiratesobis gamomxatveli Sinaarsis mqone qarTul sityvas da mis mniSvnelobas, albaT, kidev ufro metad gamokveTda da gaaZlierebda. da, radgan ase ver iqceva, Cans, leontis am gamonaTqvamSi somexi mTargmneli misTvis sasargeblos da gansakuTrebuls verafers xedavda. SesaZloa, somxuri istoriografiis klasikosebis msgavsad, Cveni mTargmnelisTvisac miuRebeli iyo qarTlisa da somxeTis politikuri urTierTobis TanabarTa kavSirad warmodgena, rac leontis teqstis am nawilSi ikiTxeboda. amitom adgilis Targmnas, isev, misi gamotoveba arCia. msgavsi manipulaciebi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ somexi mTargmnelisTvis, rogorc ilia abulaZec aRniSnavs, ucxo ar iyo. maeJan spaspetis sityvis mTeli winamoTxrobac somxeTze qarTlis politikuri damokidebulebis azris gamomricxvelia. am mxriv, Txrobis arc erTi pasaJi eWvis safuZvels ar iZleva. ufo metic, sparseTis winaaRmdeg erTobliv brZolaSi qarTveli mefis rols leonti ufro mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs141, rac savsebiT realisturi Sefasebaa. romaelTa legionebis Semdeg sparseTis

139 140

.

n. berZeniSvili, sis, VIII, gv. 298, 339-381, 555-557 da sxva. n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, II, gv. 134.

n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, II, gv. 119 qarTlis cxovrebis Zveli somxuri Targmani, il. abulaZis gamoc. Tbilisi, 1953, gv. 66. 141 ase aRiqvams qarTveli mematianis Txrobas n. lomouric. ix. misi `narkvevebi qarTlis (iberiis) samefos istoriidan~, Tbilisi, 1975, gv. 19.

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sapirispiro ufro srulfasovan Zalas, ra Tqma unda, Crdilo kavkasiaSi momTabareTa samxedro SenaerTebi warmoadgendnen. maTi amoqmedebisa da saWiro mimarTulebiT warmarTvis meqanizmi ki qarTvelTa mefeebs epyraT xelT. `ara £ elewifebis gamoslvad didTa maT naTesavTa ovsTa da yivCayTa T¢nier brZanebisa qarTvelTa mefisa~142. marTalia, es sityvebi vaxtang gorgasals miekuTvneba, magram isic cxadia, rom mematiane sakmaod Zvel tradicias gadmogvcems, ramdenadac karTa Sebmas da amiT kavkasiis gadasasvlelebze kontrolis dawesebas qarTuli wyaroebi jer kidev farnavazis uSualo memkvidreebs miaweren143. aseTi Zlieri zurgis mqone qveyanas ki ara marto somxeTi, aramed sparseTi da romic uwevdnen angariSs. m. xorenacic ki, romelic qarTls, TiTqmis, yovelTvis somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi gulisxmobs, amjerad veRar iyenebs misTvis Cveul mbrZaneblur gamoTqmebs qarTlis mimarT da bundovani, Tu neitraluri sityvebiT cdilobs gadmosces asfaguris daxmarebis ambavi, romelsac Tavisi didi mniSvnelobis gamo, gverdi veRar auara. leonti am SemTxvevaSic asworebs da sicxade Seaqvs m. xorenacis dabindul teqstSi imiT, rom saTiTaod CamoTvlis sasanianTa iranis winaaRmdeg mowyobili samxedro kampaniis mTavar monawileebs: somxebs, qarTvelebs, Crdilo kavkasielebs ­ `iotes somexTa da qarTvelTa da Crdilosa naTesavTa mefe sparsTa~144. m. xorenacic, faqtobrivad, mijnavs erTmaneTisagan somxur jarsa da maT Semwe `keTilmosurneebsa~, Tu CrdiloeTis mTiel tomebs. leontis teqstSi laSqrobis monawileTa CamoTvlisas sxvebze win somexTa xseneba, ra Tqma unda, upiratesobis gamomxatveli ver iqneba. xsenebuli omi, pirvel rigSi, somexTa omi iyo da, bunebrivia, mematianes isini mokavSireebze uwin unda exsenebina. leonti mrovelis mier gadmocemuli qarTvel-somexTa urTierTobis amsaxveli faqtebi, miT ufro, sasanianTa winaaRmdeg erToblivi brZolis ukve moyvanili konkretuli siuJeti, rogorc vxedavT, ar iZleva sababs qarTlis somxeTze politikuri damokidebulebis warmosadgenad. aseTi viTarebisas ki, cxadia, naTesaobisa da

142 143

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 156. iqve, gv. 28. 144 iqve, gv. 60.

moyvrobis safuZvelze qarTvel-somexTa TanamSromlobis mexotbe mematianisaTvis miuRebeli unda yofiliyo am qveynebis urTierTobis dasaxasiaTeblad daqvemdebarebis gamomxatveli terminis gamoyeneba, rac misive koncefciisaTvis sruliad Seuferebeli iqneboda. igi qarTlisa da somxeTis urTierTobas, gansakuTrebiT ki samxedro-politikur sferoSi, moyvareTa kavSirad warmogvidgens, rasac mTeli misi winamoTxrobac adasturebs. aseTi urTierTobis gamosaxatavad yvelaze ufro moxerxebuli termini ki sabas mier `moyvareT mobmad~ ganmartebuli `mokideba~ da leontis mier gamoyenebuli `ekida~ gamodis. namyo droSi terminis xmareba am SemTxvevaSi savsebiT gasagebia: is urTierToba qarTlsa da somxeTs Soris anu moyvruli TanamSromloba, romelic aqamde arsebobda, maeJan spaspetis sityviT, aRar arsebobs somxeTis mefis mokvlisa da sparselTa mier somxeTis dapyrobis gamo. amitom moyvris gareSe darCenili qarTli martodmarto aRmoCnda Zlieri mtris winaSe. somxeTi qarTlis fari iyo samxreTidan, xolo qarTli Zlieri zurgi somxeTisaTvis CrdiloeTidan. Tavdacvis azriT, erTmaneTze damokidebuli es mezobeli qveynebi erTmaneTs ekidnen. aseTi azris Semcveli unda iyos sityva `ekida~-s Sinaarsi, romelic, vfiqrob, gamoyenebulia politikuri partniorebis urTierTdamokidebulebis gadmosacemad da ara erTis meoreze daqvemdebarebis gamosaxatavad. leontisa da xorenacis damokidebuleba istoriuli faqtebis SerCevisa da gadmocemisadmi, rogorc amjerad vnaxeT, sruliad gansxvavebuli da urTierTsawinaaRmdegoa. aseTi viTareba gamowveuli unda iyos ara imdenad mezobelTa metoqeobiT, ramdenadac erTmaneTisgan sakmaod dacilebuli sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqebisadmi maTi kuTvnilebiTa da am faqtoriT ganpirobebuli gansxvavebuli konkretuli politikuri amocanebiT. xorenaci Tavis Txzulebas istoriis qarcecxlSi damarcxebuli somexi xalxisaTvis werda, romlis mizani iyo saxelmwifoebriobis dakargviT gulgatexili TanamoZmeebis gamxneveba, warsuli didebis magaliTebiT maTi aRfrTovaneba da momavalSi damoukideblobis aRdgenisaTvis brZolaSi sulieri ganmtkiceba. leontis amocana ki, piriqiT, aRmavlobis gzaze myofi da kavkasiaSi ganviTarebuli gamaerTianebeli moZraobis avangardSi mdgomi qveynis interesebis sarealizaciod sazogadoebrivi azris Semzadeba iyo, im qveynis in-

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teresebisaTvis brZola, romelic imJamad ukve somxeTis memkvidreobas bizantias ecileboda. amis gamoc, leontis Tavisi istoria martooden qarTvelebisaTvis ar SeeZlo ewera. mas somxebisTvisac unda gaewia angariSi, romelTa mimxrobasa da Tavis garSemo darazmvas qarTuli saxelmwifo gegmavda. amitomacaa, rom leonti xelaRebiT ki ar uaryofs xorenacs, aramed asworebs da cdilobs Rirseulad warmoaCinos saqarTvelos istoria, ise ki, rom arc somexTa Tavmoyvareobas miayenos ziani. es gansxvavebuli tendenciebi leontisa da xorenacis TxzulebaSi kidev ufro mkafiod iCens Tavs kavkasiaSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis gavrcelebisa da pirveli qristiani qarTveli da somexi mefeebis moRvaweobis gadmocemisas. es xana Sua saukuneebis qristiani mwerlebisTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisa iyo da TiToeuli maTgani cdilobda Sesaferisi RirsebiT warmoeCina Tavisi qveynis istoriis es monakveTi. Tavisi koncefciis erTguli da misi Tanamimdevruli damcveli m. xorenaci somxeTis pirvel qristian mefes Trdat III-s elinuri miTebisa da aRmosavluri zRaprebis gmirebis TvisebebiT amkobs, miawers ra mas goliaTur arabunebriv fizikur Zal-Rones, ris safuZvelzec yvelaze rTuli da saxifaTo situaciebidan misi gmiri uZleveli da gamarjvebuli gamohyavs. aseTi siuJetebia: goliaTebTan da velur xarebTan SeWideba, veluri kuroebis xeliT dagleja, cxenidan CamoqveiTebuli Trdatis mier spiloebis jogebis xmliT garekva, basilTa mefis cxenianad Suaze gapoba, meomarTa mTeli razmebis damoukideblad amoxocva da sxva145. m. xorenacis mtkicebiT, Trdati yvelgan da yovelTvis imarjvebda. misive mtkicebiT, saqarTvelos pirveli qristiani mefe miriani Trdatis qveSevrdomi da misi erT-erTi sardali iyo da amdenad, qarTlic somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi iyo sagulvebeli146. aseT mtkicebulebaTa winaaRmdeg aSkarad gamosvla da misi xelaRebiT uaryofa m. xorenacis didi avtoritetis gamo, Tundac somexTa TvalSi, SesaZloa efeqturi ver yofiliyo. amitom qarTuli istoriografiis Rirsebis dasacavad da sakuTari koncefciis gasamarTleblad leonti erTob originalur xerxs mimarTavs.

145

qarTveli mematiane mirians sasanianTa mefis Svilad saxavs da saqarTvelos pirveli qristiani mefis xosroianobiT, faqtobrivad, agrZelebs da axal pirobebSi kvlav acocxlebs Zveli qarTuli farnavaziani mefeebis nebroTianobis ideas. am tradiciis mniSvnelobaze yuradRebas juanSeric amaxvilebs, roca vaxtang gorgasalis piriT mkiTxvels Seaxsenebs: `... romelni varT naTesavni nebroT gmirisani, romeli uwinares yovelTa mefeTa gamoCnda queyanasa zeda, romeli lomsa ZaliTa viTarca Tikansa moiyvanebda, kanjarTa da qurcikTa queTTi ipyrobda. rameTu ezom gandidna Zali misi, romel daemorCilnes yovelni naTesavni noesni~147. noes naTesavebSi, ra Tqma unda, pirvel rigSi, somxebi moiazrebodnen, rac imasac niSnavda, rom Tu morCilebaze midgeboda saqme, qarTveli mefeebi somxebs ki ara, piriqiT, somexi mefeebi qarTvel mefeebs unda damorCilebodnen, rogorc qveynierebis pirveli mefis nebroT gmiris STamomavlebs. leontis arapirdapiri mtkicebiT am Zveli tradiciis Zala qarTvel qristian mefeebzec vrceldeboda maTi xosroianobis gamo. leonti qarTvelTa sxva upiratesobebzec amaxvilebs mkiTxvelis yuradRebas. Tu xorenaciT, somexi mefeebi yovelTvis amayobdnen parTiis samefo dinastiasTan naTesaobiT da es kavSiri somxeTis Zlierebis mniSvnelovan wyarod miaCndaT, leontiT, miriani TviT parTelTa damamxobeli sasanianebis kidev ufro axlo naTesavia, sparseTis mefis ufrosi vaJia da, bunebrivia, sparselTa mxardaWeriTa da keTilganwyobiT sargeblobs, rac mas gansakuTrebiT upirates mdgomareobas uqmnis kavkasiaSi. rogorc parTiis pirvelma mefem arSakma, m. xorenaciT, somxeTis mefe mTel kavkasiaze gaabatona, aseve sasaniani qasre, leontiT, mTel kavkasias aZlevs mirians sammarTvelod. `da misca (mirians) qarTli, somxiTi, rani, movakani da hereTi~148. am cnobas leonti sxvadasxva variaciebiT kidev ramdenjerme imeorebs: "da mefobda esreT mirian mcxeTiT gaRmarT qarTls, somxiTs, rans, hereTs, movakans da egrs~149. roca m. xorenaci xsenebuli arSak parTiis mefis wyalobaze saubrobda, aRniSnavda, rom kavkasiis garda

147

movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 163-164; 166-167; 169-170. 146 iqve, gv. I69-I72.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 161. iqve, gv. 64. 149 iqve, gv. 65.

148

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somxeTis mefes wina aziis zogierTi teritoriebic misca 150 . TiTqos, am cnobis pasuxad leonti gvatyobinebs: `xolo mirians (sparselebma) gulis-sadebad misces bartamisgan jazireTi, da Samis naxevari, da adarbadagani. da ese yoveli qarTls, somxiTs, rans, hereTs da movakans zeda mourTes~151. ase rom, mirianis qarTli, leontis mixedviT, TiTqmis, arafriT CamorCeboda arSakunianTa somxeTs. magram yvelaze didi upiratesoba, romelic qarTls gaaCnda, leontis azriT, iyo misi gansakuTrebuli strategiuli mdebareoba. qarTlisa da mcxeTis centraluri mdebareoba kavkasiaSi mas am qveyanaze sruli kontrolis saSualebas aZlevda. am azrs leonti Tavis TxzulebaSi sparseTis sasaniani mefis piriT gadmogvcems. igi wers sparsTa mefem `ukeTesad gamoarCia mcxeTas dasuma Zisa misisa mefed. rameTu yovelTa qalaqTa somxiTisa da qarTlisaTa, ranisa da mis kerZoTa, yovlisa ufrosad da umagresad gamoarCia da maxlobelad CrdiloTa mterTa, raTa hbrZodis maT muniT da ipyrobdes yovelTa kavkasianTa~152. aseTi Tvalsazrisis dominirebas leontisdroindel sazogadoebaSi, gasagebia, didi mniSvneloba unda hqonoda kavkasiis momavali gaerTianebisaTvis moRvawe qarTveli politikosebisaTvis, romlebic amiT kidev erT seriozul arguments iZendnen TavianT sasargeblod. qarTlis istoriis Rirseulad warmoCenasTan erTad, leonti gansazRvrul pativs miagebs somxur folklorul masalasac, romelmac farTo gamoyeneba hpova Zvel somex avtorTa TxzulebebSi. amasTan, am somxur gadmocemebs SesaSuri taqtiT urTavs specialur ganmartebebs, riTac maT hiperboluri samosisagan aTavisuflebs. leontis mier aseTi xerxiT warmoCenili pirveli qristiani somexi mefis daxasiaTeba, vfiqrob, ufro realuri da adamianuricaa Zvel somex avtorTa mier daxatul portretTan SedarebiT. Trdatis sagmiro saqmeTa Sesaxeb arsebuli gadmocemebidan leontis mxolod agaTangelosTan daculi cnoba mohyavs guTebis Tavdasxmis mogeriebisas berZenTa jarSi myofi Trdatis simamacisa da moxerxebis Taobaze. madlieri imperatori Tavis

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laSqars aZlevs Trdats da gaamefebs somxeTSi. leonti am faqts ase gadmogvcems: "xolo keisarman miscna spani Trdats da gamogzavna somxiTs, mamulsa T¢ssa. gamovides somxiTs da gamoasxnes spani erisTavni mirianisni"153. amjerad, leonti kidev erTxel (ukve meoTxed), Tumca arapirdapir, mkiTxvelis yuradRebas miaqcevs imaze, rom Trdatis gamefebamde somxeTs miriani da misi erisTavebi marTavdnen. am konteqstSi SesaZloa sayuradRebo iyos m. xorenacis cnobac, romlis mixedviT, xosrovis mokvlidan Trdatis gamefebamde somxeTs sparseTis mefe Tavisi moxeleebis SemweobiT 26 weliwads ganagebda, viTarca erT-erT Tavis mxareTagans154. albaT, ar aris gamoricxuli leontisa da xorenacis am cnobebs Soris raRac kavSiri arsebobdes. Trdatis daxasiaTebisas, rogorc Cans, leonti m. xorenacis Txzulebasac iyenebda, magram somex mefeze iq arsebul gazRaprebul cnobebs ki ar imeorebs, aramed maT Sinaarss mokled gadmogvcems: `da aravin ipova odes sparsTa Soris martod-mbrZoli Trdatisi. da saxelovan iqmna igi yovelsa queyanasa, da sZlo yovladve mbrZolTa misTa, viTarca weril ars ambavi misi cxorebasa somexTasa~ 155. am bolo winadadebiT leonti, aSkaraa, mkiTxvels auwyebs, rom Trdatis warmodgenili daxasiaTeba mas ki ar ekuTvnis, aramed somxur matianeebs. misi azriT, qarTlisa da somxeTis metoqeobaSi sZlevda is, romelsac ufro Zlieri mxardamWeri hyavda. ase rom, sakiTxs wyvetdnen gareSe politikuri Zalebi da ara uSualod romelime metoqe. leontis gadmocemiT, somxeTSi Trdatis gamefebisa da iqidan mirianis erisTavebis gamoZevebis Semdeg mezobel qveynebs Soris `daucxromelad iyvis SfoTi... welTa mravalTa... xolo odes moirTis Zali Trdat saberZneTiT da momarTis mirians, da mas ver Zal-edvis winaaRdgomad, da gamagrnis cixeni da qalaqni, da movlis Trdat queyana misi. da odes ganZlierdis mirian sparseTiT, maSin ver winaaRudgis Trdat, da movlis mirian somxiTi~156. miriansa da Trdats Soris `daucxromeli SfoTi~ rom

153 154

movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 67. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 67. 152 iqve, gv. 63-64.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 68. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 162. 155 qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 69. 156 iqve.

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sazRvrebis gamo iqneboda atexili es sruliad cxadia leontis Txrobis mixedviT, radganac misive TqmiT, keisarma Trdati `somxiTs, mamulsa T¢ssa~ gamogzavna da Cans, somxeTis mefe cdilobda damxmare Zalis saSualebiT misi mamuli CrdiloeTiT zedmetad gaefarToebina, rasac, bunebrivia, mirianis winaaRmdegoba daxvdeboda. maT Soris urTierTobas isic amwvavebda, rom isini erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli mZlavri saxelmwifoebis mfarvelobis qveS imyofebodnen da, nebiT Tu uneblieT, mfarvelis miswrafebaTa gamomxatvelnic unda yofiliyvnen. aseTi damokidebuleba qarTlsa da somxeTs Soris leontis striqonebSi mkafiod SeigrZnoba. leontis Tanaxmad, sparseTis mefe winadadebas aZlevs mirians `SevkrbeT, da gardavloT somxiTi, da SevideT saberZneTad~157. rogorc vxedavT, am winadadebaSi mTavari samizne saberZneTia da ara somxeTi. es ukanaskneli mxolod mcire winaRobaa, romelic unda gardavlon. Trdatma Warb Zalebs winaaRmdegoba ver gauwia da mokavSireebma `wartyuenes somxiTi~ da Sevidnen saberZneTSi. am Zalebs verc berZenTa mefe konstantine aRudga win da did mwuxarebas mieca158. Cndeba axali Zala, romelic sruliad cvlis manamde arsebul urTierTobas qveynebsa da adamianebs Soris. qristes jvaris saswaulmoqmedi ZaliT berZenTa mefe konstantine, romelmac irwmuna axali moZRvreba da naTel iRo, mcire ZalebiT uricxvi mteri gaanadgura, `viTar weril ars ese gancxadebulad moqcevasa berZenTasa~ SeniSnavs leonti mroveli. amjerad qarTveli mematiane mis mier moyvanil wyaros gulgrilad ki ar afiqsirebs mxolod, aramed Sefasebasac aZlevs da mas cxadsa da marTals uwodebs, riTac Tavis keTilsasurvel damokidebulebas gamoxatavs gamoyenebuli literaturis mimarT. axali sarwmunoebis upiratesobisa da Zlierebis mowme miriani ganudgeba sparselebs da konstantines samsaxurSi dgeba, ris Semdeg qarTvel-somexTa urTierToba Cveul, leontisTvis sasurvel kalapotSi eqceva. konstantine mefe amoyvrebs Zvel metoqe mezoblebs. mirianis vaJi revi colad irTavs Trdatis qaliSvils

salomes. bolo eReba sasazRvro konfliqtsac. konstantine bunebriv-geografiul sazRvars udebs mijnad mezoblebs: `romelTa queyanaTa mdinareni dian samxreTiT da mierTvian ra£ssa, ese queyanani Trdatis kerZad dayarna; da romlisa queyanisa mdinareni CrdiloT dian da mierTvian mtkuarsa, ese mirianis kerZad dayarna~159. mSvidoba da siyvaruli myardeba, leontiT erTi mamis STamomaval moZmeebs Soris, rac qarTveli mematianis koncefciis kanonzomier gamovlinebas warmoadgenda. mSvidoba da moyvroba kavkasiis xalxebs Soris ki leontis droindeli qarTuli saxelmwifos perspeqtiuli politikis safuZveli iyo, romlis xorcSesxmas leontisTan erTad Sua saukuneebis qarTuli istoriografia da mwerloba emsaxureboda. leontis mier movses xorenacis kritika ar iqneboda sruli, Tu is Tavis damokidebulebas ar gamoxatavda somexi mematianis Tvalsazrisze kavkasiis sarwmunoebrivi da kulturuli iersaxis Sesaxeb. arc am SemTxvevaSi Ralatobs leonti m. xorenacis kritikis Tavis meTods da somexi mematianis Sesworebas kvlav ganagrZobs. Zvel qarTlSi somxuri warmarTuli kultis batonobis m. xorenaciseuli mtkicebis sapasuxod leonti qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis warmoqmnisa da misi ganviTarebis Tanamimdevrul suraTs gadmogvcems, sadac somxuri gavlenisaTvis adgili aRar arsebobs. leontis Tanaxmad, qarTvelebma TavianTi Tavdapirveli sarwmunoeba qarTlSi mosvlis Semdeg SeimuSaves, rac ZiriTadad, qarTlosis saflavisa da mnaTobebis TayvaniscemiT gamoixateboda. igi wers: `da iqmnes msaxur mzisa da mTovarisa da varskulavTa xuTTa, da mtkice da ufrosi saficari maTi iyo saflavi qarTlosisi~160. amis Semdeg Zvel qarTul warmarTul panTeonSi adgils kerpebi ikaveben: gaci da gaim161, umTavresi ki farnavazis mier Seqmnili kerpi xdeba. mis Sesaxeb, sxvebisgan gansxvavebiT, sagangebo xazgasmiT gadmogvcems am RvTaebis Seqmnis ambavs: `farnavaz Seqmna kerpi didi saxelsa zeda T¢ssa: ese ars armazi, rameTu farnavazs sparsulad armaz erqua. amarTa kerpi igi armazi Tavsa zeda qarTlisasa, da mieriTgan ewoda armazi

159

157 158

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 69. iqve.

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 70. iqve, gv. 11. 161 iqve, gv. 20.

160

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kerpisa misT¢s. da qmna satfureba didi kerpisa misT¢s aRmarTebulisa~ 162 . mematiane gansakuTrebuli aqcentebiT gadmogvcems RvTaeba armazis saxelwodebis farnavazisgan warmomavlobas da am faqts erT winadadebaSi sxvadasxva formiT ramdenjerme imeorebs, TiTqos SiSobs es saxeli mkiTxvels sxvaSi ar aerios. etyoba, leonti somxuri aramazdis saxels ufrTxoda (albaT, armazisa da aramazdis sparsulidan saerTo warmomavlobis gamo), ris gamoc mkiTxvelis yuradRebas sagangebod amaxvilebda RvTaeba armazis erovnul warmomavlobaze. farnavazis memkvidreebma qarTul warmarTul panTeons kidev ramdenime kerpi Semates. magaliTad, saurmagma `Seqmna orni kerpni ainina da danina, da amarTna gzasa zeda mcxeTisasa~163. farnajomma `Seqmna kerpi saxeliT zaden, da amarTa zadens~164; revma ki `moiyvana coli saberZneTiT, asuli loRoTeTisa, saxeliT sefelia. da aman sefelia moitana Tana kerpi, saxeliT afroditos, da aRmarTa Tavsa zeda mcxeTisasa~ 165. amrigad, Zvel qarTul warmarTul panTeonSi, leontis mixedviT, sul Svidi kerpi Cans: gaci, gaim, armazi, ainina, danana, zadeni da afroditosi. aqedan erTia garedan (saberZneTidan) Semotanili. es Svidi kerpi iyo, leontis Tanaxmad, qarTvelTa salocavi da maT Semdeg sxva aRar SematebiaT. pirveli qristiani qarTveli mefis Sesaxeb Cveni mematiane ambobs: `aRizarda mirian msaxurebasa mas Sina S¢ dTa maT kerpTasa~166. leontis gadmocemiT, Zveli qarTuli sarwmunoeba da misi RvTaebebi saxelganTqmuli Tanamedroveebis aRiarebasa da pativiscemas imsaxurebdnen. magaliTad, leontis TqmiT, aleqsandre didma ubrZana qarTlis erisTavad daniSnul Tavis moxeles `raTa pativscemdnen mzesa da mTovaresa da varskulavTa xuTTa~167. e. i. qarTvelTa uZveles sarwmunoebas. aseve, qarTlSi gamefebulma sparseTis mefis vaJma mirianma `hmata Semkoba kerpTa da bomonTa, keTilad ipyrna qurumni kerpTani, da yovelTa

162 163

qarTlis iqve, gv. 164 iqve, gv. 165 iqve, gv. 166 iqve, gv. 167 iqve, gv.

cxovreba, I, gv. 25. 27. 29. 58. 65. I8.

mefeTa qarTlisaTa umetes aRasrulebda msaxurebasa mas kerpTasa, da Seamko saflavi farnavazisi~168. rogorc vxedavT, leonti faqtebiT adasturebs Zveli qarTuli sarwmunoebis TviTmyofadobasa da avtoritets Zvel samyaroSi, rac TavisTavad gamoricxavs sulieri kulturis sferoSic qarTlis damokidebulebas somxeTze. somxuri istoriografiis pretenziebs, amjerad, Tumca arapirdapir, magram sakmaod efeqturad aneitralebs. kavkasiaSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis aRmocenebasa da gavrcelebaze somxuri istoriografiis mier warmodgenili versia ukve sakmaod argumentirebulad iyo uaryofili `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ krebulSi Sesuli `ninos cxovrebis~ avtoris mier, rac leontis aTavisuflebda damatebiTi kvleva-Ziebasgan. amitomac man Sua saukuneebis mweralTa Cveulebis mixedviT, qarTlis gaqristianebis es istoria pirdapir CarTo Tavis ZiriTad naSromSi, zogierTi umniSvnelo redaqciuli cvlilebebiT, rac gamowveuli unda yofiliyo mis koncefciasTan TanxmobaSi mosayvanad, e. i. konfesiuri dapirispirebis Sesarbileblad. gacilebiT rTuli iyo qarTuli enisa da damwerlobis istoriis SeTavseba leontis koncefciasTan. Targamosis STamomavlobidan gamomdinare, `misi Teoria moiTxovda somxuri enis pirveladobas~ (n. berZeniSvili)169, realuri viTareba ki gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos kulturuli mewinaveobis Cvenebas kavkasiaSi. am winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad politikosma mematianem TargamosianTa saerTo enis ­ somxuris SesaZlebeli funqcionireba istoriul SoreTSi gadaitana, roca kavkasiis xalxebis individualoba jer kidev ar iyo gamokveTili da amiT misi kulturuli mniSvneloba ukiduresad Seamcira. damoukidebeli naTesavis ­ xalxis warmoqmna ki leontis xangrZliv istoriul procesad aqvs warmodgenili, romelic saerTo mamis SvilTa anu kavkasiis xalxTa eTnarqebis erTmaneTisagan teritoriuli gamijvniT iwyeboda. qarTlis teritoriis warmoqmnis Semdeg qarTlosianebma sakuTari sarwmunoebac SeimuSaves ­ qarTlosis

168 169

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 65. ix. g. maisuraZe, mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, `mnaTobi~, #7-8, 2001, gv. 8892.

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saflavi da mnaTobebi. amasobaSi qarTlSi TandaTan sxvadasxva ucxotomelma naTesavma moiyara Tavi, ris Semdeg qarTlosianebma miatoves saerTo mamamTavris ena da yvela maTgan Seqmnes sakuTari qarTuli ena. mematiane am didmniSvnelovan kulturul movlenas ase gadmogvcems: `aqamomdis qarTlosianTa ena somxuri iyo, romelsa zraxvides, xolo odes Semokrbes ese uricxuni naTesavni qarTlsa Sina, maSin qarTvelTaca dautoves ena somxuri. da amaT yovelTa naTesavTagan Seiqmna ena qarTuli~ da ganagrZobs: `da iyvnes qarTls esreT aRreul ese yovelni naTesavni, da izraxeboda qarTlsa Sina equsi ena; somxuri, qarTuli, xazaruli, asuruli, ebrauli da berZuli. ese enani icodes yovelTa mefeTa qarTlisaTa, mamaTa da dedaTa~170. somxuri enis datovebis winamaval movlenad Cveni mematiane nabuqodonosoris mier ierusalimis aRebasa (Zv. w. 586 w.) da devnili ebraelebis mcxeTaSi mosvlas asaxelebs, riTac, TiTqos, qarTuli enis Seqmnis TariRsac iZleva. mis mier mocemul winadadebaSi gamoyenebuli sityvebi `aqamomdis~, `odes~ gviCvenebs, rom enis Seqmnac leontis xangrZliv procesad warmoudgenia, ramdenadac uricxvi naTesavis qarTlSi Semokreba ise rom, isini iq damkvidrebuliyvnen da maTi enebic erTmaneTisaTvis gasagebic gamxdariyo, cxadia, mokle droSi ver moxerxdeboda. amitom Zv. w. VI s. dasawyisi xana qarTuli enis formirebis xangrZlivi procesis dasrulebis leontiseul TariRad SeiZleba miviCnioT. miuxedavad imisa, rom leontis mixedviT, qarTuli ena qarTlSi mosaxle `yovelTa naTesavTagan Seiqmna~, is erTxans mainc ver gabatonda da qarTlSi eqvs enaze laparakobdnen. amasTan, ganmartavs, rom es enebi icodnen `yovelTa mefeTa qarTlisaTa, mamaTa da dedaTa~. am winadadebaSi sityva `mefeTa~-s moxsenieba, Tuki maTSi qarTveli mefeebi unda vigulisxmoT, sruliad uadgiloa da zedmeti, radganac am dros qarTlSi qarTveli mefe jer kidev ar iyo da mis mosvlamde win or saukuneze meti dro iyo gasavleli. Cans, amitomac, vaxuSti batoniSvilma saqarTvelos Zveli istoriis nawilSi, romelic ZiriTadad leontis misdevs, am adgilis gadmo-

cemisas sityva `mefe~ saerTod gamotova171. SesaZloa leonti enebis mcodne qarTlis mefeebSi im ucxo xelisuflebs gulisxmobda, romelnic Tavis xelisuflebas xangamoSvebiT qarTlzec avrcelebdnen. Torem, qarTvelTagan qarTlis pirvel mefed rom mxolod da mxolod farnavazi miaCnda leontis, amis Sesaxeb cxadad da eWvmiutanelad aqvs masve gancxadebuli. gadis dro da qarTlosianebi damoukidebel saxelmwifos qmnian qarTveli mefiT saTaveSi, romelic uzrunvelyofs qarTlSi qarTuli enis srul upiratesobas danarCenebze da mas saxelmwifo enis mniSvnelobas aniWebs, amasTan qmnis qarTul anbans, qarTuli mwignobrobis ganviTarebis safuZvels. sazeimod JRers leontis sityvebi: `da ese farnavaz iyo pirveli mefe qarTlsa Sina qarTlosisa naTesavTagani. aman ganavrco ena qarTuli, da arRara izraxeboda sxua ena qarTlsa Sina T¢nier qarTulisa. da aman Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli~172. leonti amjeradac ar Ralatobs wyaroebis kritikis Tavis meTods. igi m. xorenaciviT Riad ki ar uaryofs misTvis miuRebel debulebebs, aramed koriunisa da m. xorenacis TxzulebebSi dacul versiebs mesrop-maStocis mier qarTuli anbanis Taobaze, saerTod arc axsenebs da mis sapirispirod qarTuli anbanisa da damwerlobis istoriis Tanamimdevruli suraTis CvenebiT niadags aclis am somxuri tradiciis mtkicebebs. informaciis aseTi xerxiT miwodebisas mkiTxveli yovelgvari miniSnebebisa da komentarebis gareSec unda mimxvdariyo da, albaT, xvdeboda kidec, rom saxelmwifoebrivi saWiroebisaTvis farnavazis mier Seqmnili qarTuli anbani sul cota Svidi saukuniT mainc ufro Zveli iyo somxurze, ris gamoc ax. w. V s. mcxovrebi mesrop-maStoci qarTuli anbanis Semqmneli ver iqneboda. xazgasasmeli garemoebaa, werda niko berZeniSvili, rom qarTulma tradiciam qarTuli mwignobrobis gaCena daukavSira ara qristianobis Semosvlas, aramed qarTuli erovnuli kulturis did texils qarTuli saxelmwifos warmoqmnas173. es garemoebac sakmaod damajerebeli argumenti iyo leontis Teoriis sasargeblod.

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qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 16.

batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, Tbilisi, I973, gv. 54. 172 qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 26. 173 n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, VIII, gv. 382-383.

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igive ideologiuri mimarTuleba, somxur istoriografiasTan dapirispirebis igive formebi (miuRebeli debulebebis Ria kritikis nacvlad, maTi Secvla da Sesworeba), gadmocemis msgavsi meTodi da sxva, Tavs iCens qarTlis cxovrebis krebulSi Sesul leontis momdevno avtorTa TxzulebebSic. juanSeri, `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ avtori da sumbat daviTis Ze arCeuli qronologiuri sazRvrebisa da Tematikis farglebSi TanamimdevrobiT warmoaCenen qarTvel da somex xelisufalTa moyvroba-naTesaobis faqtebs da maTze aqcentirebiT cdiloben somxeTis memkvidreobisaTvis brZolaSi qarTvelTa uflebebis legitimacias. amasTan erTad, somxebTan keTlismyofeli damokidebuleba xels ar uSlis somxuri istoriografiis cnobil siuJetebs sakuTaric daupirispiron. magaliTad, juanSeris mtkicebiT, vaxtang gorgasali moyvrobiTa da naTesaobiT yofila dakavSirebuli somxeTis samefo saxlis wevrebTan da umaRlesi aristokratiis erT nawilTan. qarTveli mematiane vaxtangis piriT gvauwyebs, rom pirveli qristiani somexi mefe Trdat III qarTvelTa mefis naTesavi iyo dedis mxridan174. misive TqmiT, vaxtangs Tavisi da xuaranZe somexTa pitiaxSisTvis _ bakurisaTvis miuTxovebia175. somxeTze vaxtangis uflebis kanonierebis saCveneblad ki somxeTis samefo saxlTan naTesaobis garda, juanSeri kidev ufro STambeWdav arguments iSveliebs. misi TqmiT, sparseTis mefes Tavisi asuli miucia colad vaxtangisaTvis da mziTvad somxeTi da mTeli kavkasiac uboZebia: `da mosca somxiTi da yovelni mefeni kavkasianni ziTvad~176. aseT arguments, rogorc ukve iTqva, mimarTavdnen m. xorenacica da leontic, romlebic sakuTari qveynisaTvis sasurveli teritoriis mflobelobis dakanonebas ucxo xelisuflebs miawerdnen: pirveli, parTiis pirvel arSakid mefes, xolo meore qasre sasanians177. qarTvelTa pretenziebs juanSeri bibliuri warsuliTac amagrebs. vaxtangis piriT igi acxadebs: Cven `romelni varT naTesavni nebroT gmirisani, romeli uwinares yovelTa mefeTa gamoCnda quey-

anasa zeda, romeli lomsa ZaliTa viTarca Tikansa moiyvanebda, kanjarTa da qurcikTa queiTi ipyrobda. rameTu ezom gandidna Zali misi, romel daemorCilnes yovelni naTesavni noesni~178. Tqma ar unda, rom noes naTesavebSi, Cveni avtori pirvel rigSi somxebs gulisxmobda. amasTan, juanSers ar aviwydeba pativiTa da RirsebiT moixsenios somxebica da maTi saamayo Svilebic. juanSeri `did moZRvars~ uwodebs grigol parTels, xolo Trdat III-s `gmirsa~ da `muSak eklesiaTa~179, rac Sua saukuneebis sazogadoebisaTvis erT-erTi umaRlesi Sefaseba iyo. sayuradReboa, agreTve, juanSeris mier vaxtang gorgaslis garegnobisa da fizikuri SesaZleblobis daxasiaTeba, rac Tavisi SinaarsiTa da mizandasaxulobiT Zalauneburad asociacias aRZravs somxur istoriografiaSi am mxrivac gandidebul Trdat III-Tan. juanSeri wers: `mas Jamsa iyo vaxtang wlisa ocdaorisa; da iyo igi umaRles kacTa mis JamisaTa, da uSuenieres saxiTa da Zlieri ZaliTa, romel Wurvili queTi iremsa miewiis, upyris rqa da daiWiris, da cxeni Wurvili aRiRis m£arTa zeda da mcxeTiT aRvidis cixesa armazisasa~180. TxzulebaSi araerTgzis gvxvdeba, agreTve, qarTvelsomexTa sabrZolo TanamSromlobis epizodebic. yvela erTad ki, rogorc vxedavT, srul TanxmobaSia leonti mrovelis istoriuli koncefciis suliskveTebasTan. arsebiTad, msgavs damokidebulebas iCenen somxuri Temisadmi `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ avtori da sumbat daviTis Zec. isini gamaxvilebuli yuradRebiT gadmogvcemen qarTvel-somexTa moyvrobisa da TanamSromlobis faqtebs. magaliTebi: guram mamfali da misi simamri abulabas somexTa erisTavi arabTa winaaRmdeg SekavSirdnen da qarTvel mTiulebTan erTad mniSvnelovani zarali miayenes buRa Turqis marbeval laSqars181; sarkinozebTan brZolaSi ganTavisuflebuli qveynebi, mematianes gadmocemiT, `guaram ganuyvna queyanani ZmaTa T¢sTa adarnases da bagrats, da aboci ganuyo colis Zmasa T¢ssa somexTa mefesa~182. am konteqstSi kidev ufro

174 175

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 169. iqve, gv. 199. 176 iqve, gv. 158. 177 ix. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, gv. 67; qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 64-65.

178 179

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 161. iqve, gv. 160-161. 180 iqve, gv. 159. 181 iqve, gv. 256. 182 iqve, gv 257.

84

85

STambeWdavi Cans sumbat daviTis Zis mier wamoyenebuli qarTvel da somex bagratovanTa saerTo warmomavlobis versia. qarTvelsomexTa urTierTobis amgvari pozitiuri gaSuqeba mkiTxvelis mimxrobasTan erTad, etyoba, miznad isaxavda IX-XI ss. somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenelTa Txrobis met-naklebad agresiuli muxtis CaxSobasa da misTvis damaxasiaTebeli cnobili tendenciebis gavlenis Sesustebas. SesaZloa amitomac, `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ avtori ar erideba srulad warmoadginos IX-X ss. kavkasiaSi pirvelobisaTvis gaCaRebul brZolaSi somex dinastTa aqtiuri monawileoba. isic cxadia, rom qarTvel mematianes arc sWirdeboda faqtebis Selamazeba, radganac kavkasiaSi Seqmnil realur politikur situacias Tavidanve qarTvelTa sasargeblo mimarTuleba hqonda (Sida qarTli kavkasiis gaerTianebis centri iyo da aq gabatonebis qarTvelTa SesaZleblobebi sxvebTan SedarebiT bevrad didi iyo) da XI s. 70 wlebis dasawyisSi, roca is Tavis Txzulebas werda, ukve icoda ra am brZolis Sedegebi (somxuri samefoebis gauqmeba), is cdilobs piruTvnelad gaaSuqos kavkasiis gaerTianebisaTvis brZolis didmniSvnelovani procesi ise rom, mis WeSmaritebaSi aravis Seeparos eWvi, amasTan oficialuri saxelmwifo politikis Sesabamisad, momavali finalis Semoqmedad, brZolaSi monawile yvela politikuri Zala dasaxos. Cveni mematianis mixedviT, dapirispirebuli mxareebi eTnikurad araerTgvarovani, ZiriTadad qarTul-somxuri Semadgenlobisaa, e. i. mebrZoli jgufebi iqmneboda ara erovnuli, aramed politikuri niSnis mixedviT, rac imasac niSnavda, albaT, rom, mematianis azriT, kavkasiis gaerTianeba qarTveli da somexi monaTesave dinastiebis saerTo saqme iyo. vfiqrob, amgvar urTierTobaTa suraTi ixateba `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ Semdegi adgilebidan: `xolo nasra, Ze guaramisi, da gurgen iyvnes afxazTa kerZ, xolo daviT da liparit uSueldes somexTa, da ibrZodes somexni da afxazni qarTlsa zeda~ 183; `xolo nasras Seukrbes mterad somexni, liparit da qarTvelni, da aSot Zma daviTisi, da maT Tana sarkinozni~184; `movides gurgen da adarnase, Ze daviTisi; uSueles somexTa, Seibnes

mtkuarsa zeda; iZlivnes afxazni, mokles nasra da bayaTar, mTavari ovsi, da erisTavi afxazTa~185. X s. dasawyisis ambebis gadmocemisas ki qarTveli mematiane gvauwyebs: `mas Jamsa gamovida kostanti, afxazTa mefe, daipyra qarTli, da emtera somexTa mefe sumbat tiezerakali, gamoilaSqra spiTa didiTa, da moadga ufliscixesa, da moiRes palan-kurdani, aRmoages zemo-kerZo da wariRes cixe £ iTa. xxolo keTilad imzaxnes sumbat da kostanti, da er£ ukumosca ufliscixe da yoveli qarTli~186. mematianis am cnobaSi araerTi winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis pasaJia mocemuli. gaugebaria, ra azri hqonda didi laSqrobis mowyobas qarTlisa da ufliscixis asaRebad, Tuki Semdeg nebayoflobiT unda daeTmo somexTa mefes? anda, Tu molaparakebiT SeiZleboda problemis mogvareba, ratom ar Sedga is omis dawyebamde? rogorc Cans, Cveni avtoris mizani iyo eCvenebina qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris omis pirobebSic ki `keTilad mzaxobis~ SesaZlebloba, maT urTierTobaSi saerTo interesebis prevalireba kerZoze, rac uSualod gamomdinareobda qarTul samefo karze SemuSavebuli ideologiidan. X s. meore naxevridan kavkasiaSi Seqmnili saSinao da sagareo pirobebi qarTvel xelisuflebs xsenebuli politikuri procesis saTaveSi aqceven, ris gamoc Cveni mematianeebi am xanis ambebis gadmocemisas sruli obieqturobiT adastureben (daviT kurapalatiT dawyebuli bagrat IV s. CaTvliT) qarTvel xelisufalTa gavlenis permanentul zrdas kavkasiaSi, misTvis Sesaferisi Sinaarsis gamoTqmebiT. magaliTad, daviT kurapalatma `mouwoda laSqarsa T¢ssa da u£ yovelTa mefeTa somxiTisaTa~187; rodesac mo bagrat III-m mociquli gaugzavna anisis mefe SahanSa gagik I-s da ganZis amira fadlonis winaaRmdeg laSqroba SesTavaza, qarTveli mematianis TqmiT, gagikma `ganixara sixaruliTa didiTa, moswrafed mouwoda yovelTa spaTa T¢sTa, warmoemarTa da movida winaSe bagrat afxazTa mefisa~188. sumbat daviTis Zis mtkicebiT ki bagrat III-m `daipyra yoveli kavkasia T¢ TmpyrobelobiTa jiqeTiTgan vidre gurgendmde. xolo adarbadagani da Sarvani moxarke yo, som-

185 186 183 184

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 259. iqve, gv. 260.

qarTlis iqve, gv. 187 iqve, gv. 188 iqve, gv.

cxovreba, I, gv. 261. 262. 277. 279-280.

86

87

xiTisa £ elmwifebiTa, nebierad ganagebda~189. sxvaTa Soris, somxuri wyaroebis erTi nawilic aRniSnavs daviT kurapalatis, bagrat III-is, giorgi I-is da bagrat IV-is did gavlenas somxur samefoze. leonti mrovelis, juanSeris, `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ avtoris da sumbat daviTis Zis daintereseba somxuri TemiT, arsebiTad, erTi da imave ideologiur safuZvlebs emyareba da faqtebis SerCevisa da gadmocemisas isini erTmaneTs avseben. vfiqrob, saeWvo ar unda iyos, rom gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos mTavari politikuri mimarTuleba somxeTis SemoerTebisa da kavkasiis momavali gaerTianebisaken, ZiriTadad, gansazRvravda XI s. qarTveli mematianeebis damokidebulebis formas maTi Tanamedrove da winamorbedi somxuri istoriografiis cnobili tendenciebis mimarT. maTi Ria kritikis nacvlad, xsenebuli qarTveli avtorebi Tanadroul sazogadoebas sTavazoben drois Sesaferisad gamarTul kavkasiis istoriis axal models, romelic ukve TavisTavad uaryofda axali realobebisaTvis Seuferebel Zvel somxur models. momdevno saukuneebSi, somxuri samefoebis dasustebisa da gaqrobis kvalobaze, somex avtorTa Txrobis mediduri toni da hegemonisturi midrekilebebi TandaTan cxreba da sapirispirod icvleba. istoriuli somxeTis didi nawilis saqarTvelos centralizebuli monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi Semosvlis Semdeg ki somxeTis istoria saqarTvelos istoriis nawilad iqca, ris gamoc somex avtorTa interesi mis mimarT uzomod gaizarda da maTi damokidebuleba am istoriisadmi Semrigebluri da Tbili gaxda. niSandoblivia, rom daaxloebiT, XII s. meore naxevarSive iTargmna somxur enaze "qarTlis cxovreba" da sul male misma Teoriulma debulebebma da cnobebma asaxva poves somxur istoriografiaSi. magaliTad, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ ZiriTadi koncefciisa da qarTuli kulturis gavlenis kvali aSkarad SeimCneva mxiTar airivanecis `qronografiul istoriaSi~. somxuri tradiciis sapirispirod, mxiTar episkoposs haiki, somexTa legendaruli mamamTavari, qarTvel mTavarTa siaSi Sehyavs190 da aRniSnavs misi

189 190

rva Zmis arsebobas, romelTac, Turme, man gaunawila vrceli teritoria trapizonidan darialamde da darubandamde191. am gadmocemaSi mTavari isaa, rom haikis Zmebis cnobiT, mxiTar episkoposi, nebiT Tu uneblied, iziarebs leonti mrovelis koncefciis mTavar ideas kavkasiis xalxTa naTesaobis Sesaxeb, rac kavkasiuri masStabis mravalerovnuli qarTuli saxelmwifos umTavres doqtrinad iyo ukve miRebuli. aseve, somxuri tradiciis sapirispirod, mxiTar airivaneci iziarebs leontis Tvalsazriss qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis Taobaze, roca wers, rom pirvelma qarTvelma mefem farnavazma eqvsi enidan Seqmna qarTuli da manve Seqmna maTi damwerlobao192. somxuri tradiciisgan gansxvavebiT Targamosis Svilebze ­ haiksa da mis Svid Zmaze laparakobs vardan arevelcic193. sxva adgilas ki imave Temaze saubrisas wers: `qarTvelTa mefobis dasabamze maT wignebSi weria, rom Targamosi rva vaJiT movida airaratis gavarSi didi warRvnis Semdeg. misi sami vaJi haosi, qarTlosi da kavkasosi gaxdnen pirveli taxtis mflobelebi, gabatondnen qveynebze da TavianTi saxelebis mixedviT uwodes haisi, qarTli da kavkasia. (isini) batonobdnen pontos zRvidan kaspiis zRvamde~194. qarTvel-somexTa naTesaobis mimaniSnebel am teqstSi yuradRebas iqcevs erTob sagulisxmo garemoeba, romlis mixedviTac dasaxelebuli somexi avtorebi dumiliT gverds uvlian leontis cnobas haosis pirmSoobisa da masTan dakavSirebuli privilegiebis arsebobaze, rac, TiTqos, maT interesebs unda Sordebodes. marTalia, mxiTar airivaneci gansazRvruli iniciativis mqoned warmogvidgens haoss, romelic uSualod unawilebs Zmebs teritorias trapizonidan darubandamde, magram Zmebs Soris upiratesobis mqoned garkveulad aravin Cans. Zmebis Tanabaruflebianoba kidev ufro mkafiodaa aRbeWdili vardan arevelcis moyvanil

191

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 382. mxiTar airivaneci, qronografiuli istoria, Zv. somxuridan Targmna, Sesavali, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo liana davlianiZetatiSvilma, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 31.

mxiTar airivaneci, qronografiuli istoria, dasaxelebuli gamocema, gv. 47. 192 iqve, gv. 57 193 vardan arevelci, msoflio istoria, nodar SoSiaSvilisa da eka kvaWantiraZis gamocema, Tbilisi, 2002, gv. 426. 194 iqve, gv. 116.

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teqstSi, romlis Tanaxmad, mxolod Targamosis sami vaJi haosi, qarTlosi da kavkasosi batonobdnen vrcel teritoriaze pontos zRvidan kaspiis zRvamde da isini TviTon gaxdnen pirveli taxtis mflobelebi. rogorc Cans, arsebuli sinamdvile (monRolTa batonobis pirobebSic ki qristianuli somxeTi saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi `gurjistanis vilaieTSi~ ganixileboda) Soreuli warsulis rekonstruqciis sxva saSualebas aRar iZleoda, somxuri tradicia ki somexTa genetikur upiratesobaze, axla ukve damajereblobas moklebuli, anaqronizmad gamoiyureboda. didi qarTuli qristianuli saxelmwifos arsebobis faqtori kavkasiaSi, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Semosuli somxeTi mTel qveyanasTan erTad socialur-ekonomikursa da kulturul aRmavlobas ganicdida, TavisTavad ukve didi mniSvnelobis movlena iyo momTabareTagan gadarCenili am nawilis uSiSroebisa da Tavisufali ganviTarebisaTvis, ramac waruSleli STabeWdileba moaxdina mravalWirgamovlil somexTa cnobierebaze. da rogorc akad. s. eremiani werda, XVIII s. ki somxeTis momavali saqarTvelos gareSe arc warmoidgineboda195. aseTma ganwyobilebam, bunebrivia, rom Sesaferisi asaxva pova XII-XVIII ss. somxur istoriografiaSi. qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis roli da mniSvneloba aRniSnuli xanis somxuri sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi, vfiqrob, yvelaze zustad gamocemulia XV s. somexi monazonis maTeos ganZasarelis TxzulebaSi, sadac didi mwuxarebaa gamoTqmuli saqarTvelos mefis konstantine I-is daRupvis gamo da iqve ganmartebulia am mwuxarebis simZimis mizezi: `radganac didsa naTesavsa Cvensas hyavda is Tavis mefis magivrad~196. am teqstSi konstantine zogadi mniSvnelobiT qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis ganmasaxierebel mefedaa warmodgenili da somexi mematianis mier misi somexTa mefis `magierad~ miCneva, faqtobrivad, niSnavs qarTuli saxelmwifosaTvis somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis funqciebis mindobasac. daaxloebiT amgvaradvea gaazrebuli somxebisaTvis qarTuli saxelmwifos mniSvneloba imave xanis meore somexi avtoris Tovma

mewofecis TxzulebaSi, sadac weria: `Cven (e. i. somxebi) usjuloTa xelSi yovelTvis qarTvelebis imediT viqadodiT~-o197. centralizebuli qarTuli monarqiisadmi somexTa aseTi damokidebulebis gamovlinebad, albaT, unda miviCnioT somxur istoriografiaSi ufro adre SemuSavebuli cnobili formulirebebi: `qarTvelTa da somexTa mefe~, `qarTvelTa da somexTa~ an `somexTa da qarTvelTa~ jari, `qarTvelTa da somexTa mxedarTmTavari~ da sxv. s. janaSias dakvirvebiT, sakiTxis ideologiuri da fsiqologiuri mxare is iyo, rom somxuri mosaxleoba qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas mmarTvelobis mTeli aparatiT aRiqvamda, rogorc sakuTar, mSobliur saxelmwifoebriobasa da saerTo saxelmwifoebriv institutebs198. aseTi fsiqikuri ganwyobisas, sruliad bunebrivad, ibadeboda qarTuli saxelmwifos didebis Seqmnis Tanamonawiled somexTa warmosaxvis kanonieri survili, ris gamoc XIII s. somex istorikosTa SromebSi araiSviaTad vxvdebiT somxuri warmomavlobis, somxuri sarwmunoebisa Tu somxuri Temebis mmarTvel-moxeleTa gaidialebisa da maTi Rvawlis gadaWarbebiT Sefasebis SemTxvevebsac. miuxedavad amisa, kirakos ganZakeci, grigol akaneci, stefanos orbeliani da sxvebi yovelTvis saTanadod afiqsireben qveynis somxur nawilSic erTiani uzenaesi xelisuflebis arsebobas. etyoba, qarTul saxelmwifoebriobasTan somexTa organuli kavSirisa da siaxlovis STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad XII-XIV ss. somex avtorTa TxzulebebSi Tavs iCens mezobeli samefo dinastiebis saerTo warmomavlobisa Tu maTi warmomadgenlebis moyvarul kavSirebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, rac, saboloo jamSi, qarTvelTa da somexTa erT saxelmwifoSi Tanacxovrebis kanonzomierebis azrs amarTlebda. ufro metic, kirakos ganZakecisTan daculi erTi gadmocemiT saqarTvelos xelisuflebi Zveli somxeTis Zlierebis xanis arSakunianTa politikur memkvidreebadac ki arian gamoyvanili. somexi mematiane wers: `didmSvenieri, Zvirfasi taxti da gasaocari gvirgvini,

197 195

Ñ. Ò. Åðåìÿí, Îáùíîñòü ñóäåá è êóëüòóðíî-ïîëèòè÷åñêîå ñîäðóæåñòâî íàðîäîâ Çàêàâêàçüÿ â IX-XIII ââ., "Êàâêàç è Âèçàíòèÿ", ¹1, Åðåâàí, 1979,ñ. 9. 196 somxur xelnawerTa anderZis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb (XIVXV ss. al. abdalaZis gamocema, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 35-36.

Toma mewofeli, Targmani, Sesavali werili da komentarebi prof. l. meliqseT-begisa, Tbilisi, 1937, gv. 29. 198 Àêàä. Ñ. Äæàíàøèà, Îá îäíîì ïðèìåðå èñêàæåíèÿ èñòîðè÷åñêîé ïðàâäû, ïî ïîâîäó êíèãè Í. Òîêàðñêîãî "Àðõèòåêòóðà äðåâíåé Àðìåíèè", Òáèëèñè, 1947, ñ. 47.

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romelTa msgavsi mefeTagan aravis hqonia da romelTa Sesaxeb amboben, rom somexTa mefis Trdat didis mamis xosrovisa iyo, adgilTa miudgomlobis wyalobiT iq (e. i. saqarTveloSi) daculi Semonaxula. Semdeg ki isini qarTvelTa mefeebs rgebiaT da hqoniaT dRemde~199. aseTi Tvalsazrisis gavrceleba da dominireba kavkasiaSi, cxadia, rom savsebiT eTanxmeboda qarTvel politikosTa strategiul amocanebs. XV s. dasawyisidan, roca momTabare Turqmanebma saqarTvelos ZaliT mowyvites somxeTis didi nawili da is barbarosulfeodalur urTierTobaTa marwuxebSi moaqcies, somexTa ltolva qristianuli kulturis mezobeli qveynisken kidev ufro gaZlierda. XV da Semdgomi xanis somex avtorTa TxzulebebSi aRar vxvdebiT konfesiur dapirispirebaTa mwvave situaciebze miniSnebebs. piriqiT, monofiziti mwerlebi qarTuli eklesiis simtkices natroben, radganac es maTi mfarveli saxelmwifos interesebSi iyo200. l. meliqseT-begis dakvirvebiT, TviT antiqalkedonizmis iseTi apologeti, rogoric Tovma mewofeci iyo da romelic Tavisi konfesiuri mosazrebebis gamo qarTvelebs aTvaliswunebiT uyurebda, mainc imaze ocnebobda, rom somxeTi kvlav qristiani qarTveli mefis mfarvelobaSi moxvedriliyo201. am droidan moyolebuli XVIII s. bolomde, vidre qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba kavkasiaSi politikuri movlenebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi ganmsazRvreli faqtori iyo, somxur saistorio mwerlobaSi qarTuli orientaciis niSnebi sxvadasxva formiT yovelTvis cocxlobda. am xanis somexi istorikosebi didi simpaTiiTa da TanagrZnobiT weren qarTvelTa Seupovar brZolebze sparselTa da osmalTa winaaRmdeg. simon I-is gmiruli brZolebiT aRtacebuli araqel davriJeci mas `did simon xans" uwodebs202, grigor daranaRcis

199

daxasiaTebiT ki simon I `somxeTis didi mosiyvarule da gansakuTrebiT vardapetebis didi pativismcemeli iyo~203. sixaruliTa da momavlis imediT aRwers zaqaria qanaqerci qarTvelTa gamarjvebas giorgi saakaZis meTaurobiT martyofis velze I625 w. 25 marts. misi sityviT `TiTqos WianWvelebi daemduRroT, ise erTianad mospes sparselebi qarTvelebmao~204. gansakuTebiT didi adgili eTmoba gviani Sua saukuneebis somxur istoriografiaSi vaxtang VI-sa da erekle II-is moRvaweobis aRweras da Sefasebas, romelTa saxelebs somxuri politikuri wreebi uSualod ukavSirebdnen kavkasiis `saqristiano qveynis~ aRdgenisa da somxeTis ganTavisuflebis imedebs. vaxtang VI-is Tanamedrove ganZasaris somexi kaTalikosi esai hasan jalalianci Tavis cnobil naSromSi vaxtang VI-s somexTa ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis organizatorad da meTaurad warmogvidgens205. msgavs Sefasebas aZleven vaxtang VI-is moRvaweobas Tanadrouli sxva somexi avtorebic (daviT begis istoriisa da sxvadasxva xasiaTis JamTaaRmwerlobaTa avtorebi). saqarTvelos da somxeTis gaerTianebis idea somxur istoriografiaSi erTob aqtualuri xdeba Teimuraz II-sa da erekle IIis qarTlsa da kaxeTSi, TiTqmis, gamefebisTanave. XVIII s. 50-ian wlebSi erekle II-is gaxmaurebuli samxedro warmatebebis STabeWdilebiT sruliad somexTa kaTalikosi Rukasi (luka) werda: "daimorCila borCalos, yazaxis, erevnis, ganZakis, arcaxisa da sivnieTis mflobelni, gvirgvini daidga da gamefda saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi mdinare axurianamde~ 206. XVIII s. 60-iani wlebidan moyolebuli, TiTqmis, saukunis bolomde somxur politikur wreebSi aqtiurad ganixileboda qarTul-somxuri gaerTianebuli saxelmwifos Seqmnis sxvadasxva proeqtebi, romlebmac somxur saistorio, Tu samarTlebriv literaturaSi poves asaxva. am mxriv

Î ñ Ï ë ¶ Ý ³ » Ç ä ï á à õ Ñ Û ó  ý Ç « 1 0 « ¿ 3 1 Êèðàêîñ ÃàíäçàÇ ³ á ³ Ó Ïó « ³ Ù õ Ç Ý ³ á « Ç É ë 99 ç 0 êåöè, Èñòîðèÿ Àðìåíèè. Ïåðåâîä ñ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîãî, ïðåäèñëîâèå è êîììåíòàðèè Ë. À. Õàíëàðÿí, Ìîñêâà, 1976, ñ. 195 200 ix. somxur xelnawerTa anderZebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, hiStakarani 60, komentari 56. 201 leon meliqseT-begi, Zveli somxuri literaturis istoria, Tb., 1941, gv. 164-165. 202 araqel davriJecis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, k. kucias gamoc. Tbilisi, 1974, gv. 12.

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k. kucia, grigor daranaRcis cnoba simon I-is stambolSi tyveobis Sesaxeb, saqarTvelos istoriis aRmosavluri masalebi, I., Tb. 1976, gv. 122-123. 204 Çàõàðèé Êàíàêåðöè, Õðîíèêà, Ìîñêâà, 1969, ñ. 55. 205 esai hasan jalalianci, avRanTa qveynis mokle istoria, karlo kucias gamocema, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 30-38.

206

¸Çí³Ý ѳÛáó å³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ« 6« 1899« ¿ç. 729

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simbolurad gamoiyureba Samir da iakob Sahamirianebis avtorobiT 1773 w. madrasSi gamosuli wigni `didebis maxe~ (vorogaiT farac), romlis satitulo gverdze moxseniebulia `mamamTavroba uflisa simeonisa, sruliad somexTa kaTalikosisa vaRarSapats da mefoba uavgustesis uflis erekle meorisa Tbiliss~. amiT es somxuri politikuri wre qarTl-kaxeTis mefe erekle II-s ukve oficialurad aRiarebda somxeTis mefedac. gasagebia, rom XII-XVII saukuneebis somxuri istoriografiis produqcia Tanadroul qarTvelTa gansakuTrebul komentars aRar saWiroebda.

Tavi II XIX saukunis somxuri istoriografia carizmis antiqarTuli ideologiuri politikis samsaxurSi

qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis marcxTan erTad (1801 w.) somxuri istoriografiis damokidebuleba saqarTvelos istoriis mimarT erTbaSad Seicvala da, ZiriTadad, negatiuri saxe miiRo. am arasasurvel movlenas, ra Tqma unda, Tavisi mizezebi gaaCnda, rogorc obieqturi ise subieqturic, romelTa Soris umTavresi, mainc, rusuli imperiis koloniuri politika iyo. sakiTxis arsSi ukeT gasarkvevad mcire istoriul eqskurssac mivmarToT. kavkasiaSi damkvidrebisTanave ruseTma, ramdenadac paradoqsulad ar unda JRerdes, yvelaze meti Seurigebloba da undobloba gamoiCina imis mimarT, vinc gza gauxsna mas kavkasiaSi Semosasvlelad. rusuli imperiis es umaduroba gamowveuli unda yofiliyo Semdegi motivebiT: 1. mfarvelisa da megobris niRbiT Semosulma erTmorwmune ruseTma veragulad daarRvia piroba da qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis dacvis magier, is ZaliT gaauqma, riTac qarTveli xalxis Rirseba Zlier Selaxa. mis mier pativayrili xalxis ndoba ki mas aRar SeeZlo. 2. mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebrivi tradiciebis mqone qarTveli xalxi, represiebis miuxedavad, ar urigdeboda damoukideblobis dakargvas da winaaRmdegobis sakvirvel unars iCenda. 1802 wlis Tavad-aznaurTa gamosvla, 1804 wlis mTiuleTis ajanyeba, 1812 wlis kaxeTis ajanyeba, 1819-20 wlebis dasavleT saqarTvelos ajanyeba, 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba da sxva TanxmobiT mowmobdnen, rom ruseTis imperia CvenSi verasodes povebda Tavisi batonobisaTvis myar dasayrdens. mxolod TavadaznaurTa mcire nawilis mimxroba da garuseba SeZlo imperiam 40-iani wleb-

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is Semdeg, rac misi politikuri miznebisaTvis sulac ar iyo sakmarisi. 3. qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi tradiciebisa da mdidari qarTuli kulturis gavlena kavkasiaSi jer isev mniSvnelovani iyo, rac carizmis politikis warmatebas am regionSi seriozul dabrkolebas uqmnida. erTi sityviT, saqarTvelo da qarTveli xalxi ruseTisaTvis danaRmul vels waagavda, romlis gauvnebelyofis gareSe Tavisufali moqmedeba ezRudeboda. aseTi viTarebis gamo iyo, rom politikuri cvlilebebi samxreT kavkasiaSi, rac ruseTis gabatonebas mohyva am regionSi, Tavidanve, aSkarad, qarTvelTa erovnuli interesebis sawinaaRmdegod warimarTa. jer iyo da, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebam, TavisTavad, ucxo eTnikuri warmomavlobis saqarTvelos Zveli mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani nawilis kulturul-politikur cnobierebaSi bzari gaaCina, rac saTanadod aisaxa somxuri mosaxleobis ganwyobaSic. saerTo qarTul interesebTan sakuTari interesebis kvlavac dakavSireba, miT ufro, qveynis axali patronis mZlavrobis viTarebaSi, somexTa umravlesobisaTvis saeWvo da mizanSeuwoneli gaxda, ris gamoc man tradiciuli TanamSromlobidan daSoreba da gaucxoeba iwyo. n. maris dakvirvebiT, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos somxobam `qarTuli erovnuli koleqtivis mesame wodebis mdgomareobidan somxur sazogadoebriv Zalad iwyo gardaqmna~1 . saqarTvelos sazogadoebaSi dawyebuli gaucxoebis es procesi xels aZlevda mTavrobas da misi Semdgomi gaRrmaveba-ganviTarebisaTvis praqtikul RonisZiebebsac saxavda. gansakuTrebiT mavne Sedegebis momtani iyo mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis qarTvelTa sazianod meqanikuri Secvla, xalxebis erTmaneTTan dapirispireba da TviT qarTuli erovnuli sxeulis kuTxuri, eTnografiuli da konfesiuri niSniT daSla-danawileba, qarTuli enis devna, misi istoriisa da kulturis waSla-aRmofxvra da sxva. saqarTvelos kolonizacias ukve 1801 w. 12 seqtembris manifestisaTvis TandarTuli reskripti iTvaliswinebda. mravalricxovani ucxo eTnikuri jgufebis mozidva saqarTveloSi da vrceli

axali dasaxlebebis Seqmna im dros, roca adgilobrivi qarTveli glexi miwis naklebobas ganicdida da Tavisufal miwebze dasaxlebas ukrZalavdnen, bunebrivia, rom es mosulsa da damxvdurs Soris dapirispirebas badebda. sayuradReboa, rom saqarTveloSi imperiis demografiuli politikis realizacia, upiratesad, somxur elements hqonda mindobili. ucxoeTidan somxebis Camosaxleba jer kidev generalma pavle cicianovma daiwyo erevnis mxridan da iranis azerbaijanidan, romelTac qvemo qarTlis soflebSi asaxlebdnen. am saqmeSi gansakuTrebiT gamoiCina Tavi generalma paskeviCma, romlis garjiT mesxeTSi 30 aTasi somexi Camoasaxles. ori aTas ojaxze meti ­ borCalos, walkis dabambak-Soragelis midamoebSi. mTavroba SemdgomSic Tanamimdevrulad ganagrZobda, ZiriTadad, saqarTvelos sazRvrispira raionebSi kompaqturi somxuri dasaxlebebis Seqmnas. im miwebis mniSvnelovani nawili, romelic emigraciaSi wasvlamde afxazebs ekavaT, XIX s. 8090-ian wlebSi daikaves TurqeTidan mosulma somxebma. imave periodSi somxuri dasaxlebebi Seiqmna baTumSi. somxebis Camosaxlebam saqarTveloSi maqsimums miaRwia XIX-XX ss. mijnaze. xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi (1897-1902) saqarTveloSi Semovida daaxloebiT 55 aTasi somexi, romelTa umravlesoba Casaxlda TbilisSi, baTumSi, gorSi, soxumsa da afxazeTis soflebSi. marto TbilisSi 18971910 ww-Si somxebis raodenoba gaizarda 46,7 aTasidan 124,9 aTasamde, romelTagan 68 aTasi axlad mosuli iyo upiratesad TurqeTidan 2 . carizmis demografiuli politikis agresiuli xasiaTi imaSic vlindeboda, rom somexTa Camosaxlebas sazRvrispira raionebSi, magaliTad, samcxe-javaxeTSi, Tan sdevda qarTuli mosaxleobis devna-Seviwroeba 3 . l. zagurskis TqmiT, `qveyana iseT saxes iRebda TiTqos igi Tavidanve somxebiT yofiliyos dasaxlebuli~ 4 , maSin rodesac 1828 wlamde aq 90% qarTveli iyo. imperiis moxeleebis mier saqarTveloSi somxuri mosaxleobis meqanikurad da TanamimdevrobiT gazrda, romelic qveynis ucxoeTnikur nawilSi istoriulad isedac sxvaze ufro mravalricx2

3 1

Ìàðð Í. ß. Êàâêàçñêèé êóëüòóðíûé ìèð è Àðìåíèÿ, Ïåòðîãðàä,1915,ñ. 51.

4

v. jaoSvili, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XVIII-XX ss-Si, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 228. SoTa lomsaZe, samcxe-javaxeTi, Tbilisi, 1975, gv. 359-361. Ë. Çàãóðñêèé, Ïîåçäêà â Àõàëöèõñêèé óåçä â 1872 ã., ñ. 65.

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ovani da ekonomikuradac ufro SeZlebuli iyo, cxadyofda, rom imperias Tavisi batonobis socialur bazad CvenSi swored es mosaxleoba aerCia. aqeTken ubiZgebda ruseTis mTavrobas somxur savaWro burJuaziasTan misi Zveli kavSirebic, romlis gulis mogebas is yovelTvis cdilobda. amitom am mosaxleobis imperiis samsaxurSi Cayeneba, Canda, rom ruseTis mTavrobas ar unda gaWirveboda, romlis mniSvnelobis gasaZliereblad saqarTveloSi man sakmaod bevri gaakeTa. kavkasiis administraciis umaRles moxeleebs somexi vaWrebis materialuri da moraluri waqezeba Tanamdebobriv movaleobad miaCndaT aZlevdnen ra maT privilegiebs, monopoliebs, samxedro ijarebs, sesxebs da aniWebdnen sxva upiratesobebs. saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobisaTvis, ZiriTadad, misi mqonebeli fenisaTvis xelSewyobis reJimis Seqmna, gasagebia, am mosaxleobas xelisuflebisadmi loialurad ganawyobda da reJimiT kmayofili nawili Tavs ar zogavda carizmis politikuri interesebis dasacavad, raTa misgan SemdgomSi kidev ufro meti SeRavaTebi da xelSewyoba mieRo. magaliTad, Tbiliseli somexi vaWrebi daviT zargarovi da daviT mananovi, romelTac aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis TemebTan adre hqoniaT savaWro kavSirebi da iq `TavianTi kacebi~ hyavdaT, mefis jarebs aqtiurad daxmarebian ajanyebul TuS-xevsurTa `damSvidebaSi~5 . 1812 wlis kaxeTis ajanyebis CaxSobisas damsjel samxedro nawilebs did daxmarebas uwevdnen siRnaReli somexi vaWrebi amiran da artem Saverdovebi6 . niSandoblivia, rom 1838 w. baroni rozeni Sinagan saqmeTa ministrs graf bludovs sTxovda, raTa amiran da artem Saverdovebi XIV klasis CinebiT daejildoebinaT, romelTac kaxeTis ajanyebis Semdeg siRnaRSi bambis narTis warmoebisaTvis didi evropuli fabrika aeSenebinaT7 . kaxeTis 1812 w. ajanyebis CaxSobaSi somexTa rolze, bevrad ufro adre, mTavarmmarTebeli, kavkasiis jarebis mTavarsardali, infanteriis generali n.T. rtiSCevi aleqsandre I-s swerda: `mTel saqarTveloSi kaci aRar darCa Cveni erTguli. marto somxebma ara Tu ar miiRes monawileoba amboxebaSi, aramed sicocxlesa da qonebasac ar zogaven... Cven

5 6 7

jarebTan erTad ibrZodnen mSfoTvarTa gasawyvetad... mTavroba somxebs unda umadlodes, rom droze da winaswar ityobda, ras apirebdnen meamboxeni da sad hqondaT bina~8 . somexTa erTgulebis gansamtkiceblad 1812 w. 13 maiss generali rtiSCevi imperators sTxovda saqarTvelos somexTa dajildoebas9 . imave wlis 15 seqtembers TbilisSi iReben aleqsandre I-is werils, romliTac saqarTvelos somxur mosaxleobas ruseTis winaSe damsaxurebisaTvis imperatori madlobas ucxadebda. imperatoris es werili sabWoTa periodis ramdenime somexi avtoris wignSi gamoqveynda, sul bolos ki am werilma Tavisi adgili 1995 w. moskovSi gamocemul sergo mamulovis wignSi pova ise, rom avtors, amis gamo, rogorc Cans, araviTari uxerxuloba ar ugrZvnia10. imperiis erTguli samsaxuris sanacvlod miRebuli privilegiebisa da mxardaWeris wyalobiT saqarTvelos somxuri burJuazia TandaTan daeufla qarTuli feodaluri aristokratiis qonebis mniSvnelovan nawils da gabatonebuli mdgomareoba moipova qalaqebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki TbilisSi. es viTareba asaxulia imdroindel oficialur dokumentebSi, agreTve, publicistur, mxatvrul da saerTod literaturul wyaroebSi. magaliTad, 1874 w. s. mesxi gazeT `droebaSi~ werda: `axlandeli Tbilisis komerciul cxovrebaSi wamyvan rols somexi vaWrebi TamaSoben; maT ekuTvniT uZrav-moZravi qonebis didi nawili. TiTo-orola imerels an megrels Tu SexvdebiT sadme, isic moxeleTa da sazogadoT wvril vaWarTa da mepatroneTa Soris... qalaqis 72 deputatiTgan mxolod sami Tu oTxi qarTvelia... erTi Tu ori rusi da erTic germaneli, danarCeni sul somxebi arian~11. somexi istorikosebis gamoangariSebiT, Tbilisis savaWro da samrewvelo sawarmoTa 60%-ze meti somex kapitalistebs ekuTvnodaT12. erTi mainc faqtia, somxuri burJuaziisadmi mTavrobis xelSewyobam Tavidanve iseT masStabebs miaRwia, rom ekonomikuri cxovrebis sadaveebi sul male somexi vaWrebis xelSi aRmoCnda da rusuli kapitalis

8 9

ÀÑÊÀÊ, V, # 2 139, gv. 106. iqve, VIII, #927, gv. 909. iqve.

10 11 12

ÀÑÊÀÊ, V, gv. 221-222. iqve. Ñ. Ìàìóëîâ, Àðìÿíå â Ãðóçèè, Ìîñêâà, 1995, ñ. 233. s. mesxi, nawerebi, Tbilisi, 1903, t. I, gv. 222-223. Èñòîðèÿ àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà, Åðåâàí, 1969, ñ. 168.

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interesebsac ki daupirispirda, ris gamoc XIX s. 70-80-iani wlebidan mTavroba cdilobda ukve zRvari daedo amierkavkasiaSi somxuri kapitalis Semdgomi gaZlierebisaTvis1 3. ruseTis savaWrosamrewvelo kapitalis warmomadgeneli, a. markovi werda: bunebrivi simdidriT uxvi mxare (e. i. amierkavkasia) Cayenebulia gansakuTrebiT araxelsayrel pirobebSi imis Sedegad, rom qveynis mTeli mwarmoeblurobis eqsploatacias ewevian somxebi, romelTac xelSi Caigdes TiTqmis mTeli vaWroba da romlebic amJamad miiswrafvian miisakuTron aq politikuri batonobac, cdiloben ra daiWiron administraciuli postebi 14 . rusul kapitalTan somxuri burJuaziis gansazRvruli dapirispirebis miuxedavad administracia SemdgomSic Tavisi politikis gatarebisas kavkasiaSi kvlavac somxur elements emyareboda. kavkasiis namestnikis voroncov daSkovis (1905-1915) TanaSemwe policiis dargSi generali Sirinkini daufaravad acxadebda, rom erTaderTi xalxi, romelic axal pirobebSi ruseTisaTvis amierkavkasiaSi gamodgeba dasayrden bazad, arian somxebi, romelTac hyavT Zlieri burJuazia, xolo yvelgan civilizebul (igulisxmeba kapitalistur) qveynebSi saxelmwifo emyareba burJuaziaso15. imperiis administraciis keTilganwyobilebisa da mfarvelobis pirobebSi, roca somexi vaWrebi da kapitalistebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da qveynis centralur qalaqSi, TbilisSi kerZo sakuTrebis mniSvnelovan nawils flobdnen da qonebrivi cenzis kanonis wyalobiTac Tbilisis saqalaqo TviTmarTvelobasac isini akontrolebdnen, mosalodnelia, rom somxur burJuazias istoriuli mezobeli qveynis mimarT patronis grZnoba daufleboda da somexTa `gamorCeulobis~ xorenaciseuli ideis gamococxlebisaTvis xeli Seewyo, rac XIX saukunidanve aisaxa kidec somxur istoriografiaSi. somxuri burJuaziis miswrafebaTa istoriuli

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paata guguSvili, saqarTvelosa da amierkavkasiis ekonomikuri ganviTareba XIX-XX saukuneebSi, t. 6, Tbilisi, 1979, gv. 339. À. Ìàðêîâ, Çàêàâêàçüå â òîðãîâîì îòíîøåíèé, æóðíàë "Ðóññêèé Âåñòíèê", 1884, ¹ 1, ñ. 176-178. sargis kakabaZe, qarTveli xalxis istoria 1783-1921, Tbilisi, 1997, gv. 225.

dasafuZvleba, gasagebia, rom axali drois somxuri istoriografiis umTavresi politikuri amocana unda gamxdariyo. misi realizacia ki, Seqmnili politikuri situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, ufro perspeqtiuli Canda maTTvis, xorenacis, sebeosisa Tu drasxanakertcis somexTa ganmadidebeli moTxrobebis farTo propagandis fonze, ­ saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis faqtebis gayalbebiT sazogadoebis TvalSi maTi mniSvnelobis gaufasureba da amiT qveynis kanonier patronTa moraluri daTrgunva, erTnairad xelsayreli iyo rogorc qveynis dasapatroneblad gamzadebuli somxuri burJuaziis interesebis, ise oficialuri xelisuflebisTvisac, romelic dReniadag cdilobda qarTvelTa winaaRmdegobis unarisa da mebrZoli sulis Cakvlas. qarTuli erovnuli cnobierebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi somxuri burJuaziisa da ruseTis mTavrobis ideologiuri politikis Tanxvedra, Cans, imperiis biurokratias kavkasiaSi Tavisi politikis warmatebis garantad esaxeboda. amitomac iyo, rom XIX-XX ss. rusuli da somxuri istoriografia xmaSewyobiT cdilobda saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis mniSvnelobis damcrobis gziT kavkasiis istoriis gadakeTebas. amgvari xmaSewyobis nimuSad moCans qarTvelTa erovnuli Rirsebis Semlaxavi aqcentebiT gajerebuli, metadre, peterburgis universitetis profesoris osip senkovskisa (1800-1858) da cnobili armenistis, imave universitetis profesoris qerobe patkanianis (1833-1889) kritikuli werilebi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ wyaroTmcodneobiT mniSvnelobaze. niSandoblivia, rom o. senkovskis werili `Íåêîòîðûå ñîìíåíèÿ êàñàòåëüíî èñòîðèè ãðóçèíîâ~ daibeWda Jurnal `Áèáëèîòåêà äëÿ ÷òåíèÿ~16-Si 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis marcxis axlo xanebSi, ris gamoc gamoqveynebuli werili gamiznulad politikur xasiaTs iZenda; amasve mowmobda werilis dausabuTebeli, provokaciuli Sinaarsic. peterburgis universitetis profesori Tanadroul sazogadoebas auwyebda, rom XII saukunemde, vidre daviT aRmaSenebeli Tbiliss gaanTavisuflebda, qarTvelebs amierkavkasiaSi saerTod ar ucxovriaT da maTi pirvelsacxovrisi Crdilo kavkasiaSia saZebnio. Zvel wyaroebSi moxseniebuli iberielebi qarTvelebi ar arian da es termini krebiTi

16

t. XXX, #10, 1838, gv. 151-172.

100

101

Sinaarsis Semcveli saxelia, romlis SemadgenlobaSi upirvelesi adgili somxebs ekavaT da romelTa gavlenis qveS moqceuli yofila amierkavkasiis sxva xalxebi (am debulebis kavSiri m. xorenacis koncefciasTan, vfiqrob, sruliad aSkaraa). vaxtang gorgasali ki Turqebis beladi iyoo. aseTi codnis mimwodebels `qarTlis cxovreba~ zRaprebis krebulad rom warmoedgina, albaT, arc araferi unda iyos gasakviri. o. senkovskis antimecnieruli paskvilis mxileba qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebis saukeTeso mcodnes mari broses, ra Tqma unda, ar gaWirvebia, ris gamoc saqarTvelos istoriis cilismwamebelma frangi swavlulis kritikaze pasuxi verc gamoZebna. 80-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis diskusiaSi CaerTo q. patkanianic. o. senkovskis ideebTan mas aaxloebda saqarTvelos istoriasTan tendenciurad uaryofiTi damokidebuleba. somexi mecnieri Tavis SromebSi xelaRebiT uaryofda qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis ara marto mecnierul Rirebulebas, aramed arsebobasac ki XII s-ze ufro adre. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebuli, romelic mas erT mTlian nawarmoebad warmoedgina da masze erTi nawilidan miRebuli STabeWdilebiT msjelobda17, sakmaod dabali Rirsebis Zeglad miaCnda. misi TqmiT, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ dasawyisi nawili ar emyareba adgilobriv werilobiT wyaroebs an zepirgadmocemebs. igi ubralod gamogonilia erTi kacis mier winaswar dasaxuli miznis Sesabamisad. etyoba avtori icnobda m. xorenacisa da agaTangelosis wignebs da ase Tu ise icoda Sah-names Sinaarsi, magram sargeblobda ara maTi xelnawerebiT, aramed zepirsityvieri variantebiT. misi azriT, qronikis (ase uwodebs is `qarTlis cxovrebas~) pirvel ganyofilebaSi (igulisxmeba sawyisi periodi aderki mefemde anu qristes Sobamde) Znelia Tundac erTi iseTi faqtis povna, romelsac eqneboda WeSmariti istoriuli Rirebuleba. misi daskvniT, am qarTuli qronikis avtori mcire, naklulovani codnis somexi beri unda iyos, romelsac qarTvelTa matiane SeuTxzavs qarTvelTave dakveTiT XII s., rodesac maT saerTod igrZnes istoriis daweris aucilebloba18.

17

q. patkanianis werilis gamoqveynebis droisaTvis `qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebuli jer kidev ar iyo mecnierulad Seswavlili da amisaTvis mxolod pirveli nabijebi keTdeboda. amitom qarTuli saistorio wyaros kritika da, Tundac, hiperkritika TavisTavad gansakuTrebuls da moulodnels arafers niSnavda. magram erTia, roca kritika wminda mecnieruli interesebiTaa gamowveuli da meore, roca mas, ZiriTadad, politikuri datvirTva aqvs da eris moralur daTrgunvas isaxavs miznad. miuxedavad imisa, rom q. patkaniani mecnieruli argumentebiT cdilobda msjelobas qarTlis cxovrebis xsenebul Zvel periodze da zogierTi angariSgasawevi SeniSvnebic aqvs gamoTqmuli, mis werilSi aSkarad igrZnoba saqarTvelos istoriisa da misi wyaroebis damcrobis daucxromeli survili, risTvisac arc faqtebis gayalbebas aridebs Tavs. cnobili armenistis arakeTilsindisieri damokidebuleba saqarTvelos warsulis kvlevisadmi, ra Tqma unda, SeumCneveli ar darCenia Tanadroul qarTul sazogadoebas. dimitri baqraZe ukve 1884 w. gamoqveynebul naSromSi werda: `Cveni fiqriT, q. patkanovi ar aris gulwrfeli maZiebeli istoriuli simarTlisa. is ver iTvisebs verc erTs cxovels da ueWvel faqtebze damyarebuls azrs qarTuli istoriisas, Tu es azri ewinaaRmdegeba imis azrs somxurs istoriaze. CvenTvis erTgvar Zvirfasia rogoraTac somxuri, agreTve qarTuli wyaroebi: Cvenis fiqriT, erTma meore unda Seasworos da Seavsos~19. Semdeg ki Tavisi sityvebis dasadastureblad mohyavs faqtebisadmi somexi istorikosis arakeTilsindisieri damokidebulebisa da gayalbebis konkretuli SemTxvevebi. magaliTad, q. patkaniani arakeTilsindisierad imowmebda stefanos orbelians, romelic, TiTqos, Zvel qarTul saistorio mwerlobis did siRaribeze Ciodao, maSin rodesac, SeniSnavda d. baqraZe, stefanozi aRniSnavda ara saerTod qarTuli wyaroebis simcires, aramed maTSi cnobebis iSviaTobas orbelTa sagvareulos Sesaxeb, rac gamowveuli iyo giorgi III-is sadamsjelo RonisZiebebiT misi xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg ajanyebuli orbelebis mimarT, romelTa xseneba saqarTvelos mefis brZanebiT yvela samwerlo Zeglebidan aRmoifxvra20. d. baqraZis obieqturobaSi mkiTxvelis gansasjelad

19

18

ix. qarTlis cxovrebis Zveli somxuri Targmani, ilia abulaZis gamocema, Tbilisi, 1953, gv. 012. ix. Ê. Ïàòêàíîâ, Âàíñêèå íàäïèñè è çíà÷åíèå èõ äëÿ èñòîðèè Ïåðåäíåé Àçèè, ÆÌÍÏ, ÷àñòü ÑÑÕÕÕ, äåêàáðü, 1883, ñ. 199-274.

20

dimitri baqraZe, profesori patkanovi da qarTuli istoriis wyaroebi, Tbilisi, 1884, gv. 2-3. iqve.

102

103

moviyvanT amonawers st. orbelianis Txzulebidan sakamaTo sakiTxze: `xolo odes gamefda qarTlSi pirveli mefe farnavaz, aRmatebiT pativi miiRes mis mier orbelianT da aravin iyo msgavsi maTi qarTlSi Tvnier mefisa. xolo ese ambavi mcired vcaniT qarTvelT moTxrobaTagan. garna SuriTa giorgi mefisaTa, romelman guariT aRxoca igini saqarTuelodam, axoces saxelni maTni moTxrobaTagan T¢sTagan, romlisaT¢s Cvenca gamoZiebiT da zed-miwevniT vscaniT mciredi... xolo vina¡Tgan axocil iyo saxsenebeli winaparTa maTTa hambavTani, mkacrebani da moqmedebani Cinebulni orbelianTagani maT JamTa mweralTagan, romelsa `qarTlis cxovrebas~ uxmoben, amisT¢s Cven vera vscaniT viTareba da rigi sity¢sa, raTamca ragisaebr dagvewera werilsa amas Sina~21. es amonaweri garda imisa, rom zedmiwevniT adasturebs d. baqraZis simarTles, amasTan Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerlobis simdidresa da misi cnobebis siuxvesac gvidasturebs, ramdenadac somxuri wyaros mowmobiT orbelianTa Tavgadasavali gadmocemuli yofila ara erTi romelime mwerlis, aramed mweralTa mier. aseve mravlobiT ricxvSia mocemuli `qarTvelTa moTxrobebi~, sadac jer kidev yofila SemorCenili mcire cnobebi orbelianebze. sayuradReboa, agreTve, XIII s. somxur ZeglSi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebulis saxiT moxsenieba, romelsac q. patkaniani, ratomRac, vaxtang VI-is droindelad da mis Sedgenilad miiCnevda, riTac Zalze amcrobda am Zeglis mniSvnelobas. 1884 w. ufro adreuli, mariamiseuli nusxis aRmoCenis Semdeg q. patkaniani iZulebuli gaxda eRiarebina, rom vaxtang mefes araviTari kavSiri ar hqonda Zveli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ SedgenasTan. d. baqraZe gansakuTrebiT aRSfoTebuli iyo q. patkanianis im gancxadebiT, rom, TiTqos, XI-XII ss. qarTvelebs sakuTari istoriis saWiroeba ver ucvniaT. amiT gakvirvebuli d. baqraZe werda: `ram afiqrebina q. patkanovs, viTomc qarTveli eri iseT velur mdgomareobaSi iyo, rom ver grZnobda saWiroebas istoriisas meTormete saukunemde da aqac ki, Tu ar isic umecris somxis SemweobiT man ver SesZlo Tavisi istoria TviTonve Seedgina~22. o. senkovskisa da q. patkanianis

21

xsenebuli naSromebi faqtobrivad uaryofdnen amierkavkasiaSi qarTveli xalxis odindel istoriul arsebobas da mis, araTu Rvawls, aramed monawileobasac ki mdidari kavkasiuri civilizaciis SeqmnaSi, rac, bunebrivia, Tanadrouli qarTuli inteligenciis samarTlian protests iwvevda. Tu q. patkaniani saqarTvelos istoriaze msjelobisas m. xorenacidan amodioda, romelic kavkasias somxeTis politikur da kulturul sivrced ganixilavda, o. senkovskis insinuaciebis erTaderTi sayrdeni imperiis ideologiuri politika iyo kavkasiaSi. aseT situaciaSi saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis sakiTxebze polemikam wminda politikuri Seferiloba miiRo da is erovnul sakiTxSi gadaizarda. SemTxveviTi sulac araa, rom XIX s. 70-80-ian wlebSive somxuri istoriografia qarTuli erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis moRvaweTa yuradRebis centrSi moeqca, ramdenadac mTavroba, ZiriTadad, somxuri burJuaziisa da misi msaxuri istoriografiis xeliT cdilobda Tavisi xalxTmoZule politikis gatarebas kavkasiaSi. am droisTvis somxur burJuazias yvela SesaZlebeli privilegia ukve hqonda mopovebuli kavkasiaSi. rCeboda erTaderTi, teritoriuli uflebebi. cxadia, somxebi imperias ver mosTxovdnen maTTvis saqarTveloSi oranJis respublikis Seqmnas (am mxriv sagulisxmoa geronti qiqoZis Tvalsazrisi saqarTveloSi mosaxle somxebze, romelTac igi `Cvens oranJistebs~ uwodebda23). magram, rogorc Cans, gabatonebuli reJimis interesebis dacvisa da erTguli samsaxuris sanacvlod, somxur burJuazias SesaZleblad miaCnda imperiis teritoriul-administraciul sistemaSi iseT cvlilebebze mTavrobis dayolieba, romlebic saSualebas miscemda mas mezobelTa teritoriebis mniSvnelovani nawilis sakuTar eTnikur sivrceSi moqcevas, rac kidev ufro gaaZlierebda mis ekonomikur SesaZleblobebs da safuZvels Seuqmnida momavalSi, xelsayreli politikuri situaciis Seqmnis SemTxvevaSi, saocnebo teritoriuli pretenziebis realizacias. amgvari ganwyobilebebi, ra Tqma unda, uSualod ganapirobebda somex avtorTa TxzulebebSi saqarTvelos istoriis ara marto muq ferebSi, aramed gayal-

22

stefanos orbelianis "cxovreba orbelianTa"-s Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi, qarTul-somxuri teqstebi gamosca e. cagareiSvilma, Tb. 1978, gv. 29-30. d. baqraZe, profesori patkanovi..., gv. 13.

23

geronti qiqoZe, erovnuli energia, Tbilisi, 1919, gv. 197.

104

105

bebuladac warmoCenas. XIX s. meore naxevridan mainc saqarTvelos istoriis gayalbebam somxur istoriografiaSi, TiTqmis, sistematuri xasiaTi miiRo. saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis moRvaweTa yuradReba, gansakuTrebiT miipyro XIX s. meore naxevarSi gamocemulma somex avtorTa im naSromebma, romlebSic somxeTis istoriasTan kavSirSi ganixileboda istoriuli memkvidreobisa da saerTod kavkasiis istoriuli geografiis mTeli rigi problemebi. I858 w. moskovSi gamoica mkrtiC eminis mier Targmnili movses xorenacis `somxeTis istoria~, SesavliTa da komentarebiT; I859 w. al. xudabaSevis `Îáîçðåíèå Àðìåíèè~, I877 w. q. patkanianma rusul enaze gamosca "somxuri geografia" gamokvleviTurT, Tbilisis somxur da rusul periodul gamocemebSi ibeWdeba al. ericianis werilebi istoriuli geografiisa Tu saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis istoriis sakiTxebze24. I898 w. peterburgSi g. ezovma (eziani) gamosca dokumentTa krebuli saxelwodebiT `Ñíîøåíèÿ Ïåòðà Âåëèêîãî ñ àðìÿíñêèì íàðîäîì~ vrceli Sesavali weriliT. imave XIX s. meore naxevarSi q. patkanianma da m. eminma rusul enaze gamosces Sua saukuneebis somex avtorTa ­ sebeosis, levondis, movses kalankatuacis, vardanisa da sxvaTa araerTi (erT aTeulze meti) Txzuleba. saistorio mecnierebisaTvis, TavisTavad, am erTob saSur saqmes seriozul Crdils ayenebda gamomcemelTa mcdeloba TavanTi komentarebiT uaryofiTi sazogadoebrivi azri SeeqmnaT saqarTvelos istoriaze, rac mxolod carizmis kavkasiur ideologiur politikasTan modioda srul TanxmobaSi. somex mecnierTa am jgufis mWidro kavSiri mTavrobis politikasTan da maTi arakeTilsindisieri, arsebiTad mtruli damokidebuleba saqarTvelos warsulisa da momavlisadmi saaSkaraoze gamoitana da kritikis qarcecxlSi gaatara ilia WavWavaZem. Tavis gaxmaurebul werilSi `qvaTa RaRadi~ igi werda: `mTeli samoci weliwadia, rac erTi da igive Weqa-quxili erTisa da imave tendenciisa Cven vinaobas erCis da dRemudam ufro metis kadnierebiT, ufro metis gabedviT, meti silaRiT tyavs

aZrobs da warRvnas uqadis... is dRea da es dRe somxis mwignobarni imis cdasa da metyvelebaSi arian, rom saqarTvelo rac SeiZleba avis TvaliT daanaxvon qveyanas, rac SeiZleba meti wili CamoaTalon da TviTon miiTvison, rac SeiZleba gaauqmon warsulic, SebRalon awmyoca~25. ilia WavWavaZem damajereblad cxadyo, rom somex mecnierTa am jgufis mier saqarTvelos istoriis nebismieri sakiTxis uRirsad warmoCenis umTavresi mizezi yovelTvis da yvelgan teritoriuli pretenziebi iyo, iqneboda es istoriuli geografiis, politikuri istoriis, konfesiuri urTierTobisa Tu kulturis sakiTxebze msjeloba. didi mwerali aRniSnavda, rom aSkara faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod emini, xudabaSaevi, ericovi samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos gvecilebian da amtkiceben, TiTqos, mtkvris saTavis adgilebi, mTeli Woroxis xeoba ­ did somxeTs ekuTvnodneno. maT imisTana somexTa momxre kacic ki amtyunebs, rogoric sen-martenia. am evropeli mecnieris mtkicebiT, seri mTebisa, romelic Woroxisa, mtkvrisa, evfratisa da araqsis wyalTgamyrelia, mudmivi sazRvari iyo qarTvelTa da somexTa Soriso, da miuxedavad amisa, somxebis mwignobarni mainc Tavisas gaiZaxian da binas ikeTeben iq, saca ara hqoniaT. gana aSkara ar aris, SeniSnavda ilia, rom am cuRlutur mecnierebiT swadianT qveyanas daajeron, viTomc istoriuli ufleba miuZRviT am adgilebSi binis dadebisa26. sxva adgilas ki, amxelda ra g. ezovs faqtebis gayalbebaSi, iqve ganmartavda: _ zRapars maSin gamoicnobT, roca gaixsenebT ezovis dafarul azrsa: saqarTvelo saqarTvelo ki ar aris, Zveli somxeTiao. es macduri da wyeuli survili gzas ubnevs b-ns ezovs da sisuleles aroSvinebs mecnierebis saxeliTo27. axasiaTebda ra qarTul somxur urTierTobaSi bolo samoci wlis manZilze ganviTarebul movlenebs, ilia werda: saocari aq kidev is aris, rom es samoci wlis mTeli xana rusis mwerlisagan iwyeba da rusis mwerliTve Tavdeba. maTSua mTeli mwkrivia somexTa mecnierT-mwignobrebisa ase, rom Tavidan bolomde erTi lari gasWimoT, sul yvelas igi lari mxarze gada-

25 24

"Êàâêàçñêàÿ ñòàðèíà", 1872, ¹ 1. ñ. 20; ÂÇýÉÇëÇ Ñ³Ûù »õ Ýáó³ íÇ׳ϳ·ñáõÃÇõÝ« §öáñÓ¦« 1879« N 10« ¿ç. 1-34.

26 27

ilia WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawarmoebebi, tV, Tbilisi, 1987, gv.29-30. iqve, gv. 31-32. iqve, gv. 77.

106

107

uvlis, ase mwyobrad mRaRadebelni arian erTisa da imave gangeb akviatebul azrisa28. ilias am miniSnebebidan kargad Cans, rom somex avtorTa sastiki kritikis miuxedavad, codvas mTel somxur sazogadoebas ki ara, politikur koniunqturas miawerda, romelic im dros qarTvelTa Rirsebis sawinaaRmdegod da samtrod iyo momarTuli. igi mxolod imperiisa da somxuri burJuaziis mtacebluri interesebis samsaxurSi myof mecnier-mweralTa erT gunds adanaSaulebda, romelic Tavisi moRvaweobiT ara imdenad mecnierebis sasargeblod irjeboda, ramdenadac istoriul mezoblebs Soris undoblobasa da siZulvils Tesavda. ilia aRSfoTebiT werda: Zneli mosaTmenni arian es xudabaSovebi, patkanovebi, qiSmiSovebi, ezovebi, arwrunebi da erTob igi erTi gundi somxebisa, romelTac RmerTma moaxmaroT TavianT Tavis qeba-dideba da Cvens moTxras ki ver davanebebT da amaSi, imedia, yvela WkvaTamyofeli somexi dagveTanxmeba. ai, swored aq aris Tavi da bolo dasabami da dasasruli im mwvave ganxeTqilebisa, romelic aseTis gulmodginebiT STamoses CvenSi umecarTa mecnierTa da erTmaneTze aalurses qarTveli da somexi. Torem sad iyo CvenSi im ormoc - samoci wlis winaT erTmaneTis aseTi aTvaliswuneba, erTmaneTSi ar virCeodiT da Tumca sxvadasxva modgmisani da sarwmunoebisani viyaviT, magram somxobiT qarTvelis Zulebas da qarTvelobiT somxebisas CvenSi adgili ara hqonia Cvenda sabednierod da sasaxelod... Cven kargad viciT, rom winandel saqarTvelos uZlureba daiwyo im ubedur dReTagan, roca-ki pirqve daemxo ­ eg Cveni winandeli zRude samxreTiT. Cven CrdiloeTiT vinaxavdiT somxeTs da somxebi Cven gvinaxavdnen samxreTiT... daeca somxeTi, samxreTis kari Ria darCa saqarTveloSi Semosasvlelad... gana CvenTvis ki sanatrelia eseTi daqsaqsuloba somxebisa. RmerTma misceT Rone da unari erTad moiyaron Tavi iq, saidanac ayrilan da aqa iq gafantulan. xolo Cven Cvensas nu gvecilebian, Cveni saxelis gatexiT nu cdiloben TavianTvis saxelis keTebas da Semkobas 29 . ilias gulistkivili sruliad samarTliani da gasagebi iyo. qarTvelebsa da somxebs urTierTdapirispireba ki ara, Tanxmoba da urTierT28 29

gatana WirdebodaT, raTa saerTo mtris Semotevebisagan Tavis dacva SeZlebodaT. ilia WavWavaZis es gaxmaurebuli naSromi 1899 w. `iveriis~ Tormet nomerSi daibeWda (64-76), sul male ki calke broSuris saxiTac gamoica qarTul da rusul enebze. imavdroulad, qarTuli da somxuri perioduli gamocemebis furclebze mwvave polemika iyo gaSlili konfesiuri da eTnikuri kuTvnilebis urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxebze, rasac TeoriulTan erTad uaRresad praqtikuli mniSvnelobac gaaCnda. saqme is iyo, rom qarTvelTa da somexTa konfesiuri sxvaoba xelisuflebas konfesiuri dapirispirebis provocirebis saSualebas aZlevda, ris safuZvelzec ukve advili Canda rogorc istoriuli mezoblebis gaTiSva da maT Soris mtrobis Tesva, ise qarTuli sazogadoebis erTi gansazRvruli nawilis erovnul cnobierebaze ieriSis misatanad niadagis Semzadeba. ganzraxulis realizacias isic uwyobda xels, rom Sua saukuneebidan SemorCenili inerciiT sazogadoebrivi azri, eTnikur kuTvnilebas jer isev, konfesiis mixedviT gansazRvravda. somxuri sarwmunoebis wiaRSi sxvadasxva mizeziT gadasuli qarTuli mosaxleobis, upiratesad, vaWroba-xelosnobaSi CarTuli nawilis meryev eTnikur Segnebaze zemoqmedebisa da sabolood wasaSlelad, xelisufleba somxur eklesiasa da inteligenciasTan SeTanxmebiT mTel rig RonisZiebebs saxavda. maT Soris iyo iseTi uRirsi saSualebebi, rogoricaa am sazogadoebaSi qarTuli enis devna mis srul akrZalvamde, somxuri eklesiisa da ganaTlebisaTvis calmxrivad xelis Sewyoba da privilegiebis miniWeba, somxuris sasargeblo propagandis gaZliereba da saxelmwifoebrivi gadawyvetilebebi, romelTac, saboloo jamSi, unda uzrunveleyoT imperiuli politikis mTavari amocanis ­ qarTuli erovnuli sxeulis daSla-danawilebis daCqareba, rac sxva RonisZiebebTan erTad Seamcirebda qarTveli xalxis winaaRmdegobis Zalas da mas mTavrobis nebas daumorCilebda. kavkasiaSi somxuri eklesiis mizidulobis unaris gasazrdelad, jer kidev nikoloz I-ma mas gaumravla mamulebi, gaanTavisufla yovelgvari gadasaxadebisagan da gauzarda pensiebi30, rac Tavis-

ilia WavWavaZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 29. ilia WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawarmoebebi, gv. 110-111.

30

Àêòû..., ò. IX, ñ. 22.

108

109

Tavad, mis mrevlsac garkveul SeRavaTian pirobebSi ayenebda. 1862 wlis 30 aprils Sinagan saqmeTa ministri voluevi kavkasiis mefisnacvlis movaleobis Semsrulebels grigol orbelians Seaxsenebda, rom rusuli politikis warmatebisaTvis aRmosavleTSi didi mniSvneloba hqonda somxur-grigorianul eklesiasTan maT urTierTobas da miuTiTebda ­ `mxedvelobaSi iqonieT, rom somxuri eklesia yovelTvis sargeblobda Cveni mTavrobis mfarvelobiT da imperiis sazRvrebs gareT grigorianebs mxars uWerda da amagrebda kaTolike misionerebis winaaRmdeg~31. somxuri eklesiis mfarvelobis am fonze, yovelmxriv izRudeboda ruseTis erTmorwmune qarTuli eklesia, romelic peterburgis sinodis ubralo danamatad gadaaqcies. gasagebia, rom aseT viTarebaSi somxuri eklesia qarTuli mosaxleobis gansazRvruli, gansakuTrebiT, ekonomikurad SeWirvebuli nawilisaTvis cTunebis sagani gaxda. araerTi SemTxvevaa aRniSnuli, roca ymobas gamoqceuli qarTveli glexebi Tavs afarebdnen somxur eklesias, romelic maTTvis socialuri dacvis ZiriTad saSualebad qceuliyo. XIX s. xalxis aRweris davTrebSi, metadre, saojaxo siebis cnobebSi sruliad naTlad ikveTeba qarTuli mosaxleobis erTi mniSvnelovani nawilis somxur sarwmunoebaze gadasvlis suraTi 32 , romelic amis gamo somxuri eTnosis kuTvnilebad ganixileboda. XIX s. ruseTis oficialuri statistika yovel aRweraSi somxur-grigorianuli sarwmunoebis mosaxleobas, misi mSobliuri enisgan damoukideblad, somxur erovnebas miakuTvnebda, riTac axerxebda somxuri erovnebis gaZlierebas qarTuli erovnebis Sesustebs xarjze33. mTavroba gansakuTrebuli mondomebiT iRvwoda qarTvel kaTolikeTa gasasomxeblad, risTvisac zogjer arc pirdapir Zaladobas erideboda. imperiis religiuri politika, Tumcaki, ver egueboda mis sivrceSi kaTolikuri Temebis funqcionirebas, magram somexi kaTolikeni kavkasiaSi mainc privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi hyavda, ris gamoc qarTveli kaTolikeni iZulebulni

xdebodnen laTinurTan erTad somxur tipikonzec mdgariyvnen. XIX s. Sua wlebSi mTavrobam miiRo gadawyvetileba, romlis cxovrebaSi gatareba qarTvel kaTolikeebs srul gasomxebas uqadda. 1852 w. 18 ianvars Sinagan saqmeTa ministri perovski somexTa kaTalikoss acnobebda, rom imperatoris nebiT mas ufleba eZleoda somexi kaTolikeebi (maT Soris igulisxmebodnen somxur tipikonze mdgari qarTveli kaTolikeebic) grigorianul sarwmunoebaze gadaeyvana34. somxur tipikonze mdgari qarTveli kaTolikeebi protestiT Sexvdnen mTavrobis am gadawyvetilebas da ufro dabejiTebiT moiTxoves maTTvis qarTulenovani mRvdelmsaxurebis daweseba eklesiebSi. mRvdelmsaxurebis enis garSemo gaSlili brZolis pasuxad, mTavrobam aRar daayovna da 1886 w. kaTolikur eklesiebSi qarTuli ena brZanebiT akrZala35. 1893 w. ki gamovida umaRlesi brZaneba, sadac Tbilisis qarTvel kaTolikeTa eklesia moxseniebuli iyo somxur eklesiad36. xelisuflebis mxardaWeriT Segulianebuli somxuri eklesia da burJuazia mis xelT arsebuli yvela saSualebiT (mRvdelmsaxureba, presa da sxva) sul ufro aZlierebda fsiqologiur zewolas somxuri da kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis qarTvelebze maT cnobierebaSi erovnuli Segnebis sabolood aRmofxvrisaTvis. es procesi miT ufro saSiSi xdeboda, rom qarTuli sazogadoebis eTnikuri rRvevis SemTxvevaSi (imasTan erTad, rom mTavroba daJinebiT cdilobda qarTvelTa eTnografiuli jgufebis calkeul erovnebebad warmodgenas), SesaZloa, teritoriul-administraciuli cvlilebebic ganxorcielebuliyo, rac ukve qarTveli xalxis saarsebo sivrcis Semdgomi da seriozuli SezRudvis momaswavebeli iqneboda. amitomac eTnokonfesiur sakiTxebze qarTul da somxur periodul gamocemaTa furclebze gaSlilma polemikam erTob farTo xasiaTi miiRo da man istoriuli geografiisa da amierkavkasiis politikuri istoriis sakiTxebic moicva. amis gamo publicistebis wamowyebul kamaTSi qarTuli da somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenlebic Caebnen, ramac mas mwvave politikuri debatebis saxe

34

31 32

33

110

Àêòû..., ò. XII, ñ. 548. r. TofCiSvili, XIX s. mosaxleobis aRweris masalebi saqarTvelos eTnoistoriis da socialuri yofis Sesaxeb, "mnaTobi", #12, 1987. k. anTaZe, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XIX s-Si, Tbilisi, 1973, gv. 54-56.

35

36

m. TamaraSvili, pasuxad somxis mwerlebs, romelnic uaryofen qarTvelTa kaTolikobas, Tbilisi, 1904, gv 31. ix. S. lomsaZe, mixeil TamaraSvili da qarTveli kaTolikeni, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 21-23. iqve, gv. 25.

111

misca. am ideologiur brZolaSi, Tu qarTvelTa Semwed simarTle gamodioda, ekonomikuri da politikuri mxardaWeris mxriv somexTa SesaZleblobani, gasagebi mizezebis gamo, Seudareblad didi iyo. somexTa es upiratesoba imiTac gamoixata, rom XIX da XX ss. aTiani wlebis, TiTqmis bolomde, somxuri Jurnal-gazeTebi da calkeuli gamocemebi ricxobrivad Warbobda qarTuls. marto 1846-1871 ww-Si somxur enaze TbilisSi gamodioda Svidi dasaxelebis Jurnali da gazeTi: `kovkas~, `ararat~, `meRu haiastan~, `garun~, `vaWarakan~, `krunq haioc aSxarh~, `haikakan aSxarh~. Semdeg maT daemataT sxvebi, magaliTad, `mSak~-i, `murW~-i da sxvebi. kavkasiis kalendris cnobiT, 1913 w. TbilisSi somxur enaze gamodioda 20-mde dasaxelebis Jurnal-gazeTi, romelTa saerTo tiraJi 20 aTass aRwevda. amave wels TbilisSi somxur enaze gamoica 241 dasaxelebis wigni da saswavlo saxelmZRvanelo37. albaT, sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom 1899 wlidan 1917 wlamde TbilisSi gamoica iseTi didformatiani wignebi, rogoricaa 12 tomiani `somxeTis istoriis divani~. somxuri propagandisaTvis gamoyenebuli iyo TbilisSi gamomavali rusulenovani periodikac. ramdenadac mokamaTe somxuri mxarisaTvis mTavari iyo Tbilissa da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi somexTa siWarbis STabeWdilebis Seqmna, yvela am tribunidan ubralod uaryofdnen rogorc qarTvel kaTolikeTa, ise somxuri sarwmunoebis mqone qarTvelTa krebulis arsebobis faqtsac ki. qarTvel kaTolikeTa winaaRmdeg gansakuTrebuli agresiulobiT gamoirCeoda 1897-98 ww-Si gazeT `mSak~-Si dabeWdili Tamazovis, saruxanis, naxapetianisa da sxvaTa werilebi. 1879 w. Jurnal `forZ~-Si (#10, gv. 1-34) daibeWda a. ericianis werili ­ `Tbiliseli somxebi da maTi statistikuri aRweriloba~, romelSic, cxadia, somxuri sarwmunoebis qarTvelTa sazogadoebac mTlianad iyo mikuTvnebuli somxur eTnoss. qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris sadavo kontigentis aRweras zaqaria WiWinaZec adasturebs. misi TqmiT, somxebma aRweres qarTlkaxeTis somxebad miCneuli mosaxleoba da maTi sia Jurnal "murW"-Si gamoaqveynes da mas `vrac xos haioc~ anu qarTulad molaparake somxebi uwodes38. niSandoblivia, rom msgavs pozicias

37 38

inarCunebs Tanamedrove somxuri istoriografiac (amaze calke visaubrebT Tanamedrove somex istorikosTa Sromebis ganxilvisas). qarTveli kaTolikeebisa da somxuri sarwmunoebis qarTvelebis Sesaxeb somxuri Tvalsazrisis winaaRmdeg XX s. dasawyisSi aqtiurad gamovidnen mixeil TamaraSvili da zaqaria WiWinaZe. mas Semdeg, rac qarTvel kaTolikeTa laTinur ritze mdgar eklesiebSi ruseTis mTavrobam mxari dauWira somxuri tipikonisa da somxuri enis damkvidrebas da sabolood qarTvel kaTolikeTa baton-patronad somxuri eklesia gamoacxada, imis mtkicebac ki gaxda saWiro, rom qarTuli kaTolikuri eklesia namdvilad qarTulia da mas Tavisi erovnuli istoriac hqonda39. qarTulma sazogadoebam am saqmis mogvareba mixeil TamaraSvils miando, romelmac brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi sakmaod rTul amocanas. vatikansa da evropis sxva arqivebsa da wignsacavebSi mopovebuli utyuari da didZali dokumenturi masaliT ara marto cxadyo qarTvel kaTolikeTa namdviloba, aramed misi mdidari istoriac warmoaCina XIII-XX saukuneTa mTel sigrZeze. misi 844 gverdiani wigni `istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris~ 1902 w. gamoica TbilisSi da man erTbaSad miipyro mkiTxveli sazogadoebis didi yuradReba. ilia WavWavaZem am wigns meore `qarTlis cxovreba~ uwoda. ori wlis Semdeg 1904 w. stefane zubalaSvilis `warsagebeliTa~ da p. mirianaSvilisa da z. WiWinaZis aqtiuri monawileobiT daibeWda m. TamaraSvilis romidan gamogzavnili naSromi `pasuxad somxis mwerlebs~, romelnic uaryofen qarTvelT kaTolikobas (istoriuli gamokvleva). dasaxelebuli wignebiT m. TamaraSvilma eTnokonfesiur sakiTxebze somxebTan kamaTi myar mecnierul niadagze gadaiyvana da, faqtobrivad, safuZveli gamoacala yovelgvar zerele gancxadebebs. kidev ori wlis Semdeg ibeWdeba, amjerad, z. WiWinaZis ukve xsenebuli mcire moculobis wigni, sadac m. TamaraSvilis msgavsad, somxebTan kamaTs, isic mecnierul kalapotSi gadayvaniT cdilobs. man pirvelma daiwyo qarTvel `gigorianTa~ (ase uwodebda is somxur sarwmunoebaSi gadasul qarTvelebs) gvarebis istoriis Seswavla uSualod am

39

Êàâêàçñêèé êàëåíäàðü íà 1915 ã. Òèôëèñ, 1914, ñ. 367-368. ix. qarTveli grigorianebi, istoriuli mimoxilva SavSeTisa, Tbilisi, 1906

m. papaSvili, saqarTvelo-romis urTierToba VI-XX saukuneebSi, Tbilisi, 1995, gv. 314-339.

112

113

wris respondentebisagan da informirebul TanamedroveTagan mowodebuli cnobebis safuZvelze. z. WiWinaZis gamoTvliT mis dros qarTlSi ramdenime aTasi `qarTveli grigoriani~ unda yofiliyo. manve damajereblad gviCvena `qarTvel grigorianTa~ problemis pirdapiri kavSiri qarTuli miwebis mimarT somexTa tradiciul pretenziebTan, romlebic aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi somexTa meqanikuri simravlis SeqmniT cdilobdnen qarTul miwebze `TavianTi istoriuli uflebis~ mtkicebas. amasTan dakavSirebiT z. WiWinaZe gulistkiviliT werda "somxeTs Sua gul qarTlidam Tvlian, sadac somexT xseneba aras dros ar yofila... somexT mweralni somxur kartebzec saqarTvelos armenias aweren, wignebSiac aseve, laparakSiac Tamamad amtkiceben... zogierT somxis swavlulni imasac gaiZaxian, rom mTeli kaxeTi didi somxeTis nawils Seadgenso da iq mcxovreb qarTvelnic mTlad somxis STamomavalni ariano. amazed bevrs gzis kamaTic yofila. es dResac xSiria da evropaSi somxis swavlulni aramc Tu martod kaxeTs hxveven xels, aramed samxreT saqarTvelosac ki armeniad aRiareben~40. z. WiWinaZisa da m. TamaraSvilis wignebi arsebiTad erT umTavres mizans emsaxurebodnen ­ qarTvelTa denacionalizaciis winaaRmdeg brZolas da qarTveli xalxis eTnikur konsolidacias, rac Tavisi SinaarsiT erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis Semadgeneli nawili iyo. am wignebis Rirsebas Seadgenda, agreTve, maTi avtorebis jansaRi politikuri xedva da alRo, romlebic kritikas warmarTavdnen ara saerTod somexTa mimarT, aramed m. TamaraSvilis TqmiT, `somxis zogierT mweralTa~ winaaRmdeg, romelTa saqmianoba erTnairad mavne iyo, rogorc qarTvelTa, ise somexTa erovnuli interesebisaTvisac. amis gamo z. WiWinaZe SeniSnavda: somex mweralTa qarTvelTa sawinaaRmdego mcdelobani didi Secdomaa... SemcdarT aRar esmiT TavianTi viTareba da amitom xSirad uZluri ebrZvis uZlurs, anu daCagruli sCagravs daCagruls... mere ras unda gvandes is garemoeba dauZlurebuli eri Tavisave msgavsad damonebul ers ebrZodes?41. ra Tqma unda, marTali iyvnen qarTuli erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis moRvaweni, roca werdnen, rom qarTvelTa gasomxebis mesveurebi, arsebuli

40 41

z. WiWinaZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 34. iqve, gv. 15-16.

politikuri situaciis pirobebSi nebiT Tu uneblied carizmis koloniuri politikis gamtarebelTa rigebSi dgebodnen. mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa da Tanafardobis meqanikurad Secvlis mTavrobis RonisZiebaTa gverdiT da mxardaWeriT, maTi cdebi ukve qarTveli xalxis winaaRmdeg demografiuli agresiis formas iRebda. ase rom, eTnikuri da konfesiuri Sesabamisobis propagandistTa moRvaweoba XIX da XX ss. damdegisaTvis arc ise uwyinari iyo Tavisi politikuri SedegebiT, rogorc es erTi SexedviT SeiZleboda danaxuliyo. qarTuli eTnikuri koleqtividan konfensiuri niSniT misi erTi mniSvnelovani nawilis Camocileba, sxva pirobebTan erTad, droTa ganmavlobaSi gardauvalad gamoiwvevda saqarTvelos teritoriis SekumSvis moTxovnasac. Cven vnaxavT, rom sul male movlenebis am mimarTulebiT ganviTarebisaTvis, mTavrobis RonisZiebebTan TanxmobiT, aqtiurad amoqmeddebian somxuri politikuri wreebi, romlebic 1909-1916 wwSi saerobo krebebze daJinebiT moiTxoven amierkavkasiis mTeli teritoriis erovnuli niSniT gamijvnas, xolo 1918 w. dekemberSi somex-qarTvelTa samarcxvino oms gamoiwveven, raSic XIX s. somxur istoriografiasac Tavisi wili edo. XIX da XX s. damdegs somxuri istoriografiis ideologiuri Tanxvedra rusul politikasTan gansakuTrebiT cxadad gamovlinda qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis istoriis, metadre, misi bolo periodis gadmocemisas. garda imisa, rom am xanis somxuri istoriografiis umetesi nawili gazviadebulad warmoadgenda saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis, somxuri savaWro kapitalisa da somxuri eklesiis moRvaweTa rolsa da mniSvnelobas qarTl-kaxeTis politikur cxovrebaSi, etyoba, rusuli administraciis saameblad, Zalze muq ferebSi, TiTqmis, katastrofulad gvixatavs XVIII s. bolo meoTxedis saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikur, politikur da saerTo kulturul viTarebas, rac met damajereblobas SesZenda rusuli dapyrobis gamarTlebas saqarTveloSi. aseT istoriul fonze, ruseTis mier veraguli xerxebiT saqarTvelos dapyrobas somexi avtorebi, lamis aris, did humanur aqciad afaseben, xolo am politikis Semdeg qveyanaze Tavsdamtydar yvela ubedurebaSi qarTul mxares adanaSauleben. aqedan gamomdinare, qvecnobierad keTdeba daskvna, rom erTaderTi jansaRi da gavleniani Zala qveyanaSi rusi samxedroebi da somxuri elementi iyo.

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aRniSnuli xanis somxuri istoriografiis kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Strixi. jer kidev ilia WavWavaZe g. ezovis naSromis ganxilvisas SeniSnavda: rac-ki sadme qarTvelebze cudi Tqmula, b-ns ezovs yvela TiTqo raRac sixaruliT moukrebia da gulSi gvaxlis. rac keTili Tqmula, yvela es saqeburad miumalavs42. wyaroebis aseTi calmxrivi gaSuqebis araerTi magaliTi mohyavs ilias g. ezovis naSromidan. maT Soris, qarTvelTa saxelis gasatexad ezovis mier damowmebuli ganZasaris kaTalikosis esai hasan jalaliancis Txzulebis erTi adgili, sadac aRwerilia vaxtang VI-is mxedrobis mier ganja-yarabaRis ramdenime somxuri soflis darbevis faqti. saqme is iyo, rom ganjis xanma javadma vaxtang VI-s sTxova lekebis Semawuxebeli Tavdasxmisagan misi saxanos dacva, risTvisac didZali Tanxis gadaxdas Sehpirda. vaxtangma advilad gareka ganjas garSemomdgari lekebi, magram javad xanma Sepirebuli Tanxa ver gadauxada, samagierod ki, mis xelisuflebas daqvemdebarebuli soflebis erTi nawili misca sarbevad, sadac suniti Taraqamebis garda somxuri soflebic iyo. feodaluri urTierTobis xanis aRmosavleTSi valis gadaxdis aseTi wesi arcTu iSviaTi ambavi iyo da, albaT, arc somexTa patriarqi miiCnevda aseT saqciels maincdamainc ukanonod, magram, radganac somxebi qristianebi iyvnen, vaxtangis qristian mxedrobas, misi azriT, gamonaklisi unda daeSva da ar daerbia somxebi. TanatomelTa mimarT TanagrZnobis gamosaxatavad esai kaTalikosi gmobs somex qristianTa mimarT gamoCenil sisastikes da aRniSnavs: ­ rac gadaurCaT ugunur lekebs, is yovelive gaaCanaga xarbma da Seubralebelma qarTvelma ermao (aSkaraa erSi mxedrobas gulisxmobs)43. amis miuxedavad, esai kaTalikosi Tavis TxzulebaSi sakmaod xSirad aRniSnavs somexTa mimarT vaxtangisa da qarTvelTa keTilganwyobisa da megobrobis faqtebs, rasac g. ezovi dumiliT gverds uvlis. ilias gansakuTrebuli aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia g. ezovis mier saqarTvelos istoriis sazianod faqtebis gayalbebam, kerZod, 1782 w. ruseTis xelisuflebasTan mola-

parakebis dros erekle II-is mier gamoTqmuli winadadebis komentirebisas g. ezovi cinikurad ganmartavda, rom `erekle uTmobda ruseTs imas, rac uflebiT ekuTvnoda sparseTs da ara TiTon, uTmobda umaRles xelisuflebas saqarTveloze, romelic de faqto uRonobiT xelSi veRar Seemagrebina da amis sanacvlod iTxovda mefis Rirsebas, romelic mas ar hqonia sparseTSi (?)~44. mxedvelobaSic rom miviRoT, marTlacda, am `wregadasuli Tavnebobis~ pasuxad iliaseuli gamanadgurebeli kritika, g. ezovs misive ideuri TanamebrZoli general-leitenanti s. qiSmiSovic ki amtyunebs, roca erekle II-is mefobis pirvel periods Tamaris droindel oqros xanas adarebs da miiCnevs, rom erekle II-m daamxo sparselTa batonobis uReli saqarTveloSi45. esec, albaT, imitom, rom erekle II-is `mmarTvelobis pirvel naxevars~ m. broses naSromebze dayrdnobiT gadmogvcems; meore naxevars ki butkovisa da artem araratelis Txzulebebis dasturiT, romlebic erekles sawinaaRmdegod SeTxzuli insinuaciebiT cdilobdnen ruseTis dampyrobluri, mzakvruli politikis gamarTlebas saqarTveloSi. etyoba, amiT unda aixsnas imperiis samsaxurSi myofi generlis daintereseba qarTuli saxelmwifos maincdamainc bolo wlebis istoriiT. misi mtkicebiT, `erekles gamudmebulma omebma saqarTvelo gaaCanageso~46, sinamdvileSi ki, ruseTis did samxedro gegmebSi CarTva iyo qarTl-kaxeTis samefos politikuri krizisis erT-erTi ZiriTadi gamomwvevi mizezi, ris gamoc patara saxelmwifo auracxel wvril-wvrilsa da zogjer farTo masStabis brZolebSi aRmoCnda CarTuli. niSandoblivia, rom 80-iani wlebis meore naxevridan (e. i. traqtatis dadebis Semdeg) aRiniSneba mwarmoebeli mosaxleobis Semcirebis tendencia47. TviT ruseTis diplomatebi da samxedro moxeleebic ar malavdnen, rom ruseTTan samxedro-politikuri kavSiris gamo qarTl-kaxeTi gaCanagda48.

44 45 42 43

ilia WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawarmoebebi, t. V, Tb., 1987, gv. 63. esai hasan jalalianci, aRvanTa qveynis mokle istoria, karlo kucias gamocema, Tbilisi, 1971, qarTuli teqsti, gv. 32, somxuri, gv. 58; qarTvelTa Seuracxmyofeli sityvebi Targmnili ar aris.

46 47 48

Ã. Ýçîâ, Ñíîøåíèÿ Ïåòðà Âåëèêîãî ñ Àðìÿíñêèì íàðîäîì, Ñïá,1898, ñ. XCÏ. Ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû Ãðóçèíñêîãî Öàðñòâà, ïîñìåðòíûé òðóä Ãåíåðàë-Ëåéòåíàíòà Ñ. Ã. Êèøèìèøåâà, Òèôëèñ, 1898, ñ. 1. iqve. gv. 60. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. IV, Tbilisi, 1973, gv. 732. iqve, gv. 707.

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erekles samefos dasacavad gamoyofili rusTa ori batalionis araefeqturobis gasamarTleblad s. qiSmiSovi brals sdebs qarTul mxares da aRniSnavs, rom erekle II-m saqarTveloSi moqmedi ruseTis jaris xelSesawyobad aRebuli arc erTi valdebuleba ar Seasrulao: ar moawesriga saurme gza, ris gamoc rusi batalionebi mTebSi gaiCxirnen da mxolod didi ZalisxmeviT, ris vaivaglaxiT miaRwies daniSnulebis adgilso, batalionebi amave mizeziT ver Rebulobdnen xelfass, ar yofnidaT fexsacmeli da tansacmeli, sakvebis ukmarisobis gamo SimSilobdnen da arasaimedo mokavSiris daudevrobiT mZime pirobebSi aRmoCndneno. amitomac iZulebuli gaxda ekaterine II 1787 w. ukan gaewvia jario. aseTi axsna, ra Tqma unda, sinamdviles moklebulia da ruseTis politikis gasamarTlebladaa gayalbebuli. gza, romelsac generali qiSmiSovi gulisxmobda ­ vladikavkazidan Tbilisamde (saqarTvelos samxedro gza) ZvelTaganve gamoiyeneboda. am gziT gadmoiyvana daviT aRmaSenebelma 40 aTasi yivCaRTa ojaxi saqarTveloSi. am gzis Sesworeba da gafarToeba Zalze mokle droSi, Tundac saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi moqceuli nawilisa, iseT did xarjebsa da fizikur resursebs moiTxovda, rom qarTlkaxeTis samefosnair patara saxelmwifos Zalebs namdvilad aRemateboda. TviT didma da Zlierma ruseTmac ki am samuSaos Sesrulebas naxevar saukuneze meti moandoma. daiwyo 1803 w. da daasrula 1861 w., xolo mis saboloo gasrulebas, TiTqmis amdenive dasWirda, ramdenadac regularuli mimosvla Tbilissa da vladikavkazs Soris mxolod 1909 wlidan damyarda. rac Seexeba ruseTis batalionebis puriT momaragebas, mousavliani wlebis garda, mas drodadro aferxebda isic, rom ruseTis mTavroba sabazro fasebTan SedarebiT samjer ufro iafad moiTxovda purs. ruseTis jaris Sesanaxad erekles mTavrobis xarji yovelwliurad 30 aTas maneTs Seadgenda. am mizniT glexebs axdevinebdnen specialur gadasaxads, romelsac `saruso~ ewodeboda, rac sakmao ekonomikur zarals ayenebda qveyanas49. aseTi faqtebis fonze ereklesadmi wayenebuli braldebebi aSkarad TvalTmaqcobad gamoiyureboda. saqme is iyo, rom sinamdvileSi ruseTi sulac ar apirebda erekle II-is dacvas da gaZlierebas. qarTl-kaxeTis

49

samefo mas imperiis batonobis gavrcelebis saSualebad miaCnda kavkasiaSi da vidre am funqciis Sesasruleblad qarTvel xelisufalTa moRvaweoba sargebels iZleoda maT dapirebebiT kvebavda. im viTarebaSi, roca ruseTis metoqeebi sul ufro sustdebodnen, xolo misi interesebi amierkavkasiaSi izrdeboda, ramdenadac am qveynis uSualo daufleba SesaZlebeli xdeboda (80-iani wlebi) `Zlieri da erTiani saqarTvelo mfarvelisaTvis saWiro aRar iyo, piriqiT, is amieridan sasurvelic ar iyo~50. amitomac ruseTis mTavroba georgievskis traqtatis Semdeg saqarTvelos Tanamimdevruli da meToduri dasustebis politikas daadga, raTa es qveyana didi xarjebisa da garjis gareSe daepyro, mxolod ise ki, rom amierkavkasiis xalxebis `ganmaTavisuflebelis~ roli Seesrulebina. ruseTis dampyrobluri politikis gamarTleba da imperiis saerTaSoriso prestiJis dasacavad sazogadoebrivi azris Seqmna, ukve, msaxureuli istoriografiis saqme iyo, romelsac mxolod faqtebis gayalbebiT SeeZlo kavkasiaSi ruseTis `ganmaTavisuflebeli~ misiis mtkiceba. am mxriv damaxasiaTebelia xsenebuli istoriografiis tipuri warmomadgenlis p. g. butkovis mtkiceba, TiTqos, TviTmpyrobeloba mxolod qvelmoqmedebas eweoda saqarTveloSi da araviTari sargebeli ar amoZravebda imperators, garda am ubeduri qveynis mfarvelobisa51. aSkaraa, rom am ideologiuri formuliT xelmZRvanelobs s. qiSmiSovic, roca ukiduresad muq ferebSi, sruli ganukiTxaobis damamcirebel suraTs gvixatavs erekle II-is sicocxlis ukanaskneli wlebis istoriis gadmocemisas. misi TqmiT, valerian zubovis samxedro eqspediciis CaSlis Semdeg (1797 w.), rusis jaris mier mitovebuli `saqarTvelo riyeze gamogdebul xomalds hgavda da visac Rone hqonda, rac undoda imas aTlidao~ 52 . aseT Ronemixdil da gaZvaltyavebul qveynad saqarTvelos warmodgenis azri gasagebi xdeba, roca vkiTxulobT s. qiSmiSovis ritorikul SekiTxvas: SeeZlo ki saqarTvelos

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saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. IV, gv. 732-733.

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n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, IV, Tb., 1967, gv. 124-125. Ï. Ã. Áóòêîâ, Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ íîâîé èñòîðèè Êàâêàçà ñ 1722 ïî 1803 ãîä. ÷. I, II, III, Ñïá, 1869, ñ. 472, 484 è äð. Ñ. Êèøìèøåâ, Ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû Ãðóçèíñêîãî Öàðñòâî, ñ. 112.

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arseboba, rogorc damoukidebel saxelmwifos? ar hqonda ra arc fuli da arc jari, is unda STaenTqa an sparseTs, an TurqeTs... yvelaze bednieri gamosavali misTvis iyo sakuTari bedis mindoba erTmorwmune saxelmwifosaTvis, raSic is ar Semcdarao53. ai, Tavi da bolo am wignis daniSnulebisac. somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenlis tendenciebis daxasiaTeba ar iqneba sruli, Tu ar aRvniSneT kidev erTi saerTo Strixi ­ qarTul saxelmwifoSi somxuri elementebis rolisa da mniSvnelobis hiperbolurad warmodgena. krwanisis omis aseve tendenciurad gadmocemisas s. qiSmiSovi wers: seqtembers laSqris mier mitovebuli erekle II TbilisSi dabrunda. sasaxleSi mas elodeboda mxolod erTaderTi erTguli somexi msaxuri, romelic ganawameb mefes miexmara cxenidan CamosvlaSio. aseve, meore dRes, abanos karTan gamarTuli brZolisas datyvevebas gadarCenilma mefem somexi msaxuris TanxlebiT gaaRwia avlabars, iqidan ki ananurs. epizodi isea gadmocemuli, rom iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqos, somex msaxurs exsnas erekle datyvevebisagan da ara mefis SviliSvils ioane batoniSvils54. es da qarTvelTa damamcirebeli sxva epizodebi s. qiSmiSovs artem araratelisagan aqvs aRebuli, romlis saeWvo kavSirebi ruseTis samxedro-politikur wreebTan kargadaa cnobili istoriografiaSi55. eWvs aZlierebs isic, rom a. araratelis gamogonili, zRapruli siuJetebiT gamdidrebuli avtobiografiuli Txzuleba rusul enaze peterburgSi gamoica 1813 w., roca eqvsi Tve Zlivs iyo gasuli napoleonis gandevnidan da, gasagebia, a. araratelis zRaprebis wasakiTxad aravis ecala. 1821-22 wlebSi ki germanul da inglisur enebzec daibeWda da mxolod 1892 w. rusulidan somxur enaze iTargmna da gamoica TbilisSi56. qarTlkaxeTis samefos ukanaskneli wlebis istoriis gayalbebuli suraTis saerTaSoriso sarbielze `TviTmxilvelis~ damowmebiT saswrafod gatana, cxadia, mxolod politikuri miznebiT Sei-

53 54 55

Ñ. Êèøìèøåâ, Ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû Ãðóçèíñêîãî Öàðñòâî, gv. 98. s. qiSmiSovi, xsenebuli naSromi, gv. 94-95. iase cincaZe, aRa-mahmad xanis Tavdasxma saqarTveloze, Tb., 1969, gv. 13-20.

Ð Û ³ ³ ³ á ñ » Á ² ³ Ø õ ³ Ù ¹ Ë Ý ³ ¹ Ï í ³ Û Ý ³ ß í Ý Ýñ ³ Ï Ï Ý ÕÛ õ Ýñ Õ á Ñ Ù ³ ³ Ç Ý ñ á Ï ë ³ ñ ³ ³ ù » Ç Ù³ëÇÝ (1795-1797Ãé)« ºñ»í³Ý« 1981« ¿ç 148-156©

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Zleboda yofiliyo ganpirobebuli, romelic gaamarTlebda ruseTis daufarav agresias kavkasiaSi da patiosnad warmoaCenda mas saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis winaSe. imperiis antiqarTuli politika kavkasiaSi, TavisTavad, mastimulirebeli faqtori iyo somxuri nacionalisturi Zalebis gaaqtiurebisaTvis, romelTa gavlena XIX s. somxur istoriografiaSi Casaxuli aRniSnuli tendenciebis Semdgom ganviTarebaze, droTa ganmavlobaSi, sul ufro izrdeboda, gansakuTrebiT, 80-90-iani wlebidan, roca somxuri sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi mniSvnelovan adgils ikaveben axlad Seqmnili wvrilburJuaziuli partiebis nacionalisturi Sexedulebebi. am partiebs Soris moWarbebuli aqtiurobiTa da avantiurizmiT gamoirCeoda 1890 w. TbilisSi Seqmnili `daSnakcuTiuni~ (kavSiri), romelic antiTurqulTan erTad, zomierebas moklebul antiqarTul propagandasac eweoda, adgenda somxur moxaliseTa razmebs da sxv. misi es mouzomavi qmedebebi miT ufro saxifaTo iyo, rom am partias Tavisi adgilobrivi organizaciebi saqarTvelos zogierT qalaqsa da raionSic hyavda. `armenakanebisa~ da `gnCakistebisagan~ gansxvavebiT, romlebic somxeTis sakiTxis gadawyvetas e. i. dasavleT somxeTis osmalTa batonobisagan daxsnas, ZiriTadad, berlinis kongresis gadawyvetilebebs ukavSirebdnen da saswrafod moiTxovdnen 61-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli reformebis gatarebas, daSnakebma amasTan erTad, wamoayenes `didi somxeTis~ Seqmnis ambiciuri idea, romelic gulisxmobda tigran II-is droindeli zRvidan zRvamde gadaWimuli somxeTis aRdgenas. TavianTi gegmebis realizaciis SesaZleblobas yvela es partia did saxelmwifoTa (ruseTi, inglisi, germania, safrangeTi, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi) Carevaze amyarebda. am fantastikuri ideiT gamsWvaluli daSnakebi ruseTis mTavrobasTan garigebiT iwyeben brZolas somexTa sasargeblo administraciul-teritoriuli cvlilebebis misaRwevad kavkasiaSi. kavkasiis mefisnacvalTan, voroncov-daSkovTan daaxloebuli al. xatisovis saSualebiT maT borCalosa da axalqalaqis mazrebis Tbilisis guberniidan mowyveta da gumbrTan SeerTeba moiTxoves, gumbris somxuri guberniis Sesaqmnelad. aseTi moTxovna, Tavisi arsiT, saqarTvelos teritoriul xelyofas udrida da seriozulad laxavda qarTveli xalxis erovnul interesebs. sagangebod Sedgenilma komisiam, sadac somxebs qarTvelebze bev-

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rad meti warmomadgeneli hyavdaT (6 kaci 2-is winaaRmdeg) da sxva saxelmwifo organoebma 1913 w. 6 noembers da 1914 w. 24 ianvars geografiuli da ekonomikuri mosazrebebiT somexTa moTxovnis dakmayofileba SeuZleblad cno57. saqarTvelos teritoriebis mimarT daSnakTa pretenziebs ganapirobebda ruseTis sakolonizacio politikis agresiuli xasiaTic, romlis Sedegad saqarTvelos ganapira mxareebsa da mis maxloblad ltolvili somxuri mosaxleobis siWarbe gamudmebiT izrdeboda. amasTan dakavSirebiT, iv. javaxiSvili werda: `rodesac amierkavkasiaSi erobis SemoRebaze laparaki daiwyes da winaswar msjelobas Seudgnen, maSin yvelasaTvis cxadi Seiqmna, rom somex politikosebs somexTa saqarTveloSi gadmosaxleba osmaleTisagan dabeCavebul TavianT TanamoZmeTa marto fizikurad gadarCenis TvalsazrisiT ar ainteresebdaT, aramed garkveuli politikur-erovnuli gegmebis, gabneul somexTaTvis erTi mTliani teritoriis Sesaqmnelad iyo saaxalSenod adgilebi arCeuli~58. swored xelovnurad Seqmnili Warbi mosaxleobis argumentze dayrdnobiT 1909-1916 ww-Si saerobo krebebze somxuri mxare daJinebiT ayenebda saerTod amierkavkasiis mTeli teritoriis erovnuli niSniT gamijvnis sakiTxs. somexTa warmomadgenlebi cdilobdnen amierkavkasiis administraciuli sazRvrebis Secvlis aucilebloba sameurneo mosazrebebiTac daesafuZvlebinaT. maTi mtkicebiT, rusulma biurokratiam amierkavkasiis administraciuli mowyobisas, somxeTi zedmetad Seaviwrova saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans Soris, roca aRmosavleT yarabaRis provinciebi elizavetopolis muslimanur gubernias miuerTa, xolo somxeTis Crdilo borCalosa da axalqalaqis mazrebi Tbilisis guberniis SemadgenlobaSi CarTo. amierkavkasiis cxra guberniidan mxolod erTaderTi erevnis somxur guberniaSi iyo Tavmoyrili amierkavkasiis somxuri mosaxleobis 1/4, danarCeni ki azerbaijanelebsa da qarTvelebs Soris iyo ganawilebuli. amitom, savsebiT bunebrivad (igulisxmeba rogorc dazaralebulni) somxebi gamodian

amierkavkasiis teritorialuri gadanawilebis iniciatorado. maTive mtkicebiT, saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris sadavo teritoriebze somxuri mosaxleobis didi ricxobrivi umravlesobaa da somxebs Seudareblad meti kompaqturoba axasiaTebT. mezobelTa pretenziebis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi somxeTi aRmoCndeba kldeebze mitmasnili da arsebuli teritoriebis mxolod 5%-s miiRebda amierkavkasiis mosaxleobis 30%-o. ricxobrivad somxebis Tanabari qarTvelebi miiRebdnen teritoriis 42%-s, e. i. somxebze rvajer mets, azerbaijanelebi ki ­ 53%-s. amitom erovnuli niSniT amierkavkasiis teritoriis gadanawilebis somxuri proeqti ufro samarTliania da iTvaliswinebs miwebis arsebuli fondis TiTqmis Tanabar, proporciul ganawilebas. ase magaliTad, somxebs am proeqtiT ergebaT amierkavkasiis teritoriis 29%, qarTvelebs ­ 30-33%, xolo TaTrebs ­ 38-41%-o59. es somxuri proeqti, miuxedavad imisa, rom sakmaod Sors idga rogorc realobis, ise samarTlianobis principebisagan, mainc bolomde ar asaxavda somxuri politikuri wreebis namdvil zraxvebs da, rogorc Cans, mxolod `didi somxeTis~ Seqmnis daSnakTa partiis gegmebisaTvis xelsayreli garemos Semzadebas isaxavda miznad, rac, sul male, kavkasiaSi damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis SeqmnisTanave gamomJRavnda. daSnakTa es ambiciuri gegmebi, gasagebia, istoriul dasabuTebasac saWiroebda, ris gamoc somxur istoriografias am gegmebis Sesabamisad uxdeboda amierkavkasiis istoriis gadakeTeba, rac praqtikulad niSnavda xorenaciseuli ideebis xelaxal aRorZinebas. ase iqca XIX-XX ss. somxuri istoriografiis mTavar amocanad kavkasiaSi somexTa teritoriuli pretenziebis dacvisaTvis brZola, romelsac uSualod daeqvemdebara qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoriis nebismieri sakiTxis mecnieruli Tu aramecnieruli ganxilva. amgvari operaciebis mTavar samizned, rogorc Cans, arCeuli iyo TiTqmis mTeli kavkasiis momcveli XII-XIV ss. centralizebuli qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis samsaukunovani istoria, romlis gadakeTeba-gasomxurebas erT-erTi pirveli Seudga cnobili somexi

59

57 58

scia, f.2080, saq. 6, furceli 82-111. iqve, gv.4.

Áàêèíñêèé àðìÿíñêî-íàöèîíàëüíû ñîâåò, Àðìÿíî-ãðóçèíñêèé âîîðóæåííûé êîíôëèêò, 1919, ñ. 1-5

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istorikosi leo (araqel babaxaniani). 1915 w. man TbilisSi somxur enaze gamosca naSromi `yarabaRis eparqiuli sasuliero saswavleblis istoria60. am saswavleblis istoriis gadmocemisas, gansakuTrebiT sxva somxur sasuliero kerebTan mis urTierTobaze saubrisas, leo SigadaSig urTavs politikuri Sinaarsis iseT SeniSvnebs, romlebic ara marto gayalbebulad warmogvidgens centralizebuli qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis bunebas, aramed samxreT kavkasiis politikur rukasac Tavdayira ayenebs. leos azriT, `gugarqisa~ da arcaxis samTavro gvareulobaTa Soris arsebuli naTesauri kavSirebi amagrebdnen ra lores, xaCenisa da sxva mxareTa samTavro federaciis qsels, maTze dayrdnobiT `zaqare spasalarma~ Tavis ZmasTan erTad gaakvirva qveyana gamoCenili mxneobiT. es, ganmartavs leo, martooden Crdilo somxeTis samTavro gvareulobaTa federacia ki ar iyo, aramed imave dros kavSiri qarTvelTa Zlier samefosTan... am kavSirma saSualeba misca `zaqares~ daepyro mTeli araratis olqi qalaq anisiTurT da somexTa mravali sxva mxare, sadac karga xania, rac mkvdari iyo somexTa politikuri cxovreba. da, amgvarad, TiTqos, aRorZindeboda somexTa damoukidebloba, am SemTxvevaSi ufro farTo sazomiT, vidre bagratunianTa dros61. sasxvaTaSorisod gakeTebuli es komentarebi, faqtobrivad, arsebiTad cvlian XII-XIII ss. samxreT kavkasiis politikuri istoriis kargad cnobil suraTs: 1. am xanis saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi myofi somxeTi, leos mixedviT, mowyvetilia qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas da is e. w. `samTavro federaciis qselis~ saxiT arsebobs, ramdenadac mxargrZelebis da maTdami sammarTvelod mindobili saqarTvelos provinciis damokidebuleba centralur xelisuflebasTan leos somxeT-saqarTvelos kavSiramde dahyavs. 2. mxargrZelTa qarTuli feodaluri sagvareulos warmomadgenlebi da qarTuli saxelmwifos cnobili didmoxeleebi leos somex moRvaweebad gamohyavs, ramdenadac maT `Crdilo somxeTis samTavro gvareulobaTa federaciis Semqmnelad~ da somxeTis ganmaTavisu-

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dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 45-50.

fleblad acxadebs 3. kidev ufro metic, leos mixedviT, Crdilo somxeTis samTavro gvareulobaTa federaciis kavSirma qarTvelTa Zlier samefosTan SesaZlebloba Seqmna bagratunianTa drois somxeTze ufro "farTo sazomiT" (Tu masStabiT) aRorZinebuliyo somexTa damoukidebloba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Sua saukuneebis somxuri istoriografiis zogi warmomadgenlis mtkicebas, rom bagratunianTa saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi saqarTvelos samxreTi da samxreT-dasavleT nawilebi igulisxmeboda da somexi bagratunebi somexTa da qarTvelTa mefeebadac iwodebodnen, vfiqrob, misaxvedri unda iyos leos am winadadebis qveteqstis Sinaarsic. ramdenadac Crdilo somxeTis samTavro gvareulobaTa federacias `zaqare spasalarma~ da misma Zmam qarTvelTa Zlieri samefoc daukavSires, ra SeiZleba iyos bagratunianTa somxeTze ufro farTo masStabiT somexTa damoukideblobis aRorZineba, Tu ara qarTvelTa Zlieri samefos somexTa federaciaSi gaerTianeba da misi gasomxureba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, ase SeiZleba ifiqros tendenciurad ganwyobilma mkiTxvelma, razec SeiZleba kidec iyo gaTvlili leos xsenebuli komentarebi. saqarTvelos Zlierebis yvelaze STambeWdavi xanis istoriis Semdgom gayalbebas somxur istoriografiaSi gagrZeleba, erTxans, TiTqos, aRar hqonda, radgan sul male, raRac or-sam weliwadSi, mezobelTa teritoriuli problemebis mogvareba sul sxva pirobebSi da doneze gaxda gansaxilveli. 1918 w. 26 da 28 maiss saqarTvelosa da somxeTis damoukidebeli respublikebi iSvnen, romelTa Soris sazRvrebis gamijvna Tavidanve mwvaved daisva. saqmes isic arTulebda, rom `daSnakcuTiuni~ somxeTis mmarTveli partia gaxda da `didi somxeTis~ Seqmnis ambiciuri idea, axla ukve, saxelmwifoebrivi zrunvis praqtikul gegmad iqca. am gegmis saerTaSoriso mxardaWerisaTvis maSinve aqtiurad amoqmedda somxuri mxare, miT ufro, rom ukve noembrisaTvis msoflio omSi antantis saxelmwifoebis gamarjvebis Sedegad, saqarTvelos mxardamWeri germaniis adgils amierkavkasiaSi inglisi ikavebda. 1918 w. 30 oqtombers mudrosis navsadgurSi xelmowerili britaneT-TurqeTis droebiTi zavis konvenciis erTi muxlic, sadac naxsenebi iyo somxeTi da TurqeTis eqvsi vilaieTi, somxeTis mmarTvel wres, antantis mxardaWeris imeds aZlevda. aseT viTarebaSi somxeTis SeuzRudav politikur madas farTo gza gaexsna da mis mier Sedgenil rukebze, rogorc somxeTSi Semavali teritoriebi, aRniS-

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nuli iyo Tbilisi, borCalos mazra, axalcixis mazra, axalqalaqis mazra, mcxeTa, gori, baTumi da baTumis olqi62. imavdroulad, somexTa tradiciulad aqtiuri propaganda gzas ikvlevs somxebis momxre evropisa da amerikis mravali piris wminda kabinetur SexedulebebSi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia cnobili senatoris lajis mier 1918 w. 10 dekembers amerikis senatSi Setanili rezolucia, romlis mixedviTac, momaval damoukidebel somxeTSi unda Sesuliyo TurqeTis somxeTi (eqvsi vilaieTi da kilikia), ruseTis somxeTi da sparseTis azerbaijanis CrdiloeTi nawili (sparseTis somxeTi). somxuri organizaciebis mier gamocemul dokumentTa krebulSi am rezoluciisaTvis TandarTuli momavali somxeTis rukis mixedviT misi Crdilo-aRmosavleTi sazRvari mtkvars mihyveba (daaxloebiT elizavetopolidan, e. i. ganjidan zRvis SesarTavamde). somxeTi (am rukis mixedviT) sam zRvaze gadis: Savsa, xmelTaSua da kaspiis zRvaze 63 . es ruka somxebma ramdenjerme gamosces da mTel msoflioSi gaavrceles. uwodebda ra am rukas fantastiurs, iv. javaxiSvili SeniSnavda: `cxadia rom axali somxeTis saxelmwifosaTvis aseTi sazRvrebi eTnografiuli principis mixedviT ar aris Semofargluli, es gegma arc istoriul safuZvelzea damyarebuli, radgan arasdros aseTi somxeTi, romelic XI s. Semdeg politikurad aRar arsebobda, ar yofila, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mis SemdgenelT odnavi litoni saRi gonierebac ki ar atyviaT~64. lajis rezoluciis amerikis senatSi wardgenidan ramdenime dReSi, 13 dekembers somxurma jarebma moqmedeba daiwyes loresa da borCalos mazrebis dasakaveblad. somxuri gegmis mizani iyo Tbilisis xelSi Cagdeba da mesxeTis dakaveba, ris Semdeg somxeTi zRvasTan iqneboda SeerTebuli baTumiT. somxeTis mmarTvelma wreebma omi gabedes mxolod im imediT, rom kavkasiaSi momavali inglisi maT mxars dauWerda, da Tu somxeTi ingliselebs faqtis winaSe daayenebda, mas xelSi SerCeboda yvela mis mier dakavebuli teritoria65. magram samxedro operaciebi molodinis sawinaaRm62

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viqtor nozaZe, saqarTvelos aRdgenisaTvis brZola mesxeTis gamo, Tbilisi, 1989, gv. 13. zurab avaliSvili, saqarTvelos damoukidebloba 1918-21 wlebis saerTaSoriso politikaSi, I, Tbilisi 1990, gv. 188-189. scia, f. 471, saq. # 6, gv. 82-90. viqtor nozaZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 45.

degod warimarTa. saqarTvelos teritoriaze Rrmad SemoWrilma (md. xramamde) somxuma jarma, general g. mazniaSvilis mier organizebuli kontrSetevis Sedegad ukan daixia da daifanta. somxebi damarcxdnen. inglisuri piketebi loresTan mezobel jarebs Sua Cadga, riTac somxeTi srul kraxs gadaurCa 66. 31 dekembers saqarTvelo-somxeTis omi Sewyda. mxareebi SeTanxmdnen, sazRvrebi sabolood gamorkveuli yofiliyo parizis sazavo konferenciaze. am konferenciaze ingliselTa mxardaWeris miuxedavad, somxeTma ver SeZlo qarTuli teritoriebis xarjze gasasvleli mieRo zRvaze. amis Semdeg sasazRvro davam, erTxans, istoriografiaSi gadainacvla. 1919 welsve TbilisSi erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad da erTmaneTis sapirispiro daskvnebiT ori naSromi gamoica: qarTul enaze ivane javaxiSvilis `saqarTvelos sazRvrebi istoriulad da Tanamedrove TvalsazrisiT ganxiluli~ da somxur enaze leos `sasazRvro dava~67. es naSromebi, Tavdapirvelad, parizis konferenciaze modave mxareebis poziciebis Sesamagreblad iyo gaTvlili da amdenad, ganvlili omis Tavisebur gamoZaxilsac warmoadgenda, romelTac sazogadoebrivi azris gansazRvruli mimarTulebiT warmarTvac unda SeZlebodaT. iv. javaxiSvili monografiis Sesaval nawilSive ganmartavs kvlevis sagansa da mis daniSnulebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sazRvrebi saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi araerTgzis gascilebia Tavis eTnikur sazRvrebs, xolo XII s. mTel amierkavkasiasac moicavda, mis wignSi `ganxilulia saqarTvelos mxolod mWidrod Semofargluli sazRvrebi, ise rogorc TviT igi istoriuli da politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi, agreTve, geografiuli da ekonomikuri pirobebis wyalobiT Camoyalibda~. aqedan gamomdinare, wers qarTveli mecnieri, gamokvlevis mizania warsulsa da Tanamedrove pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos respublikis sazRvrebis imgvarad Semoxazva, rom uzrunvelyofili iyos rogorc saerTaSoriso samarTlis moTxovnilebebi, ise qarTveli eris politikuri uflebebi68.

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giorgi mazniaSvili, mogonebebi, baTumi, 1990, gv. 115-132. iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. XII, Tbilisi, 1998, gv. 459.

Ȼ᫠ê³Ñٳݳí»×»ñ« ÈûéÇ-²Ë³Éù³É³ù-Ô³ñ³³Õ« î÷ÕÇë« 1919« ¿ç 20-96

.

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iv. javaxiSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, leos mTeli yuradReba uSualod somxeTis Crdilo sazRvrebiskenaa mimarTuli, misi mzera loresa da axalqalaqs utrialebs da maTi somxuri samyarosaTvis kuTvnilebis damtkicebas cdilobs. emociebiT datvirTuli misi beletristuli pasaJebi, zogjer, mecnierul sabuTianobas enacvleba, rac problemis gabundovnebasa da mkiTxvelis SecdomaSi Seyvanas ufro uwyobs xels, vidre rTul sakiTxebSi garkveulobisa da sinaTlis Setanas. leos mtkicebiT, lore-taSirisa da mTlianad gugareTis (somx. gugarqis) mxaris somxuri istoria, sul cota, 2000 wels mainc moiTvlis, ris gamoc lores gareSe SeuZlebelia somxeTis warmodgena saukuneTa wyvdiadSi. amJamad ki (e. i. lores sadavo teritoriis mimarT did saxelmwifoTa verdiqtis molodinSi) somxeTis sxeulidan lores mokveTa niSnavda mTeli misi warsulisa da kulturuli saganZuris ganiavebas da aseul TaobaTa diad saqmeTa datacebaso. somexi mecnieris am xmamaRal gancxadebebs, misda samwuxarod, verafriT Svelis mis mierve naxevari simarTliT moyvanili faqtebi da argumentebi. maT Soris, TiTqosda, yvelaze efeqturi ­ gugareTSi somexTa oriaTaswliani politikuri da kulturuli mkvidrobis argumenti, romlis Sedegad adgilobrivi mosaxleobac, TiTqos, gasomxda, ubralod simarTles ar Seefereba. antikuri, qarTuli da TviT somxuri wyaroebis mowmobiTac, gogarane-gugarqi odiTganve qarTul qveynad iTvleboda da misi ZiriTadi mosaxleoba qarTuli iyo68. leo aRtacebiT saubrobs V s. taSirSi literaturisa da qristianuli civilizaciis mdidar tradiciebze, ganmaTavisuflebel sulsa da samSoblos Rirsebis Segnebaze, gansakuTrebiT curtavis sapitiaxSo sasaxleze, sadac somexTa brwyinvale gmiri vahan mamikoniani aRizarda da sxv. paTetikurad aRniSnavs, agreTve, am xanis curtavis pitiaxSTa moyvarul kavSirebs cnobil somxur samTavro sagvareuloebTan da mTlianobaSi qmnis STabeWdilebas, TiTqos, arSuSa da varsqen

pitiaxSebis samTavro somxuri miwa-wylis nawili yofiliyos, riTac SecdomaSi Sehyavs Tavisi mkiTxveli da, aSkaraa, Segnebulad umalavs am samTavros qarTulobas. leos sawinaaRmdegod, mis mierve damowmebuli da didad Seqebuli lazar farpeci, savsebiT naTlad da gasagebad wers, rom hmaiak mamikonianis colma `Tavisi vaJebi aRzarda da aswavla maT qarTlis qveyanaSi, qarTlis bdeSx arSuSas saxlSi. qarTlis bdeiSxma aSuSam isini ZRvnad gamosTxova sparsTa mefes iazkerts da sxva.69 aseve cruobs leo, roca V-VII ss. qvemo qarTlis kulturulsarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT somxurobaSi mkiTxvelis dasarwmuneblad amtkicebs, TiTqos, curtavis eklesiaSi RvTismsaxurebis ena Tavidanve somxuri iyo da mxolod qarTvelebis survili iyo, rom qarTuli enac somxuris Tanasworad RvTis msaxurebis enad eqciaTo. am SemTxvevaSi leo realur situacias Tavdayira ayenebs. sinamdvileSi curtavis somxurenovan TemSi somxuri mRvdelTmsaxureba SuSanikma SemoiRo, qarTuli ki iq Tavidanve arsebobda70. sinamdviles ayalbebs, agreTve, roca qarTul eklesias VII s. somxuri eklesiis nawilad acxadebs da ierarqiulad `somxuri eklesiis brZaneblur interesebs~ umorCilebs. mTeli V-VII saukuneebi aRmosavleTis eklesiaSi monofizitTa Setevis niSniT (Teoriul sferoSi mainc) mimdinareobs, wers zaza aleqsiZe, da cnobili uniebi, ekTezisebi da msoflio krebebze daTmobebi swored am Setevaze pasuxisa da Tavdacvis gamovlinebis sxvadasxva saxea. somxuri da qarTuli eklesiebi am mxriv saerTo viTarebidan araviTar gamonakliss ar warmoadgendnen. qarTuli eklesia gadaudga monofiziturs, aRiara qalkedonuri kreba da moxda is, rac unda momxdariyo. mezobelma eklesiam scada misi SenarCuneba monofizituri samyarosaTvis, rac ar iyo somexTa kaprizi. es iyo sparseTis xelisuflebis neba da es neba e. w. sparsul krebaze oficialurad iqna gancxadebuli. arsad, kamaTis arc erT etapze, somxur eklesias Tavisi ierarqiuli pretenzia ar wamouyenebia. muqaras da pretenzias igi mxolod sparseTis samefos saxeliT

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ix. d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelos istoriuli geografis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, I, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 146-153; misive, Èç èñòîðè÷åñêîé ãåîãðàôèè âîñòî÷íîé Ãðóçèè, Òáèëèñè, 1982, ñ. 5-15; d. berZeniSvili, narkvevebi saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiidan, qvemo qarTli, 1979, gv. 16-41.

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l-n. janaSia, lazar farpecis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, 1962, gv. 242. n. janaSia, SuSanikis wameba, Tbilisi, 1988, gv. 249-250.

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acxadebda. epistoleTa wignis masalebis skrupulozurma da kritikulma Seswavlam mkvlevari daarwmuna, rom VII s. damdegs, somex-qarTvelTa saeklesio ganxeTqilebamde qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri iyo da `epistoleTa wignis~ cnobebi sxva daskvnis gakeTebis saSualebas ar iZlevian71. naxevari simarTliT gadmogvcems leo qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze X s. bolos warmoqmnili kvirikianTa somxuri samefos istoriasac. misi gancxadebiT, 982 w. lores sazRvrebSi daarsebulma somxurma samefom samas welze metxans gaZlo da misi dedaqalaqi samSvildec msxvili somexTsamkvidro centri iyoo, sadac XV s-Sic ki 20 aTasi somexi cxovrobdao. jer erTi, 1065 w. bagrat IV-m saerTod gandevna kvirikianebi samSvildidan da kvirikianTa samefoc Tavis xelisuflebas daumorCila, rogorc Cans, ymadnaficobis pirobiT. qarTveli mematianis mowmobiT am droidan `samS¢ lde oden iurva saxlad T¢sad, da egreTve monebdes somexni~ 72. 1118 w. ki daviT aRmaSenebelma selCukiani Turqebis gandevnis Semdeg mTeli qvemo qarTli lore-taSirianad kvlav da sabolood erTian qarTul saxelmwifos daubruna, vidre 1918 wlis bolomde sadavod qceul lores olqs ruseTis bolSevikuri xelisufleba somxeTs gadascemda. ubralo ariTmetika cxadyofs, rom kvirikianTa samefom qvemo qarTlis farglebSi samas welze metxans ki ara, mxolod (1118 ­ 982 = 136) 136 w. gaZlo. leos TvalTmaqcoba iqamdec ki midis, rom saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli Zlierebis xanaSic (XII-XIV ss.) qvemo qarTlis teritoria mis mier gamogonebul, ararsebul raRac somxuri federaciis SemadgenlobaSi Sehyavs. misi TqmiT, mxargrZelebs wilad xvdaT `daarseba erTis Zlieris federaciisa, romelic xSiri qseliT ebmeba aRmosavleT gugarqs, arcaxs, siuniqs, gelarquns vidre aragawamde da aras mTebamde~73. leos ukiduresad tendenciuri Txzulebis fonze kidev ufro cxadad SeigrZnoba iv. javaxiSvilis naSromis uaRresad obieqturi,

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epistoleTa wigni, somxuri teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT, gamokvleviTa da komentarebiT gamosca zaza aleqsiZem, Tbilisi, 1968, gv. 005-056, 066. qarTlis cxovreba, 1, gv. 307. leo, `sasazRvro dava~, gv. 47.

mecnieruli xasiaTi. qarTveli mkvlevris mier moyvanili konkretuli faqtebi mkafiod warmoaCens saqarTvelosa da somxeTis gammijnavi zolis Tavgadasavals uZvelesi droidan 1919 wlamde, mis strategiul, ekonomikur da politikur mniSvnelobas qveynisaTvis. iv. javaxiSvili mkiTxvelis yuradRebas Tavidanve miaqcevs im umniSvnelovanes geografiul faqtorze, romelic aucileblobiT gansazRvravs saqarTvelosaTvis gugareTis bunebriv kuTvnilebas. igi wers: `mTeli es qveyana geografiulad ise mWidrod aris saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli, rom rogorc TviT qveyanas, ise yvela iqaur mdinareebsa da rasakvirvelia gzebsac CrdiloeTisaken, mtkvrisa da tfilisisaken aqvT piri mibrunebuli~74. faqtobrivad, is samxreTidan saqarTveloSi Semaval mTavar gzas da kars warmoadgenda, ris gamoc es qveyana, rogorc saqarTvelos xelisufalTa zrunvisa da yuradRebis sagani iyo, ise saqarTvelos dapyrobis mosurneTa mTavari samiznec. iv. javaxiSvilis dakvirvebiT, mTeli istoriis manZilze sul samjer scades somxebma saqarTvelos samxreTis sazRvrebis gadmolaxva da iq damkvidreba. pirveli cda jer kidev q. w. II s. dasawyiss miekuTvneba, roca strabonis cnobiT, somxeTis mefeebma mezoblebs miwebi waarTves, maT Soris qarTvelebs pariadris sanaxebi, romelic taosa da spers Seicavda, agreTve, xorzeni da gugareTi. es, qarTveli mecnieris ganmartebiT, somexTa pirveli ieriSia qarTvelTa miwa-wylis dasapyrobad, magram amiT maTi bedi sabolood ar gadawyvetila. 35 wliTgan q. S. moyolebuli, rodesac tacitis sityviT iberiis mefeebi imdenad Zlierni iyvnen, rom somxeTSi SemoWril sparselebs ebrZodnen, da roca TviT somxeTSic ki qarTveli ufliswuli gamefda, cxadia, mdgomareoba TvalsaCinod unda Secvliliyo. magram qarTvelTa mier gugareTis ukan dabrunebis Sesaxeb pirdapiri cnobebi IV s-iTagan q. S. moipoveba. 387 w. somxeTi or samefod gaiyo, romlebic sul male sparseTma da bizantiam erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles. qarTvelebma gugareTi, gardabani da karwaxi ukan daibrunes didi xniT. V s.c gugareTi politikurad da saeklesio wyobiTac saqarTvelos ganuyofel nawils Seadgenda. aseve grZeldeboda VI da VII sauku-

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ivane javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 470.

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neebSic. Tbilisisa da qarTlis saamiros Seqmnis Semdeg (VIII s. 30 ww.) gugareTic mis sazRvrebSi eqceva. IX s-idan saqarTvelosa da somxeTis politikuri moRoniereba iwyeba. qarTveli mTavrebi TrialeTs, taSirs da aSocs saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi aqceven. saqmeSi ereva somxeTis samefos aRmdgeneli aSot bagratuni da taSirs ikavebs, ris Semdeg Tavis Tavs somexTa da qarTvelTa erisTavT-erisTavis saxelwodebas akuTvnebs. aqedan cxadia, wers iv. javaxiSvili, rom gugareTi masac qarTlad da qarTvelTa miwawylad miaCnda da swored am qarTvelTa qveynis dapatronebis ZaliT man Tavis Tavs qarTvelTa erisTavTerisTavi daarqva75. amgvarad, ganagrZobs iv. javaxiSvili, es somexTa ieriSi iyo saqarTvelos samxreTis sazRvrebis gadmosaxalavad da gugareTis dasapyrobad. magram, rogorc iqve SeniSnavs, verc am meoregzisma somexTa mier dapyrobam Secvala arsebiTad qvemo qarTlis, anu gugareTis ZiriTadi kuTvnilebis sakiTxi. saistorio geografias somexTa drois am kuTxeSi politikuri mbrZaneblobis saxsovrad termini `somxiTi~ SerCa. es saxeli Zvelad srulebiT ucnobi iyo da mxolod X s-dan moyolebuli gvxvdeba. `somxiTi~ ewodeboda mxolod bolnis-dmanisis xeobebs da lores velsac da sayuradRebo isaa, rom viTarca sageografio termini marto qarTulad da qarTul mwerlobaSi ixmareboda. somxebi da somxuri saistorio mwerloba am qveyanas `somxiTs~ ar eZaxdnen. piriqiT, isini loretaSiris vels `qarTvelTa vels~ uwodebdnen. am terminSi utyuari damamtkicebeli sabuTia Senaxuli, rom TavianT politikur batonobisda miuxedavad TviT qveyanas somxebic Tavisda-Tavad qarTvelTa kuTvnilebad sTvlidnen76. somexTa politikur batonobas qvemo qarTlSi 1065 w-dan bolo eReba, xolo 1118 w. daviT aRmaSenebelma selCukian Turqebs lore da agarani waarTva, ris Sedeg es kuTxe, qarTlis samxreTi nawili, da TviT somxiTic, saerTod, saqarTvelos ucilobel da ganuyofel nawilad iTvleboda da somxebs arasdros aRar sWeriaT77. 1783 w. traqtatis dadebis Jamsac, s. burnaSovis aRweri-

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iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 472. iqve, gv. 473. iqve, gv. 474.

lobiT, somxiT-lore-fambak-borCalu saqarTvelos ucilobel sakuTrebas Seadgenda da kvlavindeburad sazRvari ufro samxreTisakenac mdebareobda da gamyof xazad erevnis (fambakis) mTebi iTvleboda. realur faqtebze damyarebuli Zveli gugareTis aq warmodgenili istoria, rogorc vxedavT, mTlianad uaryofs leos gancxadebaTa paToss, mis mtkicebas somxeTis istoriasTan qvemo qarTlis oriaTaswlovan kavSirze. iv. javaxiSvilis mier moyvanili konkretuli faqtebi cxadyofs, rom es kavSiri araTu oriaTas welze meti xnis ver iqneboda, aramed mis naxevarze bevrad nakleb xanzec msjeloba saTuo unda yofiliyo. ase rom, leos mcdeloba nebismieri saSualebiT mkiTxvelis SecdomaSi Seyvanisa sruliad aSkaraa. iv. javaxiSvili calke Tavs uZRvnis qvemo qarTlSi demografiuli situaciisa da eTnikur urTierTobaTaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlenebis ganxilvas. am mxaris strategiuli mniSvneloba mas xSirad mtris Tavdasxmebis asparezad aqcevda, ris gamoc mosaxleoba aq mravaljer dazaralebula da araerTxel mTlianad amowyvetila kidec. sparseTis Sahebma aq TavianTi sayrdeni bazis Sesaqmnelad Turqulenovani elebi Caasaxles. miuxedavad amisa, devnili somxuri mosaxleobisaTvis es qveyana teritoriuli siaxlovis gamo, mainc yvelaze moxerxebul TavSesafars warmoadgenda. XVIII s. bolodan ki somexTa damokidebuleba Cveni qveynisadmi icvleba da TavSesafris ZiebasTan erTad maT ltolvas Cvensken politikuri elferi eZleva. kerZod, ruseT-saqarTvelos 1783 w. traqtatis dadebis Semdeg somexTa winamZRvrebi uSualod ruseTis qveSevrdomobaSi Sesvlas cdiloben, Tanac qvemo qarTlsa da sxvagan ltolvilobiT dakavebuli teritoriebis CaTvliT. iv. javaxiSvilis marTebuli SeniSvniT, es ukve srulebiT Seuwynarebeli saqcieli iyo: saqarTvelos damoukidebeli arsebobis wyalobiT somxebi TavianTTvis saqarTveloSi aucilebel ganadgurebisagan TavSesafars poulobdnen, madlobis magier ki saqarTvelos Sinaur saqmeebSi gareSe Zalis CarevisaTvis cdilobdnen da ruseTis qveSevrdomobisa da mfarvelobis miRebiT Cveni miwa-wylis miReba hsurdaT. maTi saqcieli saqarTvelos damoukideblobas Zirs uTxrida da Cven qveyanaSi ruseTis gabatonebas uwyobda xels. oficialurad ruseTis mTavroba saqmes ise warmoaCenda, TiTqos, saqarTvelos sakeTildReod cdilobda, ris wyalobiTac, wers

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iv. javaxiSvili, ­ somxebma da ruseTis mTavrobam TavianT wadils miaRwies: somxebma miwa miiRes, rusebma ki saqarTveloSi idumali qveSevrdomebi da TavianTi gabatonebis uerTgulesi winamavali razmi gaiCines. erekle II-m ltolvili somxebi imxanad Telavsa da siRnaRSi daasaxla. rac Seexeba somxiTsa da lores, saqarTvelos ruseTis imperiaSi gaerTianebis droisaTvis jer kidev ukacrieli iyo da mxolod 1827-29 ww-Si osmaleTidan da sparseTidan 40 aTasi sulis borCalos mazraSi Semoxizvnis Sedegad qvemo qarTlSi Cndeba SedarebiT mravalricxovani somxuri mosaxleoba. moyvanili didZali masalebis safuZvelze iv. javaxiSvili askvnis: amgvarad ori garemoebaa srulebiT cxadi. erTi is, rom am kuTxis axalSeni somxebi im somexTa memkvidreebi ar arian, romelnic saqarTvelos am kuTxis somexTa mier zemoaRniSnuli politikuri motacebisa da batonobis gamo aq qarTvel mkvidr mcxovrebTa Soris gaCndnen, arc im somexTa memkvidreebi arian, romelnic Semdeg saukuneebSi saqarTvelos mTavrobis nebarTviT drogamoSvebiT saxldebodnen (is mosaxleoba xom ramdenjerme xan aiyara samudamod, xan mtris mravalgzisi Semosevebisagan mkvidr qarTvelebTan erTad amowyda), ­ meorec is, rom somex mcxovrebTa exlandeli simravle saqarTvelos samxreTis sazRvarze garemoebaTa bunebrivi Sedegi ki ar iyo, aramed mxolod rusTa mTavrobis politikuri gegmis wyalobiT maTi ucxoeTiTgan xelovnuri gamosaxlebis Sedegi78. Semdeg iv. javaxiSvili mkiTxvelis yuradRebas miapyrobs 1897 w. mosaxleobis aRweris masalebze, romelTa mixedviT, am regionSi somxuri mosaxleobis zrdisaTvis xelovnuri xelSewyobis miuxedavad, es mosaxleoba aq umravlesobas mainc ver qmnida: 128 aTasidan is mxolod 48 aTass Seadgenda. da mainc, rogorc amas iv. javaxiSvili SeniSnavs, sagulisxmieroa da damaxasiaTebeli, rom saqarTvelos da somxeTis politikuri ganaxleba da damoukideblobis aRdgena amJamadac somexTa ieriSiT da omiT daiwyo (ukve mesamed) isev saqarTvelos samxreTis sazRvarze mdebare qveynis qvemo qarTlis, anu rogorc igi rusebis mier wodebulia, borCalos mazris dasapyrobad79.

78 79

iv. javaxiSvilis warmodgenili naSromi, vfiqrob, srulad aaSkaravebs da sacnaurs xdis leos pretenziebisa da paTetikuri msjelobis mTel usafuZvlobas. Zveli gugareTisa da kerZod lore-taSiris istoria rom iseTi ar iyo, rogorsac leo warmogvidgenda, ra Tqma unda, es misma avtormac SesaniSnavad icoda, magram, rogorc Cans, misTvis am naSroms ufro politikur-propagandistuli mniSvneloba hqonda, vidre obieqtur-mecnieruli. winaswar SemuSavebuli Tvalsazrisis gamo rom leos SeeZlo wyaros monacemebis Secvlac ki, amas zogi somexi istorikosic aRniSnavda. magaliTad, p. aruTinianis mtkicebiT, burJuaziuli istorikosebi leo da ezovi sakuTari ideis dasacavd, arcTu ise iSviaTad, wyaroebis teqsts amaxinjebdneno80. politikur-propagandistuli pasaJebi leos sxva naSromebsac cxadad etyoba. zogjer es gamoxatulia erTi winadadebiT an sulac erTi-ori sityviT, magram zustadaa gaTvlili saqarTvelos istoriis damcroba-gaubraloebaze da mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi leoseuli WeSmaritebis Rrmad CabeWdvaze, TiTqos, mTeli amierkavkasia da gansakuTrebiT misi Suaguli ­ Tbilisi somxuri sinamdvilis anareklia. aseTi adgilebi mravladaa warmodgenili gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi gamocemul leos TxzulebaTa VI tomSi, sadac saqarTvelo istoriuli somxeTis erT patara nawiladaa gaazrebuli81. msgavsi miniSnebebi sakmaod mravladaa warmodgenili, agreTve, leos `somxeTis istoriis~ mesame tomSic. magaliTad, saubrobs ra vaxtang VI-is damsaxurebaze somxuri samxedro formirebebis SeqmnaSi, aRniSnavs: `somex-qarTvelTa sabrZolo kavSiris idea SesaniSnavi movlena iyo. zaqaria spasalaris drois Semdeg (XIII s-dan) amgvari movlena qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris jer ar aris SemCneuli~82. jer erTi, 5-6 saukuniT erTmaneTisagan dacilebul droSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis Sedareba da maT Soris paralelis gavleba rom mizanSeuwoneli da saeWvo unda iyos, vfiqrob, es davas ar unda iwvevdes. amas garda, leos mier

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iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 462-483. iqve, t. XII, gv. 483.

Ï. Ò. Àðóòþíÿí, Îñâîáîäèòåëüíîå äâèæåíèå àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà â ïåðâîé ÷åòâåðòè XVIII âåêà, Ìîñêâà, 1954, ñ. 5. am tomSi saqarTveloze naTqvami kritikuladaa ganxiluli al. abdalaZis werilSi `ase uRmerTod?~. ix. `mnaTobi~, # 9-10, 1991, gv. 165-169.

Ȼ᫠»ñÏ»ñÇ ÅáÕáí³Íáõ« »ññáñ¹ ѳïáñ« ºñ»õ³Ý« 1973« ¿ç. 128-129.

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naxseneb XVIII s. `somex-qarTvelTa sabrZolo kavSirze~ wyaroebSi araviTari cnoba an miniSneba ar moipoveba. am garemoebiT gakvirvebuli somexi istorikosi wers: unda iTqvas, rom vaxtangi petre didisadmi miwerils Tavis werilebSi arc erT adgilas ar ixseniebs somxur jars, somex-qarTvelTa kavSirs da sxv. `qarTlis cxovrebasac~ ara aqvs daculi amis Sesaxeb raime cnoba. igi (e. i. vaxtangi) sakmarisad Tvlis ilaparakos qristianTa saxeliT da pasuxobs ra rusTa imperatoris winadadebas, igi ambobs, rom ganZas midis lekebTan omis dasawyebad da unda SeierTos im mxaris somxebi da Turqebi. amgvarad, ganagrZobs leo, maSin, rodesac somexi moRvaweebi yovelnairad cdilobdnen eCvenebinaT rusebisTvis, rom maT warmoSves organizebuli, SeiaraRebuli, ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba, vaxtangi dumiliT gverds uvlis garkveuli miznisa da moqmedebis saxis am moZraobas, Tumca esoden didi daxmareba gauwia somxuri jaris organizacias. aseT damokidebulebas mas, albaT, garkveuli politikuri mosazreba hkarnaxobdao, daaskvnis sabolood leo83. leosgan gansxvavebiT, vaxtang VI somexi meliqebis razmebis misi daxmarebiT gawrTvnas, ra Tqma unda, or ers Soris damyarebul sabrZolo kavSirad ar aRiqvamda. vaxtangisaTvis kavkasiis saqristiano mTlianad misi winaprebis gansagebeli da sapatrono qveyana iyo da rogorc XIII s. didi qarTuli saxelmwifos mefeTa politikuri memkvidre, somxuri razmebis sabrZolod momzadebas, bunebrivia, im saerTo RonisZiebaTa Semadgenel nawilad miiCnevda, romlebic gaTvaliswinebuli iyo petre didTan SeTanxmebuli momavali erToblivi sabrZolo moqmedebebisaTvis. amitomac iyo, rom leosave SeniSvniT, vaxtangi sakmarisad Tvlida ruseTis imperatorTan elaparaka kavkasiis qristianTa saxeliT. niSandoblivia isic, rom ganZasTan mdgomi vaxtang VI petre dids moaxsenebda: `am alagebis beladoba gveTqmiso~84. amitom leos gulmodgine cdebi somex meliqebTan vaxtang VI-is damokidebulebaSi samxedro-politikuri kavSiri aRmoeCina, warumateblad unda miviCnioT, miT umetes, rom am doneze kavSiri mxolod met-nak83 84

lebad Tanabar da damoukidebel politikur erTeulebs Sorisaa SesaZlebeli. da mainc, ramdenadac yarabaReli da sivnieli somxebi saqarTvelos mezobeli saxanoebis mcxovreblebi iyvnen da maTTvis gaweuli samxedro-sawvrTneli daxmareba zog istorikoss, pirobiTad mainc, SeiZleboda ganexila, rogorc qarTvel-somexTa sabrZolo kavSiri, amave formatiT XIII s. qarTvel-somexTa urTierTobaze msjeloba, ukve yovelgvar SesaZlebel zRvars scildeba, radganac erTi saxelmwifos, Tundac eTnikurad gansxvavebul moqalaqeTa erT jarSi samsaxuri ori eris samxedro-politikur kavSirad warmodgena, miT ufro kidev, qveynis mxedarTmTavris moTaveobiT, ubralod, absurdia. samagierod, faqtebis aseTi jambazobiT gulubryvilo mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi saqarTvelos istoriis mniSvnelobis damcroba da gabiabrueba, mis avtors, Cans savsebiT SesaZleblad miaCnda. masTan, XVIII s. dasasrulis istoriis gadmocemisas, ar aviwydeba Tavis mkiTxvels gzadagza Seaxsenos, rom aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo saqarTvelo ki ara ­ somxeTia. magaliTad, misi TqmiT, lore upiratesad somxebiT dasaxlebuli da somxuri ZeglebiT savse qveyana, daRistnelebis Tavdasxmebis gamo ukve mTlianad dacarielebuli iyo 85. amitom, leos samarTlianad miaCnda yazax-loreSi yarabaReli somxebis Casaxleba, radganac es miwebi somxeTisaao86. aseve Tbilisic, misi mtkicebiT, upiratesad somxebiT dasaxlebuli qalaqi iyoo da aRa mahmad xani ufro metad somxebs moevlina ubedurebado87. erTi sityviT, leos am SedarebiT gviandel naSromebSic aSkarad SeiniSneba 1918 w. dekembris somex-qarTvelTa omis wina periodis daSnakTa ganwyobilebebi, romelic aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da TbilisSi somexTa xelisuflebis damkvidrebas gulisxmobda. am ganwyobilebaTa Sesaxeb Tavis mogonebebSi saqarTvelos pirveli demokratiuli respublikisa da mTavrobis meTauri noe Jordania werda: `somxebi iyvnen didad ukmayofilo Tbilisis gaqarTvelebiT, saqarTvelos deda-qalaqad gadaqceviT. maT es qalaqi, Tavis udao qalaqaT miaCndaT didi xania, mecxramete saukunis dawyebidan, sadac marTla somxebis mosaxleoba sWarbobda qarTveleb85 86 87

leo, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 132-133. Ïåðåïèñêà íà èíîñòðàííûõ ÿçûêàõ ãðóçèíñêèõ öàðåé ñ ðîññèéñêèìè ãîñóäàðÿìè Ñïá, ñ. 140.

leo, Txzulebani, t. 3, gv. 410-12 (somx. Eenaze). iqve, gv. 410-414. iqve, gv. 389.

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isas. rusi batonobda politikuraT, somxebi ekonomikuraT. rusi wavida, qalaqi somxebs unda darCenoda. maTi azriT, namdvili saqarTveloa dasavleT saqarTvelo, xolo aRmosavleTSi areulia sxvadasxva erebi da aq qarTuli wminda nacionaluri xelisufleba ar unda yofiliyo. mTavroba unda gadavides quTaisSi, TbilisSi ki Seiqmneba Sereuli xelisufleba sxvadasxva erebisagan. amas isini qadagebdnen somxebSi. mas swerdnen Tavis organoebSi~88.

Tavi III qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis asaxva mezobelTa sabWour istoriografiaSi

daSnakTa partiis ideebisa da politikuri programis propaganda ara marto leos naSromebisTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli, aramed misi gavlena sxvadasxva dros, met-naklebi intensivobiT mTel somxur istoriografiasac daetyo. daSnakTa ideebis dominirebas XX s. somxur istoriografiaSi ki mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebda gasabWoebuli ruseTis kavkasiuri politikac, romlis strategiuli amocanebi samxreT kavkasiaSi, faqtobrivad, igive rCeboda, rac carizmis dros iyo. Zveli rusuli koloniuri politika amjerad ukve, formalurad mainc, demokratiisa da socializmis samoselSi gamoewyo, ramac meti siverage SesZina mis batonobas kavkasiaSi. misi wyalobiT, gasabWoebis pirvel welsve saqarTvelom Tavisi teritoriis meoTxedze meti dakarga (93 aTasidan 70 aTas kvadratul kilometramde Semcirda), romelic TurqeTze, azerbaijansa da somxeTze gadanawilda. is, rac somxeTis daSnakurma mTavrobam ingliselTa daxmarebiTac ki ver SeZlo, lores neitraluri zona, 1921 w. 7 ivliss stalinma kavbiuros xeliT somxeTs gadasca. kvlavac grZeldeboda da kidevac farTovdeboda demografiuli agresiis politika saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg, sadac mTavari rolis Sesruleba isev somex migrantebs ekisrebodaT. bolSevikuri imperiis politikiT waxalisebuli somxeTis mmarTveli wreebi sasazRvro gamijvnis dasrulebis Semdegac ganagrZobdnen usafuZvlo teritoriuli pretenziebis wamoyenebas. Llores yofili neitraluri zonis miRebidan sul ramdenime TveSi maT axla borCalos sakiTxi dasves. proeqtis CaP vardnis Semdeg ukve centralur mTavrobas saqarTvelos administraciul dayofaSi TavisTvis sasargeblo cvlilebebis Setana mosTxoves, kerZod, axalqalaqisa da borCalos mazrebis gaerTiane-

88

noe Jordania, Cemi warsuli, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 92-93.

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ba, raTa momavalSi mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis sababiT is somxeTisaTvis mieerTebinaT. roca am proeqtzec uari eTqvaT, daSnakTa ideebis mimdevarma politikosebma yarai-Siraqis velis somxebiT dasaxlebis gegma wamoayenes mebambeobis meurneobis mowyobis sababiT, rac, TiTqos, ruseTis safeiqro mrewvelobis interesebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. bolos ki somxurma mxarem 1925 w. sruliad Riad da SeuniRbavad pretenzia wamoayena axalqalaqis raionze, moiTxova ra javaxeTisTvis avtonomiis miniWeba da saqarTvelosgan misi gamoyofa1. saqarTvelos miwa-wylis mitacebis somexTa es gauTavebeli cdebi, ra Tqma unda, emyareboda rogorc centraluri mTavrobis Semrigeblur damokidebulebas maTi pretenziebis mimarT, ise samxreT kavkasiaSi somexTaTvis xelovnurad Seqmnil xelsayrel demografiul situacias. lores e. w. neitraluri zonis somxeTisaTvis uceremoniod gadacemiT, xolo azerbaijanisaTvis zaqaTalis olqis, eldarisa da daviT garejis velisa Tu sxva miwawylis daTmobiT bolSevikurma xelisuflebam dausabuTebeli pretenziebis dakmayofilebis precedenti Seqmna, ramac, bunebrivia, gza gauxsna SemdgomSic msgavs usamarTlo pretenziebs. amas garda, carizmisa da bolSevikuri ruseTis moxeleTa didi mecadineobiT samxreT kavkasiaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvris mTel perimetrze, somxuri mosaxleobis siWarbis Seqmnac, somex politikosebsa da saqarTveloSi Camosaxlebul somxur mosaxleobas droebiT dakavebuli teritoriebis misakuTrebisa da mosazRvre somxeTTan mierTebis TavSeukavebel survilsac aRuZravda. amgvari ganwyobilebis ganviTarebas isic uwyobda xels, rom qveynis ganapira mxareebSi ucxoeTnikuri kompaqturi dasaxlebebisa da afxazuri da osuri avtonomiebis xelovnurad SeqmniT, centralurma mTavrobam saqarTvelo ucxoeTnikuri masebis alyaSi moaqcia, riTac misi istoriuli sazRvrebi praqtikulad waSala da mis teritoriul

sxeulze qirurgiuli eqsperimentebi sajarod nebadarTuli gaxada2. yvelaferi es erTad ki, qarTveli xalxis winaaRmdegobis Zalas, cxadia, mniSvnelovnad asustebda. amitomacaa, rom daSnakTa partiisa da misi momxreebis cdebs saqarTvelos teritoriis xarjze e. w. `didi somxeTis~ Seqmnis idea TandaTan praqtikuli moqmedebis gegmad eqciaT, faqtobrivad, bolo ar uCanda. XX s. 20-ian wlebSi qarTuli teritoriebis misataceblad wamoyenebuli somxuri mxaris argumentebi, rogorc ukve iTqva, sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda gadawyvetilebis misaRebad, radganac maT mier miTiTebuli sameurneo-ekonomikuri geografiuli da sxva, Tundac, politikuri faqtorebi, maTive survilis sawinaaRmdegod, qarTuli mxaris sasargeblod metyvelebda da somexTa pretenziebis usafuZvlobas cxadyofda. amitom, xsenebuli politikuri wreebis azriT, amjerad ukve, `didi somxeTis~ ideisaTvis brZolis mTeli simZime, realurad, somxur istoriografias unda etvirTa, romelsac mTeli kavkasiis, kerZod ki, qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoria am ideis Sesaferisad unda gaemarTa. aseTi amocanis gadasawyvetad ki, garda m. xorenacidan momdinare mdidari tradiciebisa, mas, rusuli politikis mxardaWeris pirobebSic, sakmao gamocdileba hqonda dagrovili. rusuli koloniuri politikis saameblad XIX saukuneSi dawyebuli Seteva saqarTvelos istoriaze misi mniSvnelobis damcrobisa da gabiabruebis mizniT, XX s. 40-iani wlebidan ukve farTo frontiT, Tanmimdevrul da gegmazomier laSqrobaSi gadaizarda, romelmac saistorio kvlevis, TiTqmis, yvela sfero da dargi moicva. amjerad kvlevis mizani araimdenad saqarTvelos istoriis mniSvnelobis damcroba, ramdenadac daSnakTa mier Sedgenili rukebis (maT Sesaxeb ukve iTqva) mixedviT `didi somxeTis~ Crdilo nawilSi qarTulis nacvlad somxuri civilizaciis nakvalevis dadastureba iyo. aseTi ganwyobileba sruliad Tavisuflad ikiTxeba mTel rig somex mecnierTa im gamokvlevebSi, romlebic exeba somxeTis istoriul geografias, toponomikas, politikur istorias, literaturas, xe-

1

ix. xelnawerTa instituti, iv. javaxiSvilis arqivi 9.47 # I. saq. # 6. agreTve, b. arvelaZis werili am sakiTxze, "literaturuli saqarTvelo", 1988, 23 seqtemberi.

2

ix. aAgreTve, n. mirianaSvili, saqarTvelos teritoriuli cvlilebani amierkavkasiis respublikebTan 1918-1938 wlebSi, avtoreferani, Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 24 da sxv.

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lovnebas da, saerTod, kulturis istorias. saqarTvelos istoriis winaaRmdeg somexTa am axal laSqrobas mZlavri impulsi, tradiciis mixedviT, kvlavac rusuli politikuri da samecniero wreebis warmomadgenelma misca. amjerad Tavi isaxela arqiteqturis mkvlevarma n. tokarskim, romelmac 1946 w. erevanSi somxeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis institutis grifiT gamosca wigni saTauriT `Zveli somxeTis arqiteqtura~. avtoris TqmiT, misi amocana iyo moeca Zveli somxuri xuroTmoZRvrebis zogadi mimoxilva, Tvali gaedevnebina somex xuroTmoZRvarTa SemoqmedebiTi azris ganviTarebisaTvis saukuneTa sigrZeze da gaerkvia rogor xdeboda mravalferovani arqiteqturuli formebis Seqmnis rTul procesSi gamocdilebis urTierTgacvla sazRvargareTis profesiul TanamoZmeebTan 3. miuxedavad aseTi xmamaRali gancxadebisa, somexi xalxis mdidarma arqiteqturulma memkvidreobam, avtoris mankieri meTodologiis gamo, rogorc amas savsebiT marTebulad aRniSnavda akad. s. janaSia, Rirseuli asaxva ver pova wignSi4. rac Seexeba n. tokarskis mier TavSive gacxadebul debulebas SemoqmedebiT procesSi sazRvargareTis profesiul TanamoZmeebTan somex xuroTmoZRvarTa azrisa da gamocdilebis urTierTgacvlis Taobaze, ubralod, deklaraciul xasiaTs atarebs da sinamdvileSi mTeli msjeloba am `gacvlis~ sawinaaRmdegodaa mimarTuli, raTa mkiTxveli ramenairad daarwmunos Znelad dasajerebelSi, rom, TiTqos, yvela ZiriTadi arqiteqturuli forma adgilze, somxeTSi warmoiSva, ris Semdeg is sxva qveynebSic gavrcelda. n. tokarskim Tavis wignSi erTi Tavi mTlianad tao-klarjeTis Zeglebis ganxilvas dauTmo. mezobel qarTul da somxur kulturul samyaroTa Soris SemoqmedebiTi gacvlis faqtebis kvleva, obieqturad, swored am TavSi unda yofiliyo mosalodneli, magram araTu aranairi kulturuli gacvlis xsenebas ar vxvdebiT am ukiduresad tendenciur avtorTan, aramed calmxriv gavlenazec araviTari miniSnebac ki ar SeimCneva. qarTuli arqiteqturisadmi aseTi damokidebulebis mizezi ki isaa, rom s. janaSias zusti

3 4

gansazRvriT 5 , n. tokarskis warmosaxviT, mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo misi mosaxleobiTa da kulturiT ucxoeTnikuri anu somxuri samyaro iyo da amitomac am Zeglebs somxuri arqiteqturis rigSi ganixilavda. mis cdas, tao-klarjeTis Zeglebi mTlianad moewyvita qarTuli arqiteqturisagan da is somxur arqiteqturasTan daekavSirebina, gasagebia, rom ar SeiZleboda warmateba hqonoda. somxuri xuroTmoZRvrebis TiTqmis yvela seriozulma mkvlevarma SeuZleblad cno misi gaziareba6. oficiozTan SeTanxmebuli da mis mierve sanqcionirebuli (amis gareSe ki sabWoTa kavSirSi maSin wigni ar ibeWdeboda), miT umetes, erovnul kulturaTa urTierTobis Temaze Seqmnili naSromis, Tundac TavSekavebuli kritika im dros arc ise advili iyo, radganac is TviT saxelmwifos ideologiuri politikis winaaRmdeg gamosvladac SeiZleboda gagebuliyo. miuxedavad amisa, n. tokarskis `naRvawis~ namdvilad mecnieruli da amasTan gamanadgurebeli kritika mxolod s. janaSiam gabeda. Mmisma didma avtoritetma da gabatonebuli ideologiis dogmebis ostaturad gamoyenebam aiZula xelisufleba dumiliT Sexvedroda istoriuli simarTlis gayalbebis mxilebas, Tumca mis Semdgom gavrceleba-ganviTarebasac zRvari daudo. tokarskis wignis mecnieruli kritika, TavisTavad, did siZneles, miT ufro s. janaSiasTvis arc warmoadgenda, ramdenadac qarTulis garda, berZnul-laTinuri da TviT somxuri wyaroebis cnobebic gadaWriT ewinaaRmdegeboda misi avtoris axirebul tendencias. s. janaSiam Tavis recenziaSi uxvad da efeqturad gamoiyena wyaroTa avTenturi cnobebi da ueWvelobiT cxadyo n. tokarskis araTanamimdevruli da winaaRmdegobebiT savse msjelobis absurduloba. magram gabedulebas saWiroebda ara imdenad istoriuli faqtebis gayalbebis kritika, ramdenadac da upiratesad mankieri tendenciis macocxlebuli fesvebis gaSiSvleba. imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom n. tokarskis wignSi gzadagza da gamudmebiT Tavs iCens istoriuli simarTlis damaxinjebis mecnierebisaTvis uprecedento iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca erTi nacionaluri kulturis ZeglTa didi kompleqsi sxva nacionaluri kul5 6

Òîêàðñêèé Í. Ì., Àðõèòåêòóðà äðåâíåé Àðìåíèè, Åðåâàí, 1946, ñ.VIII-IX. Ñ. Äæàíàøèÿ, Îá îäíîì ïðèìåðå èñêàæåíèÿ èñòîðè÷åñêîé ïðàâäû, Òáèëèñè, 1947, ñ. 4.

Ñ. Äæàíàøèÿ, Îá îäíîì ïðèìåðå èñêàæåíèÿ èñòîðè÷åñêîé ïðàâäû, gv. 11. Âàõòàíã Áåðèäçå, Ìåñòî ïàìÿòíèêîâ Òàî-Êëàðäæåòè â èñòîðèè ãðóçèíñêîé àðõèòåêòóðû, Òáèëèñè, 1981, ñ. 16.

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turis Zeglebad saRdeba da erTi qveynis, gansakuTrebiT warmatebuli periodis istoria meore qveynis istoriaze damokidebulad cxaddeba, roca tao-klarjeTis mosaxleoba Tavisi kulturiT somxur-erovnul kulturul samyaroSi gadahyavT da mis paralelurad saerTo qarTuli Segnebis uZvelesi matarebeli svanebi da svaneTi qarTuli erovnul-kulturuli koleqtividan iTiSebian, bunebrivia, rom s. janaSias Sefasebebi Tavis kritikul narkvevSi sul ufro mkacrdeba da bolos, gabedulad amxels n. tokarskis antimecnieruli naSromisa da mTeli am wamowyebis wminda politikur mizandasaxulobas. misi samarTliani daskvniT, `n. tokarskis es gamoxdoma warmoadgens kolonizatorTa da imperialistTa ZvelisZvel hangs axal yaidaze gadaumRereblad~7, riTac Tanadroul sazogadoebas mianiSnebda rusuli politikis ucvlelobaze XIX sdan mokidebuli mis Tanamedroveobamde, romelic aSkarad iyo mimarTuli qarTuli erovnuli Segnebis winaaRmdeg. aseTi gabeduli gamosvla im droisTvis, marTlac rom gmirobis tolfasi iyo. n. tokarskis es gaxmaurebuli naSromi, romelmac samecniero wreebis uaryofiTi Sefaseba daimsaxura da qarTuli sazogadoebriobis samarTliani aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia, ra Tqma unda, emyareboda somxuri istoriografiis im nawilis naRvaws, romelic miznad isaxavda daSnakTa politikuri programis istoriuli sabuTianobiT Semagrebas. maT mier saqarTvelos warsulis tradiciulad somxeTis istoriis nawilad warmodgenas didad uSlida xels XI s. meore naxevris Semdgomi samsaukunenaxevris metad niSandoblivi faqtebi, romelTa mixedviT, kavkasiis istoriis asparezidan gamqrali bagratunTa samefoebis miwebis udidesi nawili qarTuli centralizebuli saxelmwifos farglebSi moeqca. amitomac, XIXIV saukuneebis amierkavkasiis istoriis faqtebisa da movlenebis Sefaseba da wina periodis somxeTis istoriasTan maTi morgeba Tavidanve somex istorikosTa sagangebo yuradRebis sagani gaxda, xolo sabWoTa somxuri istoriografiis umetesi nawilis Zalisxmeva ukve, faqtobrivad, am istoriis gadakeTebisaken warimarTa. kvlevis sawyis etapze somex istorikosTa yuradRebis centrSi moeqca istoriuli somxeTis nawilSi umaRlesi qarTuli administraciis warmomadgenelTa, e. i. mxargrZelTa vinaobisa da maTi

7

uflebamosilebis garkveva, ramdenadac maTi genealogiis somxur fesvebTan dakavSirebis an kulturul-politikuri somxobis damtkicebis SemTxvevaSi, gasagebia, Sesabamisi Sefaseba unda miscemoda erTiani qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi Semosuli somxuri nawilis centrTan damokidebulebis xarisxs. sagulisxmoa, rom somxuri istoriografiis ufrosi Taobis bevri warmomadgeneli (m. CamCiani, m. aliSani, e. lalaiani, as. Sahnazariani da sxvebi) maincdamainc ar iCemebda mxargrZelTa somxur warmomavlobas. TviT hakob manandianic, romelTanac, mgoni, pirvelad vxvdebiT termin `zaqarianebs~ mas qurTuli warmoSobisad miiCnevda. XX s. 30 wlebidan somxuri istoriografia mxargrZelTa vinaobis garkvevasTan dakavSirebiT, met yuradRebas uTmobs maTi moRvaweobis mniSvnelobis gansazRvras somxeTis istoriaSi, rac uSualod warmoSobda mxargrZelTa kontrolis qveS myofi somxeTis nawilis iuridiuli Tu faqtobrivi politikuri mdgomareobis yovelmxrivi Seswavlis moTxovnilebas, miT umetes, rom saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis nostalgiiT gajerebuli XII-XIII saukuneebis somxuri wyaroebis mier qarTul-somxuri urTierTobebis Taviseburi aRqma mniSvnelovanwilad xels uwyobda realuri viTarebis gverdis avliT sasurveli istoriuli suraTis daxatvas. pirveli, vinc mxargrZelTa moRvaweoba saqarTvelos somxuri P nawilis politikur fizionomias daukavSira da maTdami sammarTvelod mindobili saqarTvelos provinciis damokidebuleba centrTan somxeT-saqarTvelos kavSiramde daiyvana, rogorc ukve iTqva, cnobili istorikosi leo iyo. Tumca am Tvalsazrisis ramdenadme seriozuli argumentebiT Semagreba ar ucdia. somxeTis istoriaSi mxargrZelTa rolisa da mniSvnelobis amgvari gaazrebisaTvis xeli unda Seewyo, agreTve, somxur istoriografiaSi maTi gakeTilSobilebis cdebs. aslan Sahnazarianis azriT, mxargrZelebi ZorogetSi gadmosaxlebuli da gasomxebuli qaldevelebi iyvnen, malaqia ormanianis mixedviT ­ orbelianebi, xolo karapet ter mkrtiCianis mtkicebiT ­ bagratunianebi8. prof. leon meliqseT-begi mxargrZelTa warmomavlobaze sakuTar

8

s. janaSia, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv.52.

ix. leon meliqseT-begi, `Crdilo mxareTa somexTa moZRvarni~ da L maTi vinaoba, tfilisi, 1928, gv. 39.

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azrs ar gamoTqvams da ZiriTadad msjelobs saqarTvelos somxur nawilSi maT uflebamosilebaze. erTi mxriv igi aRiarebs XII-XIII ss. saqarTvelos politikur hegemonias somxeTSi, meore mxriv ki, mxargrZelebs somxuri Temebis faqtobriv baton-patronebad acxadebs da fiqrobs, rom TviTon mxargrZelebs TavianTi Tavi somex mefeTa memkvidreebad miaCndaT9. somxuri istoriografiis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro avtoritetuli mecnieri h. manandiani mxargrZelTa moRvaweobis mTavar Sedegad miiCnevs `somxeTis aRdgenas saqarTvelos suverenitetis qveS~10, e. i. TviT saqarTvelos samefos farglebSi, mis erT-erT vasalur olqad, Tumca am vasalobis xasiaTisa da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb araferi aqvs naTqvami. mxargrZelTa vinaobis, saqarTvelosa da somxeTis istoriaSi maTi rolis Sesaxeb somxuri Tvalsazrisis formirebaze gadamwyveti gavlena, vfiqrob, mainc s. eremianis Sromebma moaxdina. Tavisi Sexeduleba am sakiTxze man jer kidev 1944 w. gamocemul mecnierul-popularul narkvevSi `amirspasalari zaqaria erkainabazuki~ warmoadgina11. zaqarias pirovneba am narkvevSi uzomodaa gandidebuli da Sesabamisad gazviadebulia misi mniSvneloba da roli XII-XIII ss. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos istoriaSi. igi dawvrilebiT gadmogvcems qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis asparezze zaqaria mxargrZelis dawinaurebis ambavs da misi gavlenis permanentul zrdas Tamar mefis karze. s. eremianis azriT, ramdenadac Tamars, rogorc qals, brZolebSi monawileoba ar SeeZlo, yvela saqmis gadawyveta amirspasalars uxdebodao, gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac Tamaris meuRle daviT soslani gardaicvala 1207 w. amis Semdeg ki s. eremianis mtkicebiT, zaqaria mxargrZeli ara marto samxedro da saSinao saqmeebs, aramed Tamaris saxeliT sagareo politikasac uZRvebodao. amitom zaqaria yvelaze gavleniani piri da samefos faqtobrivi gamgebeli iyoo. Tamar mefe da zaqaria xelixelCakidebulni marTavdnen saxelmwifos, roca

saqarTvelom Tavisi ganviTarebis zenits miaRwia12. s. eremiani imaze ki aRarafers ambobs, rom qarTuli saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis saTaveSi mefis Semdeg vaziri ­ mwignobarTuxuces-Wyondideli idga, romlis xelqveiTi moxelec swored amirspasalari iyo da am ukanasknels mis gareSe jaris Sekrebac ki ar SeeZlo. aSkaraa, zaqaria mxargrZelis, rogorc pirovnebisa da moRvawis hiperbolizacia s. eremians sWirdeboda somxeTis damoukidebel mmarTvelad zaqarias warmosadgenad. s. eremianisave azriT, somxeTis politikuri damoukideblobis aRdgena zaqarias STaagona misma sulierma moZRvarma mxiTar goSma, romelic saTaveSi edga saxalxo moZraobas da zaqarias ganadidebda xalxis TvalSi13. amgvar mtkicebulebebTanaa dakavSirebuli, agreTve, mxargrZelTa qarTuli gvar-saxelis somxuri formiT `erkainabazukiT~ moxsenieba, riTac qarTveli mefis didmoxeles somexi xelisuflis elfers aniWebs. niSandoblivia isic, rom qarTul gvar-saxels mxolod zaqarias da ivanes mamis amirspasalar sargisis zedwodebad miiCnevs, rac Turme am ukanasknels TavdadebiTa da simamaciT moupovebia qarTvelTagan. s. eremianis ganmartebiT, Zveli somexi istorikosebi, sargisis mamis zaqarias (e. i. amirspasalar zaqarias papis) saxelis mixedviT, am saxls `zaqarianebs~ uwodebeno. ase, sruliad martivi manipulirebiT qarTuli gvar-saxeli `zaqarianis~ somxuri gvariT Secvala. mxargrZelTa sxva ganStoebebic, maT M Soris gagelebi da Tmogvelebic Sesabamisad, aseve, somxur sagvareuloebad monaTla14. amgvar manipulirebaTa xelovnuroba, romelTac araviTari sayrdeni wyaroebSi ar gaaCniaT, sruliad cxadia. saqme isaa, rom rogorc qarTuli naratiuli wyaroebis, ise somxuri da qarTuli epigrafikis cnobebi TanxmobiT mowmobs, rom mxargrZeli gvarsaxeli iyo da ara pirovnuli zedwodeba. ase rom ar yofila, rogorc marTebulad SeniSnavs S. mesxia, sargis amirspasalaris zedwodeba ver gadavidoda mis Svilebsa da SviliSvilebze da miT ufro mxargrZelTa meore Stos warmomadgenlebze, varamis STamomavlobaze, iseve, rogorc ar gadasula andria bogoliubskis

12 13 14

9

leon meliqseT-begi, `Crdilo mxareTa somexTa moZRvarni~ da maTi vinaoba, gv. 36-39.

гÏá سݳݹ۳ݫ »ñÏ»ñ« VI« ºñ»í³Ý« 1985« ¿ç 191 ê º » Û Ý ² Ç ë ³ ³ ³ ¼ ù ñ ³ » Ï Û ³³ á Ï º » ³ « 14 © ñÙ ³ « Ù ñ å ë É ñ ³ ³ Ç ñ ³ Ý ½ õ « ñí Ý 94

10 11

s. eremiani, amirspasalari..., gv. 2-62. iqve, gv. 22-23. iqve.

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pirovnuli zedwodeba `bogoliubski~ mis Svil iurize, Tamaris meuRleze, Tu giorgi brwyinvalisa ­ mis STamomavlobaze da a. S.15. erTaderTi wyaro, sadac sityva `zaqariani~ gvxdeba SeniSnavs S. mesxia, aris vardanis Txzuleba, magram iqac ara zaqarianTa sagvareulos, aramed zaqarias Zis azriT16. am narkvevis gamosvlidan or weliwadSi s. eremiani ukve rusul enaze aqveynebs imave xanis istoriis sakiTxebze gamokvlevas, sadac Tamar mefis saqmros rusi ufliswulis iuris (giorgis) Tavgadasavlis gadmocemasTan erTad XII-XIII ss. qarTuli saxelmwifos moxeleTa Soris somexTa simravlis Cvenebas cdilobs17. misi mtkicebiT, TviTneba didebulebis partikularizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi qarTuli saxelmwifos didi gardamqmneli emyareboda ucxo jarsa da masTan TavSefarebul somex feodalebs18. s. eremianis TqmiT, Tbilisis amirasa da masTan dakavSirebuli meWurWleTuxucesis nacvlis Tanamdeboba mahkanaberdisa da axpatis mflobel arwrunTa saxlis memkvidreobiT privilegias warmoadgenda. ufro metic, Tamaris droindel saqarTvelos meWurWleTuxucess (11871188 ww.) abulasans amirqurd arwrunTan aigivebs da amiT masac asomxebs, xolo misi kvalifikaciiT `somxur-qarTul sasazRvro olqis~ ­ taiq (tao) da klarjq (qarT. klarjeTis) mmarTvel erisTavs guzan, Tu gazans saqarTveloSi cnobil `guzan taoskarels~ mis mier gasomxebul abulasanis Svilad miiCnevs19. misive TqmiT, Tuki giorgi III saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv asparezze yivCaRebs awinaurebda, Tamari somxebs wyalobda. am politikis Sedegad qveynis mmarTvelobaSi Zmebi dolgorukebi (e. i. mxargrZelebi) gabatondnen da `zaqaria dolgorukma, daCrdila ra daviT soslani, Tavisi marjve da moqnili politikiT SeZlo qveynis faqtobrivi mmarTveli gamxdariyo, Tamari mTlianad aRmoCnda yovlisSemZle Zmebis ­ zaqaria da ivane dolgorukebis Zalauflebis qveS~20.

15

16 17

18 19 20

S. mesxia, saSinao politikuri viTareba da samoxeleo wyoba XII s. saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1979, gv. 251. iqve, gv. 252. Ñ. Ò. Åðåìÿí, Þðèé Áîãîëþáñêèé ïî àðìÿíñêèì è ãðóçèíñêèì èñòî÷íèêàì, Íàó÷íûå òðóäû ÅÃÓ, XXIII, 1946. iqve, gv. 391. iqve, gv. 399. iqve, gv. 415.

somxur istoriografiaSi istoriuli simarTlis damaxinjebis am cdebs gzadagza kidevac SevexebiT da qarTuli istoriografiis pozicias maT mimarT mkiTxvels kvlavac gavacnobT, magram samwuxaro isaa, rom 40-iani wlebis dasawyisidanve am dasagmobma tendenciam saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebSic iCina Tavi da gayalbebul codnaze daamyara mozardi Taobis ganaTleba. 1944 w. erevanSi gamocemuli saSualo skolis istoriis saxelmZRvanelo aseTi damokidebulebis erT-erTi tipuri magaliTia, sadac kidev ufro gamrudebuladaa warmodgenili XIIXIII ss. saqarTvelos istoria21. gasagebia, rom n. tokarskis wignic am saerTo tendenciis uSualo nayofia. amitomac iyo, rom umniSvnelovanesi adgili am `mecnierul naSromSi~ somxuri arqiteqturis istoriis kvlevis sababiT politikuri istoriis sakiTxebze msjelobam daikava, romlis mizani samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriasa da kulturul memkvidreobaze qarTveli xalxis uflebis uaryofa iyo. 40-iani wlebidan dawyebuli somexi istorikosebi, faqtobrivad, erTmaneTs ejibrebodnen qarTulsomxur istoriul urTierTobaTa gamrudebaSi, magram, roca am procesis tonis mimcemi qarTul wyaroebSi kargad gaTviTcnobierebuli s. eremiani gvevlineba, aSkaraa amgvari tendenciis winaswar gamiznuli politikuri Sinaarsic. n. tokarskis wignze samecniero wreebisa da farTo sazogadoebriobis uaryofiTma reaqciam SesaZloa daaCqara kidec `somxuri tendenciis~ gamovlinebis formebis daxvewa da koncefciis farglebSi misi moqceva. yovel SemTxvevaSi, s. eremianis mTel rig naSromebSi 40-iani wlebis bolosa da mis Semdgom periodSic kargad igrZnoba amierkavkasiis istoriis Teoriuli gaazrebis survili. sabWoTa kavSirSi gabatonebuli marqsistuli moZRvrebis ideur da Teoriul safuZvlebs Sefardebuli s. eremianis kavkasiis istoriuli ganviTarebis koncefcia isea agebuli, rom arsebiTad progresis matarebel erTaderT fenomenad Cvens regionSi Zveli da Sua saukuneebis somxeTi unda dausaxos mkiTxvels. aseTi cnobiereba, gasagebia, farTo gasaqans uqmnis tendenciur avtorTa

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Èñòîðèÿ àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà, ïîñîáèå äëÿ ñðåäíèõ øêîë, ÷. I, 1944, ñ. 174, 175 da sxv.

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SemoqmedebiT SesaZleblobebs, ramac somxuri istoriografiis erT mniSvnelovan nawilSi sakmaod Rrmad gaidga fesvebi, miT umetes, rom amgvar fsiqikur ganwyobas ZvelTaganve momdinare tradiciac uwyobda xels. sabWoTa periodis somxur istoriografiaSi Txrobis Cveulebriv normad iqca sakuTari qveynis istoriis gazviadebiT warmosaCenad calkeuli istoriuli faqtebisa da movlenebis gayalbeba-gadakeTebac. ase magaliTad, somex istorikosTa didi nawili, daaxloebiT imave 40-iani wlebidan mokidebuli, faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod, cdilobs amtkicos, TiTqos, Sua saukuneebSi sagareo urTierTobaTa sferoSica da Sidakavkasiuri politikuri da kulturuli procesebis ganviTarebaSic iniciativa yovelTvis somxeTs epyra, romlis gavlenas emorCilebodnen am regionis danarCeni qveynebi bagratunTa somxuri samefoebis gauqmebamde da mogvianebiTac ki (XII-XIV ss.) saqarTvelos saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi myofi somxeTi, Turme, gansakuTrebuli avtonomiuri uflebebiT sargeblobda, ramdenadac maTive azriT, maxlobeli aRmosavleTis im drois uZlieres saqarTvelos centralizebul monarqias, faqtobrivad, somxebi marTavdnen da amitomac maTi zrunva somxeTis damoukideblobisa da keTildReobisaTvis bunebrivi iyoo. es azri gamosWvivis, rogorc somxeTis istoriis sakiTxebze dawerili calkeuli naSromebis, ise umaRlesi da saSualo saswavlebelTa saxelmZRvaneloebis teqstebis striqonebidan. amosavals Tavisi koncefciisaTvis (anu kavkasiaSi somxeTis upiratesi ganviTarebulobis ideis gasamarTleblad) s. eremiani qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis xasiaTSi uZebnis TiTqos. misi TvalsazrisiT, romelic wamoyenebisTanave ZiriTadad gabatonda somxur istoriografiaSi, Zveli somxeTis (II-I ss.) klasobrivi sazogadoeba monaTmflobeluri iyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas ar miuRwevia berZnul-romaul klasikur formamde. Semdgomi saukuneebis somxeTis sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ki viTardeboda ara monaTmflobelur urTierTobaTa gaRrmavebis gziT, aramed feodalur urTierTobaTa warmoqmnis mimarTulebiT.A amdenad, Zveli somxeTis monaTmflobeluri sazogadoebisaTvis niSandoblivma sakuTrebis ganviTarebulma formebma adridanve ganapirobes miwis kerZo (feodaluri) sakuTrebis gaCena da eqsploataciis monaTmflobeluri formebidan feodalurze organ-

uli gadasvla, ramac uzrunvelyo qveynis swrafi progresiuli ganviTareba da radganac adrindelma feodalurma urTierTobam somxeTSi upiratesi ganviTareba pova (igulisxmeba) saqarTvelosTan SedarebiT, aman Tavidanve gansazRvra somxeTis politikuri da kulturuli iniciativa Sua saukuneebis amierkavkasiaSi. aseTia Zalze mokled s. eremianis koncefciis arsi amierkavkasiis istoriul ganviTarebaze22. s. eremianis mTavari amosavali debuleba Zveli somxeTis klasobrivi sazogadoebis socialuri bunebis Taobaze uSualod ukavSirdeboda 1925-31 ww. warmoebul diskusias, sadac akad. struvem daamkvidra mosazreba Zveli aRmosavleTis qveynebis klasobriv sazogadoebaTa monaTmflobelurobaze. 60-ian wlebSi diskusia ganaxlda, romelmac eWvs qveS daayena da, faqtobrivad, uaryo struves Tezisi. 1970 w. gamocemul `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebis~ I tomSi ukve gadaWriT uaryofili iyo Zveli qarTuli klasobrivi sazogadoebis monaTmflobeluroba. TiTqmis, imavdroulad gamoqveynebul analogiur somxur gamocemaSi ki `somexi xalxis istoria~, t. I s. eremiani da g. sarqisiani kvlavac icavdnen Zveli somxeTis sazogadoebis monaTmflobelurobis Teziss23, rasac ZiriTadad emyareboda s. eremianis Tvalsazrisi kavkasiaSi somxeTis upiratesi ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom Zveli somxeTis monaTmflobelurobis Tvalsazriss TviT somxur istoriografiaSic ki Tavidanve aRmoaCnda iseTi seriozuli mowinaaRmdege, rogoric iyo gamoCenili somexi istorikosi h. manandiani, s. eremianis koncefcia, aSkaraa, sxva ufro efeqturi argumentebiT Semagrebas iTxovda. kavkasiaSi somxeTis mowK inaveobis Tvalsazrisis momxreebma tradiciuli mxardaWera

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ix. Î ðàáñòâå è ðàáîâëàäåíèè â äðåâíåé Àðìåíèè, ÂÄÈ, 1950; Ïðîáëåìà ïàäåíèÿ ðàáîâëàäåëü÷åñêîãî îáùåñòâà è çàðîæäåíèÿ ôåîäàëüíûõ îòíîøåíèé â äðåâíåé Àðìåíèè (Äîêëàäû ñîâåòñêîé äåëåãàöèè íà XXIII ìåæäóíàðîäíîì êîíãðåññå âîñòîêîâåäîâ, ñåêöèÿ Èðàíà, Àðìåíèè è Ñðåäíåé Àçèè), Èçäàòåëüñòâî ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ, Ìîñêâà, 1954; Ñ Û Û Õ í ¹ å ÷ á à á Ý Ñ I » ¿ ³ , 1 7 ; ³ á á ñ Ç ³ Ù õ Û õ , . , ñ í Ý 91 Èñòîðèÿ àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà, ÷. I, Åðåâàí, 1951 da sxv. ix. MmeliqiSvili g. a., `maxlobeli aRmosavleTisa da kavkasiis uZvelesi klasobrivi sazogadoebis bunebis sakiTxisTvis~, ivane javaxiSvilis dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tbilisi, 1976, gv. 145-171.

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`ruseTidan miiRes~, ZiriTadad, kavkasiis istoriaze orientirebuli cnobili mecnieris (SemdgomSi ssrk mecnierebaTa akademiis, moskovis istoriis institutis direqtori) a. p. novosalcevis saxiT. igi uaryofda ra kavkasiis qveynebSi monaTmflobelur urTierTobaTa arsebobis SesaZleblobas, am regionSi somxeTis mowinaveobis damtkicebas geopolitikuri xasiaTis argumentebiT cdilobda. misi azriT, ramdenadac Zveli civilizaciis raionebTan (mesopotamia, siria, mcire azia, irani) somxeTi teritoriulad ufro axlos imyofeboda, klaswarmoqmnis procesi aq bevrad intensiuri iyo. amitom es procesi ufro adre da intensiurad somxeTSi daiwyo, ramdenadme gvian qarTlSi da sul gvian, ukve, arabTa dapyrobebis win, Zireul albaneTSi24. somxeTi rom teritoriulad da ganviTarebis xasiaTiTac iranTan ufro axlos idga da, faqtobrivad, misi kulturul-politikuri samyaros Semadgenel nawils warmoadgenda, samecniero literaturaSi es sadavod aravis gauxdia. es Tvalsazrisi gatarebulia n. adoncis, h. manandianis, s. eremianis da sxvaTa cnobil naSromebSi. magram amis gamo, misi, rogorc progresis matarebeli qveynis gamorCeulad warmoCena ar unda iyos maincdamainc gamarTlebuli, radganac ZvelaRmosavluri sazogadoebebi aRmavali tendenciebis ganviTarebas did dabrkolebebs uqmnida. amierkavkasiaSi somxeTis upiratesi ganviTarebis s. eremianisa da a. novoselcevis Tvalsazrisi SesaZloa sayrdens poulobs ukeT Semonaxuli da SedarebiT uxvi cnobebis Semcveli adreuli somxuri originaluri wyaroebidan momdinare STabeWdilebebSi, razec araerT miTiTebas vxvdebiT maT SromebSi. qarTuli wyaroebis Sesabamisi da TanabarmniSvnelovani cnobebi, a. novoselcevis azriT, ufro gviania somxurTan SedarebiT da naklebad asaxavs im epoqas, razec weren maTi avtorebi, Tumca imasac aRniSnavs, rom qarTuli wyaroebis warmoSobis problema jer kidev ar aris bolomde gadawyvetili. a. novoselcevis es argumenti seriozulad namdvilad ver CaiTvleba, ramdenadac `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebulebSi didi xania mkvlevrebi amCneven bevrad adre-

uli (IV-V ss.) xanis saistorio TxzulebaTa fragmentebs. amas garda, amierkavkasiis uZvelesi ganviTarebis suraTis aRdgenis simZime a. novoselcevis naSromebSi dakisrebuli aqvs bibliis teqstebSi Semonaxuli socialur-ekonomikuri Sinaarsis Semcveli terminebis analizs. am mxriv ki, bibliis qarTuli teqstebic somxuris TanabarmniSvnelovan adekvatur yvela termins Seicavs. adrefeodaluri xanis qarTul da somxur wyaroebSi damowmebuli socialur-ekonomikuri xasiaTis terminebis semantikuri erTgvarovnebisa da feodaluri institutebis didi msgavsebis miuxedavad, feodalizaciis procesi mezobel qveynebSi mainc amJRavnebda xarisxobriv sxvaobas. Tu saqarTveloSi am process Tan sdevda adreklasobrivi sazogadoebis gadmonaSTuri niSnebis likvidacia, somxeTSi maT gacilebiT didxans Semoinaxes Tavi. xolo iseTi umniSvnelovanesi gadmonaSTi, rogoric iyo Temi, feodalur somxeTs bolomde SemorCa, rac Tavis mxriv feodaluri ganviTarebis process mudmivad borkavda. Zveli qarTlisa da misi Tanadrouli arSakiduli somxeTis socialuri viTarebis Sedarebisas akad. d. musxeliSvilma saintereso movlenas miapyro yuradReba: niSandoblivad aRiniSneba feodalur senioriaTa simravle da amdenadve sazogadoebis feodalizaciis meti siRrme qarTlSi somxeTTan SedarebiT. amazeve miuTiTebs, mecnieris azriT, feodaluri ierarqiis ararseboba arSakidul xanaSi da agreTve sasoflo Temis didi sicocxlisunarianoba somxeTSi TviT XVIII s-mde25. ra argumentic ar unda gamoinaxos eremiannovoselcevis Tvalsazrisis dasasabuTeblad, erTi mainc udavo da cxadia, qarTuli feodaluri sazogadoeba da misi saxelmwifo Senoba gacilebiT ufro gamZle da sicocxlisunariani aRmoCnda istoriis gamocdis winaSe, vidre sxva danarCeni amierkavkasiaSi. istoriuli procesis amgvari Sedegi ki TavisTavad cxadyofs ganviTarebis bevrad myari niadagis arsebobas CvenSi mezoblebTan SedarebiT. ase rom, s. eremianis mier dasmuli sakiTxi amierkavkasiis istoriul ganviTarebaSi, erTsaxad, somexTa gansakuTrebuli mowinaveobis Sesaxeb namdvilad gadasaxedia.

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Íîâîñåëüöåâ À. Ï., Ãåíåçèñ ôåîäàëèçìà â ñòðàíàõ Çàêàâêàçüÿ, Ìîñêâà, 1980, ñ. 140-249.

daviT musxeliSvili, saqarTvelo IV-VIII saukuneebSi, Tb., 2003, gv. 414-415.

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1951 w. b. araqelianisa da a. ionnisianis redaqtorebiT rusul enaze erevanSi gamodis s. eremianis xsenebuli koncefciis safuZvelze agebuli ganmazogadebeli naSromi `somexi xalxis istoria (am wignis rukebisa da 17 sruli Tavis avtori s. eremiania), sadac amierkavkasiis istoriis gadmocemisas Zvel da Sua saukuneebis mTel sigrZeze mxolod somxeTis upiratesobis mtkiceba dominirebs, misgan gansxvavebuli da sawinaaRmdego faqtebi ki miCqmaluli an gadakeTebulia. saqarTvelosTan urTierTobis Temac calmxrivadaa gaSuqebuli da mezobeli xalxebis `istoriuli megobrobis~ saxeliT is somxeTis istoriasaa daqvemdebarebuli. erTi sityviT, amierkavkasiis politikuri ganviTarebis mTavar mamoZravebel Zalad somxuri saxelmwifoebrivi tradiciebi da `somxuri fenomenia~ dasaxuli. seriozuli problemebisadmi amgvari antimecnieruli damokidebulebis winaaRmdeg pirvelma xma aRimaRla cnobilma qarTvelma mecnierma varlam donduam26. igi miuTiTebda wignis avtorTa im mavne tendenciaze, romelic Zveli kavkasiis istoriaSi, somexTa garda, sxva binadar tomTa kvals, faqtobrivad, Slida. magaliTad, Zveli aRmosavleTisa da kavkasiis tomobriv Semadgenlobaze msjelobisas saWiro ganmartebis gareSe subarebis moxsenieba mkiTxvels ver aZlevs masze pozitiur codnas. tomobrivi saxelwodebebis amgvari gamoyenebiT ki masobrivi mkiTxvelis Tvalsawieridan aucileblad qrebian iberebi da sxva eTnikuri warmonaqmnebi. iberiis qveynis lokalizaciac iseTive zogadia da gaugebari, rogorc imdroindeli kavkasiis tomobrivi Semadgenloba. amasTan erTad, samxreT saqarTvelos istoriuli ganviTareba, SeniSnavs v. dondua, demonstrirebulia mxolod somxeTis istoriis aspeqtiT, ris Sedegadac Zveli qarTuli miwebi (gugareTi, karinis da speris olqebi da a. S.) STanTqmulni aRmoCndnen somxeTis istoriis nakadiT. wignSi ubralo cdac ki araa mocemuli eCvenebinaT ­ romeli miwa romel qveyanas wydeboda da romels uerTdeboda da rodis. ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli istoriuli gamocdil-

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Â. Äîíäóà, Íåêîòîðûå çàìå÷àíèÿ íà êîëëåêòèâíûé òðóä ­ Èñòîðèÿ àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà, ÷. I, ïîä ðåä. Á. Í. Àðàêåëÿíà è À. Ð. Èîàííèñÿíà. Èíñòèòóò èñòîðèè ÀÍ Àðìÿíñêîé ÑÑÐ, Åðåâàí, 1951 ñòð. 291 .`mimomxilveli~, III, Tbilisi, 1953, gv. 307-321.

eba, kerZod, qarTvelologiuri specialuri literatura. magaliTad, dumiliT gverdi aqvs avlili wyaros mravalmniSvnelovan Cvenebas imis Taobaze, rom Zv. w. II s. somxeTis sazRvrebi qarTuli miwebis xarjze farTovdeboda da mtkvris samxreTiT mdebare teritoriebi ­ pariadris ferdobebi, xorZene da gogarene maT mitacebamde qarTuli miwebi iyo. istoriuli perspeqtivis dacvis aucileblobis gareSe, wignSi isini warmodgenilia, rogorc somxeTis nawilebi. recenzentis aRSfoTebas iwvevs isic, rom karinis olqis saxelwodeba warsulTan misi kavSiris gareSe ucabedad Cndeba III saukunis somxuri qalaqebis ricxvSi, aseve `karinis da speris~ olqebis saxelebi `Sida somxeTis~ olqTa Soris. wignSi gvxvdeba iseTi istoriul-geografiuli gansazRvrebebic, ganagrZobs v. dondua, romlebic aiZuleben mkiTxvels daaskvnas, TiTqos, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvari `ZvelTaganve~ ucvlelad gadioda `gugarqis~ CrdiloeTiT (gugareTi, igive gogarene samxreT qarTlSi), ramdenadac is usityvodaa dasaxelebuli `Zveli somxeTis ZiriTadi olqebis~ ricxvSi. sinamdvileSi, wers recenzenti, gugareTi im dros somxuri samefos eqspansiis obieqti iyo da mogvianebiT IV s., somxurive wyaroebis mowmobiT, kvlav daubrunda danarCen qarTls. somexTa Soris is cnobili iyo `qarTvelTa velis~ `vrac daStis~ saxeliT. es olqi imave somxuri wyaroebis mixedviT, qarTveli kaTalikosis iurisdiqcias ganekuTvneboda. arakeTilsindisieradaa gaSuqebuli wignSi I-III ss. istoriuli movlenebi kavkasiaSi, gansakuTrebiT I saukunis meore mesamedis ambebi, roca somxeTis samefo taxtze qarTuli samefo saxlis warmomadgenlebi isxdnen. s. janaSias dakvirvebiT es dro qarTulsomxur sazRvarze teritoriuli samflobeloebis xelaxali gadanawilebis periodia da, Cans, swored amitomac gverdi aqvs avlili romsa da parTias Soris somxeTisaTvis gaCaRebul did brZolaSi imdroisTvis Zlevamosili iberiis farTo monawileobas. v. dondua mkiTxvelis yuradRebas miapyrobs im niSandobliv faqtzec, rom aTeuli wlebis manZilze iberiis saxelmwifos myarad epyra iniciativa am regionSi, romelic uZlieres romsa da parTias gamostaca. amis Sedegia, rom maxlobeli aRmosavleTis mebrZol politikur ZalTa realuri Tanafardobis safuZvelze iberiis mefeebs Zlevamosili `didi mefis~ saxeliT ganadidebdnen, rac ukve do-

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kumenturadacaa dadasturebuli (mxedvelobaSia armazis bilingva). sarecenzio wignis avtorebs ki saxelganTqmuli iberiis es mefeebi udrood CamoqveiTebuli hyavT romis `dayenebul~ saTakilo rangamde. ase yrud da Seufereblad moixsenieben wignis avtorebi qarTul-somxuri politikuri urTierTobis erTob saintereso da didmniSvnelovani periodis ambebs. mikerZoebisa da gayalbebis faqtebi, TiTqmis, yovel nabijze gvxvdeba am wignSi. ase magaliTad, roca IV s. 60-70-iani wlebis mijnaze brZolas iberiisaTvis romsa da irans Soris am qveynis gavlenis sferoebad gayofa mohyva Sedegad da sparseTis mefe Saburis mier adre devnili saurmagi saqarTveloSi ukan dabrunda, es faqti wignSi isea gadmocemuli, TiTqos, romis molaparakebas ki ara, aramed iranis batonobis winaaRmdeg muSeR mamikonianis gmirul brZolas ganesazRvros saurmagis bedi. amgvaradve da kidev ufro gamrudebuladaa gaSuqebuli 482 w. vaxtang gorgaslis mier iranis winaaRmdeg organizebuli ajanyeba saqarTveloSi. sarecenzio wignSi faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod naTqvamia, rom vaxtangma daxmarebisaTvis somxebs mimarTa TxovniT, ris pasuxadac somxuri jaris nawili vahan mamikonianisa da saak bagratunis meTaurobiT gaemarTnen vaxtangis dasaxmareblad. brZola warumatebeli aRmoCnda, brZolis velze darCnen saak bagratuni da sxva somxebi, Sewires ra sicocxle moZme qarTveli xalxis Tavisuflebas. erTi sityviT, somex feodalTa nawilis mier qarTveli mefisaTvis aRmoCenili daxmareba wignSi raRac filantropiis gamovlinebad aRiqmeba, rac TiTqos stimuls aZlevda somex mTavarTa brZolas vaxtang gorgaslis jaris SemadgenlobaSi. sinamdvileSi, rogorc amas dawvrilebiT aRwers am movlenebis Tanamedrove somexi istorikosi lazare farpeci, erToblivi brZolis ganmsazRvreli mTavari mizezi saerTo interesebi iyo. ufro metic, sparselTa batonobis pirobebSi somxeTi gacilebiT ufro mZime mdgomareobaSi iyo im dros Cayenebuli, vidre saqarTvelo. mravali aTeuli weli iyo gasuli, rac aRmosavleT somxeTSi sparselebma adgilobrivi samefo xelisufleba gaauqmes (428 w.) da mTlianad da srulad daeuflnen dapyrobil qveyanas. amitomac cnobam saqarTveloSi sparselTa sawinaaRmdegod mowyobili ajanyebis Sesaxeb somxebic aRafrTovana da Tavidanve gverdiT daudgnen ajanyebis meTaurs ­ vaxtang gorgasals. am movlenis wignSi mocemuli

ganmarteba ki mTlianad aufasurebs avTenturi wyaros mniSvnelobas da mxolod pasiur rols akuTvnebs ajanyebis namdvil meTaursa da brZolebis warmmarTvels. wignSi mTlianad miCqmalulia didi qarTveli mefis daviT III kurapalatis mravalmxrivi nayofieri moRvaweobis didi mniSvneloba ara marto qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis, aramed TviT somxeTis istoriisTvisac. mxolod erT winadadebaSi misi vinaobis mouxM senieblad naTqvamia, rom `bizantielebma miitaces taiqi (tao), rasac qarTveli mefeebi ver Seurigdnen, radganac Tavi miaCndaT daviT kurapalatis kanonier memkvidreebad~ (gv. 151). sinamdvileSi saqme exeba taoel bagrationTa mTel memkvidreobaze qarTvel mefeTa kanonier uflebas. wignis avtorTa mocemuli formulebiT ki ise gamodis, TiTqos, taos, rogorc qarTvel bagrationTa memkvidreobis nawilis istoria saTaves daviT kurapalatidan iRebdes da ara istoriis siRrmidan. taos istoriuli kuTvnilebis mimarT wignis avtorTa damokidebuleba kidev ufro gamokveTiladaa gamJRavnebuli sxva adgilas, sadac 481 wlis ajanyebasTan dakavSirebiT gvamcnoben, rom somxeTis naxararebma TavianTi ojaxebi da qoneba winaswar Seafares bizantiis momijnave Soreul taiqs. mocemul konteqstSi, marTebulad SeniSnavs v. dondua, mravaltanjuli da maRali kulturis qarTuli qveyana raRac uTvistomo mxared gamoiyureba. aseTi bundovani geografiuli gansazRvrebis gamo ki araspecialists SeiZleba is sadRac gadakargul qveyanadac ki moeCvenos. ase rom, qarTuli istoriuli teritoriebis miCqmalvisa da mexsierebidan amoSlis survili, TiTqmis, yovel nabijze avlens Tavs am tendenciur wignSi. qarTvelTa da somexTa megobrobis mniSvnelobisaTvis fusfusi sailustracio masalis SerCeviT ar xdeba, ris gamoc gauSuqebeli rCeba daviT kurapalatis, daviT aRmaSeneblisa da misi memkvidreebis ganmaTavisuflebeli misia mTel kavkasiasa da kerZod somxeTSi, ris Sesaxebac sakmaod uxv da STambeWdav cnobebs Seicavs swored somxuri wyaroebi. mrude sarkiTaa areklili am wignSi XII-XIII saukuneTa saqarTvelos centralizebuli feodaluri monarqiisa da mis SemadgenlobaSi Sesuli somxeTisa da mTlianad kavkasiis istoriis didmniSvnelovani epoqa. sul raRac 4-5 gverdze gaSlil TxrobaSi saqarTvelo paradoqsul politikur organizmad warmogvidgeba,

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sadac batonoben da movlenebs warmarTaven am saxelmwifos `mfarvelobaSi~ myofi mezobeli qveynis warmomadgenlebi. wignis am Tavis qvesaTaurebi, rogoricaa `zaqaridebis gaZliereba~, `zaqariadebis samflobeloebi~, `zaqaridebis vasalebi~ da sxvebi winaswar mowmobs avtorTa daJinebul cdebs, mkiTxvels Caunergon Tamarisdroindeli maxlobeli aRmosavleTis uZlieres qarTul saxelmwifoSi, kabinetur pirobebSi xelovnurad Seqmnili e. w. `zaqaridTa~ sagvareulos gansakuTrebulobis azri. somexi avtorebi saqarTvelos somxur samflobeloebSi maT ugvirgino mefeebad gvixataven, ris safuZvelzec somxur miwebs saqarTvelos politikur CarCoebSi moqceul saxelmwifod warmogvidgenen. wignSi vkiTxulobT: XIII s. dasawyisSi yofili somxuri samefoebis _ anisis, taSir-Zoragetisa da sivnieTis teritoriebi zaqaridTa xelSi aRmoCnda mas Semdeg, rac isini Tamar mefem uwyaloba maT. qarTuli samefos SemadgenlobaSi Semavali Crdilo somxeTi Sinagani sruli TviTmmarTvelobiT sargeblobda da qarTveli mefeebic somxuri miwebidan gadasaxadebsac ki ar krebdneno (gv. 164165). Tavi rom gavaneboT wyaroebis cnobebTan aseT mtkicebulebaTa srul Seusabamobas, `keTili nebiTa~ da `megobrobis~ mizeziT saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mopoveba, vfiqrob, gauwafi mkiTxvelisTvisac ki Znelad dasajerebeli unda iyos. samagierod, s. eremianis xsenebul naSromebSi mxargrZelTa eTnikuri warmomavlobis gadasinjvam da qarTuli saxelmwifos istoriaSi maTi Rvawlis mniSvnelobis gazviadebam logikurad miiyvanes centralizebuli qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis bunebisa da misi somxuri nawilis politikuri statusis dasmamde, ris Semdeg somxuri istoriografia gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT Seudga am ideis gasamarTleblad sxvadasxva logikuri Tu mecnierebasTan miaxloebuli konstruqciebis Ziebas. MmaT Sesaxeb calke kidev mogviwevs saubari, ris gamoc mxargrZelebze msjelobas amjerad aq SevwyvetT. v. donduas mier recenzirebuli wignis mTavari tendencia saqarTvelos istoriasTan damokidebulebis nawilSi, rogorc vnaxeT, mimarTulia masobrivi mkiTxvelis ara mecnieruli cnobierebis gasafarToeblad, rac amgvari ganmazogadebeli naSromis mTavari amocana unda iyos, aramed gansazRvruli politikuri ganwyobilebis Sesaqmnelad, rac, vfiqrob, verafriT pasuxobs isto-

riuli mezoblebis WeSmarit, sasicocxlo interesebs. samwuxarod, politizirebuli istoriis niSnebi, centraluri xelisuflebis mxardaWeris pirobebSi, sabWoTa somxuri istoriografiis kuTvnilebad iqca. sabWoTa kavSiris xalxTa megobrobis oficialurad gacxadebuli ideologiis fonze mTavrobis kavkasiuri politika ukve cinizmis niSnebsac iZenda. erT SemTxvevaSi sruli Tavisufleba hqonda miniWebuli mecnierTa erT koleqtivs nebismieri darRveviTa da mikerZoebiT gaeSuqebina kavkasiis istoria, amavdroulad ki mecnierTa sxva koleqtivs `xalxTa megobrobis saxeliT~ ekrZaleboda simarTlis dacva. magaliTad, akad. s. janM aSias mier n. tokarskis wignis samarTliani kritika, faqtobrivad, aikrZala, roca misi narkvevi wignis savaWro qselidan male amoiRes, xolo v. donduas kritikuli recenzia masobrivi tiraJiT gamosul wignze mxolod SezRudul tiraJian gamocemaSi Zlivs daibeWda. ufro metic, xelovnebis istoriis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli specialistis giorgi CubinaSvilis metad saintereso wigni `Ðàçûñêàíèÿ ïî àðìÿíñêîé àðõèòåêòóðå, Òáèëèñè, 1967 ã. ara marto ukiduresad SezRuduli tiraJiT (sul 500 c.) ZlivZlivobiT gamoica, aramed arc wignis bazarze misces gasaqani da arsebiTad biblioTekebis Taroebze miajaWves. maSin, rodesac 1968 w. sabWoTa kavSiris Tavdacvis saministros gamomcemlobam masobrivi tiraJiT (65 aTasi) dabeWda mxargrZelTa gayalbebuli istoriis masalaze agebuli kidev ufro damaxinjebuli da saqarTvelosTvis Seuracxmyofeli g. vermiSevis istoriuli romani `amirspasalari~, rac, gasagebia, istoriul mezoblebs Soris undoblobis gaRvivebis mets, albaT, arc isaxavda miznad. qarTuli mxaris reaqcia amgvar gamocemebze ki, rogorc wesi, maqsimalurad izRudeboda. aseT pirobebSi somex mecnierTa erTi nawili Seuferxeblad da gegmazomierad ganagrZobda saqarTvelos istoriuli Tu amJamindeli samxreTis teritoriebis kalmiT dalaSqvras. aseTi damokidebulebis erT-erTi mkafio magaliTia 1971 wlis gazafxulze somxeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa ganyofilebis yovelTviur organoSi `lraberSi~ dabeWdili paruir muradianis werili `braldebiTi formebi saxelobiTSi somxeTis toponomikis monacemTa mixedviT~, romelic gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva kvlevis lingvisturi meTodebis ignor-

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irebaTa da TvalsaCino enobriv faqtebze uxeSi ZaladobiT27. saqme exeba qarTuli enis normebis mixedviT, qarTveli xalxis mier Seqmnil is-i sufiqsiT nawarmoeb toponimebs: Tbilisi, bolnisi, krwanisi, quTaisi da sxvas. saqarTvelos teritoriaze gavrcelebul am da msgavsi toponimebis mTeli sistema sayovelTao aRiarebiT araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs rogorc lingvisturi, ise istoriuli TvalsazrisiT. muradianma Sekriba is da s-ze daboloebuli somxeTis teritoriaze arsebuli erTob mcirericxovani toponimebi (magaliTad agulis, akanis, alberis, arnis, aksigoms), toponimTa es ori tipi xelovnurad gaaerTiana erT klasSi da yovelgvari mecnieruli argumentaciis gareSe a priori somxuri warmomavlobisad gamoacxada. misi azriT, somxuri toponimebi ar saWiroebs specialur gamokvlevas, aprioriT cnobilia, rom isini somxur niadagze aRmocendnen, samagierod is-i-ze daboloebuli qarTuli toponimebis warmomavloba namdvilad saWiroebs garkvevas. es alogikuri Tezisi daedo safuZvlad p. muradianis mtkicebas, TiTqos, is-iT daboloebuli qarTuli toponimebis udidesi nawili somxuri warmomavlobisaa. magaliTad, misi mtkicebiT, somxuri toponimebia: Tbilisi, bolnisi, krwanisi, manglisi, dmanisi da sxvebi. amgvari toponimebis meore nawili berZnuli warmomavlobisaa: quTaisi, fazisi da mxolod mesame erTob umniSvnelo jgufia qarTuli. esenia nazmnari (magaliTad xerTvisi) da nasaxelari toponimebi: ruisi, daTvisi, sacxenisi...,... sul erTad, eqvsi. p. muradianis am werilis qarTveli recenzentebi aleqsandre oniani da zurab sarjvelaZe sruliad bunebrivad svamen kanonzomier kiTxvas: Tuki avtors (e. i. p. muradians) mxolod toponomikis lingvisturi problemebi aRelvebs, riT unda aixsnas aseTi gansxvavebuli midgoma somxuri da qarTuli toponimebis mimarT? Tu somxuri toponimebis warmomavloba ar saWiroebs mecnierul argumentacias (im dros roca p. muradianis moyvanili arc erTi toponimi ar Seicavs somxur sityvebTan aRmaval gamWirvale etimologias), raRatom Cndeba eWvi yvelas mier aRiare27

Àëåêñàíäð Îíèàíè, Çóðàá Ñàðäæâåëàäçå, Ïðîòèâ èçâðàùåíèÿ âîïðîñîâ ãðóçèíñêîé òîïîíèìèêè, `macne~, enisa da literaturis seria, 1971, #3, gv. 169-182.

buli qarTuli toponimebis mimarT da raRatom aris saeWvo qarTuli saxelebis qarTuli sawyisis sagangebo dasabuTeba? da piriqiT, Tu SesaZloa qarTuli toponimebis ucxoenovani warmomavlobis mtkiceba, ratom ar Cndeba analogiuri kiTxva somxuri saxelebis mimarT? mecnieruli logikis TvalsazrisiT xom aseTi midgoma savsebiT bunebrivi iqneboda. saqmec is aris, rom mecnierebis moTxovnilebebi, misi kanonebi, misi logika, am SemTxvevaSi p. muradianisaTvis arafers niSnavs imasTan SedarebiT, ramac mas kalami aaRebina xelSi. amitomac mas ar SeuZlia angariSi gauwios im uaRresad TvalsaCino faqts, rom qarTulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli naTesaobiTi brunvis formebis (isi) saSualebiT toponimebis warmoqmna saerToqarTveluri modelia da sityvaTwarmoqmnis es wesi gamoiyeneboda toponimikaSi jer kidev proqarTul epoqaSi. 1961 w. sabWoTa saqarTvelos teritoriis farglebSi aRniSnuli modelis 120 toponimze meti aRiricxa (wkadisi, wnisi, yulaRisi, sxvilisi, duisi, bolnisi, samwverisi, taZrisi, yvibisi, zindisi, tirZnisi da sxva mravali). Tu es sia dausaxlebeli punqtebiTa da yvela mikrotoponimiT Seivseboda, gasagebia, maTi ricxvi Seudareblad gaizrdeboda. am fonze ki erTob niSandoblivia, rom is-ze daboloebuli toponimebidan p. muradianma somxeTSi mxolod 32 toponimi Zlivs Semoikriba, rac cxadia, araTu misTvis sasurvel daskvnas waadgeba, aramed, piriqiT, sruliad sawinaaRmdegoze metyvelebs. is-iT daboloebul qarTul da somxur toponimTa arsebuli ricxobrivi Tanafardoba, vfiqrob, specialuri lingvisturi kvlevis gareSec aSkaras xdis yvela am toponimTa qarTul warmomavlobas (am Tezisis enaTmecnieruli dasabuTeba ix. aleqsandre onianisa da zurab sarjvelaZis xsenebul statiaSi). mezobeli qveynis toponimebis ase xelaRebiT miTviseba rom ufro didi da praqtikuli amocanebis gadawyvetisaTvis niadagis Semzadebas isaxavs miznad es arc ise Zneli misaxvedria. eWvi araa, swored amgvari cduneba aiZulebda b-n p. muradians mezobeli teritoriebis saxelebi ­ dmanisi, bolnisi, manglisi da gansakuTrebiT Tbilisi gauTaveblad ewvalebina, miuxedavad imisa, rom es ukanaskneli mainc yvelaze gamWvirvale da damajerebeli qarTuli etimologiis mqone toponomia. mecnieruli kvlevis es gansakuTrebuli meTodi, romelic sruliad Seuferxeblad `sacnaurs xdis~ yoveli umniSvnelovanesi is-

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toriuli faqtis somxur warmomavlobas, b-ma p. muradianma jer kidev maSin gaacno mkiTxvel sazogadoebas, roca mcxeTis jvris qarTuli arqiteqturuli Sedevri somxur arqiteqturas miakuTvna, xolo bizantiis saxelmwifos didi qarTveli moRvawe, yovladwminda RvTismSoblis qarTuli monastris damaarsebeli (1083 w.) petriwonSi, sevastosi da domestikosi grigol bakurianis Ze pirwmindad gaasomxa. maT Sesaxeb calke gveqneba saubari, ris M gamoc aq sityvas aRar gavagrZelebT. muradianis kvlevis es meTodi sabWoTa somxuri istoriografiisaTvis damaxasiaTebel CarCoebSi morgebulad jdeboda da amdenad, is moulodnels arafers Seicavda. sayuradRebo sul sxvaa. muradianis kvlevis interesebiT SemosazRvruli istoriul-geografiuli sivrce saocrad emTxveva daSnakTa partiis politikuri programiT saqarTvelos mimarT wayenebuli teritoriuli pretenziebis sazRvrebs, rac mis Sromebs mecnieruli interesebis miRma ayenebs. Tavisi mizandasaxulobiT am tipis naSromTa rigSi unda ganvixiloT 1978 w. somxuri arqiteqturis Zeglebis seriiT gamosuli da somxeTis mweralTa kavSiris gamomcemloba `sovetakan groRis~ mier dastambuli t. maruTianis wigni `siRrmeTa somxeTi~. wignis saTauri, rogorc vxedavT, ukve winaswar acxadebs mis mier warmodgenili Zeglebis erovnul kuTvnilebas, rac, Turme, somxeTis siRrmeebSi yofila saZiebeli, Tu rogor axerxebs wignis avtori irealuris sinamdviled warmosaxvas, mousminoT qarTuli arqiteqturis istoriis gamoCenil mkvlevars akad. vaxtang beriZes, romelmac tao-klarjeTis Zeglebis Seswavlas kargad cnobili fundamenturi naSromi uZRvna28. misi dakvirvebiT, wignis avtorisaTvis (e. i. t. maruTianisaTvis) ucnobi unda iyos mecnieruli kvlevis meTodebi da naklebad unda erkveodes sakvlevad aRebul saganSi, ris gamoc brmad miyva ra n. tokarskis kvals, manac taos taZrebi somxur ZeglTa wreSi moaqcia. is nakleb yuradRebas aqcevs sakuTriv arqiteqturul-mxatvrul TaviseburebaTa ganxilvas, e. i. ZeglTa arsSi Cawvdomas, raSic Cveulebriv vlindeba maTi nacionaluri Tavisebureba. Sedarebebi da Sepirispirebebi, romel-

Tac is axdens wmindad diletanturad da saukunovani xandazmulobisaa Tavisi doniT. tokarskis msgavsad t. maruTianic SesaZleblad miiCnevs erovnuli kulturis erTi dargi, am SemTxvevaSi arqiteqtura, ganixilos sxva dargebidan izolirebulad. mas `aviwydeba~, rom tao-klarjeTSi, istoriul niadagze rom araferi iTqvas, qarTuli iyo ara marto arqiteqtura, aramed mdidari literatura, xelnaweri wignebi, miniatiurebi, monumenturi ferwera, Weduri xelovnebis nawarmoebebi da yvela isini organulad iyvnen dakavSirebulni saukuneTa mTel sigrZeze saqarTvelos erovnuli xelovnebis saerTo ganviTarebiT. avtori mecnierul uvicobasTan erTad, arakeTilsindisierebasac avlens ­ is mkiTxvels umalavs, rom tao-klarjeTis taZrebis warwerebi (umciresi gamonaklisis garda) mTlianad qarTulia; amasTan, imasac malavs, rom am warwerebSi dasaxelebuli arian qarTveli xuroTmoZRvrebi (magaliTad, ivane morCaisZe iSxanSi) da mSeneblobis xelmZRvanelebi (magaliTad, grigol oSkeli). iq ki, sadac iZulebulia aRiaros, rom tao-klarjeTis ena qarTuli iyo, maSinve Tavis dasacavad mimarTavs (marTalia, ara mis mier Seqmnil) qarTul enaze mosaubre somex qalkedonitTa formulas. maruTianis logikiT, ramdenadac arc ena, arc erovnuli literatura da xelovneba, arc arqiteqturis TvalsaCinod mkafio Tavisebureba ar gansazRvraven nacionalur kuTvnilebas, savsebiT SesaZlebelia mTeli qarTuli kulturis waSla-gauqmeba imiT, rom ubralod is somxur-qalkedonurad gamovacxadoT. v. beriZis marTebuli SeniSvniT, t. maruTianisa da misi msgavsebis nawerebi Zalze uSlian xels qarTuli da somxuri xelovnebis seriozul mkvlevrebs da, ra Tqma unda, araviTari sargebloba ar moaqvT mravalsaukunovani, mkafiod Taviseburi somxuri arqiteqturisaTvis, romelic sulac ar saWiroebs msgavs `damcvelebs~29. erTaderTi da universaluri argumenti, riTac istoriuli sinamdvilis damaxinjebis moRvaweebi cdiloben samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleobisa da maTi sabinadro qveynis somxuri samyarosTvis mikuTvnebas aris istoriul procesebSi somex qalkedonitTa rolisa da mniSvnelobis usazRvrod gazvi29

28

Âàõòàíã Áåðèäçå, Ìåñòî ïàìÿòíèêîâ Òàî-Êëàðäæåòè â èñòîðèè ãðóçèíñêîé àðõèòåêòóðû, Òáèëèñè, 1981.

v. beriZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 16-17.

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adeba. ramdenadac es argumenti somxur istoriografiaSi sxvadasxva SemTxvevebsa da viTarebaSi sakmaod farTod gamoiyeneba, mogvixdeba masze sagangebod SeCereba. 1905 w. `Âèçàíòèéñêèé Âðåìåííèê~-is XII tomSi daibeWda niko maris werili `Àðêàóí ìîíãîëüñêîå íàçâàíèå õðèñòèàí â ñâÿçè ñ âîïðîñîì îá àðìÿíàõ-õàëêåäîíèòàõ~, romlis Seqmnasac biZgi misca imave organoSi cota ufro adre lui ptis mier petriwonis tipikonis buqarestis berZnuli redaqciis teqstis gamoqveynebam. n. maris yuradReN ba miipyro teqstis im adgilma, sadac aRniSnuli iyo, rom `winamdebare tipikoni... daiwera berZnulad, qarTulad da somxurad... xelmowerilia... saTno grigoris da dasavleTis didi domestikosis bakurianis mier, somxuri asoebiT... daiwera berZnulad, qarTulad da somxurad imitom, rom am monastris monazonebi qarTvelebi arian da ar ician berZnuli kiTxva; amitom saWiroa es tipikoni Sesrulebuli iyos qarTuladac da somxuradac30. tipikonis qarTuli redaqcia am droisaTvis jer kidev ar iyo mikvleuli, ris gamoc n. mars, gasagebia, ufro Rrma da sruli analizis saSualeba ar hqonda. somex qalkedonianTa istoriul sve-bedze dafiqrebul mecnierze, aSkaraa, rom berZnuli redaqciis am cnobam didi STabeWdileba moaxdina, ramdenadac es erTgvarad amarTlebda da TiTqos sayrdensac aZlevda mis naCqarev koncefcias somex qalkedonitTa warsulze, romlis Tanaxmadac IX saukunidan somxeTis antiqalkedonianuri eklesiis nacionalizacias somexi qalkedonianebis denacionalizacia mohyva, ramac somex xalxs rogorc ricxobrivad, ise moralurad, didi ziani moutana. somexi qalkedonianebi gavlenis sferoebis mixedviT erwymodnen erTmorwmune qarTvelebs, berZnebs da sirielebs. am denacionalizaciis procesis wyalobiT iyoo, rom saqarTvelo gamdidrda taosa da klarjeTis uaRresad mwarmoebluri, pirdapir brwyinvale kulturuli SemoqmedebiTi unariT dajildoebuli olqebiT31. faqtebis gauTvaliswineblobiTa da calmxrivad warmarTuli msjelobiT n. mari istoriuli sinamdvilisaTvis sruliad Seuferebel eTno politikur suraTs gvixatavs, romlis mixedviTac tao-klarjeTis qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi somexi qalkedonianebis de30 31

georgika, t. 5, Tbilisi, 1963, gv. 253-255. Í. ß. Ìàðð, Àðêàóí..., ñ. 17.

nacionalizaciis procesis warmonaqmni iyo. igi imdenad gaitaca somex qalkedonitTa mis mier Seqmnilma konstruqciam, rom winaaRmdegobebiT moculi teqstis (daiwera berZnulad, qarTulad da somxurad imitom, rom am monastris monazonebi qarTvelebi arian da ar ician berZnuli kiTxva) cnobebi Tavisi koncefciis Tumca mcire, magram niSandobliv monacemad miiCnia. amgvari damokidebulebis ganviTarebas xels uwyobda, agreTve, ana komninisa da petriwonis monastris tipikonis urTierTsapirispiro Cvenebebis SeTanxmebis survilic, ris gamoc, Cans, gaugebrobaze agebuli sul ramdenime argumenti sakmarisi aRmoCnda, raTa mas vrceli msjeloba gaemarTa da mTeli Teoria Seeqmna somex qalkedonitTa erovnuli Segnebisa da maTi msoflmxedvelobiTi warmodgenebis urTierTdamokidebulebis Taobaze. sakuTari Teoriis tyveobaSi myofma mecnierma Zeglis xsenebul cnobebs misTvis Sesaferisi axsna mouZebna: radgan tipikoni oficialur berZnulTan erTad qarTulad da somxuradac yofila Sesrulebuli, Cans, qarTvelebTan erTad monasterSi somxebic sakmaod yofilan, ra Tqma unda, qalkedonitebi, romlebic am niSniT qarTvelebad arian wodebulnio. tipikonis moTxovnas `qarTuli wera-kiTxvisa da enis codnaze~ isini, cxadia, akmayofilebdnen, magram ufro Zlierni iyvnen somxur mwignobrobaSio. amgvari movlenis dasturad n. mars miaCnda cnoba monastris damaarseblis mier berZnul oficialur teqstze somxurad xelismowera. xolo grigol bakurianis Zis sruliad gasageb da naTel gancxadebas mis qarTul warmomavlobaze imiT xsnida, rom, TiTqos, grigolis enaze sityva qarTvels wminda kulturuli mniSvneloba hqondao da misi warmodgeniT yvela somexi qalkedoniti aris qarTveli wminda sisxlis qarTvelis Tanasworado. somexi qalkedoniti Tavs qarTvelad imitomac grZnobda, rom warmoSobiT is tao-klarjeTidan iyo, odesRac somxuri, magram XI saukunisaTvis ukve mTlianad gaqarTulebuli raionidan. vin iyvnen am qveynis aborigenebi mocemul momentSi mkvlevars ratomRac ar ainteresebs, Tumca ki mainc aRniSnavs, rom es unda yofiliyo romeliRac lazuri an megruli tomi da iqve ganmartavs: lazebi da megrelebi qarTvelTa moZmeebi ariano. VII s. am qveyanas somxuri saxe hqonda da aq somxuri qalkedonitoba ifurCqnebodao, amave periods ganekuTvneba somxuri monas-

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tris iSxanis ayvavebac, romlis restavrireba VIII-IX ss. mijnaze moaxdina wminda sabam mxolod ukve qarTuli monastris saxiT. daoblebul somxur nagebobebze, romelTac jer kidev SeinarCunes somxuri saxelebi iSxani, Satberdi, mijnaZori da sxv. damkvidrdnen qarTveli ber-monazvnebi. am epoqaSi IX-dan da TviT X s.c ki qarTveli ber-monazvnoba garSemortymuli iyo erTmorwmune, magram ucxotomeli somxuri mosaxleobiT. da qarTvelTa politikuri batonobis miuxedavad, Tavis uflebas am qveynisaTvis qarTuli ewodebinaT amyarebdnen imaze, rom eklesiebSi RvTismsaxureba qarTul enaze warmoebda. qalkedoniti somxebi amiT TandaTan qarTveldebodnen. 1083 w., roca petriwonis monasteri efuZvneboda, tao-klarjeTis somexi qalkedonitebi Tavs ukve namdvil qarTvelebad miiCnevdnen da maT qarTul metyvelebas, bunebrivia, adgilobrivi somxuri sityvebic unda Seewova. aseT sityvaTa ricxvs, romelTac qarTul enaSi moqalaqeobrivi ufleba moipoves, miekuTvneboda `tanuteri~ (gv. 22). Semdeg miuTiTebs ra am sityvis xmarebis sxva SemTxvevebs, askvnis, rom am sityvam tao-klarjeTis qarTul enaSi moipova moqalaqeobrivi ufleba. umTavresad amitom, ganmartavs n. mari, vbedav amJamad vamtkico, rom grigol bakuriani, petriwonis qarTul monastris damaarsebeli iyo tao-klarjeTis gaqarTvelebuli somexi qalkedonitebis wridan. statiis bolos n. mari akeTebs metad sayuradRebo SeniSvnas: igi ganmartavs, rom ar miiCnevs warmodgenil Tvalsazriss bolomde da yovelTvis damtkicebulad da misi mizani iyo specialistTa yuradReba miepyro somxuri qalkedonitobis Seswavlis maRal kulturul-istoriul interesze da yvela imaze, rac xels uwyobs an SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos mis gaSuqebas32. am SeniSvnis Semdeg mainc, vfiqrob, sruliad aSkaraa, rom n. mars Tavisi Tvalsazrisi somxur qalkedonitobaze mecnierul hipoTezad miaCnda da ara sabolood damtkicebul utyuar WeSmaritebad. marTlac, mis msjelobaSi gamokveTili winaaRmdegobebi da faqtebis zedapiruli analizi cxadad avlens aRniSnul sakiTxze n. maris ganzogadebaTa naCqarev xasiaTs. daviwyoT Tundac imiT, rom qarTuli sakuTari saxeli bakuriani somxuri formis (iani)

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gvarad miiRo da Tavidanve mcdar safuZvelze aago axali Teoria. tipikonis berZnuli da qarTuli redaqciebis teqstis dasawyisSive sruliad garkveviTaa naTqvami, rom bakuriani grigolis mamis saxeli iyo da ara misi gvari. qarTulSi weria: `romeli ese aRiwera da daemtkica brZanebiTa Cem grigolisiTa, nebiTa RmrTisa¡Ta sevastosisa da didisa demestikosisa yovlisa dasavleTisa¡Ta, Zisa sanatrelisa erisTavTa mTavrisa bakurianisa¡Ta~. igives imeorebs berZnuli, romelsac n. maric icnobda: `... monasterSi, romelic aRvaSene me grigolma RvTis nebiT sevastosma da mTeli dasavleTis domestikosma, RviZlma Svilma netari bakurianisa, brwyinvale erisTavT-erisTavisa~. tipikonSi bakuriani sxvaganac aris dasaxelebuli grigolis mamad; berZnulSi ikiTxeba: `didi xuTSabaTis patiosansa da wminda dRes aResrulos saxsenebeli netarisa da saxelovanisa mamisa Cuenisa bakurianisa erisTavTaerisTavisa~; qarTuladac igivea: `dResa didisa xuTSabaTisasa sa£senebeli aResrulebodis mamisa Cuenisa erisTavT-erisTavisa bakurianisaT¢s~. igivea gameorebuli sxvaganac. berZnuli teqstiT: `netari mama Cueni bakuriani~, qarTuliT: `mamisa Cemisa bakurianisaT¢s~. akaki SaniZe amasTan dakavSirebiT, agreTve, SeniSnavs, rom bakuriani qarTuli formaa, somxurad ki bakuran iTqmoda33. aSkaraa, n. mari petriwonis tipikonis berZnul redaqciasac jerovnad ar icnobda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mas ecodineboda, rom bakuriani am teqstSi sagvareulo saxeli ki ar aris, aramed piris aRmniSvnelia da kerZod grigolis mamis sakuTari saxelia, rac araorazrovnad da naTladaa naCvenebi teqstis kidev erT adgilas: `erT dRes unda moixseniebodes netari mama Cveni bakuriani wmida JamiswirvaSi, xolo meore dRes ­ misi RviZli Zma xuasrovani, mesame dRes ki amisi Svili da Cemi biZaSvili bakuriani~34. ufro metic, rogorc irkveva, adamianis es sakuTari saxeli qarTlis warCinebulTa saxelebSi, saerTod, ucxo arc manamde yofila. magaliTad, qarTlis moqcevis matianesaTvis dar-

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n. mari, arkauni..., gv. 50-51.

akaki SaniZe, qarTvelTa monasteri bulgareTSi da misi tipikoni, tipikonis qarTuli redaqcia, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 37-38; georgika, t. 5, gv. 99, 215 da sxv. georgika, t. 5, gv. 235.

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Tul e. w. did erisTavTa siaSi VIII saukunisaTvis moixsenieba vinme `bakuriani, Ze¡ baldadisi~35. aseve, erTob susti argumentia tao-klarjeTis eTnikur-kulturuli warsulis n. mariseuli suraTis warmosadgenad berZnuli redaqciis cnobaze damyarebuli msjeloba tipikonis somxuri redaqciis SesaZlo arsebobasa da grigolis somxuri xelmoweris Taobaze, gansakuTrebiT im dros, roca Zeglis dedani mkvlevrebs saerTod ar moepovebaT da maT aslebze arian damokidebulni. berZnuli redaqciis ganmarteba tipikonis teqstis somxur enazec Sedgenis saWiroebaze winaaRmdegobis Semcvelia da gaugebari. amis Sesaxeb s. yauxCiSvili mis mier gamocemuli berZnuli redaqciis kvleviT nawilSi werda: im adgilas, sadac berZnul teqstSi laparakia tipikonis daweris Sesaxeb sams enaze Camatebuli moCans sityva `somxurad~ da `da somxuradac~. am azris siswores is amarTlebs, rom am mTliani winadadebis SuaSi ar Cans dasabuTeba imisa, Tu ratom iyo saWiro daewera `somxuradac~. dasabuTebaSi naTqvamia, `rom am monastris monazonebi qarTvelebi arian da ar ician berZnuli kiTxva~ da ar Cans, riT aris gamowveuli somxuradac tipikonis daweris saWiroeba. rom sityva `somxurad~ iyos teqstis organuli nawili, maSin unda werebuliyo: `imitom rom am monastris monazonebi qarTvelebi /da somxebi/ arian da ar ician berZnuli kiTxva~36. qarTuli da berZnuli teqstebis Sedarebisas ki s. yauxCiSvili aRniSnavda, rom Tavidan bolomde ise gasdevs wesdebis mTel teqsts mTavari debuleba: `qarTvelni varT naTesaviT~ an "qarTvelni arian da ar ician berZnuli wakiTxva (da es aris ara marto qarTuli redaqciis teqstSi, aramed berZnulSic) ­ ise gasdevs es wiTeli zoliviT, rom tipikonis teqstis qarTuli redaqcia SegviZlia miviCnioT pirvel-dednad37. qarTul redaqciaSi ki, rogorc aRiniSna, cnoba somxuri redaqciis arsebobisa da grigolis mier somxuri asoebiT xelmoweraze ar moipoveba. damajereblobasaa moklebuli, agreTve, n. maris mtkiceba, TiTqos, monasterSi qalkedoniti somxebic iyvnen, romlebic

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a. bogveraZe, grigol bakurianis Zis tipikonis gagebisaTvis, krSi `amierkavkasiis istoriis problemebi~, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 154. georgika, t. 5, gv. 274. iqve, gv. 275.

wesdebis somxur teqsts saWiroebdneno. Tu aseT azrs dauSvebT, maSin irRveva wesdebis moTxovna qarTuli wera-kiTxvisa da enis codnaze, xolo Tu zogierTebs, romlebic qarTuls ukve flobdnen, magram somxuri ufro emarjvebodaT, rogorc amas n. mari ganmartavs, mxolod am mizeziT somxuri teqstis Sedgena namdvilad gaumarTlebeli Cans. Sors rom aRar wavideT da grigol bakurianis Zis mier monastrisaTvis `didi xarjis gaRebiT~ Sewiruli wignebis sakmaod grZel sias gadavavloT Tvali, iq verc erT somxur wigns ver mivagnebT qarTuli da berZnuli wignebis garda. monasterSi rom qarTvelebis gverdiT Tundac maTi erTmorwmune somxebi yofiliyvnen, anda TviT grigol bakurianis Ze warmoSobiT somexi yofiliyo, romelsac Turme somxuri ufro exerxeboda, rogor davijeroT, erTi somxuri wigni mainc ar daedo monastrisaTvis sakuTari xarjiT Seqmnil biblioTekaSi? aSkaraa, somxuri wignis momxmarebeli petriwonis monasterSi aravin iyo da arc aravin eloda, rom momavalSi mainc aseTi saWiroeba gaCeniliyo, radganac wesdeba qarTvelis garda, ucxo warmomavlobis monazvnebis mosvlas principulad gamoricxavda. grigol bakurianis Zis warmomavlobisa Tu tao-klarjeTis mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis gansazRvrisaTvis Zalze Znelia argumentis mniSvneloba mieniWos ZeglSi moxseniebul somxur sityva `tanuters~, ris saSualebiTac, agreTve, cdilobs n. mari mis mierve dasmuli problemis gadaWras. jer erTi, rogorc es akaki SaniZem dokumenturad daadastura petriwonis monastris tipikonis berZnul teqstSi naxmari `tanuteri~ uadgiloa, ramdenadac is mekuWnavis magieradaa gamoyenebuli maSin, rodesac am somxur sityvas qarTulSi da somxurSic xelisufalis mniSvneloba aqvs. cxadia, pirvandeli teqsti gadakeTebulia da iq arsebuli mekuWnavis aRsaniSnavi kelari Tu ostigani qarTulSi xmarebuli somxuri sityviTaa Secvlili Sinaarsis damaxinjebis xarjze. ase rom, sityva `tanuteri~, romelsac n. mari ase did mniSvnelobas aniWebda, tipikonis teqstebSi, Tavdapirvelad saerTod, arc yofila. rac Seexeba qarTul enaSi somxuri sityvebis gamoyenebas, iseve rogorc qarTuli sityvebisa somxurSi, gansakuTrebiT calkeuli SemTxvevebisas, mxaris eTnikuri saxis warmosaCenad ar SeiZleba didi mniSvneloba mieniWos, radganac aseTi viTareba mezobelTa xangrZlivi urTierTobisa da enobrivi kon-

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taqtebis sruliad bunebrivi Sedegia. saTanado magaliTebi sakmaod bevria da specialistebisaTvis kargad cnobili. moviyvanT ramdenime maTgans. a. SaniZe asaxelebs megrul-lazuri sityvebis damkvidrebis SemTxvevebs somxurSi, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT gamohyofs sityva Wanjs (buzi), romelic uZveles somxur teqstebSi gvxvdeba. aseve Zvelia lazuri jinj Ziridan nawarmoebi sityvebi somxurSi38. somxeTSi da saerTod amierkavkasiis xalxTa enebSi specialistebi qarTulidan Sesulad Tvlian sameurneo daniSnulebis iseT uZveles terminebs, rogoricaa Toxi, bari, oCxari da sxv. ase rom, somxeTis mezobel tao-klarjeTSi zogierTi somxuri terminis, maT Soris `tanuteris~ xmareba gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis movlenad ver CaiTvleba. erTaderTi pirdapiri cnoba, romelic grigol bakurianis Zes somxur warmomavlobas miawers ana komnenes `aleqsiada~-dan iRebs saTaves. anas TqmiT, grigol bakurianis Ze `warmoSobiT somxis warCinebuli gvarisa iyo~. imperatoris qaliSvilis am cnobas gadaWriT ewinaaRmdegebian berZnul-bizantiuri, somxuri da, cxadia, qarTuli saistorio wyaroebi, romelTa mixedviT grigol bakurianis Ze warmoSobiT iyo `iberTa brwyinvale gvaridan~. rogorc vxedavT, istoriuli wyaroebi adamianis warmomavlobas gvar-tomisadmi misi kuTvnilebiT gansazRvravs. miuxedavad amisa, n. mars misaRebad da unaklod mxolod ana komnenes cnoba miaCnia, sxva danarCenis analogiuri principiT gadmocemul cnobas ki sarwmunoebriv moments ukavSirebs da kulturul mniSvnelobas miawers. ase rom, sarwmunoebisa da erovnebis urTierTSesabamisobis mis mierve gacxadebul princips, rasac safuZvlad udebs tao-klarjeTis eTnikur-kulturuli saxis gansazRvras, TviTonve yovelTvis ar icavs. Tu erT SemTxvevaSi, kerZod somexTa Segnebis simyaris saCveneblad, sarwmunoeba ver Slida erovnebas, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki, roca qarTuli taoklarjeTi somxurad unda moenaTla, sarwmunoeba Slis erovnebas. ratom aris, rom petriwonis monastris tipikonis `qarTvels~ kulturuli mniSvneloba hqonda, ana komnenes ki ara? am kiTxvaze

pasuxs n. mari ar iZleva. marto sarwmunoeba rom ver waSlida erovnebas, amas TviT n. maris mier moyvanili magaliTebic mowmoben, romelTa mixedviT berZnul eklesiaSi, berZnul enaze mlocveli da mwirvel-mgalobeli marTlmadidebeli somxebi, maris Teoriis sawinaaRmdegod, berZnebad da romaelebad ki ar iwodebian, aramed somxebad, rasac eWvmiutaneblad adastureben amotvifruli warwerebi, magaliTad `AñìÝíßïs ðñåüâýôåños~ da sxv.39 ana komnene, ra Tqma unda, cdeba, roca grigol bakurianis Zes somxad miiCnevs. igi cdeboda iseve, rogorc araerTi berZeni avtori Semcdara bizantiaSi moRvawe qarTvelebisa da somxebis erovnuli kuTvnilebis sakiTxSi. Tu rogor da ra pirobebSi unda mosvloda Secdoma imperatoris qaliSvils, saintereso dakvirvebas warmogvidgens a. bogveraZe: ana sul sami wlisa iyo, roca grigoli daiRupa, xolo `aleqsiada~ sibereSi dauweria. anam is ki icoda, rom es kaci `aRmosavleli~ iyo da somxeTSi didxans namsaxuri da ra gasakvirvelia amis mere, Tu somxadve CaTvala. anas is rom scodnoda, grigol bakurianis Zes Tavis brwyinvale qarTuli warmoSobiT Tavi mohqonda, rom qarTul saqmes is bizantiaSic ar iviwyebda (aTonis qarTvelTa monasterze mzrunveloba, petriwonis qarTuli monastris daarseba), rom `tomiT qarTvelad~ miaCnda es kaci TviT anas Tanamedrove somex istorikossac (maTeos urhaecis), gana oriode sityviT ityoda, somexi iyoo da amis mizezs saTanadod ar ganmartavda? anas is mainc rom scodnoda, rom grigoli taos erisTavTerisTavis bakurianis Svili iyo, im taosi, romelsac bizantiis samefo kari anamde sami saukuniT adre uciloblad iberiad scnobda da mis mosaxleobas iberielebad miiCnevda (marto konstantine porfirogenetis Txzuleba rad Rirs), ase erTi kalmis mosmiT grigol bakurianis Zes somxad gamoacxadebda? ra sakvirvelia ara.40 rogorc vxedavT, saeWvo sabuTianobis safuZvelze miRebuli urTierTgamomricxveli daskvnebis mTeli wyeba naTlad warmoaCens n. maris msjelobis winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTs. mis mier daxatuli IX-XI ss. tao-klarjeTis eTnokulturuli suraTi ara marto

38

À. Øàíèäçå, Âåëèêèé äîìåñòèê Çàïàäà Ãðèãîðèé áàêóðèàíèñ-äçå è ãðóçèíñêèé ìîíàñòûðü, îñíîâàííûé èì â Áîëãàðèè, Òáèëèñè, 1970, ñ. 30.

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n. mari, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 29. a. bogveraZe, grigol bakurianis tipikonis gagebisaTvis, gv. 158.

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daujerebelia, aramed, zogjer kuriozul Seferilobasac iRebs. n. mari rom gvarwmunebs, qarTuli tao-klarjeTi Tavisi brwyinvale kulturiT, romlis dominanti maRalganviTarebuli qarTuli ena da qarTuli mwerloba iyo, somexi qalkedonitebis denacionalizaciis procesis warmonaqmniao, e. i. im somxebisa, romelTac jer kidev XI s. bolos mSobliuri somxuri ufro emarjvebodaT, gana ra Zalas SeeZlo iseTi saswaulis moxdena, rom isini erTbaSad brwyinvale qarTuli kulturis Semoqmedni gamxdariyvnen? Tuki n. maris warmodgeniT, XI s. gasuls tao-klarjeTi, Tundac qarTvelTa erTmorwmune kompaqturi somxuri masebiT yofiliyo dasaxlebuli, nuTu masTan SedarebiT erTi muWa qarTveli ber-monazvnebis moRvaweobas SeeZlo mTeli qveynis eTnokulturuli suraTis ise Secvla, rom qarTvelTa politikuri batonobac uzrunvelyo? amgvari absurduli situaciis dajereba xom SeuZlebelia. da miT ufro gasakviria n. marisagan yovelgvar saR azrs moklebuli aseTi msjeloba. n. maris maRali samecniero avtoritetis gamo misi Teoria qarTul kulturaSi somexi qalkedonitebis rolis Sesaxeb, erTxans farTod gavrcelda. gansakuTrebuli enTuziazmiT aitaces igi somexma mkvlevrebma, miiCnies ra somxuri geopolitikuri amocanebis gadaWris erT-erT efeqtur saSualebad. albaT, amitomacaa, rom somxuri istoriografia dRemde (e. i. mTeli saukune) Seunelebeli energiiT cdilobs uamravi wylulebisagan n. maris Teoriis gadarCenas. tipikonis teqstis qarTuli aslis aRmoCenisa da ak. SaniZis mier misi gamoqveynebis Semdeg SesaZlebeli gaxda grigol bakurianis Zis problematikasTan dakavSirebuli yvela sakiTxis gacilebiT Rrmad da srulad Seswavla, ramac n. maris Teoriis mowinaaRmdegeTa ricxvi mecnierTa samyaroSi Seudareblad gazarda. ucxoel mecnierTa im ricxvs, romlebic Tavidanve iziarebdnen grigol bakurianis Zis qarTvelobas rogorc warmoSobiT, ise sarwmunoebiT (p. bezobrazovi, l. pti , i. ivanovi, a. protiCi, e. honigmani, v. lazarevi da sxv.), daemataT a. kostovi, a. kostova, d. kazarovi, g. cankova-petkova, i. lubarski, a. vasilievi, m. ivanovi, g. ostrogorski, a. kaJdani, e. bakalova, m. deriberi da sxva mravali (maTi Sromebi ix. l. menabdis wignSi "Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi@~, II, Tbilisi, 1980). garda imisa, rom qarTuli teqsti ucvleladaa gadmowerili dednidan da kar-

gadaa Senaxuli da amdenad, didi upiratesoba aqvs berZnulTan SedarebiT, is imavdroulad qarTuli saliteraturo enis brwyinvale Zeglicaa. niSandoblivia agreTve, rom ZeglSi aqa-iq SemorCenili meditaciur-lirikuli wiaRsvlebi mkvlevrebs safuZvels aZlevs teqstis literaturul avtoradac grigol bakurianis Ze miiCnion41, rac TavisTavad seriozuli argumentia Zeglisa da misi avtoris warmomavlobisa da masTan dakavSirebuli sxva sakiTxebis gasarkvevadac. tipikonis qarTuli teqstis aRmoCenis Semdeg akaki SaniZe savsebiT marTebulad werda: grigol bakurianis Ze rom qarTveli iyo, es garkveviT aris naTqvami tipikonis dasawyisSive, grigolma rom monasteri daaarsa qarTvelTaTvis, es ara erTxel aris aRniSnuli imave tipikonSi da rom petriwonis monastris berebi qarTvelebi iyvnen, esec garkveviT aris aRniSnuli: `monazonni monastrisa Cemissani guarad qarTvelni arian~. yvela amis Semdeg visac ra unda, is amtkicos, pirs veravis aubam da qaRaldic aitans42. marTlacda, aSkara faqtebze Tvalis daxuWva da naZaladevi argumentebis mopovebis mcdeloba, bunebrivia, Znelad Tu daimsaxurebs sxvagvar Sefasebas. n. maris xsenebuli Teoriis kritikisagan dacva, Tanac nebismieri saSualebiT misi Semagreba, rogorc ukve iTqva, somxurma istoriografiam iTava. am mxriv gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT gamoirCevian p. muradiani da v. aruTinova-fidaniani, romlebmac n. maris Secdomebis uarsayofad araerTi moxseneba da werili dabeWdes, gansakuTrebiT ki q-ma viaidam mTeli Tavisi mecnieruli Zalisxmeva, faqtobrivad, am Temas miuZRvna (maT Soris ZiriTadia: Àðóòþíîâà ­ Ôèäàíÿí Â. À., Ê âîïðîñó îá `anqrwpoi~ â `Òèïèêå~ Ãðèãîðèÿ Áàêóðèàíà, Âèçàíòèéñêèé âðåìåííèê, 1968; misive, Ãðèãîðèé Ïàêóðèàí (Áàêóðèàí) è öåëè îñíîâàíèÿ èì ìîíàñòûðÿ â Ïåòðèöîíå, ­ Ìàðð è âîïðîñû àðìåíîâåäåíèÿ, Åðåâàí, 1968; misive Âèçàíòèéñêèå ïðàâèòåëè ôåìû Èâåðèÿ, Èñ³»ñ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý ·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ« 1973« N 2, misive,

41 42

l. menabde, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, II, gv. 263-265. ak. SaniZe, qarTvelTa monasteri bulgareTSi da misi tipikoni, tipikonis qarTuli redaqcia, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 33.

172

173

`Èâåð~ â âèçàíòèéñêèõ èñòî÷íèêàõ XI â., ´³Ý»ñ سï»Ý³¹³ñ³ÝÇ« ºñ»í³Ý«

1973 N 11 misive, Òèïèê Ãðèãîðèÿ Ïàêóðèàíà. Ââåä., ïåð. è êîììåíò. Â. À.

Àðóòþíîâîé ­ Ôèäàíÿí, Åðåâàí, 1978; misive, Àðìÿíå-õàëêåäîíèòû íà âîñòî÷íûõ ãðàíèöàõ Âèçàíòèéñêîé èìïåðèè (XI â.,), Åðåâàí, 1980; misive, Ê âîïðîñó î òåðìèíå `Âîñòîê~ â êîíöå X-XI â., Âèçàíòèéñêèå î÷åðêè, Ìîñêâà, 1982; da sxvebi. Øáõñ³¹Û³Ý ä©Ø©« ¶ñÇ·áñ ´³ÏáõñdzÝÇ §ê³ÑÙ³Ýù¦-Ç

Ñ õ ³ » » í ³ » » Ë · á à á Ý » Ç· ³ ³ á à á ÝÑ ñ Çß õ ç « á Ý ñÝ í ñ óñÝ Ù³ ñ õ Û õ Ýñ Ý Ñ ï õ Û õ ³ó áñÁ ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« 1968« N 1« misive, Ãðóçèíñêèé ïåðåâîä

`Ïîâåñòâîâàíèÿ~

Àðèñòàêåñà

Ëàñòèâàðòöè,

Èñ³»ñ ѳë³ñ³Ï³Ï³Ý

·ÇïáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ« 1975« N 2© misive, Êóëüòóðíàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü àðìÿí-

õàëêèäîèòîâ â XI-XIII ââ, Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñèìïîçèóì ïî àðìÿíñêîìó èñêóññòâî, Åðåâàí, 1978 da sxv.). kritikisgan n. maris Teoriis dasacavad saWiro cnobebis deficitis gamo am avtorebma isev n. maris kvalobaze, qarTvelis aRmniSvneli TiTqmis yvela eTnikuri termini konfesiuri Sinaarsis matareblad gamoacxades. amiT, etyoba, sul cota ori amocanis gadawyveta scades: 1. ana komnenes cnoba grigol bakurianis Zis tomiT somxobaze amis Semdeg gamonaklisad da oblad aRar unda aRqmuliyo da 2. samxreT taodan gamosuli yvela didi qarTveli moRvawe, romelic saistorio wyaroebSi qarTvelad moixsenieba somex qalkedonelad SeiZleboda monaTluliyo. amgvari manipulaciebis sawinaaRmdegod iZulebuli vxdebiT Cvenc mowinaaRmdegis xerxi gamoviyenoT n. maris somex mimdevarTagan gansxvavebiT, somxur enaSi qarTvelisa da qarTvelTa qveynis aRmniSvneli yvela ZiriTadi terminis namdvili Sinaarsi gavacnoT mkiTxvels. qarTul istoriografiaSi amgvari samuSaos Sesruleba cnobilma armenologma el. cagareiSvilma itvirTa. misi gamokvlevebi §í»ñdz¦« í»ñdzóǦ -is mniSvnelobisaTvis somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi43 da `qarTvelisa~ da `saqarTvelos~ aRmniSvneli terminebi somxur werilobiT wyaroebSi" 44 zedmiwevniT gamoirCeva mecnieruli keTilsindisierebiTa da gansakuTrebuli koreqtulobiT. masala amokrebili da gaanalizebulia Sua saukuneebis somex avtorTa Txzulebebidan, movses xorenacidan dawye-

43

44

ix. gv. ix. da

krebuli amierkavkasiis istoriis problemebi, Tbilisi, 1991, 103-114. krebuli, saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli ucxouri qarTuli terminologia, Tbilisi, 1993, gv. 153-209.

buli (V s.) da XVIII s. avtorebiT esaia hasan jalalianciT, abraam kretaciT da sxvebiT damTavrebuli. amdenad, q-ni elene Tvalwin gviSlis dasaxelebul somxur terminTa SinaarsSi SesaZlebel yvela cvlilebaTa dinamikas Sua saukuneTa mTel sigrZeze. Zvel somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi `qarTvelis~ aRsaniSnavad (iseve rogorc sxva eTnosebis aRniSvnisas), Cveulebriv, ramdenime termini gvxvdeba §íÇñù¦« §íñ³óǦ« iSviaTad §íñ³óÇ ³½·³õ¦ da §í»ñdzóÇ | í»édzóǦ© qarTvelTa qveyana ki iwodeba § ß ³ Ñ í ³ ¦ ³ Ë ñ ñ ó« §»ñÏÇñ ìñ³ó¦« §ìÇñù¦« §íñ³ó ïáõݦ« §ìñ³ëï³Ý¦. iSviaTad gvxvdeba §í»ñdz | í»édz¦« §ì»ñdzóõáó ³ß˳ñѦ da sxva. qarTvelTa warmomavlobisa da maTi adgilsacxovrisis aRmniSvneli am terminebis dasadastureblad el. cagareiSvilis mier moyvanili uamravi sailustracio masala rogorc adrindeli, ise mogviano xanis somxuri werilobiTi Zeglebidan srul ndobas imsaxurebs da maT marTebulebaSi eWvis Sesatanad iotis odena adgilic ar rCeba. somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi am sakiTxze arsebuli gamokveTilad erTmniSvnelovani uxvi masalis arsebobis miuxedavad, p. muradiani sakamaTod xdis qarTvelTa aRmniSvneli somxuri terminis `veriaciq~-is da qarTvelTa qveynis `veria~-s mniSvnelobas. aristakes lastivertcis Txzulebis qarTuli Targmanis gamoqveynebasTan dakavSirebiT daweril recenziaSi p. muradiani sayvedurobs el. cagareiSvils somxuri teqstis `veriaciq~-is qarTvelebad Targmnis gamo. misi azriT, Zeglis avtori qarTvelis eTnikuri cnebis gadmosacemad Tanamimdevrulad iyenebs termin `vraci~-so, amitom terminebi `veriaci~ da `vraci~ realurad identurni ar ariano. terminebis `veriaciq~ ­ `veriacvoc~, ganagrZobs p. muradiani, fuZea veria anu qveyana veria. a. lastivertcis mier aRwerili movlenebi ki viTardeboda im teritoriaze, romelic daviT kurapalatis sikvdilis Semdeg Seadgenda bizantiur axal administraciul erTeuls ­ Tem iverias. a. lastivertci ki mogviTxrobs `afxazis~ anu giorgi I-is mier am Temis teritoriaze Sekrebili jaris marcxze. amdenad saubaria iveriis Temis mosaxleobaze ­ iverielebze, terminis axlebur gagebaze da ara qarTvelebze, ramdenadac qarTvelTa garda Temis mosaxleobas Seadgendnen somxebic da berZnebic. `veria ­ es Tema iveriaa~45.

45

Ï. Ì. Ìóðàäÿí, Ãðóçèíñêèé ïåðåâîä "ïîâåñòâîâàíèÿ" Àðèñòàêåñà ëàñòèâåðòöû, Èñ³»ñ, N 2, »ñ¿í³Ý, 1975, ç. 109. ¿

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175

jer erTi, rogorc TviT p. muradianisTvisac kargadaa cnobili, lastivertcis Txzulebis sxva gamomcemel-mTargmnelebsac, maT Soris somxuri kritikuli teqstis gamomcemel karen iuzbaSiansac `virq~ da `veriaci~ identur eTnikur terminebad miaCnia, ris gamoc a. lastivertcis istoriis rusuli Targmanis gamocemis saZiebelSi ganmartavs `Ãðóçèÿ ñì. Èâåðèÿ~, xolo `veriaciq~ xsenebul konkretul SemTxvevaSi qarTvelTa eTnikurobis aRmniSvnelad da ara e. w. `iberiis Temis~ mcxovrebTa zogad maCveneblad Tvlis46. amave Zeglis axal somxur enaze Targmnili teqstis gamocemaSi eTnikuri termini `veriaci~ qarTvelad aris Targmnili (vrac zorqer ­ qarTvelTa jarebi), masze darTul komentarSi ki ganmartebulia, rom somxur mwerlobaSi saqarTvelos ewodeba ara mxolod `virq~, aramed agreTve `veria~, `iveria~, xolo qarTvelebs ­ `iveraciq~, `veriaciq~. a. lastivertci wers: `virq~, `vrac~, aq ki `veriacvoc~47. am CvenebaTa sawinaaRmdegod p. muradians ra axali masala eguleba arsaidan Cans, qarTvelebis sinonimuri terminebiT moxsenieba ki ar aris uCveulo somxuri wyaroebisaTvis. qarTvelebis msgavsad isini sxva xalxebsac ramdenime sinonimuri terminiT ixsenieben. magaliTad, TviT `somxebis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben `haika zavak~, `haika tohm~, `hai azgav~, berZnebisa `horom azg~, `azgav Join~ da sxv. amitom `veriaci~ aristakes lastivertcisTan, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, niSnavs `qarTvels~ da ara `iberiis Temis~ mcxovrebs. aRniSnulis naTelsayofad el. cagareiSvils mohyavs mTeli rigi amonawerebi werilobiTi wyaroebidan, romlebic erTmniSvnelovnad adasturebs p. muradianis mier dasaxelebuli giorgi I-is jaris qarTulobas. qarTul wyaroebSi es jari `spani qarTvelTad~ iwodeba, xolo somxurSi ­ `zorq veriacvoc~ an `zorq vrac~, e. i. qarTvelTa jarebi. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom somxur wyaroebSi, romlebSic XI s. pirveli naxevris ambebia aRwerili, garkveviTaa erTmaneTisagan

gamijnuli, vTqvaT, `somexTa jari~, `qarTvelTa jari~ an erTad aris naxsenebi `jari somexTa da qarTvelTa~, `jari berZenTa, somexTa da qarTvelTa~. cxadia, a. lastivertcisTan moxseniebuli `veriaci~ konkretuli mniSvnelobisaa, eTnikur termins warmoadgens da `veriacvoc zorq~ igivea, rac sxva somxur wyaroTa `zorq vrac~, arabuli wyaros `afxazTa laSqari~, berZnuli wyaros `abazgebis jari~, qarTul wyaroTa `spani qarTvelTa~, e. i. giorgi I-is jari. ase rom, `veria~ fuZiani terminebis, kerZod ki termin "veriacis" muradianiseul "axlebur" gagebaze msjeloba sruliad uadgilo da usafuZvloa. niSandoblivia, rom jer kidev VIII s. somexma istorikosma levondma kargad icoda `veria~ fuZiani sityvebis mniSvneloba, romlisTvisac `i veria~ iyo `virq~-i anu qarTli48. p. muradianis kvals gahyva da Semdgom gaafarTova Tavisi winamorbedis `axleburi~ gageba v. aruTinova-fidanianma. 1978 w. erevanSi mis mier gamocemul grigol bakurianis Zis tipikonis berZnulidan naTargmn rusul teqstSi yvelgan SeinarCuna da uTargmneli datova qarTvelis aRmniSvneli berZnuli saxeli `ivir~-i, riTac, cxadia, Seecada am sityvaSi, misi namdvili mniSvnelobis `qarTvelis~ nacvlad, gaqarTvelebis gzaze damdgari somexi qalkedonelis Sinaarsi Caedo, rogorc amas Tavis recenziaSi SeniSnavda akaki SaniZe. qarTveli mecnieris gakvirvebas isic iwvevda, rom sityva `ivir~-idan nawarmoeb berZnul zedsarTav saxels Targmnida `qarTulis~ meSveobiT, roca saqme exeboda wignebs an weras. magaliTad, qarTuli wera-kiTxvis mcodne berebi, qarTuli oTxTavi da sxv49. amgvari orgvari damokidebuleba sityva `ivir~-Tan anu ormagi standartiT midgoma sakvlevi obieqtisadmi, vfiqrob, mTlianad amJRavnebs avtoris winaswarganzraxul miznebs, romlisTvisac obieqturi mecnieruli kvleva, ubralod, mizanSeuwoneli xdeba. qarTvelis aRmniSvneli somxuri wyaroebis termin `vraci azgav~-is (gvarad qarTveli) mimarTac msgavsi damokidebulebaa

46

ix. amierkavkasiis istoriis problemebi, gv. 106-108; agreTve, saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli ucxouri da qarTuli terminologia gv. 170-172.

² Ç ï Ï ë È ë Ç » ï Çä ï á Ã á ÝÃ ñ Ù Ý õ Û õ Á ì ¶ á · ³ © º » ³ « ñ ë ³ » ³ ï íñ ó © ³ Ù õ Û õ « ³ · ³ á Ã á Ý ² » ñ Û Ý ñí Ý © © 1971« ¿ç. 10-118.

48

ä ï á Ã õ Ô õ Ý » Û Ù Í í ñ ³ » Ç Ñ Û ó ëä ï ñ á ñ « 1 8 « ¿ 1 8 ³ Ù õ Ç Ý » á ¹³ » Ç ³ ¹ åï ³ á « © » » õ · 87 ç 3139.

47

49

À. Ã. Øàíèäçå. Î ñòðîèòåëÿ Ïåòðèöîíñêîãî ìîíàñòûðÿ Ãðèãîðèè Áàêóðèàíèñ äçå, `macne~, #4, 1978, gv. 171.

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177

gabatonebuli, xsenebul avtorebTan erTad, TiTqmis mTel somxur istoriografiaSi, romelTa mtkicebiT, es termini (`azgav~ ­ gvari, tomi, naTesavi) niSnavs ara warmoSobiT qarTvels, aramed somex qalkedonels. somxuri werilobiTi Zeglebis monacemTa umarTebulo analiziTa da interpretaciiT xsenebul avtorebs SesaZleblad esaxebaT `vraci azgav~-iTac moxseniebul qarTvel moRvaweTa _ ioane Tornikesa da misi naTesavebis, grigol bakurianis Zis, lipartis, ratis da zviadis, zaqaria valaSkertelisa da sxvaTa eTnikuri warmomavlobis waSla, masTan erTad ki aTonisa da petriwonis qarTuli monastrebis istoriis, tao-klarjeTis, zemo da qvemo qarTlis istoriuli geografiis, am mxareTa eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa da politikuri viTarebis maTTvis sasurvelad gadakeTeba da sxv. maSin rodesac `azg~-iT sarwmunobisa, xolo eTnikuri terminiT `vraci azgav~-iT (tomiT, gvarad, naTesaviT qarTveli) somex qalkedonelTa aRniSvnis SemTxvevebSi somxur werilobiT wyaroebSi saerTod ar dasturdeba. Sua saukuneebis somex istorikosTa SromebSi dadasturebuli xsenebuli terminebi da maTi sinonimebis Semcveli sityvebi yovelTvis ama Tu im pirovnebis warmomavlobaze, nacionalobaze miuTiTebs da arasdros ar niSnavs qalkedonuri aRmsareblobis mimdevar somexs. xsenebul somex avtorTa mtkicebulebaTa sawinaaRmdegod, eTnikuri terminiT sarwmunoebis aRniSvnis saWiroeba arc adreul periodSi da arc Semdeg somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi ar Seqmnila. iSviaT gamonakliss warmoadgens eTnikuri termini `vraci~ (qarTveli), romelic gviandel xanaSi zogjer qarTuli kulturis adamianis aRsaniSnavadac gamoiyeneboda calkeuli avtorebis mier. eTnikurobis aRmniSvneli terminebi somxur wyaroebSi mkafiodaa gamijnuli sarwmunoebis gamomxatveli terminebisagan. am ukanasknelTa aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebulia specialuri terminebi: `kronq~ (rjuli), `havat~ (sarwmunoeba), `uxt~ (aRTqma), `avanduTivn~ (aRmsarebloba) da sxva. qalkedonuri aRmsareblobis da TviT qalkedonelis aRsaniSnavadac specialuri terminebia daculi somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi: `qaRkedoni havat~ ­ qalkedonis aRmsarebloba, `erkabnak~ ­ orbunebiani, `qaRkedonik~ ­ qalkedoneli da sxvebi. agreTve `kronq vrac~ ­ qarTvelTa rjuli. aSkaraa, rom religiur-konfesionaluri terminebis simravlisas

sarwmunoebis mniSvnelobiT eTnikuri terminebis gamoyenebis saWiroeba arc arsebobda50. amitom v. aruTinova-fidanianis, p. muradianisa da sxvaTa mier eTnikuri terminis `vraci azgav~isTvis konfesiuri mniSvnelobis miniWebis cdebi sxva araferia, Tu ara faqtebze winaswarganzraxuli aSkara Zaladoba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba termin `vraci azgav~-is mimarT, ra Tqma unda, SemTxveviTi ar aris. is didi sizustiT gamoscems am terminiT dasaxelebuli piris eTnikur warmomavlobas, ris gamoc somxuri terminebis SinaarsSi kargad gaTviTcnobierebuli maTeos urhaecis mier grigol bakurianis Zis warmomavlobis am sityviT aRniSvna yovelgvar mniSvnelobas ukargavs ana komnenes cnobas imperiis didmoxelis erovnul kuTvnilebaze. es ki ara marto ewinaaRmdegeba somxur qalkedonizmze n. marisa da misi Teoriis mxurvale damcvelebis pozicias, aramed mTlianad aclis safuZvels maT mtkicebulebebs IX-XI ss. tao-klarjeTis mosaxleobis eTnikur Semadgenlobaze. ganvixiloT mravalTagan ramdenime magaliTi. v. aruTinova-fidanians mohyavs maTeos urhaecis cnoba bagrat vxkacisa (e. i. vixikelis) da grigol bakurianis Zis mier selCukTa Semotevisagan anisis dacvis Taobaze da yuradRebas amaxvilebs somexi mematianis Txzulebis teqstis im nawilze, sadac naTqvamia, rom urjulo romaeli Tavadebi Ý ñÝ ß ³ ù á á á (³ û » Ç Ë Ý Ý Ñ é Ù ó), romlebic imperatorma somexi qveynis dasacavad daayena: bagrati, smbatis mama da grigoli bakurianis vaJi, qarTuli gvarisa (`vraci azgav~) ­ daiwyes gamagreba zeda da qveda citadelSi... moqalaqeebma SeamCnies ra, Tu sarwmunoe³ïõ á bidan ganmdgari damcvelebi (½ ë á ³Ã õñ³ó å³Ñ³å³Ý³ó) TviT rogor gamagrdnen, miatoves kedlebi da gaiqcnen51. v. aruTinovafidanianis ganmartebiT, maTeos urhaieci anisis damcvelebs Zraxavs ara rogorc uniWo mxedarTmTavrebs, aramed rogorc `urjuloebs~, rogorc sxva sarwmunoebis da sxva warmomavlobis adamianebsac. amasTan sul mcire nawyvetSi samjer xasiaTdebian amgvarad: ukeTuri romaeli Tavadebi, bagrati smbatis mama da grigori bakurianis vaJi ­ qarTuli modgmisani, sarwmunoebidan

50 51

e. cagareiSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 179-193.

سïûáë àõéѳۻóÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³·ñáõÃÇõÝ« ì³Õ³ñß³å³ï« 1898« ¿ç. 148.

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179

ganmdgari cixis damcvelebi. samive epiTeti `ukeTuri, qarTuli modgmis, sarwmunoebidan gamdgari~, ganagrZobs q-ni viaida, erTi rigis gansazRvrebebia da orive Tavads erTnairad ekuTvnis. iqve SeniSnavs, rom zogi mkvlevari, kerZod a. SaniZe `vraci azgav~-s (e. i. gvariT, tomiT qarTveli) mxolod grigors akuTvnebs. magram es varaudi imsxvreva gamoTqma `sarwmunoebidan ganmdgarni~-ze, romelic mravlobiT ricxvSia mocemuli, rac imas niSnavs, rom grigorica da bagratic orive sarwmunoebidan gandgomilebi arian52. Semdeg ki ganagrZobs: grigorica da bagratic somexi istorikosis TvalSi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleboda miCneuliyvnen sarwmunoebidan ganmdgarad, Tuki isini somxebi iqnebodnen da sakuTari sarwmunoebidan `gadaxveviT~ sxvas romeñ Ç liRacas miiRebdneno. epiTeti `í ³Û~ (qarTveli) miuTiTebs, albaT, imaze, rom maT mier miRebuli sarwmunoeba qarTuli qalkedoneloba iyoo53. somexi mkvlevari, ra Tqma unda, TvalTmaqcobs. imisaTvis, rom eTnikuri termini `vraci azgav~ (gvariT, tomiT qarTveli) konfesiur terminad moaCvenos mkiTxvels, moyvanil termins eTnikurobis maCvenebeli nawilis `azg~-is gareSe (gvari, tomi) warmogvidgens da gamoTqvams varauds, rom mocemul konteqstSi, sxva konfesiuri terminebis gverdiT `vraci~, e. i. qarTveli, am SemTxvevaSi konfesiis, kerZod qarTuli qalkedonizmis aRmniSvneli unda iyoso. rogorc iTqva, `vraci~-s (qarTveli") iSviaT SemTxvevaSi somexi avtorebi qarTuli kulturisa da Segnebis piris aRsaniSnavadac iyenebdnen (magaliTad, qurTuli warmomavlobis qarTveli didmoxeleebis zaqaria da ivane mxargrZelebis mimarT), xolo `vraci azgav~ yovelTvis da yvelgan mxolod da mxolod tomiT, warmomavlobiT qarTvelis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda Zvel somex istorikosTa mier. amitomac aris, rom grigol bakurianis Zis umcrosi Tanamedrove maTeos urhaeci (gardaicvala 1140 wlis axlo xanebSi), romelic qarTvelebsa da somxebs kargad arCevda da konfesiur terminologiaSic SesaniSnavad erkveoda, grigolis qarTvelobis aRsaniSnavad iyenebs uyoymano eTnikur termins `vraci azgav~ (tomiT, gvariT qarTveli). ar aris marTali q-ni viaida,

52

roca gvimtkicebs maTeos urhaeci bagratsa da grigols sarwmunoebidan gamdgars ar uwodebda, isini somxebi rom ar yofiliyvneno. saqme isaa, rom VII s. dasawyisSi qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris momxdari saeklesio ganxeTqilebis Semdeg somxuri samRvdeloeba da masTan erTad somxuri sazogadoebac qarTvelebs WeSmariti sarwmunoebidan da RvTisgan ganmdgarad miiCnevdnen. amis Sesaxeb uxtanesi X s. werda: `(qarTvelebma) Secvales wminda mamaTa sjuli da daiviwyes RvTaebrivi aRTqma~54. amis Semdeg savsebiT bunebrivia, rom maTeos urhaecis TvalSi qarTvelic somxuri sarwmunoebidan iseTive ganmdgari da urjulo iyo, rogoric somexi qalkedoneli, amitomac XII s. somexi istorikosis xsenebuli cnoba am mxriv araviTar kiTxvas ar unda badebdes. amave mizeziT grigol bakurianis Zis eTnikur warmomavlobaze marCieloba ubralod gaugebaria. `vraci azgav~ mxolod grigol bakurianis Zes miemarTeboda Tu bagratsa da grigols erTad, am SemTxvevaSi, vfiqrob, mniSvneloba arca aqvs, radgan arc bagratis somxobaa maincdamainc damtkicebuli. bagratis gvarsaxeli `vxkaci~ (vixikeli) nawarmoebia geografiuli saxelis sof. vixikidan (oSkis maxloblad mdebareobda). geografiuli saxelidan gvar-saxelis warmoebis wesi ki qarTulisa da somxurisaTvis saerTo movlenaa, amitom somexi istorikosis mier aseTi gvar-saxelis somxuri formiT gadmocema moulodneli araa. cxadia, v. aruTinova-fidanianis mier dasaxelebuli eTnikuri da konfesiuri terminebi erTgvarovani Sinaarsis saxelebad ver CaiTvleba, miT umetes, rom somxuri ena nebismieri azris gamosaxatavad saWiro terminTa gaWirvebas ar ganicdis da konfesiuri Sinaarsis gadmosacemad eTnikuri terminis gamoyenebas ar saWiroebs. aseTi viTarebis saukeTeso magaliTebi, Sors rom aRar wavideT, ukve moxmobil maTeos urhaecisac sakmaod moepoveba. grigol bakurianis Zisgan gansxvavebiT, romlis eTnikur kuTvnilebasac maTeos urhaeci `vraci azgav~-iT aRniSnavs, namdvilad somexi qalkedonelis, antioqiis Temis bizantieli gamgeblis (1078-

53

Â. À. Àðóòþíîâà-Ôèäàíÿí, Àðìÿíå-õàëêåäîíèòû íà âîñòî÷íûõ ãðàíèöàõ Âèçàíòèéñêîé èìïåðèè (XI â.), Åðåâàí, 1980, ñ. 60-61. iqve.

54

uxtanesi, istoria gamoyofisa qarTvelTa somexTagan, somxuri teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT da gamokvleviT gamosca zaza aleqsiZem, Tbilisi, 1975, gv. 21.

180

181

1084) filartos varaJnunis eTnikur warmomavlobasa da konfesiur kuTvnilebas maTTvis Sesaferisi da araorazrovani sityvebiT gadmogvcems. igi wers: filareti mamiTac da dediTac somexi iyoo, ñÝ ááá konfesiiT ki rjuli horomTa Ï û ùÑ é Ù ó hqonda, e. i. berZnuli sarwmunoebisa iyoo55. amgvari masalis fonze `vraci azgav~-is konfesiur terminad monaTvla sxva araferia, Tu ara seriozuli sakiTxis sxvadasxva standartiT ganxilva. amasTan dakavSirebiT el. cagareiSvili savsebiT marTebulad SeniSnavs: eTnikur termins `vraci azgav~-s somexi mkvlevrebi swored grigol bakurianis Zis konfesionalobis (e. i. qalkedonelobis) aRmniSvnel terminad acxadeben da mas somex qalkedonelad miiCneven. aRniSnuli gaugebroba winaswarganzraxuli gadawyvetilebiTaa gapirobebuli, Torem rogor SeiZleba eTnikuri terminiT `vraci azgav~-iT qalkedonelis aRniSvnis saWiroeba warmoqmniliyo mxolod grigol bakurianis ZisTvis im dros, rodesac imave periodis moRvawis, warmoSobiT somexis, filaretosis qalkedoneloba savsebiT ñÝ ááá garkveviT konfesionaluri terminiT Ï û ùÑ é Ù ó (rjuli horomTa) aris miTiTebuli56. n. berZeniSvilisa ar iyos, bizantiis imperiis samsaxurSi myofi somexi didmoxele ra Tavs itkivebda qarTuli sarwmunoebisaTvis, roca berZnuli aRmsarebloba misTvis gacilebiT momgebiani iyo. TviT v. aruTinova-fidanianic xom xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom imperiis eklesiisadmi kuTvnileba aucilebeli iyo imperiis samsaxurisaTvis, ris gamoc somxuri aristokratiis warmomadgenlebi imperiis samsaxurSi CadgomisTanave, rogorc wesi, icvlidnen sarwmunoebas da bizantiis eklesiis wiaRSi gadadiodnen57. cxadia, grigol bakurianis Zec rom somexi yofiliyo, rac somex mkvlevrebs nametnavad surT, isic berZnuli aRmsareblobisa iqneboda da ara qarTulis. erTi sityviT, sxva gza ar arsebobs, yvelam unda daujeroT TviT grigol bakurianis Zes, romelmac sxvaze, miT umetes n. marisa da Tanamedrove somex istorikosebze ukeT icoda sakuTari eTnikuri warmomavloba. aSkaraa, n. marma mcdar safuZvelze aago Tavisi Teoria da amitomac damaxinjebulad warmogvidgina qarTuli tao-klarje55 56 57

Tis erovnul-kulturuli suraTi, romelic somexi qalkedonelebis denacionalizaciis procesis warmonaqmnad miiCnia. aseTi daskvnisaTvis sakmarisi masala rom ar arsebobda mecnierma TviTonve aRniSna, roca grigol bakurianis Zis tipikonis berZnuli redaqciis gacnobis Semdeg werda: `â îòíîøåíèè èõ (e. i. tao-klarjeTis mimarT) ìû ðàñïîëàãàåì òåïåðü íåìíîãèì, íî õàðàêòåðíûìè äàííûìè~58. es mcire da damaxasiaTebeli monacemebi ki iyo tipikonis berZnuli redaqciis teqstis cnoba, rom arsebobda tipikonis somxuri teqstic da masze grigol bakurianis Zis xelmowera somxuri asoebiT, rac dRemde jer aravis unaxavs. magram am cnobam n. marze, Cans, Tavidanve Rrma STabeWdileba moaxdina da erTi da erTi daijera ra am cnobis namdviloba, SemdegSic Seecada axali argumentebiTa da sabuTebiT misgan gamomdinare daskvnebis yovelmxriv gamarTlebas. maris yuradReba miipyro tipikonSi gamoyenebulma somxuri warmoSobis sityva `tanuterma~, romelic somxeTis mezobel taoSi didi xnis damkvidrebuli iyo. mezobelTa metyvelebaSi erTmaneTis socialuri, ekonomikuri Tu sxva Sinaarsis terminebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi arc ise iSviaTia da misTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis miniWeba, TiTqos, arc iyo mosalodneli, magram, rogoc Cans, is mwiri da saeWvo cnoba tipikonis somxuri teqstisa da somxuri asoebiT xelmoweraze, n. marsac afiqrebda da arasakmarisad miaCnda, ris gamoc Seecada axla ukve namdvilad somxuri warmomavlobis terminze aego msjeloba. misi TqmiT, radganac `tanuturma~ tao-klarjeTis qarTul enaSi moipova moqalaqeobrivi ufleba `ïî ýòîìó-òî ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì è ðåøàþñü ÿ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî Ãðèãîðèé Áàêóðèàí, îñíîâàòåëü ãðóçèíñêîãî Ïåòðèöîíñêîãî ìîíàñòûðÿ áûë èç òàî-êëàðäæåòñêèõ îãðóçèíèâøèõñÿ àðìÿí-õàëêåäîíèòîâ"59. am susti argumentaciis Sesamagrebeli masala, gasagebia, qveynis kulturul-politikur warsulSi unda eZia. da, radganac misTvis kargad cnobili qarTuli da ucxouri wyaroebis cnobebi scada winaswarganzraxul Sedegebze mosargebad gamoeyenebina, faqtobrivad, urTierTgamomricxveli daskvnebis mTeli wyeba miiRo. miuxedavad imisa, rom tao-klarjeTis aborigenebi, misi

58 59

maTeos urhaeci, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 206. el. cagareiSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 194. Â. À. Àðóòþíîâà-Ôèäàíÿí, Àðìÿíå-õàëêåäîíèòû, gv. 59-60, 149 da sxv.

Í. ß. Ìàðð, Àðêàóí... gv. 17. iqve, gv. 22-24.

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TqmiT, romeliRac lazuri Tu megruli tomebi iyvnen, VII s. es qveyana iyo somxuri, yovel SemTxvevaSi somxuri saxe hqondao da aq, albaT, hyvaoda somxuri qalkedonitobao60. somxeTSi somexi qalkedonelebis gavlenis zrdaze saubrisas ki aRniSnavs, rom IX s. dasawyisSi Crdilo-dasavleTi somxeTi klarjeTisa da taos olqebiTurT ukve maT xelSia moqceuli. somexTa qalkedonelobas aq mxurvale mxardaWera hqonda ara marto berZenTa, aramed qarTvelTa Sorisac. am mxaris mebatone mTavrebi ­ artanujeli bagratidebi ukve qalkedonelebi iyvnen da es garemoeba aramcired uwyobda xels qalkedonelTa srul gamarjvebas somxeTis am ganapira mxareSio61. IX s. somexi qalkedonelebi TviT centralur somxeTSic cdilobdnen gabatonebas da somexi bagratidebis saxlis gaqalkedonebac moindomes. magram Semdeg antiqalkedonuri somxuri eklesiis nacionalizaciis Sedegad iwyeba somex qalkedonelTa denacionalizaciis procesi, ris Sesaxebac ukve iTqva. VIII-IX ss. mijnaze tao-klarjeTis daqvrivebul somxur monastrebSi qarTveli ber-monazvnebi mkvidrdebian, wm. saba aRadgens iSxanis monasters, romelic male qarTveli episkoposis rezidenciad iqceva. es qarTveli monazvnebi aq garSemortymuli aRmoCndnen erTmorwmune, magram eTnikurad ucxo somxuri mosaxleobiT da, qarTvelTa politikuri batonobis miuxedavad, qveynis ufleba qarTulad wodebuli, emyareboda im faqts, rom RvTismsaxureba eklesiebSi qarTul enaze warmoebdao. amis Sedegad adgilobrivi somxebi, romlebic qalkedonelebi iyvnen TandaTan qarTvelebad iqcneno. didi Zieba da analizi araa saWiro, raTa aq warmodgenil urTierTgamomricxvel debulebebs Soris aSkara winaaRmdegobani "aRmovaCinoT". Tuki n. marisave ganmartebiT am mxaris aborigenebi lazebi da megrelebi iyvnen, rogor moxda, rom VII s. mas mTlianad somxuri saxe hqonda? misi msjelobiT ise gamodis, TiTqos, adgilobrivi mosaxleobis asimilacia somex qalkedonelebs moexdinoT, ramdenadac iq `maSin somxuri qalkedonizmi hyvaodao~, Tumca berZnul-bizantiuri da qarTuli kulturuli

60 61

Í. ß. Ìàðð, Àðêàóí... gv. 21. iqve, gv. 5-6.

gavlenis am zonaSi piriqiT procesebis ganviTareba ufro iyo mosalodneli. kidev ufro gaugebaria da faqtebTan sruliad Seusabamoa IX s. dasawyisSi taosa da klarjeTis Crdilo-dasavleT somxeTis olqebad gamocxadeba im dros, roca tao-klarjeTis bagrationTa dinastia aq politikur Zalas ikrebda da iberiis anu qarTvelTa samefos aRdgenas iwyebda. n. maris warmodgeniT, erTi mxriv, IX s. dasawyisSi tao-klarjeTi somex qalkedonelTa xelSia, isini Seadgenen mosaxleobis ZiriTad birTvs da, meore mxriv, daqvrivebul somxur eklesia-monastrebs qarTlidan gadmosuli mcirericxovani bermonazvnoba eufleba da RvTismsaxurebasac eklesiebSi qarTul enaze aRavlens, rasac, Turme, emyareba qveynis ufleba, rom qarTulad wodebuliyo. am winadadebaSi, rogorc vxedavT, elementaruli logikac ki araa daculi. Tuki IX s. dasawyisSic taoc da klarjeTic somxeTis olqebs warmoadgenda da iq qalkedoneli somxebi batonobdnen, vis da ras unda daeqvrivebina saxelganTqmuli `somxuri~ eklesia-monastrebi? mere kidev, Tundac erTmorwmune somxebiT garSemortymul mcirericxovan qarTvel monazvnebs ZiriTad somxur masaze iseTi ra gavlena unda moexdinaT, rom jer maTi eklesia-monastrebi CaegdoT xelSi, mere ki TviT isinic gaeqarTvelebinaT? amgvari procesis warmodgena xom Zalze Znelia? ufro metic, irkveva, rom taosa da klarjeTSi somexi qalkedonelebis gamarjveba-gabatonebisaTvis xeli SeuwyviaT berZnebisa da qarTvelebis mxurvale mxardaWeras. Tu qarTvelebi aq ar cxovrobdnen, maS saidanRa Cndebian somxebis xelSemwyobi qarTvelebi `somxeTis am ganapira mxareSi~? gadamwyveti mainc artanujeli `bagratidebis~ mxardaWera yofila, romlebic am droisaTvis ukve qalkedonelebi iyvneno. artanujeli bagrationebis qalkedoneloba aq iseT konteqstSia moxseniebuli, rom gauTviTcnobierebelma mkiTxvelma SeiZleba es maTi eTnikuri somxobis mniSvnelobiTac miiRos. aseT SemTxvevaSi ara mxolod ulogikobasTan gveqneba saqme, aramed kuriozTanac, ramdenadac aseTi msjelobiT gamodis, TiTqos, somxebi aqarTvelebdnen somxebs. kidev erTi sayuradRebo ulogikoba. somexi qalkedonelebiT dasaxlebul `somxeTis am ganapira mxareSi~ n. mari qarTvelTa politikur batonobaze laparakobs. qveynis somxurobis mtkicebasTan ki aseTi gancxadeba xom sruliad SeuTavsebelia. romel sazogadoebriv fenas an politikur Zalas unda dayrdnoboda qarTvel-

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Ta politikuri batonoba, Tuki es qveyana ucxo, araqarTuli mosaxleobis sabinadro iqneboda? nuTu ramdenime aTeuli bermonazonis moRvaweobas? cxadia, ara. piriqiT, am qveynis qarTulobis mowmobaa swored grigol xanZTelisa da mis TanamoRvaweTa saarako Tavdadeba da WirTa Tmena arabTa mier gaukacrielebuli mxaris `axal SenebisaTvis~. mxolod samSoblos did patriotebs SeeZloT gaudaburebuli qveynis asaRorZineblad saswaulebis moxdena da `keTilad ganmgebeli moRuawe da udabnoTa qalaqmyofeli~ Seqmniliyvnen. antiqalkedonelebTan brZolaSi damarcxebuli somexi qalkedonelebi taoklarjeTSi berZnebis, qarTvelebisa da adgilobrivi xelisuflebis ­ artanujeli bagrationebis mxardaWeras rom saWiroebdnen es mxolod imas mowmobs, rom isini TavSesafris maZiebeli ltolvilebi iyvnen, amasTan mcirericxovannic, radgan sul male gaqarTvelebulan. n. mari ki faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod gvixatavs sul sxva suraTs, romlis dasacavad somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenlebi, ager ukve mTeli saukunea, warumateblad irjebian da n. maris msjelobaSi arsebul winaaRmdegobaTa daZlevis magier, mas axali SecdomebiT avseben. magaliTad, a. mnacakanianis mtkicebiT taos somxuri mosaxleoba qalkedonizmSi gadasvlis Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis samwysos Seeria da amis gamo qarTvelebad iTvlebodneno, ena, wignebi da mwerloba ki, raRa Tqma unda, maT somxuri rCebodaTo. Tu am xalxis asimilacia mainc moxda, imitom, rom qarTvelebisgan Zlier iCagrebodneno. Tumca a. mnacakanianis ganmartebiT, am qveynis xelisuflebi daviT kurapalati da misi warCinebulebi warmoSobiT somxebi yofilan, rac iqidan Cans, rom somxurad naTargmn romanebs etanebodnen da somxebisave cxovrebis wess misdevdneno62. moyvanil nawyvetSi yoveli winadadeba Tavisi SinaarsiT erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. pirveli winadadebis mixedviT taos somxuri mosaxleoba X-XI saukuneTa mijnaze formalurad iTvleboda qarTulad, ramdenadac is kulturul-eTnikuri individualobis niSnebs (ena, wignebi, mwerloba da a. S.) inarCunebda. momdevno winadadebiT ki avtori taos somxuri mosaxleobis asimilacias aRiarebs, ris mizezad qarTveleb-

isgan somexTa Zlier Cagvras asaxelebs, Tanac iseT pirobebSi, roca qveynis xelisufalni warmoSobiT somxebi yofilan. ra gamodis, somxebi somxebs aqarTvelebdnen? erTi sityviT, gaugebrobaTa mTeli Taigulia warmodgenili a. mnacakanianis am gaxmaurebul naSromSi. istoriuli taos eTnikuri saxis gansazRvrisas bevrad ufro radikaluria s. eremiani, romlis gancxadebiTac taiqis mosaxleoba mTeli Sua saukuneebis manZilze somxuri rCebodao, miuxedavad imisa, rom CrdiloeTis raionebma XII s. marTlmadideblobac miiReso. XV-XVI ss. taiqis qarTuli sarwmunoebis mosaxleobam muslimanobac miiRo da Turqebs Seeria. Tavis eTnikur saxes aq mxolod somxur sarwmunoebaze mtkiced mdgari somxuri mosaxleoba inarCunebdao63. ase rom, s. eremianis azriT, tao, faqtobrivad, istoriis mTel manZilze qarTuli da somxuri sarwmunoebis somxebiT yofila dasaxlebuli, rac, saboloo jamSi, am qveyanas somxuri samyaros kuTvnilebad warmogvidgens. es azria gatarebuli somxeTis istoriis umaRlesi Tu saSualo skolis saxelmZRvaneloebsa da somex mecnierTa mTel rig SromebSi da dafiqsirebulia saistorio rukebSic64. somxeTis umaRles saswavlebelTa studentebisaTvis daweril saxelmZRvaneloSi65, misi avtori s. poRosiani wers: smbat II-is mefobis wlebSi taiqsa da basenSi Camoyalibda somxur-qarTuli erTi samTavro daviT kurapalatis meTaurobiT. bizantiaSi warmoSobili Sinauri SfoTis dros mTavarma daicva imperatori barseRi (e. i. basil II) da imperatorisagan jildod miiRo kurapalatis wodeba da aRiarebuli iqna, rogorc taiqis qveynis TviTmpyrobeli mTavari. taiqis sakurapalato Tavisi uflebebiT da saxelmwifo funqciebiT TanabarmniSvnelovani iyo somxuri sxva samefoebisa, magram Tavisi samxedro SesaZleblobiT am samefoebze ramdenadme Zlieri iyo66. moyvanil amonawerSi yuradRebas iqcevs taos samefos metad saeWvo, SeiZleba iTqvas, sruliad gaugebari definicia. mosaxle-

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À. Ø. Ìíàöàêàíÿí, Î ëèòåðàòóðå Êàâêàçñêîé Àëáàíèè, Åðåâàí, 1969, ñ. 173.

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iqve, gv. 55.

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obis Semadgenlobis gaTvaliswinebiT (ramdenadac daviTis samefo vanis tbamde vrceldeboda da somxuri Temebis mniSvnelovani nawili mis SemadgenlobaSi iyo moqceuli) zogierTis mier qveyana marTlac SeiZleboda pirobiTad `somxur-qarTulad~ aRqmuliyo, magram roca es gansazRvreba samefos miemarTeba, mas araviTari gamarTleba ara aqvs, radganac Sua saukuneebSic saxelmwifos mkacrad gamokveTili politikuri mimarTuleba gaaCnda da funqcionirebda mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawilis interesebis Sesabamisad. Tavis damokidebulebas am e. w. `somxur-qarTuli erTi samTavros~ mimarT imiT amJRavnebs, rom mas udarebs da ganixilavs sxva somxur samefoebTan erTad. mkiTxvels ki qvecnobier STabeWdilebas uqmnis, TiTqos, taos sakurapalatoc Cveulebrivi somxuri politikuri erTeuli iyo, mxolod samxedro TvalsazrisiT sxvaze Zlieri. daviT kurapalatis eTnikur kuTvnilebaze saubars Tavs aridebs karen iuzbaSiani da qarTvel mefes ubralod amierkavkasiis erT-erT uZlieres feodalur dinastTagans uwodebs. aseve bundovania taos samefos miseuli gansazRvrebac. es xan wminda somxur saxelmwifoebriv gaerTianebebisgan gansxvavebuli, Sereuli somxur-qarTuli mosaxleobis taos samTavroa, xan ki somxurqarTuli olqi ­ tao67. 1976 w. erevanSi gamocemuli somexi xalxis istoriis akademiuri gamocemis me-3-e tomSi68 mniSvnelovani adgili eTmoba taos samefosa da daviT kurapalatis politikur Tavgadasavals. miuxedavad amisa, mkiTxvels sruli gaurkvevloba eufleba daviTis vinaobasa da mis samefoze. ZiriTad teqstSi daviTi arc qarTvelebsaa mikuTvnebuli da TiTqos arc somxebs, aseve sakurapalatod wodebuli misi samefoc. am dabindul viTarebaSi raRaca garkveulobis Setanas paragrafis avtori r. maTevosiani, TiTqos, mainc cdilobs, roca wers, rom IX s. taiqis istoriis Sesaxeb Cvenamde moRweuli cnobebi mcire kia, magram cxadia X s. naxevri-

saTvis ukve iq dawinaurebulia sakurapalato qarTveli bagrationebis taiqis Stos meTaurobiT, magram, ganmartavs iqve, mosaxleoba ZiriTadad somxuri iyo, romelTagan bevri qalkedonelobas mimxrobodao da ganagrZobs: somxuri da qarTuli samefoebis da taiqis sakurapalatos Soris damyarebuli iyo mWidro TanamSromloba, rasac didi mniSvneloba hqonda maTi TavdacvisTviso69. ra gavarkvieT? I. taos samefos saxelisuflo dinastia qarTveli bagrationebis taos Stos kuTvnilebaa 2. mosaxleoba ZiriTadad somxuria 3. samefos politikuri fizionomia (sakurapalato) ki berZnul-bizantiuria. Cans, amitomac, Tundac garegnulad, werilis avtori taos samefos arc somxur da arc qarTul samefoTa rigs ar akuTvnebs da CamoTvlisas maT erTmaneTisagan aSkarad mijnavs. niSandoblivia, rom teqstis aTeulobiT gverdebze amierkavkasiis calkeuli politikuri erTeulebis xelisufalTa xsenebisas umravles SemTxvevaSi, roca maT eTnikuri niSniTac moixsenieben, magaliTad, somexTa mefe gagiki, qarTvelTa mefe bagrati da sxva, imave winadadebaSi taos mefes mxolod kurapalatobiT aRniSnaven, riTac cdiloben danarCeni qarTuli samyarodan mis gansxvavebul xasiaTze gaamaxvilon mkiTxvelis yuradReba. imavdroulad ki taos somxuri formiT `taiq~-iT gadmocema, rac, faqtobrivad, qarTuli taonis Targmans warmoadgens (`q~ somxurSi mravlobiTis maniSnebelia) da am qveynis politikuri movlenebis somxeTis istoriis WrilSi mowodebiT, qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebis Cvenebebis sawinaaRmdegod wignis avtorebi mkiTxvels qvecnobierad Sua saukuneebis taoze somxuri qveynis STabeWdilebas uqmnian. v. aruTinova-fidanianma da p. muradianma ki am qveynis somex qalkedonelTa samkvidrod warmodgenis funqcia, ratomRac, berZnuli wyaroebis `ivirs~ (ibers) da `iverias~ (iberias) daakisres, romelic yovelTvis qarTvelsa da qarTvelTa qveyanas aRniSnavda70. SemTxveviTi sulac araa, rom bizantiis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlis Semdeg, samxreT taos, misi qarTuli eTnikuri Sinaarsis mixedviT, imperiis administraciul sistemaSi `iberiis Temi~ daerqva, iseve rogorc `armeniakis Temis~ saxeli warmosdga

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Ïîâåñòâîâàíèå âàðäàïåòà Àðèñòàêåñà ëàñòèâåðòöè, ïåðåâîä ñ äðåâíåàðìÿíñêîãî, âñòóïèòåëüíàÿ ñòàòüÿ, êîììåíòàðèé è ïðèëîæåíèÿ Ê. Í. Þçáàøÿíà, Ìîñêâà, 1968, ñ. 17, 19.

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Ð Û Å Õ í ¹ å ï á Ã á Ý Ñ I , gv. 108. ³ á á ñ Ç ³ Ù õ Û õ « ©

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am terminis mniSvnelobaze ix. agreTve Íîäàð Ëîìîóðè, Ê èñòîðèè ãðóçèíñêîãî Ïåòðèöîíñêîãî ìîíàñòûðÿ, 1981, ñ. 55-66.

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iq arsebuli mosaxleobis mixedviT71. uTuod eTnikuri Sinaarsi edo safuZvlad berZnul-bizantiuri wyaroebis cnobebs, roca maTi avtorebi politikurad gancalkevebul taos ganapira iberiad aRiqvamdnen Sida iberiisagan, anu aRmosavleT saqarTvelos centraluri raionebisagan gansxvavebiT da saqarTvelos am orive nawils erTnairad iberiad moixseniebdnen72. v. aruTinova-fidanianis analiziT, XI s. bizantiur wyaroebSi termini `ivir~-i xuT sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas aerTianebda Tavis TavSi. is aRniSnavda espanels, qarTvels, bizantiuri Temis iberiis mkvidrs, qarTuli aRmsareblobis somexs da aTonis ivironis monastris bers. pirveli mniSvnelobiT XI s. wyaroebSi is iSviaTad gvxvdeba, sityva `ivir~-is bolo sami mniSvneloba ki zogjer Tanaarsebobda erTi da imave piris daxasiaTebaSio. samxreTi taos somexi qalkedonelebi `ivirebi~ iyvnen iberiis Temidan warmomavlobisa da sarwmunoebrivi niSniTaco. amasTan Tavisi azris dasadastureblad mohyavs Tornike erisTavis ojaxis magaliTi, romelic, misi TqmiT, Turme, taos TornikianTa ojaxis warmomadgenlebi iberiis Temidan (samxreT taiqidan) warmomavlobdnen, aRiarebdnen ivirul rjuls da iyvnen ivironis monastris berebi. aseTi samgzisi `iviri~ iyo ioane Tornike, romelmac karinTan axlos datova qvajvari somxuri warweriT. msgavsive qvajvari datova misma Zmam ioane varazvaCem anisis somxur-qalkedonur taZarSio73. gasagebia, rom mTeli es msjeloba Tornike erisTavisa da samxreTi taos somxurobis dasamtkicebladaa moyvanili. aseTi mtkicebis sirTules somexi mkvlevari, etyoba, TviTonac kargad grZnobs da mis Sesamsubuqeblad damatebiT ganmartebebsac iZleva. Tu wyaroebi erTi da imave pirovnebas `somxobasac miaweren da qarTvelobasac~, es imas niSnavs, rom `somexi~ pirovnebis eTnikur maxasiaTeblad unda miviRoT, xolo `qarTveli~ konfesiis niSnad. amasTan, ufro xSirad, aseTi `somex-qarTveli~ iberiis Temidan iqneba, sadac gansakuTrebiT Zlieri iyo qarTuli sarwmunoebao74. Cveni azriT, analizi calmxrivia, gamotanili daskvnebi ki naZaladevi. sityva `ivir~-is pirvel mniSvnelobaze arafers

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vityviT, wyaroebSi misi moxsenieba marTlac iSviaTia da, rac mTavaria, gasarkvev, sakiTxTan Sexeba mas arca aqvs. mkvlevris mier meore adgilze dasmuli `ivir~-is mniSvneloba eTnikuri `qarTvelis~ SinaarsiT ki, praqtikulad, mTavari da ZiriTadia da terminis yvela CamoTvlil gagebas Tan axlavs. amitomac sruliad gaugebaria, ratom unda iyos taos pirobebSi somxuri wyaroebis `qarTveli~ aucilebad konfesiis maCvenebeli, xolo imave wyaroebis `somexi~ maincdamainc eTnosis aRmniSvneli. sruliad gasagebi terminebis Sinaarsis amgvari klasifikacia yovelTvis calmxrivi da xelovnuri iqneba, vidre pasuxi ar gaecema kiTxvas, Tu bizantielebma dapyrobis Semdeg samxreT taos ratom daarqves `iberiis Temi~ da berZnul-somxur eTnikur garemocvaSi teritoriulad Rrmad SeWril am qveyanaSi ratom iyo, v. aruTinova-fidanianisave aRiarebiT, gansakuTrebiT Zlieri qarTuli sarwmunoeba? misive dakvirvebiT, imperiis samsaxurSi CadgomisTanave somxuri aristokratiis warmomadgenlebi, rogorc iTqva, icvlidnen sarwmunoebas, radgan imperiis eklesiisadmi kuTvnileba pirveli da aucilebeli piroba iyo75. aseT viTarebaSi, somexi, taodan iqneboda, Tu Suagul saqarTvelodan, qarTuli sarwmunoebisaTvis, ra Tqma unda, Tavs ar aitkivebda, radganac berZnuli misTvis ara marto aucilebeli, aramed momgebianic iyo. ase rom, dasmul kiTxvebze pasuxi erTob martivia: samxreTi tao, romelic bizantiis politikur mesveurebs jer kidev adre, misi politikuri gancalkevebisas, ganapira iberiad (qarTlad) miaCniaT, bizantiur samxedro-administraciul erTeulad gardaqmnis Semdegac, Tavisi ZiriTadi mosaxleobis eTnikuri SemadgenlobiT, cxovrebis wesisa da mTlianad Tavisi kulturiT kvlav iberiad (e. i. qarTlad) rCeboda, ris gamoc umTavresad mas imperiaSi miRebuli saerTo wesiT, Tavisi istoriuli saxelwodeba (iberia) SeunarCunes76. niSandoblivia, rom Tanadrouli somxuri wyaroebi, rasac k. iuzbaSianic iziarebs77, taos qveyanas uwodeben `virqs~, e. i. qarTls, `aSxarh

75 76

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À. Øàíèäçå, Î ñòðîèòåëå Ïåòðèöîíñêîãî ìîíàñòûðÿ Ãðèãîðèè áàêóðèàíèñ äçå, `macne~, # 4, 1978, gv. 175. g. kedreni, georgika, 5, gv. 46. Â. À. Àðóòþíîâà-Ôèäàíÿí, àðìÿíå-õàëêåäîíèòû íà âîñòî÷íûõ ãðàíèöûõ Âèçàíòèéñêîé èìïåðèè, ñ. 68-69. iqve, gv. 69.

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v. aruTinova-fidaniani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 50-59. bizantiur TemTa struqturis Sesaxeb ix. agreTve Ê. Í. Þçáàøÿí, Àðìÿíñêèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ýïîõè Áàãðàòóèäîâ è Âèçàíòèÿ IX-XI ââ., Ìîñêâà, 1988, ñ. 191-196. iqve, gv. 193.

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vracs~ ­ qarTvelTa qveyanas, iberiis Tems ki `gavarn vrac~ (qarTvelTa mxareebi)78. ase rom, qarTul wyaroebTan TanxmobiT somxuri wyaroebic samxreT taos qarTlis nawilad da qarTlad aRiqvamen, rac TavisTavad Seicavs pasuxs imazec, Tu iberiis TemSi, anu taos mosaxleobaSi, ratom iyo gansakuTrebiT Zlieri qarTuli sarwmunoeba. cxadia, sakuTari saxelis `Tornikes~ TviTneburad somxur gvarad `Tornikianad~ gadakeTebiT termin `qarTvels~ eTnikuri Sinaarsi ver gamoecleba. Tornike erisTavisa da misi ojaxis qarTvelobis utyuari sabuTi maTi moRvaweobis xasiaTi da bizantiis politikursa da somxur kulturul-eTnikur garemocvaSi moqceuli am taoelebis ukiduresad gamZafrebuli erovnul-kulturuli Rirsebisa da Segnebis didi grZnoba iyo, romlis gamovnilebasac warmoadgenda sakuTari safasiT aSenebuli aTonis qarTvelTa monasteri. am STabeWdilebas odnavadac ki ver uSlis xels v. aruTinova-fidanianis miTiTeba Tornikesa da misi Zmis mier karinis maxloblad da anisis qalkedonur taZarSi somxurwarweriani qvajvaris aRmarTvaze. jer erTi, rodis iyo, rom enis codniT eTnikuri vinaoba isazRvreboda. Tornike erisTavma, albaT, berZnulic SesaniSnavad icoda, magram misTvis amis gamo berZnoba aravis Seuwamebia. somxuri enis codnas ki wminda praqtikuli mniSvneloba hqonda Tornikesa da misi ZmisTvis. mas mere, rac daviT kurapalatma Tavisi samefo samxreTiT Sors vanis tbamde ganavrco, taoeli aznaurebi axlad SemoerTebul provinciebs feodalur aristokratiad moevlinen, radganac es iyo am miwa-wylis iberiaSi politikuri Sesvlis erTi umTavresi gamoxatuleba da niSani79. am droidan es taoelebi somxuri miwebisa da somxuri mosaxleobis mepatroneni gaxdnen, ris gamoc somxuri enis codna maTTvis aucilebeli Seiqmna da savsebiT bunebrivia, Tuki karinel memamule Cordvanelis Zeebs somxuri epigrafikuli Zeglebic daukavSirda. erTob niSandoblivia, agreTve, rom yovelive amis Semdeg Tornikes

umcrosi Tanamedrove somexi istorikosi asoRiki mas tomiT qarTvelad `azgav vrac~-ad moixseniebs80. tao-klarjeTis qarTul samefo-samTavroebze n. maris saxeldaxelod SemuSavebuli Tvalsazrisi, rogorc somexi qalkedonelebis denacionalizaciis procesis warmonaqmnze, mniSvnelovanwilad emyareboda im faqts, rom erT dros samxreTi tao xangrZlivad imyofeboda somxeTis politikur daqvemdebarebaSi, ris gamoc saWiro xdeba taos politikuri Tavgadasavlis gaxseneba da imis garkveva, Tu ramdenad realuri iyo es Tavgadasavali n. marisa da misi mimdevrebis Tvalsazrisis gasamarTleblad. iberiis samxreT-dasavleTis sazRvari somxeTTan Zvel xanaSi ar iyo maincdamainc stabiluri, ris gamoc am sasazRvro zolSi rTuli eTnopolitikuri procesebi viTardeboda. am procesebis orbitaSi myof taosTan VIII s-mde mainc klarjeTis dakavSireba, ra Tqma unda, gaumarTlebeli iqneboda, ramdenadac igi politikur-administraciulad yovelTvis qarTlSi Sedioda. farnavazis dros (Zv. w. IV-III s.) is iberiis saxelmwifos erT-erTi saerisTavoa. am dros uZvelesi qarTuli saxelmwifos samxreTi sazRvari mtkvar-araqsis wyalgamyofze gadioda, xolo ukiduresi ­ samxreT-dasavleTiT ­ Worox-evfratis wyalgamyofze81. qarTlis samefom tao da speri, strabonis mowmobiT, Zv. w. II saukunis dasawyisSi dakarga da sakmaod xangrZlivi dro dasWirda, rom igi kvlav daebrunebina. ax. w. I-II ss. qarTlis samefos politikuri aRmavlobisas, misgan adre waRebuli teritoriebi kvlav missave farglebSia sagulvebeli, ufro gvian ki (IV s. meore naxevramde) kvlav kargavs da taos myarad dabruneba mxolod VIII s. moxerxda, xolo sperisa ­ kidev ufro gvian82. rac Seexeba klarjeTs, `didi somxeTis~ daSlamdec (IV s. bolo) is saqarTveloSi Semavali qveyanaa. movses xorenaci klarjeTs qarTvelTa qveynis erT-erT kuTxed miiCnevs, sadac wm. ninom iqadaga saxareba83. qarTuli saistorio

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ê » ³ á Ç î ñ Ýó á ² á Ï Ý ä ï á à õ ï » » ³ ³ « äïñá ñ « 18« ï÷ Ý ë ³ û » õ Û ë Õ ³ ³ Ù õ Ç Ý Ç½ñ Ï Ý » » õ · 85 ¿ç. 164« 171« 172.

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ix. agreTve, el. cagareiSvili, `íñ ³~, `íñ ³ Ç~ ­is mniSvnelobi»Ç »ÇÛ saTvis somxur werilobiT ZeglebSi, gv. 103-114. a. bogveraZe, grigol bakurianisZis tipikonis gagebisaTvis, gv.198.

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d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, I, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 60. iqve, gv. 80. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, a. abdalaZis gamoc. Tb, 1984, gv. 172.

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wyaroebic, berZnul-romaul wyaroebTan TanxmobiT, Zveli droidanve klarjeTs jer politikur-administraciulad, Semdeg ki eklesiuradac yovelTvis qarTlSi uCveneben84. sxvagvarad warimarTa taos eTnikur-politikuri ganviTareba. strabonis mowmobiT, somxeTis mier mezoblebisgan warTmeul yvela olqSi TiTqos imTaviTve dawyebulia armenizaciis procesi: `axla yvela isini laparakoben erT enazeo~. hakob manandianis ganmartebiT, strabonis es mtkiceba mxolod garkveuli SeniSvniTaa misaRebi. jer kidev sasanidebis dros da Semdegac somxeTis raionebSi sxvadasxva tomebi cxovrobdnen. amitom strabonis mowmoba im azriT unda gavigoT, rom mis dros somxeTSi gabatonebuli da ufro gavrcelebuli ena somxuri iyo85. somxeTis politikur sivrceSi moqceul iberiis olqebSi armenizaciis procesis intensivobis warmosadgenad niSandobliv faqtad gvesaxeba gogarene (`gugarqis~) sapitiaxSos magaliTi. jer kidev Zv. w. II s. taosTan erTad dapyrobili qarTlis es mxare V s. qarTuli qristianuli mwerlobisa da aRmSeneblobis dawinaurebul qveynad gamoiyureba. taos metxans mouwia yofna somxur politikur sivrceSi da, albaT, amitomac SesaZloa im Zvel dros maT gansazRvruli kulturul-politikuri erTobac hqonodaT somxebTan, magram ara imdenad, rom aqaur aborigenebs TavianTi eTnografiuli saxe daekargaT. saamiso kvali SemorCa taos toponimikis da sxva materialur Tu enobriv masalas, sadac uwinares qarTul istoriul geografiul saxelebTan somxuri saxelebic Tanaarseboben. n. adonci aRiarebda, rom somxeTis ganapira olqebs politikur-administraciuli warmoSoba hqondaT, romelic gamarTlebuli iyo eTnikuradaco86. am erTeulebis eTnikurma individualurobam yvelaze ufro cxadad iCina Tavi sivnielTa da taoelTa saeklesiopolitikuri orientaciis sferoSi, sadac xsenebuli olqebi somxur nacionalur mimarTulebas daupirispirdnen. magaliTad, somex-qarTvelTa sarwmunoebrivi ganxeTqilebisTanave taoelebi qalkedonur aRmsareblobas miemxrnen, ris Semdeg tao somxeTis sxva olqebidan devnili qalkedonelebis TavSesafari gaxda. am TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmoa, agreTve, somxeTis cnobili marTl84 85 86

madidebeli kaTalikosis nerses III-is tomiT taoelobac. im dros taoSi qarTuli aRmsareblobisaTvis niadags, SesaZloa, misTvis Sesaferisi eTnikuri faqtoric qmnida, gansakuTrebiT, albaT, taos Crdilo nawilSi, klarjeTTan da sxva qarTul olqebTan siaxlovis da mWidro urTierTobis gamoc. taoSi ganviTarebul eTno-kulturul procesebze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenda amierkavkasiaSi politikuri viTarebiT gamowveuli migraciuli procesebic. saqarTvelosa da somxeTis centralur raionebSi arabTa gabatonebam da qristianuli kulturisa da maRalganviTarebuli feodaluri qveynebisaTvis autanelma reJimma (araboba) mosaxleobis nawili aiZula bunebrivad ukeT daculi qveynis dasavleT ganapira mxareebSi eZia TavSesafari. VII-VIII ss. ukve samcxis gziT qarTlidanac daiZra mosaxleoba klarjeTisa da taosaken. murvan yrus (736-738 ww.) damarbeveli laSqrobisa da moaruli epidemiis (`srva satlobisa~) Sedegad mosaxleobis Semcirebis miuxedavad es qveynebi arc umkvidro qmnila da arc patroni moklebia maT, rogorc es qarTuli wyaroebis mier zedmetad muq ferebSi daxatuli suraTiT SeiZleba gveCvenos87. amis dasturia `axlad Senebis~ is didi erovnuli procesi, romelsac saTaveSi qarTlis aznauroba edga erismTavris moTaveobiT. qarTuli samTavros aRmoceneba, ra Tqma unda, Sesaferis da saimedo eTno-socialur sayrdensac gulisxmobda. abasianebis droidan (VIII s. Sua wlebidan) taosa da klarjeTSi qarTuli elementis momZlavreba ukve saxezea, ramdenime aTeul weliwadSi ki gabatonebul mdgomareobasac aRwevs. Tuki 747 w. ajanyebis monawile naxararebi grigol mamikonianis meTaurobiT, TavianTi saxleulobiTa da avladidebiT taos cixesimagreebs afareben Tavs ise, rom saamiso nebarTvas ar saWiroebdnen, ramdenadac am droisaTvis samxreTi tao, Cans, Wanuri warmomavlobis mamikonianTa mamulad da sagamgeod iTvleboda88, 788 wlisTvis ukve politikuri

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a. bogveraZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 186. ß. À. Ìàíàíäÿí, Òèãðàí âòîðîé è Ðèì, Åðåâàí, 1943, ñ. 19-20. Í. Àäîíö, Àðìåíèÿ â ýïîõó Þñòèíèàíà, ñ. 230.

d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, gv. 155. el. cagareiSvili, somxuri wyaroebi arabeT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis Sesaxeb (sebeosi, levondi), mravalTavi, I, 1971, gv. 485; Ô»õáݹ»³Û í³ñ¹³å»ïÇ ä³ïÙáõÃÇõÝ êä´« 1887« ¿ç 122-123 agreTve, ix. À. Í. Òåð-Ãåâîíäÿí, Àðìåíèÿ è àðàáñêèé Õàëèôàò, Åðåâàí, 1977, gv. 117-118, 193 da sxv.

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situacia aq mkveTrad Secvlilia. arabebs gamoqceuli ltolvili somxebi taos ki aRar afareben Tavs, aramed mama-Svils Sapuh da hamam amatunTa meTaurobiT `qarTvelTa qveynis sazRvrebTan, kolis gavarSi mosulebs md. Woroxi gadaulaxavT da bizantiis samflobeloebisaken gauweviaT, sadac konstantine keisars kidec dausaxlebia 89 . aSkaraa, am droisTvis samxreTi tao somxur (mamikonianTa) sagamgeblo qveyanas aRar warmoadgenda. VIII s. meore naxevarSic aq adrindeli politikuri viTareba rom yofiliyo, sxva SemTxvevebis msgavsad ltolvili somxebis erTi nawili mainc daidebda binas amjeradac. saistorio wyaroebis mwiri cnobebis mixedviT, politikuri situacia aq erTob aramyari Cans. xelisuflebisaTvis bagratovanTa Stos warmomadgenlebi ibrZvian, mamikonianebi ki, TiTqos, arc Canan. VIII s. 70-iani wlebisaTvis arabTa winaaRmdeg warmatebiT mebrZoli bagratuniani aSot msakeri (xorciWamia) erTxans ikavebs taos, aSenebs cixe kamaxs (qarTuli kalmaxi) da Sig Tavis saxleulebs abinavebs90. TiTqmis imave periods miemarTeba `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ cnoba adarnase bagratonianis (qarTvel bagratovanTa warmomadgenlis) mflobelobaze tao-klarjeTSi, romlis mixedviTac `icvala adarnase bagratonianman nasamali klarjeTisa, SavSeTisa, aWarisa, nigalisa, asisforisa, artanisa da quemosa taosa, da cixeTaganca, romelni hqondes SviliSvilTa vaxtang mefisaTa. da wavida adarnase klarjeTad da mun mokuda~91. qarTvel mefeTa (vaxtangisa da misi SviliSvilebis) samkvidroze mjdomi adarnases gadawyvetileba `icvala nasamali~, rac moyvanil cnobaTa SejerebiT irkveva, iZulebiTi RonisZieba unda yofiliyo, romelic eWvi araa, adarnases somexi biZaSvilis eqspansiis Sedegi iqneboda. movlenebis amgvar ganviTarebas, faqtobrivad, iziarebs d. musxeliSvili, roca adarnases klarjeTSi gadasvlas taoSi aSot msakeris axal mflobelobas ukavSirebs 92 . grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis ramdenime Cvenebaze misive dakvirvebiT, VIII saukunis miwuruls aSot adarnases Ze (SemdgomSi aSot didi) samxreT-dasavleT

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saqarTveloSi mamis samkvidro SavSeT-klarjeTTan erTad ukve orive taosac flobs93. amis Semdeg aSot I didisa da misi memkvidreebis xelSewyobiT tao-klarjeTSi Tavi moiyara da farTod gaSala frTebi qarTveli xalxis aRmSeneblobiTma Zalam da kulturuli Semoqmedebis unarma. aSenda naoxari soflebi, ganaxlda jer kidev vaxtang gorgaslis daxmarebiT agebuli artanujis cixe da gaSenda amave saxelwodebis didi qalaqi, agreTve, qarTuli arqiteqturis didebuli Zeglebi ­ xanZTa, Satberdi, iSxani `meored aSenebuli~, bana, oSki, xaxuli, parxali da mravali sxva, romelTa mniSvneloba ganuzomlad didia aramarto qarTuli kulturis istoriisaTvis. niSandoblivia, rom tao-klarjeTisa da saqarTvelos sxva istoriuli provinciebis arqiteqturul Zeglebs aerTianebT saerTo arqiteqturuli da dekoratiuli Temebi, taZris sivrcobrivi agebulebis saerTo principebi da sxva, rac samSeneblo xelovnebis mravalsaukunovani tradiciebis saerTo qarTul safuZvelze migvaniSnebs94. CamoTvlil qarTuli arqiteqturis brwyinvale Zeglebs didi mxatvruli Rirebulebis garda, saganmanaTleblo da mecnierul-saliteraturo kerebis mniSvnelobac gaaCndaT. korneli kekeliZis TqmiT, aq duRda literaturuli Semoqmedeba. misive ganmartebiT, udidesi nawili im saganZurisa, rac Cven mogvepoveba IX-X s-idan am monastrebSia Seqmnili. aq Camoyalibda tao-klarjeTis sagangebo saliteraturo skola, erovnul niadagze aRmocenebuli, romelmac SeimuSava Tavisi sakuTari gramatika, ena, xeli da mimarTuleba. Semdeg ki ganagrZobs: qarTvelTa SemoqmedebiTi energia imdenad gaizarda am monastrebSi, rom tao-klarjeTis sazRvrebSi veRar daetia, gamovida Tavisi kalapotidan da farTo nakadiT gadavida mcire aziis sxvadasxva punqtSi da mere aTonis naxevarkunZulze Seqmna man Cveni mwerlobis axali centri iveriis monastris saxiT, romelic pirvel xanebSi ikvebeboda tao-klarjeTidan momdinare tradiciebiT95. amis mere, n. maris saxeldaxelod Seqmnili Teoriis mimdevarma somexma mecnierebma rogorc unda gvimtkicon, rom es didi

93 94 95

91 92

levondi, xsenebuli gamocema, gv. 168-169. vardan arevelci, msoflio istoria, n. SoSiaSvilisa da eka kvaWantiraZis Targmani, Tbilisi, 2002, gv. 102. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 251. d. musxeliSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 157.

d. musxeliSvili, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 159-160. Âàõòàíã Áåðèäçå, Àðõèòåêòóðà Òàî-Êëàðäæåòè, Òáèëèñè, 1981, ñ. 132. korneli kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, Tbilisi, 1980, gv. 97.

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qarTuli kultura, TiTqos somexi qalkedonelebis Seqmnili yofiliyos, Tanac im pirobebSi, roca maT Turme bolomde hqondaT SenarCunebuli mSobliuri somxuri ena, somxuri Segneba da patriotizmi da v. aruTinova-fidanianis sayvareli gamoTqmac rom gamoviyenoT, `somexi yovelTvis somxadve rCeboda~. aseTi SeuTavsebeli debulebebis SeTavsebis cda xom ubralod absurdia. tao-klarjeTis uaRresad erovnuli, brwyinvale qarTuli kulturis Semoqmedi, ra Tqma unda, qarTveli tomebi, qarTveli xalxia, romelsac IX-X ss. aq gansakuTrebiT xelsayreli pirobebi Seeqmna didi SemoqmedebiTi energiisa da unaris gamosavlenad. aborigeni qarTuli Tu qarTveluri mosaxleoba am ganapira iberiaSi arasdros gadaSenebula, maSinac ki, roca tao gansazRvrul istoriul periodebSi somxur politikur sivrceSi eqceoda. mogvianebiT ki, roca arabTa damarbeveli laSqrobebisa da moaruli epidemiebis Sedegad mosaxleobis didi nawili amowyda da VIII s. gasuls axali moaxalSeneebi gaCndnen, ZiriTadad IX-X ss. aRdga da moSenda qarTlis sxvadasxva Temebidan, upiratesad mesxeTidan masobrivad mosuli moaxalSeneebis xeliT. istoriuli kanonzomiereba iyo, albaT, rom swored mesxebi daeuflnen TavianT uZveles pirvelsacxovriss96. tomiT mesxebi iyvnen XI s. Sua wlebSi kalmaxisa da artanujis erisTavebi sula kalmaxeli, grigol artanujeli da maTze daqvemdebarebuli mravalricxovani aznaurebi, romelTac Seipyres gamZlavrebuli separatisti feodali lipariti da mefes mihgvares97, Tuxarisis erisTavi beSqen jayeli, giorgi mTawmindeli, giorgi mwerali da sxva gamoCenili pirebi. erTob niSandoblivia, agreTve, rom IX s. sxva qarTul samefo-samTavroTagan mxolod tao-klarjeTs miemarTeboda sityva `qarTvelTa~: qarTvelTa sakurapalato, qarvelTa samefo, riTac yuradReba maxvildeboda am samefos uaRresad qarTul, erovnul xasiaTze. niSandoblivia isic, rom brZolas erovnuli qarTuli feodaluri samyaros warmoqmna-gamarjvebisaTvis amierkavkasiis masStabiT swored taos saxelganTqmulma mefem daviT III didma kurapalatma Cauyara safuZveli da pirveli gadam-

wyveti mniSvnelobis politikuri nabijebic gadadga rogorc qarTuli qveynebis politikuri gaerTianebis mimarTulebiT, ise qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisa da qarTuli feodaluri kulturis erovnuli sazRvrebis iqiT gasavrcelebladac. cxadia, somxuri istoriografiis xsenebul warmomadgenelTa cdebi Tavdayira warmoaCinon tao-klarjeTis politikuri da eTno-kulturuli istoria, sakmaod Sors dgas mecnieruli amocanebisagan da, aSkarad, sxva interesTa sferos ganekuTvneba. sabWoTa somxuri istoriografia aseve tendenciurad gadmogvcems saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis politikur Tavgadasavalsa da mis eTno-istorias. igi misdevs ra sakiTxze XIX s. somxuri publicistikidan da samecniero wreebidan momdinare tradicias, romelic gulisxmobs saqarTveloSi somxuri mosaxleobis gansakuTrebuli siWarbisa da TviT qarTuli mosaxleobis gansxvavebuli konfesiis nawilis eTnikuradac somxuri warmomavlobis iluziuri suraTis Seqmnas (mis Sesaxeb ukve iTqva), somex mkvlevarTa axalma Taobam, Cans, Tavis movaleobad miiCnia am problematikis Semdgomi damuSaveba da mecnieruli gansjis CarCoebSi, Tundac, formalurad moqceva. amgvari ganwyoba mkafiod SeiniSneba p. muradianis sadoqtoro disertaciasa da wyaroTmcodneobiTi xasiaTis mis sxva naSromebSi, romelTagan amjerad gamovyofT 1985 w. erevanSi rusul enaze gamocemul wigns `Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè (Êàðòëè è Êàõåòè) da 1988 w. dastambul imave saTauris wigns Tbilisze. dasmuli amocanis gadasawyvetad batonma paruirma Tavis istoriul-filologiur Ziebebs safuZvlad daudo dReisaTvis somxur istoriografiaSi farTod gaziarebuli koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac XI-XVIII saukuneebis somexi xalxis istoria moicavs ara marto sakuTriv somxeTis, aramed aziisa da evropis qveynebSi gafantuli somxuri dasaxlebebis istoriasac98. zogadad es debuleba, SesaZloa, sworic iyos, magram saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobisa da evropasa da aziaSi gafantuli somxuri dasaxlebebis (koloniebis) erT sibrtyeze ganxilva araTu mizanSeuwoneli, aramed umarTebulocaa sruliad gansxvavebuli

96 97

a. bogveraZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 194. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 301-304.

98

Ìóðàäÿí Ï. Ì., Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè (Êàðòëè è Êàõåòè), àâòîðåôåðàò íà ñîèñêàíèå ó÷åíîé ñòåïåíè äîêòîðà èñò. íàóê, Åðåâàí, 1985, ñ.4.

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geografiuli, istoriuli, socialur-ekonomikuri Tu kulturuli pirobebis gamo. ucxoeTSi gafantuli avtonomiuri niSnebis mqone koloniebi da kompaqturi eTnikuri Temebi, rogorc Tavdacvis erTgvari saSualeba, umTavresad im qveynebSi iqmneboda, sadac somxebi Cagvrasa da Seviwroebas ganicdidnen. magaliTad, iranSi, indoeTSi, ruseTSi da sxv. somxuri dasaxlebebis xasiaTi da organizaciuli formebi rom TavSesafari qveynis xelisuflebis politikazec didad iyo damokidebuli, amaze jer kidev b. borianma gaamaxvila yuradReba99 da miuTiTa sxvadasxva qveyanaSi somex ltolvilTa gansxvavebul mdgomareobaze. magaliTad, misive dakvirvebiT, holandiasa, poloneTsa da italiis zRvispira qalaqebSi somxuri koloniebi xelisufalTagan politikur Seviwroebas ar ganicdidnen, ris gamoc droTa ganmavlobaSi moxda maTi asimilacia da somxur sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi aRaraviTar rols aRar TamaSobdnen. da yvela im qveynisgan gansxvavebiT, saiTkenac somex ltolvilTa nakadebi miemarTeboda, saqarTvelo ara marto geografiulad, aramed kulturiTa da istoriuli kavSirebiTac ufro maxlobeli qveyana iyo. amasTan qarTvel xelisufalTa Semwynarebluri politikac savsebiT uzrunvelyofda somexTa pirovnul Rirsebas, ris gamoc Cveni qveyana maTTvis yvelaze mimzidveli iyo. es WeSmariteba araviTar davas ar iwvevs da savsebiT gaziarebulia somxur istoriografiaSic. miuxedavad amisa, mezobeli didi saxelmwifoebisagan gansxvavebiT, SedarebiT SezRuduli sasicocxlo sivrcisa da specifikuri geopolitikuri pirobebiT gamowveuli gamudmebuli TavdacviTi omebis gamoc, ltolvilTa didi nakadis misaRebad da vrceli kompaqturi ucxo dasaxlebebis Sesaqmnelad, gansakuTrebiT XV s-idan dawyebuli XVIII s. CaTvliT, saqarTveloSi Sesaferisi situacia da saWiroeba, namdvilad ar arsebobda. amitom p. muradianis cdas, mTeli saqarTvelo, amjerad istoriuli qarTli da kaxeTi, kompaqturi somxuri dasaxlebebiT dafarul qveynad warmogvidginos, araviTari mecnieruli safuZveli ar gaaCnia. marTalia, sadoqtoro disertaciis avtoreferatSi aRniSnavs, rom somexTa gadmosaxleba saqarTveloSi TandaTano-

biTi infiltritaciiTa da mTeli Temebis (igulisxmeba rogorc sasoflo, ise saqalaqo) gadanacvlebiT xdeboda, magram sinamdvileSi, mTeli masalis analizi da vrceli msjeloba, faqtobrivad, meore SesaZleblobaSi mkiTxvelis dasarwmunebladaa mimarTuli. misi mtkicebiT, somxuri sakulto Zeglebisa da warwerebis adgilmdebareoba, rogorc wesi, mowmobs im adgilebSi gadmosaxlebulTa Temebis arsebobas. amasTan, iqve SeniSnavs, rom am Zeglebis raodenoba gacilebiT mcirea, vidre realurad arsebuli somxuri dasaxlebebi. somxuri eTnikuri elementi, misive ganmartebiT, arsebobda ruxSi, CixorSi, CxarSi, quTaisSi, TamaraSenSi, bazarSi, agreTve, soflebSi ­ saRoreSi, gorisTavSi, akurasa da tabaxmelaSi, maRaroSi, nukrianSi, nasomxarSi, fanianSi, fxovelSi, bodbisxevSi, maCxaansa da tibaanSi, mirzaanSi da a. S., magram am adgilebSi somxuri epigrafikuli Zeglebi ara gvaqvso100. p. muradianisaTvis damaxasiaTebel am tipur msjelobaSi eTnikuri `Temisa~ da `elementis~ cnebebi TavianTi mniSvnelobiT, faqtobrivad, gaTanabrebulia, e. i. mTeli da misi nawili erT sididedaa warmodgenili, riTac mkiTxvels, gansakuTrebiT saqmeSi Cauxedavs, uqmnis STabeWdilebas, TiTqos, CamoTvlili qalaqebi da soflebi erT mTlian somxur eTnikur Temebs warmoadgenda, anda am punqtebSi damoukidebeli somxuri Temebis arseboba maincaa savaraudebeli. somxuri elementis arsebobas CamoTvlil qalaqebsa da soflebSi qarTuli wyaroebic adasturebs da am mxriv arc Cvena gvaqvs sadavo pat. mkvlevarTan. magram isic xom aSkaraa, rom b-ni paruiris mizans es ki ara, mTel, gansakuTrebiT ki aRmosavleT saqarTvelos centralur raionebSi somxuri eTnikuri Temebis arsebobis mtkiceba Seadgens, ris cdebic am wignis TiTqmis yvela Tavsa da paragrafSia mocemuli da xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli, rom `saqarTveloSi somxebi sasoflo Temis mTeli SemadgenlobiT esaxlebodnen101. q. gorze saubrisas ki aRniSnavs: somxebs bedad dahyvaT sxvadasxva qveynebSi xSirad gadasaxleba, magram, rogorc, wesi mTeli TemebiT, amitom ar arsebobs safuZveli, rom gorSic imave viTarebas ar hqonoda adgili. sxvadasxva

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Á. Áîðÿí, Àðìåíèÿ, ÷. 1-2, Ì-Ë. 1929, ñ. 17-18.

p. muradiani, saqarTvelos somxuri epigrafika (rus. enaze), gv. 11-12. 101 iqve, gv. 81.

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formiTa da variantebiT msgavsi situaciebia daxatuli aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxva soflebsa da qalaqebSi102. ufro metic, amgvari naxevarsimarTliTa da orazrovani msjelobiT p. muradiani mkiTxvels arapirdapir mianiSnebs, TiTqos, somxebs saqarTveloSi maTive kanonebi icavdnen da sazRvargareTis somxuri koloniebis msgavsad saqarTveloSic somxuri Temebi am mxriv raRac avtonomiur niSnebs flobdnen. misi mtkicebiT, sasamarTlo garCevisas gaTvaliswinebuli iyo somexTa eTnokulturuli TviTmyofoba, rasac mowmobs daviT batoniSvilis erTi cnoba, romlis mixedviTac vaxtang VI qveyanas marTavda berZnuli kanonebiT, vaWrebisaTvis ki iyenebda somxur kanonebs... am sityvebidan Canso, rom saqarTveloSi vaWrebi ZiriTadad somxebi iyvnen. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebeliao, ganagrZobs somexi mkvlevari, rom daviT bagrationi XIX s. dasawyisSi werda, roca vaWarTa fenaSi saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela msxvili eTnikuri erTeuli iyo warmodgenili, amitom somxuri kanonebi ar SeiZleboda gavrcelebuliyo mTel vaWarTa fenaze. erTi sityviT, uTqmelad amtkicebs, rom somxuri kanonebi vaxtang VI-is kanonTa krebulSi mxolod somxebisaTvis gamoiyenebodao da magaliTad moyavs somxuri warmomavlobis qarTvel Tavadebs, begTabegisSvilebs Soris syidvaze gaCenili davisas `somxuri samarTlis~ normebis gamoyenebis faqti103. erTi sityviT, cdas ar aklebs, raTa saqarTvelo avtonomiuri somxuri dasaxlebebiT mofenil qveynad warmogvidginos. b-ni p. muradianis msjelobas rom mivyveT da mis SromebSi mocemuli somxuri dasaxlebebis sqema da formebi gaviziaroT, miviRebT yovlad araistoriul suraTs: gamova rom saqarTveloSi somxebi ki ar cxovrobdnen qarTvelTa Soris, aramed, piriqiT, qarTvelebi somexTa Soris. Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom evropasa da aziaSi gafantuli somxuri avtonomiuri dasaxlebebis istoria, somxuri istoriografiis TvalsazrisiT, somxeTis erTiani istoriis Semadgenel nawilebs warmoadgens, maSin am logikiT saqarTvelos istoriac somxeTis istorias unda mivaTvaloT. sinamdvile, ra Tqma unda, sul sxvagvaria. vidre am sakiTxze Cvens xedvas warmovadgendeT, vnaxoT, ramdenad myaria b-ni p. mu102 103

radianis mier moyvanili argumentebi. misi warmodgeniT, rogorc iTqva, sakulto nagebobebisa da warwerebis gaCena da maTi adgilmdebareoba ganpirobebuli iyo kompaqturi somxuri dasaxlebebis sulieri moTxovnilebebiT, romlis ZalisxmeviTac, ZiriTadad, iqmneboda es Zeglebi, e. i. sakulto Zeglebis Seqmnas win uswrebda dasaxlebebis gaCena, magram faqtebi amis sawinaaRmdego araerT Cvenebebsac Seicavs. TviT p. muradianis wignebSi Tavmoyrili masalis mixedviT, ufro xSirad, TbilisSi, saerTod qarTlisa da kaxeTis soflebSi somxur eklesiebs mdidari somexi vaWrebi, anda sulac ekonomikurad Zlieri somxuri ojaxebis calkeuli wevrebi agebdnen. magaliTad, Tbilisis wm. giorgis somxuri eklesiis p. muradianis mierve pirobiTad aRdgenili samSeneblo warwera gvauwyebs: `es kaTedraluri eklesia agebulia somexTa mTavris omekis saxsrebiT~104. gorijvris somxuri eklesiis (Calabandis saydris) warweraSi naTqvamia: `940 (e. i. 1491) w. me, jalapma aRvaSene es eklesia Cemi da Cemi mSoblebisa da Zmebis sulis mosaxsenieblad~105. RvTismSoblis yandis somxuri eklesiis warwera ki gvamcnobs: `somxuri welTaRricxvis `ji~ 920 (1471), me, astvawatur mRvdelma Cemma vaJma xaCaturma da daviTma da Cemma qristesmierma sulierma Zmebma sargis sarkavagma (diakvanma) da ami...elma avaSeneT wminda RvTismSoblis (eklesia) Cveni da mSoblebis sulis(xsnisaTvis) amen~106. ufro gviandeli xanisTvis msgavsi Zeglebis raodenoba kidev metad izrdeba, xolo eklesiaTa ganaxlebisa, Tu misi nawilebis SekeTebis, gansakuTrebiT ki qvajvarebis aRmarTvis SemTxvevebi TiTqmis yovelTvis erT pirovnebasTanaa dakavSirebuli da calkeuli personebis interesebiTaa gansazRvruli 107. am da misi msgavsi Zeglebis kavSirze somxur kompaqtur dasaxlebebTan warwerebSi ubralo miniSnebac ki ar moipoveba. xolo XIX s., roca rusi moxeleebis

104

105

p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 104, 122, 155-156 da sxv. iqve, gv. 118.

106 107

Ìóðàäÿí Ï. Ì., Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè, Òáèëèñè, Åðåâàí, 1988, ñ. 2021. Ìóðàäÿí Ï. Ì., Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè (Êàðòëè è Êàõåòè), Åðåâàí, 1985. ñ. 91. iqve, gv. 51. iqve, gv. 120, 123, 127, 138, 139 da sxv.

202

203

mier organizebuli migraciuli procesebis Sedegad saqarTveloSi somexTa masobrivi Semosaxleba daiwyo da msxvili kompaqturi somxuri dasaxlebebic Seiqmna, es movlena maSinve aisaxa epigrafikul ZeglebSic. am droidan somxur sakulto nagebobebze gakeTebul warwerebSi maT mSeneblebad calkeuli pirebi ki ara, ufro xSirad mTeli somxuri dasaxlebebi da soflebi moixseniebian. magaliTebs TviT p. muradianisave gamoqveynebuli warwerebidan movitanT. niCbisSi ­ `1867 w. eklesia avageT Cvena somxisa sazogadoebama Cveni sakuTari SromiTa~108, muxranSi ­ `1843 w. SemweobiTa da RvawliTa somexTa guariT, romelnic imyofebian sofelsa Sina muxrans dadga eklesia es somxisa"109. anda `1839 w. aRvaSeneT eklesia (wminda) giorgisa Cven zertSi mcxovrebelT erTobiT qarTvelTa da somexTa sasaflaod Cvenis muSakobiTa~110. es ukanaskneli warwera konfesiuri urTierTobis TvalsazrisiTac erTob sainteresoa da masze calke vimsjelebT. aq moyvanili Sua saukuneebisa da XIX s. epigrafikuli masalis Sedareba ki, vfiqrob, sakmaod garkveviT cxadyofs, rom somxuri eklesiebis ageba saqarTveloSi yovelTvis ar iyo da arc SeiZleboda yofiliyo somxuri Temebis gaCenis uSualo Sedegi. piriqiT, eklesias SeeZlo, albaT, mosaxleobis Tavis garSemo Semokreba, magram amjerad ukve konfesiuri da ara mxolod eTnikuri niSniT, isic gansazRvrul drosa da sivrceSi. amitom araa aucilebeli yoveli sakulto nagebobis ukan somxuri Temi veZioT, somxuri eklesiebis ricxvis mixedviT ki somxuri Temebis da miT ufro somexTa raodenobis gansazRvra saqarTveloSi, aSkarad, uimedo saqmea. Sua saukuneebis, kerZod ki XIV-XV ss. saqarTveloSi ltolvili somxebi, Tu marTlac, mTeli soflebiT moemarTebodnen da qveynis centralur raionebSi saxlebodnen, rogorc amas p. muradiani amtkicebs, maSin es movlena toponimikaSi mainc unda asaxuliyo da maTi adrindeli sacxovrisis saxelwodebis mixedviT sexnia toponimebi qarTlsa da kaxeTSic gaCeniliyo. cnobilia, rom iq, sadac did koleqtivebad moxda somexTa gadasaxleba

kidec saTanadod aisaxa es movlena toponimikaSi. magaliTad, somxeTis julfidan iranSi gadasaxlebulebma TavianT axal dasaxlebas `nor julfa~, e. i. axali julfa uwodes, ruseTis somxurma koloniam `axali naxiWevani~ da sxv. aRniSnuli xanis saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri, Tu saerTod, fizikur-geografiuli pirobebi ltolvilTa msxvili dasaxlebebis Seqmnas xels ver uwyobda, ris gamoc somexTa saqarTveloSi Semosaxleba, etyoba, mainc TandaTanobiTi infiltraciis gziT xdeboda. saqarTveloSi Semosaxlebis formebze saintereso miniSnebebs vxvdebiT somxur xelnawerTa anderZebSi. erT maTganSi vkiTxulobT: daiwera `somexTa welTaRricxvis `pZa~ (1432) w. araratis gavaris upatronobisas, (iqaurebis) qarTvelTa naTesavs Soris msxemobisas... gafantvisas~111. daaxloebiT imave xanis sxva xelnawerSi ki aRniSnulia: `Cveni Zmobis wevrebi gaviqeciT da gavifanteT qarTvelTa qveyanaSi~112. n. maris dakvirvebiT, somxuri migraciis Taviseburebas savaWro wreebis interesebi ganapirobebda, ris gamoc ucxo qveynebisaken daZruli pirveli nakadebi miedineboda savaWro kavSirTa mimarTulebiTo, Semdeg ki somxuri savaWro fenis mier aTvisebul raionebSi TanmiyolebiT saxldeboda mwarmoebeli sazogadoebaco113. sagulisxmoa, rom Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi somxuri mosaxleobis ganlagebis suraTi, romelic saistorio wyaroebis monacemebiT ixateba, TiTqmis, srulad emTxveva savaWro gzebsa da maT Sesayar adgilebs. magram somex vaWarTa mier garemos aTvisebasa da Tavis garSemo eTnikur TanamoZmeTa Semokrebas sakmaod xangrZlivi da mSvidobiani periodi sWirdeba, ris gamoc didi kompaqturi somxuri dasaxlebebis Seqmna, miT umetes gamudmebuli omianobis viTarebaSi, Zalze Zneli iyo. esec ar iyos, ZiriTadad somxuri savaWro kapitalis interesebiT stimulirebuli migraciuli procesebi umTavresad didi da Zlieri saxelmwifoebisken iyo mimarTuli, romelTac Sua saukuneebis pirobebSi vaWris pirovnebisa

111

108 109

p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 41. iqve. 110 iqve, gv. 92.

somxur xelnawerTa anderZis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb (XIVXV ss.) a. abdalaZis gamocema, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 47. 112 iqve, gv. 51. 113 n. mari, arkauni...gv. 47; misive, Êàâêàçñêèé êóëüòóðíûé ìèð è Àðìåíèÿ, Ïåòðîãðàä, 1915, ñ. 48.

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da misi qonebis dacvis bevrad ukeTesi SesaZleblobani gaaCndaT. gasagebia, rom samefo-samTavroebad daSlili gviani Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi, sadac komerciuli saqmianobis aRmavlobisaTvis asparezi SezRuduli iyo, somxuri mosaxleobis raodenoba ver iqneboda maincdamainc didi. 1770 w. erekle II-is mier ruseTis rezidentisaTvis gacemuli demografiuli cnobis mixedviT, qarTlSi 500 komli somexi cxovrobda, rac qarTveli marTlmadidebeli mosaxleobis 1/8 -s udrida, kaxeTSi ki ­ 450 komli somexi, rac adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobis 1/16-s Seefereboda114. amave cnobiT, SedarebiT mravalricxovani Cans somxuri mosaxleoba qvemo qarTlSi, magram aq is mahmadianur mosaxleobas Soris aris dafantuli. aseTi Tanafardoba TavisTavad somxuri kompaqturi dasaxlebebis Sesaqmnelad didad xelSesawyobi garemo, ra Tqma unda, ar iyo. feodalur-naturaluri meurneobis pirobebSi ki somex vaWarTa kompaqturi dasaxlebebis Seqmna maSinac ki, roca amiT qarTveli xelisuflebic iyvnen dainteresebulni, ramdenadme mniSvnelovani xniT mainc SeuZlebeli xdeboda. amis saukeTeso magaliTs warmoadgens cnobili `mefis qalaqis~ istoria. 1632-1636 ww. TeZmis piras somex vaWarTaTvis gaSenebuli qalaqi sul male gamodis mefis xelisuflebis daqvemdebarebidan da qarTlis Tavadebis _ TarxniSvilebis samflobelod iqceva, saxelsac icvlis da `mefis qalaqis~ magier `qarTlis axalqalaqis~ saxels imkvidrebs115. mefis vaWrebic gaifantnen da, Cans, amitomac somxebis xsenebas `qarTlis axalqalaqSi~ naklebad vxvdebiT. igive bedi ewia erekle II-is cdas, qarTlkaxeTis soflebsa da qalaqebSi daemagrebina mis mier Camosaxlebuli rva somxuri soflis mosaxleoba. didi nawili ukan, somxeTSi gabrunda, rac darCa isic mcire jgufebad gaifanta yaraias, lilos, Tbilissa da TelavSi. feodaluri karCaketilobis viTarebaSi araqarTuli mosaxleobis garedan mosvla SezRuduli masStabebiT mimdinareobda, ris Sedegadac XIX s. damdegs saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela provinciaSi aborigenuli mosaxleoba didad Warbobda, qarTvelebis xvedriTi wona 4/5-s uaxlovdeboda. amave mizeziT XIX s-mde somxebis Camosaxleba xdeboda mcire jgu114

febiT116. niSandoblivia isic, rom saqarTveloSi somxuri mosaxleobis odenobis yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli ­ 6% mxolod 1800 welze modis117. Tbilisis somxuri epigrafikis Zeglebis kvlevisas mkiTxvelze sasurveli STabeWdilebis mosaxdenad p. muradiani ramdenjerme exeba qalaqis eTnikur struqturas da komentaris gareSe mohyavs turneforis erTob saeWvo cnoba 1701 w. Tbilisis mosaxleobis eTnikur Semadgenlobaze, romlis mixedviTac qarTvelTa dedaqalaqis 20 aTasi mcxovrebidan 14 aTasi yofila somexi, 3000 mahmadiani, 2000 qarTveli da 500 kaTolike da es ukanasknelic moqceuli somxebi yofilan118. saqme isaa, rom turneforis arc winamorbed da arc misi Semdgomi xanis avtorebs Sua saukuneebis Tbilisis mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis amgvar ricxobriv Tanafardobas ramdenadme mainc miaxloebuli suraTi saerTod ar moepovebaT, amitom moyvanili cifrebis namdviloba, bunebrivia, yovelTvis seriozul eWvs aRZravda qarTvel istorikosTa Soris. undobloba am cnobebis mimarT Cvenc gamovTqviT am aTiode wlis win119. frangi mogzauri, bunebismetyveli Jozef piton de turnefori Cven qveyanaSi mogzaurobisas mecnier botanikosis interesebiT (mcenareebis SegrovebiT) ufro iyo dakavebuli, vidre istoriuli xasiaTis cnobebis SekrebiT, ris gamoc misi Txzuleba kidev ufro metad iyo damZimebuli im drois evropuli informaciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iseTi saerTo naklovanebebiT, rogoric faqtebis damaxinjeba da subieqtur ganwyobaTa ganzogadeba iyo. amasTan, xuTi dRe, rac man Cven dedaqalaqSi dahyo, metad mcire dro iyo avTenturi cnobebis Sesagroveblad, ramdenadac statistikuri masalis mosapovebeli wyaro mis dros TbilisSi realurad arc arsebobda. misi wasvlidan mxolod 20 wlis Semdeg, 1721 w. vaxtang VI-is brZanebiT ganxorcielda Tbilisis mosaxleobis aRwera. sruli saxiT aRweris masalebi moRweuli

116

115

qarTl-kaxeTis mosaxleoba 1770 w., qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II, gv. 420-421. S. mesxia, saistorio Ziebani, t. II, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 190.

v. jaoSvili, saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XVIII-XX ss-Si, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 210, 227 da sxv. 117 iqve, gv. 79. 118 Ï. Ì. Ìóðàäÿí, Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè, Òáèëèñè, Åðåâàí,1988,ñ. 29. 119 ix. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 12.X.1990, gv. 13-14.

206

207

araa, magram rac SemogvrCa Tbilisis mosaxleobis eTnikur Semadgenlobaze SedarebiT realur warmodgenas mainc gviqmnis. am masalaze Cveni dakvirvebiT, XVIII s. pirveli meoTxedisaTvis somxuri mosaxleoba TbilisSi qalaqis saerTo raodenobis erTi mesamedi unda yofiliyo, rac am mosaxleobisaTvis yvelaze maRali maCvenebelia saqarTvelos sxva danarCen regionebTan SedarebiT. eTnikuri Semadgenlobis Cvens mier navaraudevi Tanafardoba dasturdeba, agreTve, saistorio sabuTebis monacemebiT da vaxuStisa da misi momdevno avtorebis mier Sedgenili Tbilisis rukebiT 120. amaT mixedviT Tbilisis yvelaze vrceli da centraluri nawili ­ kala, gansakuTrebiT misi zemo ubani, mTlianad qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. aq iyo ganlagebuli mefisa da kaTalikosis, batoniSvilebisa da msxvili saero da sasuliero feodalebis sasaxleebi, samefo dawesebulebebi. qalaqis es nawili ara marto yvelaze vrceli, aramed ufro mWidrod dasaxlebuli adgilic iyo, radgan xsenebul sasaxleebsa da mis mimdebare teritoriaze saxlobda maT patronTa Sina da gare mosamsaxureTa rangis Sesaferisad, mravalricxovani jgufebi, samefo amala, dacva da sxva. didi jalabiT gamoirCeodnen TbilisSi mcxovrebi muxranbatonebi, amilaxorebi, orbelianebi, zedginiZeebi, ciciSvilebi, abaSiZeebi da sxvebi. TbilisSi qarTvel didgvarovanTa simravles aRniSnavda Sardenic121. qvemo ubanSi, Cans, qarTvelebs somxebi sWarbobdnen. 1721 w. mosaxleobis aRweris monawile vaxuSti batoniSvilic aRniSnavda: `cixis gareT ufros somexni da mcired qarTvelni saxloben~, magram rac gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia, mecnier batoniSvilis mowmobiT, es somxebi `qceva-zniT~ gaqarTvelebulebi yofilan122. TbilisSi qarTvelTa Warbi garemocvis gareSe `qceva-znis~ Secvla, gasagebia, rom SeuZlebeli iqneboda. arc Tbilisis midamoebis soflebSi Cans somxuri umravlesoba, rogorc amas zogjer somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenlebi amtkiceben. Tbilisis

midamoebis 22 soflis 1781 w. xalxis aRweris davTris123 mixedviT 840 komlidan mxolod 222 komli somxuri warmoSobis piri daviTvaleT, rac mTeli mosaxleobis 1/4¼-ze cota metia. es da sxva gamoangariSebani, ra Tqma unda, miaxloebiTia da savaraudo, radganac xalxis aRweris qarTul davTrebSi mosaxleoba eTnikuri da konfesiuri niSniT ar aris gamijnuli. amas garda, qarTuli da somxuri mosaxleobis garCeva am davTrebSi mocemuli saxelebisa da gvarebis mixedviTac xSirad Wirs imitomac, rom qarTvelTa Soris gavrcelebul saxelebs zogjer somxebic atarebdnen da piriqiTac, somexTa Soris gavrcelebul saxelebs ­ qarTvelebi. Semdeg ki am saxelebidan nawarmoebi gvarebi, Tavis mxriv, kidev ufro abundovnebdnen konkretuli piris eTnikur warmomavlobas. rogorc Cans, arsebuli sinamdvile ar iTxovda qarTuli da somxuri mosaxleobis erTmaneTisagan gamijvnas, ris gamoc xalxis aRweris davTrebSi isini erTi siiTa da erTmaneTTan Sereulad arian warmodgenilni. ZiriTadi qarTuli mosaxleobis masasTan amgvari Serwyma­SekavSireba, eWvi araa, mxolod somexTa SedarebiTi ricxobrivi simcirisa da orive mosaxleobis uflebrivi Tanasworobis pirobebSi SeiZleboda momxdariyo. es ki niadags aclis p. muradianis xsenebul Tvalsazriss somxuri Temebis gansakuTrebul samarTlebriv statusze, ris safuZvelze, TiTqos, XVIII s. saqarTvelos sasamarTlo praqtikaSi somexTa mimarT gamoiyeneboda mxolod somxuri samarTlis normebi. saqme isaa, rom somxuri Temebis samarTlebriv statusze msjelobisas p. muradiani naxevarsimarTliTa da misTvis Cveuli arapirdapiri miniSnebebiTa da sinamdvilis gamrudebis gziT cdilobs mkiTxvelis darwmunebas ararsebulSi124. b-ni paruiris mier xsenebuli vaxtang VI-is kanonTa krebulSi Sesuli `somxuri samarTali~ anu mxiTar goSas kanonmdeblobis normebi, sxva ucxo kanonmdeblobaTa (moses samarTali, berZnuli samarTali, siriul-romauli samarTlis wigni da sxv.) normebis msgavsad damxmare mniSvnelobisa iyo da mxolod im SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneboda, roca

120 121

m. berZniSvili, Tbilisis garegani saxe XVIII s-Si, Tbilisi, 1965. Sardenis mogzauroba, m. mgalobliSvilis Targmani, Tb.,1975, gv. 325. 122 qarTlis cxovreba, IV , Tbilisi, 1973, gv. 338.

123

iv. javaxiSvili, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri istoriis Zeglebi, I, gv. 157-182. 124 p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 118.

208

209

esa Tu is norma gaTvaliswinebuli ar iyo erovnuli kanonmdeblobis ZeglebSi125. rogorc i. doliZe SeniSnavs, sasamarTlo ganCinebebSi `somxuri samarTlis~ kanonTa muxlebis damowmeba TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba126. p. muradianis mier moyvanili mamulis gayidvis magaliTis gamo ki ganmartavs: am erTaderT SemTxvevaSic ki sasamarTlo mxiTar goSis samarTlis wignis 367-e muxlze miuTiTebs rogorc vaxtangis samarTlis 161-e da 167-e muxlebTan Sesadarebel masalas. saqme ki wydeba vaxtangis `samarTlis wignis ZaliT~127. Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi urTierTobani mosulsa da damxvdurs Soris, rom qarTuli batonymuri samarTlis safuZvelze wydeboda, amas ltolvili somxuri mosaxleobac aRniSnavda. am mxriv tipuria erTi maTganis mier qarTveli Tavadis saxelze dawerili sabuTi, sadac vkiTxulobT: `...Cemi Tavi Cemis SvilebiT xeCaturaTi da avetiqaTi Tqven mogyide, rogorc saqarTvelos batonymobis rigia dRes da dReis iqiT ise unda gemsaxuroTo~128. cxadia, `qarTuli batonymobis rigi~ da `qarTuli samarTali~ iyo qveynis mosaxleTa Soris nebismieri urTierTobis momwesrigebeli. amitom arc saqarTvelos somxur mosaxleobas, romelic sazogadoebis sruluflebian nawilad iTvleboda da qveynis xelisufalTagan zogjer gansakuTrebuli SemwynareblobiTac sargeblobda, ar gaaCnda safuZveli gancalkevebuli, miT umetes, sakuTari kanonebiT marTuli Temebis Sesaqmnelad da isic qveynis centralur raionebSi, rogorc es b-n p. muradians warmoudgenia. qveynis sazRvrispira raionebSi, gansazRvrul drosa da pirobebSi somxuri Temebis Camoyalibeba, ra Tqma unda, gamoricxuli ar iyo, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi misi Serwyma saerTo qarTul kulturul procesTan mainc gardauvali xdeboda. magaliTad SeiZleba gamodges curtavis somxuri mosaxleobis Tavgadasavali, romelic jer kidev VII s. damdegs iq sakuTar soflebad da Temebad cxovrobda. Semdeg ki

qarTul kulturul samyarosTan TandaTanobiTi Serwymis Sedegad, imave mosaxleobisaTvis X s. ukve somxeTi gaxda ucxo qveyana129. saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis istoriasTanaa gansazRvrulwilad dakavSirebuli qarTuli mosaxleobis erTi SedarebiT mcire, gansakuTrebiT vaWroba-xelosnobaSi Cabmuli nawilis mier somxuri sarwmunoebis miReba da e. w. `qarTvel grigorianTa~ eTnokulturuli erTobis Camoyalibeba. amgvari erTobis arsebobis SesaZlebloba, araTu gviani Sua saukuneebis, aramed XIX s. saqarTveloSic p. muradians dauSveblad miaCnia da nametani gaRizianebiT xvdeba am sakiTxze qarTul istoriografiaSi msjelobas. misi gancxadebiT `qarTvel grigorianTa~ cneba gamogonili iyo XX s. dasawyisSi qarTuli burJuaziuli sazogadoebis garkveul ganwyobilebaTa zegavleniT da am saqmis mTavar `damnaSaved~ zaqaria WiWinaZe gamoyavs130. `z. WiWinaZis Tvalsazrisis ganviTarebis cdis~ gamo mkveTr gaRizianebas gamoxatavs Cvens mimarTac, rac SemdgomSic araerTxel gaimeora somxeTSi gamoÐ á maval sxvadasxva periodul gamocemebSi ( §¶ñ³Ï³Ý ûñæ« § ½ ñ Ñ Û » Ç ¦ da sxv.) dabeWdil werilebSi. ³ ñÝ ù marto is faqti, rom XIX s. dasasrulisa da XX s. dasawyisis qarTuli da somxuri perioduli gamocemebis furclebze mwvave debatebi imarTeboda xsenebul sakiTxze publicistebsa da mecnierTa Sorisac, mas ukve `gamogonils~ veRar uwodeb. rac Seexeba z. WiWinaZes, igi TviT iyo `qarTvel grigorianTa~ sazogadoebis arsebobis uSualo mowme da aRmweri. Tavis wignSi saTiTaod CamoTvlis misi Tanamedrove `grigoriani qarTvelebis~ 105 gvars, romelTagan mxolod ramdenime gvaris eTnikuri kuTvnileba Tu SeiZleba iyos sadavo, Torem danarCenis qarTveloba iotis odena eWvsac ar badebs. magaliTad, avaliSvili, baraTaSvili, baqraZe, giorgaZe, maCabeli, muCaiZe, lomiZe da131 sxva mravali, romelTa zogi warmomadgeneli sxvadasxva mizezisa da garemoebaTa gamo

125

samarTali vaxtang meeqvsisa, teqsti daadgina, gamokvleva da saZieblebi daurTo isidore doliZem, Tbilisi, 1981, gv. 61. 126 iqve, gv. 59. 127 iqve, gv. 60. 128 ssa, 229, davTari #6, sabuTi 83.

129

ix. uxtanesi, istoria gamoyofisa qarTvelTa somexTagan, zaza aleqsiZis TargmaniTa da gamokvleviT, gv. 6. 130 ix. misi Àðìÿíñêàÿ ýïèãðàôèêà Ãðóçèè (Êàðòëè è Êàõåòè), gv. 90, Sen. 29. 131 z. WiWinaZe, qarTveli grigorianebi, Tbilisi, 1906, gv. 103-113 da sxv.

210

211

somxur sarwmunoebas mihkedlebia. bevr maTganTan z. WiWinaZes piradi nacnoboba da megobroba akavSirebda, rac saSualebas aZlevda ukeT Seeswavla maTi ucxo sarwmunoebaSi gadasvlis istoria, ris Sesaxebac mis wignSi konkretul miTiTebebsac vxvdebiT. ase rom, z. WiWinaZe TviT aris erT-erTi pirvelwyaro `grigorian qarTvelTa~ istoriis Sesaswavlad da pretenziebi mis mimarT am sakiTxis gamo, vfiqrob, gaumarTlebelia. p. muradianis xsenebuli wignis sxva gverdze ki, roca mis avtors istoriuli sabuTebis qarTuli formis gvarebis mqone personaJebSi eTnikuri somxebis Secnoba dasWirda, qarTvelTa mier somxur sarwmunoebaSi gadasvlis SemTxvevebs gamogonebuls aRar uwodebs da avitabiles cnobebze dayrdnobiT aRniSnavs, rom iyo SemTxvevebi, roca somexi monofizitebi qalkedonizmis wiaRSi gadadiodnen, xolo qarTvelebi somxebi xdebodnen (e. i. monofizitebi). amitom eTnikuri Semadgenlobis sakiTxi rTulia da sifrTxiles saWiroebso132. sadisertacio naSromis avtoreferatSi ki xazgasmiT acxadebs: Cven uarvyofT jer kidev arsebul koncefcias, romlis mixedviTac qarTlisa da kaxeTis amJamindeli qarTulenovani somxuri mosaxleoba `somxuri~ gaxda `grigorianobisadmi~ mimxrobis gamo. Cven sulac ar gamovricxavT qarTvelTa armenizaciisa da somexTa qarTvelizaciis calkeul SemTxvevebs, magram es procesi ar iyo mudmiv moqmedi faqtori133. rogorc vxedavT, eTnikuri da konfesiuri gaucxoebis Temas p. muradiani calmxrivad, misTvis saWiro kuTxiT ganixilavs da misadmi damokidebulebas icvlis imisdamixedviT, Tu rogor ujobs. amasTan SecdomaSi Sehyavs mkiTxveli, roca amtkicebs, TiTqos, Cven uarvyofdeT Sua saukuneebisa da Semdgomi xanis saqarTveloSi somex ltolvilTa arsebobis faqts. piriqiT, p. muradiani cdilobs somxuri sarwmunoebis mqone qarTvelebis somxuri eTnosisadmi miTvlas da am gziT isedac mravalricxovani somxuri mosaxleobis ufro metad gazrdas qarTuli mosaxleobis Semcirebis xarjze. aseTi damokidebulebis TvalnaTeli magaliTia, agreTve, somxeTis sazogadoebriv-politikuri

yovelkvireuli rusulenovani gazeTis `epoxa~-s 1990 w. me-8 nomerSi rubrikiT `politika~ gamoqveynebuli p. muradianis werili erTob emociuri saTauriT `qarTveli grigorianebi~ ­ miTi Tu realoba? ase, xan "gamogonebuli cneba, xan `koncefcia~, xan ki `miTi~. es ukanaskneli epiTeti Zlieri gaRizianebis Sedegia, rac gamowveuli iyo im xanebSi somxuri sarwmunoebis mqone qarTvelTa aTeuli aTasobiT Tanamedrove STamomavalTa mier, TiTqmis mTeli saukunis Semdeg, sakuTari gvarisa da erovnebis oficialurad (iuridiulad) dabrunebiT, riTac TavisTavad daimsxvra `qarTvel grigorianTa~ eTnokulturuli kategoriis uaryofis p. muradianiseuli miTi. xsenebul werilze Cveni pasuxi saTauriT `vin arRvevs keTilmezoblobis tradiciebs?~ daibeWda `literaturuli saqarTvelos~ 1992 wlis 22 maisis nomerSi. amave sakiTxze msjeloba gavSaleT da p. muradianis mtkicebulebaTa sawinaaRmdego damatebiTi kontrargumentebi moviyvaneT Cvens wignSi `saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis istoriis sakiTxebi (IVXVIII ss.)~, Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 185-194. sailustraciod p. muradianis mier moxmobili argumentebis sawinaaRmdego ramdenime kontrarguments aqac moviyvanT. daviwyoT p. muradianis araerTgzisi gancxadebiT, TiTqos, mxolod misioner avitabiles werilis erT pasaJSia naxsenebi qarTvelTa armenizaciis faqti, rac calkeul SemTxvevaTa rigs unda miekuTvnoso. b-ni paruiri amjeradac misTvis sasurvel ganmartebas moyvanili Sinaarsis mcire gamrudebiT aRwevs. avitabiles werilSi moyvanilia XVII s. pirveli naxevris cnobili qarTveli politikuri moRvawis nikoloz ColoyaSvilis sityvebi, romelSic gamoTqmulia SeSfoTeba am movlenis gafarToebis gamo. avitabiles mixedviT n. ColoyaSvils uTqvams: `yoveli dRe Cvenis TvaliT vxedavT, rom mravalni qarTvelni somxdebian...~134, rac muradianisagan sruliad gansxvavebul daskvnas iTxovda. amgvari cnobebi ki sakmaod mravlad iZebneba italiel misionerTa moxsenebebSi. imave xanebSi patri ambrozio Tavis xelmZRvanelobas romSi moaxsenebda: `Cveni monazonebi am qristianebSi didis sikeTis qmnas SeiZleben ramdenisame soflis yid-

132 133

p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 125. p. muradianis xsenebuli disertaciis avtoreferati, gv. 10.

134

don piedro avitabile, cnobebi saqarTveloze, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 66.

212

213

viT, rogorc Svrebian somxebi. Tumca qarTvelebs didi simZulvare aqvT somxebis sarwmunoebis mxriv, garda, rodesac maTi ymebi xdebian, bevri maTgani gadadis somxis wesze135~. aqac calkeul SemTxvevebze ki ara, mTel soflebzea saubari. `grigorian qarTvelTa~ sazogadoebis damadasturebeli sabuTebi TviT p. muradianis mier gamoqveynebul `ZeglebSic~ sakmaod moipoveba, romelTagan mxolod erT niSandobliv warweras moviyvanT: `CylT (1839) wels aRvaSeneT eklesia ese wminda giorgisa Cven zertSi mcxovrebelT erTobiT qarTvelTa da somexTa sasaflaod Cvenis musakobiTa, SemweobiTa...~136. am warweris komentarSi p. muradiani ganmartavs, TiTqos, xangrZlivma Tanacxovrebam am soflis qarTvelTa da somexTa Soris ara marto eTnikuri, aramed konfesiuri sazRvrebic waSalao. aseTi axsna damajereblobas, ra Tqma unda, moklebulia. vinc ki Sua saukuneebis, Tundac gviani xanis, sazogadoebis bunebas icnobs, man kargad icis (maT Soris p. muradianmac), rom konfesiurad gansxvavebuli sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi araTu erTmaneTis sasaflaoze micvalebuls ar daasaflavebdnen, aramed eklesiaSic ar Sevidodnen. warweris teqstSi xsenebuli eklesia erTobliv maSenebelni qarTvelebica da somxebic, ra Tqma unda, erTi sarwmunoebisani iyvnen, sxvagvarad maTi TanamSromloba, miT ufro sasaflaos eklesiis mSeneblobaSi, SeuZlebeli iqneboda. amis aRiareba ki p. muradianis Tvalsazriss ewinaaRmdegeboda. amitomac, Cans, teqstis axsnis im droisaTvis garegnulad momgebian variants mimarTa. magram saqmec isaa, rom XIX s., romelsac es warwera ekuTvnis, yvelaze Seuferebeli droa eTnikuri da konfesiuri sazRvrebis waSlis SesaZleblobis samtkiceblad. is ufro konfesiur urTierTobaTa gamwvavebis xanadaa cnobili. saqarTvelos rusuli administracia qarTvelTa da somexTa gaTiSvisa da dapirispirebisaTvis iRvwoda. am politikuri amocanis Sesabamisad qarTvelTa somxur sarwmunoebaSi gadasvlas ara marto axalisebda, aramed zogjer aiZulebda kidec. es da msgavsi RonisZiebebi rusuli kolo-

nialuri politikis arsenalSi erT-erTi efeqturi saSualeba iyo qarTuli eTnikuri koleqtivis dasasusteblad. amdenad, b-ni p. muradianis cdebs, uaryos e. w. `qarTvel grigorianTa~ eTnokulturuli kategoriis arseboba gviani Sua saukuneebisa da gansakuTrebiT XIX s. saqarTvelos sazogadoebaSi, ramdenadme seriozuli safuZveli ar gaaCnia da aseT mtkicebulebebs mxolod mecnieruli interesebis miRma motivebi Tu SeiZleba rom asuldgmulebdes. Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi somxuri mosaxleobis gansakuTrebuli siWarbisa da siZvelis STabeWdilebis Sesaqmnelad, aRniSnuls garda, b-ni p. muradiani calkeuli qarTuli gvarebis warmomavlobaSi eWvis Setanasa da somxurTan dakavSirebas cdilobs, risTvisac mecnieruli sabuTianobis nacvlad zogadi da arapirdapiri miniSnebebiT kmayofildeba, rac, eWvi araa, saqmeSi Cauxedavi mkiTxvelis fsiqikaze zegavlenis mosaxdenadaa mxolod gaTvlili. am mxriv tipuria cnobili qarTuli feodaluri sagvareulos ­ musxeliSvilTa gasomxurebis p. muradianiseuli xerxi. sof breZis grigol ganmanaTleblis monastrisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli xelnaweri saxarebis (1469) Tavgadasavalze saubrisas, mkiTxvels moulodnelad sqolioSi Catanil aseT cnobas awvdis: sof. breZis mcxovreblebi amJamad somxurs uwodeben wm. giorgis eklesias, sadac dakrZalulni arian musxelovebis (musxeliSvili) sagvareulos warmomadgenlebi. Tuki gamovricxavT, ganagrZobs p. muradiani, kidev erTi somxuri savanis arsebobis SesaZleblobas, maSin unda davaskvnaT, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi breZis somxebis gaqarTvelebis procesSi, wm. grigoli gaazrebuli iyo (Secvlili?) rogorc wm. giorgi, qarTul wreebSi am ukanasknelis kultis gansakuTrebuli popularobis gamo137. b-ni p. muradianis aq warmodgenil msjelobaSi, TiTqmis, yvela sityva erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. jer erTi, mis mier moyvanil anderZminawerSi, sadac xsenebul saxarebazea saubari, saerTod araa naxsenebi sof. breZa. xelnaweris damweri barseRi politikuri movlenebis gadmocemasTan erTad aRniSnavs, rom dazianebuli saxareba 1584 w. gaanaxla da somexTa arqiepiskopos xaCaturis Txov-

135

m. TamaraSvili, istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris XIII-XIX ss., tfilisi, 1902, gv. 236. 136 p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 62.

137

p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 53.

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niT masve gorSi daubruna, am ukanasknelma ki Tavis ZmisSvils diakvan kirakoss sof. yandaSi gaugzavna. Tuki es xelnaweri saxareba, p. muradianis TqmiT, breZis wm. giorgis eklesiisaTvis iyo gaTvaliswinebuli, maSin misamarTis Secvlis mizezi barseRs mainc unda aReniSna, miT umetes, rom saxarebis TavgadasavalTan dakavSirebul yovel detals skrupulozurad aRwers. am gaugebrobis axsnis sxva variants verc p. muradiani gvTavazobs. cxadia, wm. grigolis eklesia sof. breZaSi ar yofila da, bunebrivia, amitom verc ganaxlebuli somxuri saxareba gaigzavneboda iq. sof. breZis eklesiasTan dakavSirebuli yvela es variaciebi, Cans, p. muradians imisTvis dasWirda, rom wm. giorgis qarTuli eklesia somxurad gamoecxadebina da amiT iq dasaflavebuli cnobili qarTuli feodaluri sagvareulos ­ musxeliSvilebis qarTvelobaze mkiTxvelSi eWvi aReZra. rac Seexeba wm. grigolis giorgid gaazrebas, Tu gardasaxvas, es araTu varaudebis, aramed fantaziis sferos SeiZleba, albaT, mivakuTvnoT. met-naklebad msgavsi meTodebiT manipulirebs qarTuli gvarebis somxuri eTnosisadmi miTvlis sxva SemTxvevebSic. metadre maSin, roca saqme exeba orenovan qarTul-somxur warwerebSi moxseniebuli gvarebis warmomavlobis garkvevas. aseT SemTxvevaSi p. muradiani yovelTvis somxuri teqstiT xelmZRvanelobs, sadac qarTuli saxelebi (da ara marto qarTuli) Cveulebriv somxuri formiT gadmoicema. magaliTad, biWiaSvili ­ biWiancad, RarRaZe ­ RarRaZeancad, bagrationebi ­ bagratunebad, batoniSvili somxurSi gavrcelebul paronad da a. S. amitomacaa, rom misTvis mxolod qarTulenovani somxebi arseboben da arasdros somxuri sarwmunoebis wiaRSi nebiT Tu uneblied moxvedrili qarTvelebi138. qarTlis centralur raionebSi somxuri mosaxleobis siWarbisa da siZvelis STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad igi, amasTanave, cdilobs es regioni ZvelTaganve somxuri kulturis gavrcelebis sivrced warmogvidginos, risTvisac calkeuli kulturuli faqtis, misTvis Cveuli meTodebiT, gamrudebul axsnasac ar erideba. magaliTad, `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ misTvis saWiro erTi siuJetis gadmocemisas eyrdnoba maincdamainc leonti mrovelis im variants,

romelic `ninos cxovrebis~ arc erT ZiriTad redaqciaSi ar moipoveba. saqme exeba javaxeTSi faravnis tbasTan wm. ninos Sexvedras mcxeTel mwyemsebTan da maTTan saubars. ZiriTad À redaqciaSi aseT Sexvedraze saerTod araferia Tqmuli, meore B redaqciaSi ki aRniSnuli ar aris romel enaze Sedga maT Soris saubari. am garemoebaze TviT muradianic miuTiTebs. mxolod leonti mrovelis TxzulebaSia naTqvami, rom `wmida nino mecnier iyo mcired enasa somxursa, rameTu pirvel eswavla niaforisgan, da pova mwyemsTa maT Soris somxurad mzraxveli da hkiTxa mas, viTarmed `romlisa soflisani xarT?~ xolo man miugo da rqua, viTarmed: `dabiT elarbiniT da safurcliT, da qinZarelni, rabatelni didisa qalaqisa mcxeTisani~139. ramdenadac es ukanaskneli cnoba `moqceva¡~-is arc erT ZiriTad redaqcias ar moepoveba, obieqturi mkvlevris movaleobas Seadgenda, albaT, gaerkvia leontis TxzulebaSi misi moxvedris mizezebi. amis magier sakuTari versia p. muradianma Tavs moaxvia XI s. avtors da ganacxada, rom `ninos cxovrebis~ saerTo konteqstidan gamomdinare, leonti mrovelis logikuri daskvniT ucxo xalxis warmomadgenlebTan urTierTobis damyareba ninos SeeZlo mxolod somxur enaze, e. i. wm. ninosTvisac da mcxeTisa da misi Semogarenis mcxovreblebisTvisac ucxoelebTan sakontaqto ena mxolod somxuri iyoo. rogorc ar unda yofiliyoo, ganagrZobs p. muradiani, XI s. istorikosi verafers xedavs ucnaurs imaSi, rom mcxeTisa Tu misi mimdebare soflebis mcxovrebs `cotaTi~ mainc SeZleboda somxuris codna da CamoTvlis mTel rig garemoebebs, romelTac unda ganepirobebinaT qarTvelTa mier somxuris `cotaTi~ codna. somxuris codnis ganmapirobebel garemoebaTa Soris mniSvnelovnad miaCnia: somxuridan uZvelesi qarTuli Targmanebis (ZiriTadad bibliuri wignebis) mniSvnelovani raodenoba, koriunis Txroba qarTuli anbanis Seqmnaze da jalas mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweoba, mezobel gugarqSi orenovani qarTul-somxuri eparqiis arseboba da bolos, somxuri eklesiis warmomadgenelTa mqadageblobiTi moRvaweoba `CrdiloeTis qveynebSi~. yvela am sadavo da saeWvo garemoebaTa CamoTvlas agvirgvinebs qarTuli Zeglis `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡~-Si

138

p. muradiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 38, 46, 48 da sxv.

139

qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 85-86.

216

217

Semonaxuli `zogierTi cnobiT~ saqarTvelos sulier da administraciul centrSi somexTa yofnaze140. ra Tqma unda, b-ni paruiri aq somexTa ubralo yofnas ar gulisxmobs. mas saubari aqvs leontis mier `iob somexad~ wodebul qarTlis mTavarepiskoposze. moyvanili faqtis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, arc am garemoebaTa Seswavla da, miT ufro, faqtis namdvilobis gamorkveva, rogorc Cans, mis interesebSi ar Sedis. igi kvlav misTvis Cveul miniSnebebs mimarTavs, romlebmac mkiTxvels qarTlis centrSi somxuri garemos SesaZleblobis STabeWdileba unda Seuqmnas. igi wers: samwuxarod, Cven araferi SegviZlia vTqvaT im garemoebaTa Sesaxeb, romlebmac ganapirobes iobis gamoCena am Tanamdebobaze, miT ufro imis Sesaxeb, flobda Tu ara is qarTuls, anda misma garemomcvelma samRvdeloebam Tu icoda somxuri ena, Tumca RvTismsaxureba jer isev berZnul an siriul enebze unda warmarTuliyo141. erTi SexedviT savsebiT SesaZlebeli da uwyinari msjelobaa b-ni p. muradianis mier warmodgenili, magram mis mravalricxovan da Tanamimdevrul miniSnebebs Tu erTad movuyriT Tavs, miviRebT Zveli qarTlis centrSi eTnokulturuli situaciis yovladSeuferebel da gamrudebul suraTs. daviwyoT mcxeTel mwyemsebTan wm. ninos Sexvedris epizodiT da vnaxoT, ramdenad safuZvliania am erTob mwiri cnobiT ganmazogadebeli daskvnebis keTeba. wm. ninom rom somxuri icoda cotaTi dvineli miaforisgan es leontisaTvis ukve cnobili iyo `moqceva¡~-is avtorisagan142, ris gamoc somxeTis mezobel javaxeTSi ninos kontaqti iqaurebTan, bunebrivia, SeiZleboda somxur enazec warmarTuliyo, ramdenadac sasazRvro zolSi mezoblebi

140 141

p. muradiani, xsenebuli naSromi, gv. 15. iqve, gv. 15 142 dvinel miaforTan ninos Sexvedris mizezi axsnili aqvs p. muradianisaTvis yvelaze sando avtors k. kekeliZes, romelic ase ganmartavs: wyaros avtors imitom miuyvania nino dvinel miaforTan, rom am ukanasknelma Tavisi sakuTari piriT aRiaros upiratesoba qarTlisa sxva qveynis winaSe, mas qarTli anu `CrdiloTa mcxeTelTa~, rogorc somexi miafori ambobs, RvTis gangebam wiliT arguna iseTi didi siwminde, rogoricaa kvarTi uflisa. ix. korneli kekeliZe, etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, I, Tbilisi, 1956, gv. 78-79.

erTmaneTis enas ramdenadme, albaT, mainc flobdnen. magram mwyemsebi mcxeTelebi iyvnen da amitom saWiro gaxda maT Soris somxuris `mzraxvelis~ moZebna, rac kidec moxerxda. cxadia, aseTi SezRuduli informacia ganzogadebis saSualebas ar iZleva da erTi gamonaklisi SemTxvevis mcxeTisa da misi mimdebare soflebis mosaxleobaze gavrceleba, vfiqrob, yovlad gaumarTlebelia. qarTvelTa Soris somxuri enis farTod gavrcelebis Tvalsazrisis dasadastureblad p. muradianis mier moyvanili kulturuli mniSvnelobis faqtebi maTi avtoris sasargeblod sulac ar metyvelebs. bibliuri wignebis somxuridan Targmna TavisTavad didmniSvnelovani kulturuli movlenaa, magram arafriT ar aris somxuri enis gavrcelebis maniSnebeli. somxur bibliur wignebs saqarTveloSi rom mkiTxveli hyoloda, maSin xom arc maTi Targmna iqneboda saWiro? niSandoblivia isic, rom somxebTan kulturul-literaturuli kavSiri calmxrivi arasdros yofila. somxebic iseve Targmnidnen qarTulidan, rogorc qarTvelebi somxuridan143. arc maStocis mier qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis legenda sZens rames p. muradianis ideas, radganac kargadaa cnobili, rom mesropma qarTuli ar icoda, enis ucodinrad ki ucxo anbanis Seqmna SeuZlebelia. rac Seexeba curtavis orenovani qarTulsomxuri eparqiis arsebobas V s. qvemo qarTlSi da iq mimdinare eTnokulturul procesebs, yvelaze ukeT amaze am mosaxleobis Tavgadasavali gviCvenebs. ramdenime saukuneSi, rogorc iTqva, es mosaxleoba ukve somxeTs miiCnevda ucxo qveynad. somxuri eklesiis warmomadgenelTa mqadageblobiT moRvaweobas ki qvemo qarTlSi aqa­iq ZvelTagan SemorCenili somxuri mosaxleoba Tu saWiroebda, Torem iqaur mkvidr qarTvelobas arc eklesiebi aklda (marto bolnisis sioni rad Rirs) da arc mqadageblebi. maS raSi dasWirda b-n paruirs somex mqadageblebze aqcentireba? rogor unda ganexorcielebinaT maT TavianTi misia qarTul mosaxleobaSi, Tu isini, mosalodnelia, ar flobdnen qarTuls? cxadia, p. muradianis mizani sul sxvaa. etyoba, surs mkiTxvelSi aRZras eWvi da daafiqros ­ xom ar iyo qarTlis mosaxleoba somxuri kulturis matarebeli. aSkarad, am tendenciiTaa gaazre-

143

k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, gv. 48.

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buli mis xsenebul wignSi `iob somexis~ Temac. mas ar ainteresebs mcxeTis saydris taxtze iobis gamoCenis garemoebani, magram mis somxobaSi eWvi ar epareba, miuxedavad imisa, rom aseT informacias avTenituri wyaroebi ar floben144. p. muradians mxolod enis problema awuxebs: icoda Tu ara iobma qarTuli, xolo misma garemomcvelma samRvdeloebam somxuri ena. Zneli araa imis mixvedra, Tu saiTken mianiSnebs mkvlevari mkiTxvels. Tu iobis garemomcveli samRvdeloeba flobda somxurs, gamodis rom iobis gamo wirvac am enaze unda Catarebuliyo, rac gasagebia, Sesabamisi codnis mrevlsac gulisxmobda. aseTi arabunebrivi STabeWdilebis Sesasusteblad, etyoba, isev neitralur pozicias arCevs da gamoTqvams varauds, rom iobis dros RvTismsaxureba isev berZnul da siriul enebze unda warmarTuliyo, rogorc imJamad es somxeTSi xdeboda. samwuxarod, mas mxedvelobidan gamorCa erTi mniSvnelovani detali. mezoblebisgan gansxvavebiT, RvTismsaxureba aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi yovelTvis qarTul enaze warmoebda145. msgavsi kulturuli gavlenis ZiebasTanaa dakavSirebuli, agreTve, mcxeTis jvris taZris mimarT jer kidev adre, 1968 w. gaxmaurebuli vnebis ganviTareba xsenebul mis wignSi. Tavis droze p. muradianis am Ziebebma aRiarebul specialistTa mkacri kritika daimsaxura da arc erTma seriozulma specialistma misi daskvnebi mcxeTis jvris taZris warweris daTariRebisa da misi interpretaciis Taobaze ar gaiziara. xsebul wignSi p. muradiani, faqtobrivad, imeorebs Zvel argumentebs, ise rom saWirod ar miiCnevs maSindel kritikaze pasuxis gacemas, ramdenadac, misi TqmiT, Tavisi damokidebuleba am kritikisadmi man ukve gamoxata 1969 w. parizSi gamoqveynebul werilSi da mis gameorebas aq uadgilod miiCnevs. magram aRmoCnda, rom mcxeTis jvris somxuri grafituli warweris magier mkiTxvels falsificirebuli warwera miawoda, rac Tavis droze SeamCnia da samecniero wreebs gaumJRavna safrangeTSi moRvawe, aw gardacvlilma qarTvelma

mecnierma, kalistrate saliam 146 . rogorc ityvian aq ukve komentaric zedmetia. erTi sityviT, b-ni p. muradianis didi mcdeloba, rom Sua saukuneebis aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo somxuri kulturis totaluri gavlenis qveynad dagvixatos, ara marto yovelgvar safuZvelsaa moklebuli, aramed mis avtorsac realobis miRma da movses xorenacis koncefciis tyveobaSi aqcevs, romelic qarTlis istorias somxeTis istoriis nawilad ganixilavda. XX s. 40 wlebidan dawyebuli, rogorc vnaxeT, qarTuli Tema somxur istoriografiaSi sakmaod aqtiurad ganixileboda. sakiTxisadmi midgoma arsebiTad ar gansxvavdeboda XIX s. Casaxuli tendenciebisagan, miuxedavad imisa, rom ukve ganvlili iyo socialur-politikuri cvlilebebisa da gardaqmnebis sakmaod grZeli gza da qveyanaSi gabatonebuli oficialuri ideologia istorikosebs mouwodebda ekvliaT sabWoTa kavSiris xalxTa da pirvel rigSi, am xalxebis rus xalxTan urTierToba-TanamSromlobis, megobrobis da Zmobis istoria. saukunis 60-iani wlebidan mokidebuli iqmneboda mTeli rigi naSromebisa kavkasia-ruseTis, somxeT-ruseTis istoriuli urTierTobis Temaze, sadac amave WrilSi qarTul-somxuri urTierTobanic poveben asaxvas, miT umetes, rom saxelmwifoebriv doneze ruseTTan urTierTobis SesaZlebloba mTeli kavkasiidan mxolod qarTul samefoebs hqondaT, ris gamoc ruseTTan kontaqtebis damyarebisa da gafarToebis mosurne qarTvelTa istoriuli mezoblebisaTvis am procesSi CasarTavad qarTvel politikosTa mxardaWerasa da Suamavlobas TavisTavad didi mniSvneloba hqonda. amierkavkasiis xalxTa ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis Temaze daweril naSromebSi am wlebidan kidev ufro mkafiod ikveTeba Sua saukuneebis amierkavkasiaSi wamyvan politikur Zalad kvlavac somxeTis warmodgenis tendencia. niSandoblivia, rom somexi istorikosebi am upiratesobaze msjelobas ar eridebian istoriis im monakveTebis gaSuqebis drosac ki, roca somxeTs sakuTari saxelmwifoebrioba aRar gaaCnda da mis beds ucxo didi saxelm-

144

ix. Cemi, saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 27-34. 145 k. kekeliZe, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 32.

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ix. gazeTi "komunisti", 1990, 7 oqtomberi, agreTve, Áîíäî Àðâåëàäçå, "Àðìÿíñêèå" èëè ãðóçèíñêèå öåðêâè â Ãðóçèè?!, Òáèëèñè, 1996, ñ. 4-6.

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wifoebi gansazRvravdnen. erT-erTi aseTi periodia amierkavkasiaSi arabTa batonobis xana. am epoqis somxeTze monografiuli naSromis avtori a. n. ter Revondiani wers, rom siriis gamgeblis, Semdeg ki omeadTa dinastiis pirveli xalifa muavias mier somxeTis iSxanis (mmarTveli mTavris) Teodoros rStunis xelisuflebis cnoba somxeTze, qarTlsa da aranze derbendamde, pirveli nabiji iyo provincia `arminiis~ Seqmnis gzaze147, riTac, aSkaraa, cdilobs gamarTleba da axsna mouZebnos sebeosis erTob saeWvo cnobas, TiTqos, somxeTis es upiratesi mdgomareoba kavkasiaSi emyareboda arab da somex xelisufalTa Soris 652 w. zafxuls damaskoSi dadebul xelSekrulebas. sebeosis am cnobas yovelgvari SeniSvnisa da ganmartebis gareSe iziarebs b-ni karen iuzbaSianic 148. safuZveli aseTi optimizmisaTvis, vfiqrob, ar unda arsebobdes. garda imisa, rom sebeosis mier xsenebuli xelSekrulebis arseboba arabuli wyaroebisaTvis sruliad ucnobia, teqstis Sinaarsic praqtikul mniSvnelobas saerTod moklebulia, ramdenadac CamoTvlili qveynebis damorCileba am SeTanxmebiT TviT T. rStunis evaleboda. amis gamo s. janaSia moswrebulad SeniSnavda: `moavias `sulgrZeli~ saCuqari carieli aRTqma iyo da igi realuri SinaarsiT TviT Teodoross unda aevso CamoTvlili qveynebis dapyrobiT~149, rac im droisaTvis arabebs jer kidev ver moexerxebinaT. somexi mTavris xelisuflebis masStaburobas TviT misi biografiis cnobili faqtebic gamoricxavs. imperiasa da saxalifos Soris moqceulma somxeTis iSxanma didi Zalebis dapirispirebiT gamowveul sirTuleebs Tavi veRar gaarTva da jer somexi naxararebis SeTqmulebis msxverpli gaxda, roca is somxeTis mmarTvelis Tanamdebobidan gadaayenes da misi mamulebi erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles, xelisuflebis aRdgenis Semdeg ki T. rStunma arabTa sapatio tyveobaSi daasrula sicocxle samSoblodan Sors ­ damaskoSi. aseTi Tavgadasavlis mqone xelisufalis pretenziebi mTel kavkasiaze, gasagebia, rom moklebuli unda iyos realur safuZvels.

Òåð-Ãåâîíäÿí, Àðìåíèÿ è àðàáñêèé Õàëèôàò, Åðåâàí, 1977, ñ. 155. 148 Ê. Í. Þçáàøÿí, Àðìÿíñêèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ýïîõè Áàãðàòèäîâ è Âèçàíòèÿ IXXI ââ., Ìîñêâà, 1988, ñ. 30-31. 149 s. janaSia, Sromebi, II, Tbilisi, 1952, gv 360.

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adreul Sua saukuneebSi somxeTze qarTlis damokidebulebis saCveneblad aRniSnuls garda, a. ter-Revondiani kidev or momentze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. misi sityviT, somxuri eklesiis moRvaweobam kulturulad erTgvarovani saxe mianiWa amierkavkasiis qveynebs, amitom sasanuri epoqis tradiciebis gamgrZelebel arabebsac es qveynebi erT erTeulad miaCndaT, ris gamoc maT `arminia~ uwodeso150. meore argumenti ki feodaluri somxeTis mmarTveli fenis socialur struqturaSi momxdar cvlilebebs da maTi gamomxatveli terminebis axsnas ukavSirdeba. `iSxanis~ gverdiT `iSxan iSxanacis~ titulis gaCenas a. ter-Revondiani sazogadoebis socialuri ganviTarebiTa da Sesabamisad administraciuli mmarTvelobis formebis SecvliT ki ar xsnis, aramed terminebis funqciuri sxvaobiT. misi mtkicebiT, `iSxanisa~ da `iSxan iSxanacis~ funqciebi erTmaneTisgan imiT gansxvavdebodnen, rom pirvelis xelisufleba mxolod somxeTze vrceldeboda, meorisa ki iberiasa da albaneTzeco151. msgavsi Sinaarsis debulebebs sxva somex avtorTa naSromebSic araerTgzis vxvdebiT. ZiriTadad, s. eremianis xelnawer Sromebze miTiTebiT, g. mkrtumiani argumentirebis gareSe gvauwyebs, rom amierkavkasiaSi Seqmnil samxedroadministraciul erTeuls arabebma `arminia~ uwodes am regionis wamyvani qveynis ­ somxeTis saxelis mixedviTo. misive ganmartebiT, qarTvel da albanel feodalTa meTaurebi daaxloebiT iseTsave damokidebulebaSi imyofebodnen somxeTis iSxanTan, rogorc Tbilisisa da bardavis emirebi `armeniis~ valTan, e. i. qarTlis erismTavrebi emorCilebodnen dvinSi mjdom somxeTis iSxans152. arabuli provincia `arminiis~ farglebSi somxeTisa da somexi dinastebis gansakuTrebuli uflebebisa da wamyvani mdgomareobis dasadastureblad somex avtorTa mier moyvanil garemoebebsa da mtkicebulebebs, ra Tqma unda, araferi aqvT saerTo realur viTarebasTan. ar Seefereba sinamdviles, TiTqos, somxeTis iSxans

150 151

a. ter-Revondiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 155.

î»ñ-Ô»õáÝ¹Û³Ý ²©« ѳÛáó Çß˳ÝÁ ³ñ³³Ï³Ý ïÇñ³å»ïáõÃÛ³Ý Å³Ù³Ý³Ï³ßñç³ÝáõÙ« ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« 1964« N 2« ¿ç 129-130

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Ã. Ã. Ìêðòóìÿí, Ãðóçèíñêîå ôåîäàëüíîå êíÿæåñòâî Êàõåòè â VIII-XI ââ è åãî âçàèìîîòíîøåíèÿ ñ Àðìåíèåè, Åðåâàí, 1983, ñ. 63-64.

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qarTlis erismTavari da albanel feodalTa meTauri emorCileboda. dapyrobili qveynebis samarTavad arabebi, Cveulebriv, adgilobriv administraciul aparats iyenebdnen, ris gamoc yvelgan mmarTvelobis stereotipuli forma iyo gavrcelebuli. arabebs daqvemdebarebuli adgilobrivi xelisufali erTgvari Suamavlis rols asrulebda ucxo administraciasa da mosaxleobas Soris da Tavisi ufleba-movaleobebiTa da funqciebiT adgilobrivi uzenaesi arabi moxelis moadgiled iTvleboda. aseTi iyo qarTlis erismTavari, somxeTis iSxani, Tu ranis mTavari. arabuli wyaroebi uflebrivad maT ar asxvavebdnen da yovel maTgans erTi da imave xarisxis tituliT ­ `batrikad~ moixseniebdnen. sayuradReboa, rom am Tvalsazriss zogjer a. ter-Revondianic iziarebda153. Tundac amitom `iSxanisa~ da `iSxan iSxanacis~ gansxvavebul funqciur datvirTvaze b-n ter-Revondianis msjeloba Cveni azriT, naZaladevi da erTob xelovnuria. `iSxan iSxanacis~ titulis gaCenis saWiroeba, eWvi araa, ganapiroba somxeTSi arabTa xelisuflebis Sesustebis pirobebSi mravalmTavrobis tendenciis ganviTarebam, roca calkeuli gamTavrebuli naxararebi `iSxanis~ titulsac ikuTvnebdnen. aseT viTarebaSi TanabarTa Soris pirvelis gamosarCevad, etyoba, gamoinaxa ufro Sesaferisi `iSxan iSxanacis~ anu mTavarTa mTavris ganmadidebeli saxelwodeba, iseve rogorc ufro adre (VI s.) imave mizeziT qarTlSi SemoRebuli iyo erismTavris instituti. aseve simarTlesaa dacilebuli arabuli saamiros `arminiis~ saxelwodebis dakavSirebis mcdeloba amierkavkasiaSi somxeTis kulturul Tu socialur-politikur mowinaveobasTan. vfiqrob, Znelia erTsaxad daijero im qveynis kulturuli Tu socialurekonomikuri mowinaveoba regionSi, sadac man yvelaze adre dakarga damoukidebloba (bizantiam da iranma erTmaneTs Soris somxeTi gaiyves 385-7 ww. dasavleT somxeTSi mefoba gauqmda 390 w., aRmosavleT somxeTSi ­ 428 w., albaneTSi _ 463 w., xolo qarTlSi 523 w.) da didi dampyroblebis sayrden bazad iqca, ris gamoc Tavisi bunebrivi ganviTarebis gzas ascda da didxans

dampyrobeli arabebis momTabaruli feodalizmis reJimis kalapotSi moeqca, misgan gamomdinare yvelaze mZime SedegebiTurT. rac Seexeba amierkavkasiis asparezze somxuri eklesiis mier kulturuli erTgvarovnebis miRwevas, am mtkicebulebis sruliad sawinaaRmdego movlenaze metyvelebs VII s. dasawyisidan qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis mwvave konfesiuri dapirispireba, rac, amasTanave, cxadia, am qveynebis kulturul metoqeobasac mowmobs da ara maT erTgvarovnebas. yovelive Tqmulis safuZvelze ki uarsayofi xdeba `arminiis~ saxelwodebis gaCenis garemoebaTa zemoxsenebuli axsna da, bunebrivia, is daukavSiroT maxlobel aRmosavleTSi arabuli dapyrobebis Sedegad ganviTarebul politikur procesebs. cnobilia, rom arabuli administracia Tavdapirvelad somxeTSi damkvidrda teritoriuli siaxlovisa da, gansakuTrebiT, iq arsebuli Sesaferisi sayrdeni socialuri da politikuri bazis SedarebiTi sifarTovis gamo154. somxeTis dapyrobiT amierkavkasiaSi gaCnda axali arabuli samxedro-administraciuli erTeuli, romlis sazRvrebi aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi TandaTan farTovdeboda mis SemadgenlobaSi mezobeli qveynebis teritoriebis SeyvaniT. aseT pirobebSi somxeTis saxelma arabTa batonobis gamomxatveli, principulad axali Sinaarsi SeiZina, ris gamoc is am regionSi saxalifosadmi daqvemdebarebul mTel teritoriaze unda gavrcelebuliyo. amgvari movlenebi istoriisaTvis sulac ar aris ucxo. magaliTad, politikur SinaarsSi momxdari cvlilebisas erTi qveynis saxelis meoreze gavrcelebis pirdapir analogias warmoadgens bizantiuri samxedro-administraciuli Temis ­ iberiis sakatepanos saxelis gavrceleba anisis samefozec. taos dapyrobis Semdeg bizantielebma Tavdapirvelad daviT kurapalatis samefos bazaze Seqmnes TavianTi administraciuli erTeuli, romelsac qveynis eTnikuri da politikuri saxis mixedviT "iberiis Temi" uwodes. aqedan berZnebma somxeTis did nawilze gaavrceles TavianTi xelisufleba da yvela isini administraciulad iberiis TemSi gaaerTianes. bolos ki TviT anisis yofili

154 153

ix. janaSia, araboba saqarTveloSi, Sromebi, II, gv. 379; À. Í. ÒåðÃåâîíäÿí, Àðìåíèÿ è àðàáñêèé Õàëèôàò, ñ. 171-172.

dawvrilebiT maT Sesaxeb ix. Cemi `narkvevebi saqarTvelosa da somxeTis urTierTobis istoriidan IV-XII ss-Si, Tbilisi, 2002. gv. 76-124.

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samefos teritoriebic miuerTes, riTac somxurma farTobiTa da mosaxleobiTac mniSvnelovnad gadaaWarba qarTuls da amis miuxedavad, es bizantiuri samxedro-administraciuli erTeuli isev `iberiad~ iwodeboda. gasagebia, rom am SemTxvevaSic arabuli `arminiis~ msgavs movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos somxeTis nawilad warmodgenis mcdeloba somxuri istoriografiis erT nawilSi apogeas aRwevs IXXI ss. anu bagratunTa somxeTis istoriis gadmocemisas. amierkavkasiis istoriis amgvari gaazrebis Teoriuli dasabuTeba ki, rogorc mosalodnelic iyo, b-ma s. eremianma warudgina mkiTxvel sazogadoebas erTob mimzidveli saTauriT `Îáùíîñòü ñóäåá è êóëüòóðíî-ïîëèòè÷åñêîå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî íàðîäîâ Çàêàâêàçüÿ â IX-XIII ââ.~, romelic daibeWda 1979 w. maSin axlad daarsebul krebulSi `Êàâêàç è Âèçàíòèÿ~-s pirvel nomerSi. mezoblebis istoriis gadmocemisas saerTo, gamaerTianebeli Zirebis kvleva da maTi mniSvnelobis win wamoweva, ra Tqma unda, yovelTvis aqtualuri da keTilSobiluri saqme iyo, magram saqmec is aris, rom es saerTo, calmxrivad, mxolod somxeTis istoriis kuTxiTaa gaSuqebuli, rac misi Teoriis mimdevrebs realuri, ibieqturi istoriuli suraTis kidev ufro metad damaxinjebis safuZvels aZlevs. amierkavkasiis IX-XIII ss. istorias s. eremiani or periodad yofs. pirvels miakuTvnebs IX-X ss., roca misi azriT, amierkavkasiis qveynebis politikur cxovrebaSi mTavar rols somexi bagratidebi TamaSobdnen, ramdenadac isini Caudgnen saTaveSi arabi da bizantieli agresorebis winaaRmdeg brZolas erTiani centralizebuli saxelmwifos SeqmnisaTvis. meore ki misi varaudiT, moicavs XI-XIII ss. dasawyis periods, roca wamyvan rols amierkavkasiis politikur cxovrebaSi ukve qarTveli bagratidebi TamaSoben. isini axerxeben yvela qarTuli miwis erTian centralizebul saxelmwifod gaerTianebas. Semdeg ki gaerTianebuli qarTuli saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi Sedis agreTve Crdilo somxeTic. somex bagratidTa Sirakis Stos gaZlierebasTan erTad, misi TqmiT, yalibdeba politikuri doqtrina, romlis mixedviTac amierkavkasiis qristian xalxTa miwebi Seadgens erTian saxelmwifos Sirakel bagratidTa meTaurobiT. jer kidev arabTa saxalifos batonobis periodSi, ganagrZobs b-ni s. eremiani, bagratidebi xSirad eqcevian amierkavkasiis xalxTa saTaveSi `so-

mexTa da qarTvelTa iSxanis (IX s. iSxanac iSxanis) tituliT~. ukanasknelma iSxanac iSxanma aSot bagratunim gamoiyena ra Tavisi mdgomareoba Sirakel bagratidTa siuzerenuli uflebebis dasafuZneblad, SeiZina samefo pativi. bagratidebi cxaddebian `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefeebad~, xolo mogvianebiT ­ `somexTa da qarTvelTa SahanSahebad~ (922 w.). somexi mefe, rogorc bagratidTa dinastiis yvela Stos meTauri, amas garda, atarebda azgapetis tituls; is `dinastiis meTauris~ xarisxSi gamodis. somexi bagratidebi am titulaturas atarebdnen 1044 wlamde, gagik II-is Camogdebamde. es gaerTianeba, romelic bolomde warmoadgenda somex, aRmosavlurqarTul da somex-`albanTa~ samefosamTavroTa konfederacias, iyo aramyari da bizantiis agresiisa da selCukianTa Semosevebis Sedegad male daiSala. mkiTxvelis yuradRebas SevaCereb faqtis ostaturi gamrudebis kidev erT SemTxvevaze. b-ni s. eremiani wers: erTiani bagratiduli samefos Seqmnas somxeTSi gansakuTrebiT SeuSala xeli bizantiis agresiam. imperiasTan taronis (966 w.) da taiqis (1001 w.) mierTebam, amis miyolebiT vaspurakanis samefos gadacemam (1021 w.) da anisis samefos aneqsiam (1044 w.) sabolood moSales somxuri politikuri warmonaqmnebis Semdgomi arsebobis safuZvelio. somxur samefoTa rigSi taos somxurive formiT moxseniebiT teqstis avtors mkiTxveli SecdomaSi Sehyavs da mis somxurobaze eWvis safuZvelsac aRar utovebs. taosTvis brZola ki Zlierebis zenitSi myof bizantiis imperias qarTvel mefeebTan kidev didxans uxdeboda, ramac amis, e. i. 1001 wlis Semdeg kidev 21-22 wels gastana. g. mkrtumiani sityvasityviT imeorebs s. eremianis aq warmodgenil ganmazogadebel debulebebs da Tavis mxriv umatebs, rom `somexTa da qarTvelTa iSxanisa~ da Semdeg `iSxan iSxanacis~ titulebi saxalifos karis wyaloba iyo da mas pirveli somexi bagratidi mefeebi aSot I da smbat I atarebdnen. am ukanasknelma ki realobad aqcia is, rac aqamde Teoriulad iyo miRebulio155. am uneburi aRiarebidanac kargad Cans xsenebuli titulebis calmxrivi da formaluri xasiaTi. ar aris marTali g. mkrtumiani,

155

Ã. Ìêðòóìÿí, Ãðóçèíñêîå ôåîäàëüíîå êíÿæåñòâî Êàõåòè VIII-XI ââ. ñ.90-91.

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roca cdilobs adarnase qarTvelTa kurapalatis TanamSromloba smbat I-Tan somexi mefisadmi morCilebad warmosaxos. rogorc ki smbat I-isa da adarnases politikuri interesebi erTmaneTs dascilda, qarTvelTa mefe mkveTrad daupirispirda somexTa mefes da mis winaaRmdeg somxeTSi msxvil feodalTa SeTqmulebac moawyo, romlis mizani smbat I-is taxtidan Camogdeba da mis magier adarnase qarTvelTa mefis dasma iyo. ioane drasxanakertecis gadmocemiT, adarnase Turme, didi laSqriT (Tumca naadrevad) SeWrila Sirakis gavarSi da anisis cixec daukavebia. adarnases politikuri gavlena somxeTSi smbat I-is sikvdilis Semdegac igrZnoba. somexi mematianis TqmiT, aSot smbatis Ze gaamefes somxeTSi qarTvelTa mefem da misma jarma156. bevrad ufro marTali iyo ioseb orbeli, romlis SefasebiTac gagik I-is tituli `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefe~ dakavSirebuli iyo gagikis mier qvemo qarTlis flobasTan. somexi swavlulis TqmiT, gagik I Tavs somexTa da qarTvelTa mefed SeigrZnobda, radganac qarTuli miwebi misi samefos farglebSi iyo moqceuli157. movlenebis amgvari gageba SeigrZnoba zogierT Zvel somxur wyaroSic, romelTa mixedviT, taSir-Ziragetis samefos Seqmnas qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze, saqarTveloSi somexTa gamefebad miiCneven. magaliTad, mxiTar airivaneci wers: `am dros (981 w.) daiwyo bagratunianTa mefoba qarTvelebze, rameTu gurgeni gamefda saqarTveloSi, xolo misi Zma smbati ­ somxeTSi~ 158 . bagratunTa panegirikosi istorikosebisgan gansxvavebiT, es movlena mxiTar episkoposTan qvemo qarTlSi momxdar politikur movlenebs ukavSirdeba da mTel qarTls, miT ufro, mTel saqarTvelos ar gulisxmobs, ramdenadac cnobaSi xsenebuli gurgeni taSir-Ziragetis samefos kvirikiani mefe iyo da, miuxedavad imisa, rom qvemo qarTli mTliani qarTlis erTi SedarebiT mcire nawili iyo, mxiTaris warmodgeniT, is mainc saqarTvelo iyo istoriuladac da Tavisi eTno-kulturuli saxiTac.

156

rac Seexeba `azgapetis~ instituts, realobas moklebuli misi arseboba Teoriul sferoSi Tu SeiZleba vivaraudoT, miT ufro gaugebaria misi gamoyeneba qarTveli monarqebis mimarT, romelTac TviT gaaCndaT rogorc gvaris ufrosobis, ise somxeTis taxtis flobis pretenziebic, rac yvelaze adre adarnase qarTvelTa mefem gaamJRavna, roca `naadrevad~ SeiWra Sirakis gavarSi, anisis cixe daikava da somxeTis taxtis dakavebac scada. didi daviT III kurapalati ki, somxurive wyaroebis mowmobiT, praqtikulad axorcielebda Tavis siuzerenul uflebebs Sirakis mefe smbat II-sa da yarsis mefe muSeRze, romelmac am ukanasknelTa Soris arsebuli konfliqti sakuTari Sexedulebis mixedviT gadaWra. asoRikis dasturiT, `yvela mefe nebiT damorCilda mas~159. asoRikis am gancxadebis fonze erTob cinikurad JRers q-ni v. aruTinova-fidanianis gancxadeba, TiTqos, daviT kurapalati `imdenad Zlieri xelisufali iyo, rom misi daqvemdebareba Sirakis bagratidebisadmi, misi siuzerenebisadmi... ufro nominalur xasiaTs atarebda~160. cxadia, q-ni viaida somxuri istoriografiis im mimarTulebis erTguli rCeba, romelsac amierkavkasiis istoriis tendenciuri gaSuqeba Tavisi moRvaweobis mTavar amocanad dausaxavs. bagrationTa qarTveli mematiane sumbat daviTis Ze, momdevno qarTvel mefes bagrat III-s ukve mTeli kavkasiis mpyrobel monarqad warmogvidgens, romelic `somxiTisa £ elmwifebiTa, nebierad ganagebda~161. bagrat III-is vaJi giorgi I ki, somxuri wyaroebis mowmobiT, anisisa da yarsis samefoebze iseTive gavleniT sargeblobda, rogoriTac taos saxelganTqmuli mefe daviT III. cxadia, rom aseT xelisufalTa mimarT Sirakel bagratunTa azgapetobaze msjeloba yovlad usagno da gaugebaria. ufro metic, TviT somxeTSic ki `azgapetis~ institutis funqcionirebas, faqtobrivad, praqtikuli sarbieli ar gaaCnda, amasTan Sirakis bagratunTa garda am titulis maZiebelni sxvebic iyvnen (magaliTad, lore-taSiris mefe daviT umiwawylo). yvelaferi damokidebuli iyo konkretul pirobebsa da ZalTa realur Tanafardobaze. am mxriv ki, rogorc akad. hakob

ioane drasxanakerteli, somxeTis istoria, el. cagareiSvilis Targmani da gamokvleva, Tbilisi, 1965, gv. 115-117, 195 da sxv. 157 È. À. Îðáåëè, Èçáðàííûå òðóäû, Åðåâàí, 1963. ñ. 5. 158 mxiTar airivaneci, qronografiuli istoria, Targmani da komentarebi l. davlianiZe-tatiSvilisa, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 74.

159 160

stefanos taroneci asoRiki, xsenebuli gamocema, gv. 275. Àðóòþíîâà Â. À. Èç èñòîðèè ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íûõ îáëàñòåé Âèçàíòèéñêîé èìïåðèè â XI â., ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« 1972 N 1« ¿ç 92. 161 qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 382.

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manandiani aRniSnavda, bagratidTa samefo dinastiam sruliadac ver moaxerxa urCi feodalebis Tavisi xelisuflebisaTvis daqvemdebareba. msxvili feodalebi ar iyvnen TavianTi mefis damyolni, romelic isev xalifis vasalad da moxarked rCeboda. Tavneba feodalebi daxmarebas eZebdnen an saxalifoSi, anda bagratidebze aranakleb mZlavr mezobel emirebTan... bagratidTa samefo tituli realuri Sinaarsis gareSe SiSvel titulad darCa. rogorc cnobilia, X s. somxeTisa da amierkavkasiis msxvili feodalebi iseTive `mefeebi~ gaxdnen da iseTive samefo Sesamoseli da gvirgvini hqondaT, rogoric aSot I-is memkvidreebs162. yovelive amis miuxedavad, X-XI ss. amierkavkasiaSi ganviTarebul politikur procesebSi qarTvel xelisufalTa aqtiuroba somxur istoriografias SeumCneveli rCeba, ufro metic, vidre somxuri saxelmwifoebrioba arsebobas ganagrZobda qarTvelTa nebismieri TvalsaCino politikuri aqcia an mifuCeCebuli anda gafermkrTalebuli saxiT iCens Tavs somex istorikosTa SromebSi. amis erT-erTi TvalsaCino magaliTia 1044 Tu 1045 ww. anisisaTvis brZolaSi bagrat IV-is monawileobis damcrobis didi survili, rac sakmaod mkafiodaa gamoxatuli b. karen iuzbaSianis SromebSi. misi ganmartebiT, a. lastivertecis cnobaSi anisis dasacavad bagrat IV-is miwvevis mxolod ganzraxvazea saubari. misgan gansxvavebiT, XI s. qarTveli mematiane faqtebiT adasturebs saqarTvelos xelisuflebisaTvis anisis gadacemas, rasac win uZRoda bagratisaTvis anisis 9 cixis gadacemac. k. iuzbaSiani Tvlis, rom bagratisaTvis 9 cixis da dedamisisTvis anisisis gadacema qronologiurad sxvadasxva dros momxdari faqtia da uneblie kontaminaciasTan unda gvqondes saqme. misi azriT, bagratisaTvis 9 cixis gadacemis cnoba dakavSirebuli unda iyos 1041 w. sargis vestis ajanyebasTan. aseTi varaudisTvis sakmarisad miaCnia maTeos urhaecis cnoba, TiTqos, sargis vestis mier mitacebuli samefo xazina dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadaemaloT. qarTuli cnobis meore nawili ki udavod miekuTvneba anisis bizantielebisTvis Cabarebis wina periodso, e. i. 1045 w.163 `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ moyvanili cnobis or nawilad gayofiTa da droSi erTmaneTisgan gaTiSviT k. iuz162 163

baSiani, aSkaraa, amcirebs daculi faqtebis mniSvnelobas, xolo am faqtebidan gamomdinare, qarTvel istorikosTa logikur daskvnas, rom bagratisaTvis anisis gadacemis Semdeg iq droebiT qarTvelTa mmarTveloba damyarda, aradamajereblad miiCnevs, ramdenadac `matiane qarTlisa¡~ anisSi qarTvelTa administraciuli funqciebis Sesaxeb arafers ambobso. im dros, roca bizantielTa jarebi alyaSi aqcevdnen qalaqs, axali administraciis funqcionirebisaTvis pirobebi ver iqneboda, Tuki saerTod adgilobrivi administraciis Secvlis moTxovnileba gaCndebodao. mas eWvi ar epareba, rom bagrat IV -is wargzavnilebi mxolod samefo elCebi iyvnen164. qalaqisa da cixeebis gadacema-Cabareba TavisTavad gulisxmobs iq mcvelTa axali kontingentis Seyvanasa da gamgeblebis daniSvnasac. qarTveli mematiane konkretulad asaxelebs kidec anisis axal gamgeblebs. isini samxedro pirebi da sakuTari laSqris patronebi arian: artanujis erisTavi, xixaTa, cixisjvaris da awyveris cixis patroni abuseri, ivane erisTavi, ivane dadiani da beWis cixis patroni guaram goderZis Ze 165. aseTi Semadgenloba savsebiT pasuxobda saomari viTarebis moTxovnilebebs. aniss, pirvel rigSi, mtrisgan dacva sWirdeboda da am mTavari funqciis Sesasruleblad swored is kontigenti iyo saWiro, romelsac qarTveli mematiane asaxelebs, umaRles samxedro xelisuflebas ki, gasagebia, rom sxva administraciuli funqciebic unda SeeTavsebina. amitom damajereblobas moklebulia k. iuzbaSianis argumenti, TiTqos, bizantiis jarebis Setevis pirobebSi axali administracia ver ifunqcionirebda. faqtebis gafermkrTalebis aseTi cdebis miuxedavad, k. iuzbaSiani erTgvari TavSekavebiT simarTlisken mainc ixreba da aRniSnavs: `movlenebma gviCvena, rom qarTulma samefom anisze Tavisi uflebebis realizacia raRaca zomiT kidevac SeZloo~166. gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos wamyvan rols amierkavkasiis politikur cxovrebaSi somxuri istoriografia mxolod somxuri saxelmwifoebis gaqrobis xanis Semdgomi periodidan aRi164

гÏá سݳݹ۳ݫ ºñÏ»ñ« VI, ºñ»í³Ý« 1985« ¿ç. 145.

k. iuzbaSiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 168.

dasaxelebuls garda ix. misive, qarTveli elCebi anisSi 1045 w., bizantinologiuri etiudebi, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 156-160. 165 qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 300. 166 Þçáàøÿí Ê. Í., Àðìÿíñêèå ãîñóäàðñòâà ýïîõè Áàãðàòèäîâ è Âèçàíòèÿ IXXI ââ., ñ. 167.

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arebs, rogorc es IX-XIII ss. amierkavkasiis istoriis s. eremianiseuli periodizaciiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli. Tumca am aRiarebas imdeni da iseTi ganmartebebi axlavs, rom zogjer SeiZleba daujerebelic daijero da ifiqro, rom qarTvelma bagratovnebma TavianT saxelmwifoSi kavkasiis qristianuli nawili ki ar gaaerTianes, aramed somxuri samefo-samTavroebi feniqsis msgavsad aRadgines. aseT tendencias, rogorc iTqva, adreve Caeyara safuZveli, 60-iani wlebidan ki somxur istoriografiaSi axali SemarTebiT iwyeba msjeloba mxargrZelTa politikur rolsa da Crdilo somxeTis statusze, rasac ZiriTadad s. eremianis ukve xsenebul naSromebSi mocemuli ideebi da debulebebi edo safuZvlad. imxanad dabeWdil mravalricxovan naSromTa Soris problema met-naklebi sisruliTaa ganxiluli 1964 da 1969 ww-Si somxur da rusul enebze gamocemul l. babaianis wignSi `somxeTis socialur-ekonomikuri da politikuri istoria XIII-XIV ss.~. sakiTxis uSualo ganxilvas wignis ori Tavi eTmoba da masze saubari SigadaSig momdevno TavebSic grZeldeba. avtori cdilobs Tavisi azri axali argumentebiT, qarTuli wyaroebis cnobebiTa da zogierTi qarTveli istorikosis mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebiTac Seamagros. l. babiani Tavis winamorbedebTan SedarebiT `zaqariduli somxeTis~ warmoqmnis gansxvavebul redaqcias gvTavazobs. misi TqmiT, `namestnikobis~ dros (monapireoba wignis avtors mefisnacvloba hgonia) mxargrZelebs gauerTianebiaT somxuri feodaluri Zalebi da somxuri samxedro danayofebi SeuqmniaT qarTuli armiis sistemaSi, rac, Turme, maTi sakuTari didi politikuri gegmebiT yofila gansazRvruli. am gegmis mixedviT ki, saqarTvelos mfarvelobiTa da misi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis uSualo monawileobiT, maT selCukiani Turqebisagan unda gaenTavisuflebinaT somxeTis teritoria da aRedginaT misi politikuri damoukidebloba, moexdinaT somxuri feodaluri Zalebis konsolidacia da SeeqmnaT avtonomiuri somxuri saxelmwifo, romelic vasalur damokidebulebaSi iqneboda qarTul samefosTan. `zaqarianTa~ 25 wliani brZola xsenebuli gegmis xorcSesxmisaTvis, l. babaianis gancxadebiT, warmatebiT dagvirgvinda: Crdilo da centraluri somxeTi ganTavisuflda da, q. karisa da misi mimdgomi qveynebis garda, `zaqarianebs~ gadaecaT. Tamaris meore istorikosis zogierTi cnobis

TviTneburi gagebis safuZvelze askvnis, rom `zaqaridebisaTvis~ gadacemul miwebs Tanamedroveni qarTulad aRar miiCnevdnen da mas mxolod "zaqaridTa" damoukidebel samflobeloebad ganixilavdneno. amasTan, wignis avtori saqmes ise warmogvidgens, TiTqos, mxargrZelebi ki ar iyvnen saqarTvelos samefos samsaxurSi, aramed piriqiT, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi maT politikur interesebs emsaxurebodnen167. es Tema somxur istoriografiaSi aqtiurad musirebs Semdgom aTwleulebSic. 80-90 wlebSi somxur da rusul enebze zedized iqmneba naSromebi, sadac XII-XIII ss. somxeTis statusis erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli gaazrebis miuxedavad, principulad erTnairia damokidebuleba mxargrZelTa vinaobis mimarT. yovelgvari mtkicebis gareSe, rogorc anbanur WeSmaritebaze, ise msjeloben mxargrZelTa somxobaze, `zaqarianTa somxur feodalur saxlze~ da maT gansakuTrebul rolze saqarTvelosa da somxeTis istoriaSi. x. Torosiani aRSfoTebasac ver malavs `zogierTi qarTveli mecnieris~ (S. mesxia, m. lorTqifaniZe da sxvebi) mimarT, romlebic, Turme, mxolod imis gamo, rom zaqarianebi romeliRac periodSi (daaxloebiT 1120-1185 ww-Si) xan qarTveli mefis vasalebi iyvnen, xan ki ­ orbelebisa, Tvlian ra, TiTqos, aseTebad yofiliyvnen saerTod, imasac ki amtkiceben faqtebis sawinaaRmdegod, rom isini qarTveli mTavrebi iyvneno 168. mxargrZelTa somxur feodalur sagvareulod warmosaxvidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos feodalur laSqarsac qarTul-somxur jarebad iazreben, ris safuZvelzec Semdeg laSqris qarTul da somxur nawilebs erTmaneTis mimarT damoukideblobasac miaweren. ase magaliTad, g. grigoriani Tavis sadoqtoro disertaciaSi e. w. qarTul-somxur laSqars samokavSireo jarebs uwodebs169. x. Torosiani ki, aseTi gansazRvrebis safuZvelze, somex-qarTvelTa samxedro-politikur TanamSromlobazec msjelobs170. maTgan gansxvavebiT, a. Sah-

Ë. Î. Áàáàÿí, Ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ è ïîëèòè÷åñêàÿ èñòîðèÿ Àðìåíèè XIII-XIV âåêàõ, Ìîñêâà, 1969, ñ. 16-17. 168 Õîñðîâ Òîðîñÿí, Ñóä è ïðîöåññ â Àðìåíèè X-XIII ââ., Åðåâàí, 1985, ñ.24. 169 Ãðèãîðÿí Ã. Ì., Îáùåñòâåííî-ïîëèòè÷åñêàÿ è ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ èñòîðèÿ Ñþíèêà â XIII-XV âåêàõ, àâòîðåôåðàò, Åðåâàí, 1984, ñ. 13. 170 x. Torosiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 23.

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nazariani `zaqarianTa somxur feodalur saxls~ imavdroulad qarTuli saxelmwifos erT-erT mZlavr Tavadur gvarad miiCnevs, magram maTi sardlobiT laSqrobaSi monawile qarTul jars mainc `qarTul-somxur~ jarad naTlavs 171. SedarebiT zomieria igi saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi Semosuli somxeTis politikuri statusis gansazRvraSi. misi TqmiT, zaqarianTa meTaurobiT qarTulsomxuri jarebis mier selCukiani Turqebisgan ganTavisuflebuli Crdilo somxeTi feodaluri subordinaciis sawyisebze Sevida qarTuli saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi172, riTac is, faqtobrivad, qarTul saxelmwifosTan somxeTis vasaluri damokidebulebis ideas emxroba. mkveTrad radikaluria am sakiTxisadmi x. Torosianis midgoma. misi mtkicebiT, selCukiani Turqebis winaaRmdeg erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel brZolaSi somxuri jaris warmatebis kvalobaze, somexi xalxisa da zaqarianebis SegnebaSi izrdeba bunebrivi ltolva teritoriuli gancalkevebisa da saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisken. SeiZleba kidevac davasaxeloT, ganagrZobs x. Torosiani, damoukideblobis dawyebis TariRi ­ 1185 w. am wels Tamar mefem sargis zaqarians uboZa lore saTavadod da samTavro somxiTsa Sina. am aqtiT qarTulma saxelmwifom cno Crdilo-aRmosavleT somxeTis damoukidebloba zaqarianTa meTaurobiT173. saqarTvelos istoriaSi met-naklebad Caxeduli nebismieri avtorisaTvisac ki, vfiqrob, cxadia aseTi daskvnis sruli gaugebroba. miwis `samTavrod da saTavadod boZeba~ feodaluri Sewyalebis Cveulebrivi forma iyo Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi da misi Sinaarsi sulac ar gulisxmobda saxelmwifos uars Tavis uflebaze Sewyalebulis mimarT. etyoba x. Torosiani grZnobda Tavisi radikaluri poziciis sisustes sxva avtorebTan kamaTSi, ris gasaneitralebladac, Cans, Tavis msjelobas am sakiTxze aseTi gancxadebiT asrulebs: zaqarianTa politikur-samarTlebrivi statusisa da Crdilo-aRmosavleT somxeTis mdgomareobisagan damoukideblad, istoriografiaSi erTi ram mainc usityvodaa aRiarebuli ­ zaqarianuli somxeTi

Tavis saSinao saqmeebSi damoukidebeli iyo. samwuxarod, arc es gancxadebaa maincdamainc zusti. arc erTi feodaluri samTavro XII-XIII ss. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi ar yofila, Tundac saSinao saqmeebSi bolomde damoukidebeli. amas TviT somxuri istoriografiis warmomadgenlebic aRiareben, roca saubari aqvT mxargrZelTa samflobeloebSi sasamarTlo-administraciuli imunitetis SesaZleblobebze. somxur istoriografiaSi kvlavac dominirebs s. eremianis mier SemuSavebuli koncefcia selCukianTagan ganTavisuflebul somxeTSi vasaluri somxuri samTavroebis qselis, rogorc somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis Taviseburi formis aRmocenebaze. am koncefciis dadasturebas emsaxureba XII-XIII ss. somxeTSi arsebuli calkeuli feodaluri saxlebis istoriis monografiuli Seswavlisa da maTi samflobeloebis saqarTvelos centralur xelisuflebasTan vasaluri damokidebulebis xarisxis gansazRvrisa da am samTavroebSi damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebis niSnebis met-naklebad gamovlenis cdebi. b. ulubabianis `xaCenis samTavros istoria~, g. grigorianis `orbelianTa sivnieTis samTavro~, a. Sahnazarianis `vahramianTa samTavro~ da sxvebi kvlevis amgvari mimarTulebis aSkara mowmobaa. b. ulubabiani jer kidev 1973 w. werda: qvemo xaCenis politikuri mdgomareoba mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda zaqarianTa samTavroebis vasalitetisagan da mas Taviseburi suvereniteti gaaCnda. XII s. bolosa da XIII s. dasawyisis wyaroebSi araferia naTqvami qvemo xaCenis samTavros damokidebulebaze vinmes mimarT, gansakuTrebiT ki, qarTvelTa samefoze an zaqarianebze174. g. grigoriani Tavis mxriv, sivnieTis orbelianebs miawers somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenis cdebs. misi ganmartebiT, sumbat orbelianma sikvdilamde SeinarCuna `mefis~ tituli, Tumca pirvelwyaroebis mowmobiT, ganagrZobs g. grigoriani, es tituli nacvlis Tanamdebobas uTanabrdeboda da ar hqonda samoqalaqo aRiareba sivnieTis mTianeTis farglebs gareT. somxuri suverenuli saxelmwifos Seqmnis orbelianTa yvela cda sruli marcxiT dasruldao 175 . sumbatis Semdeg

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iqve, gv. 41-62, 192. 173 x. Torosiani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 23.

Á. À. Óëóáàáÿí, Èñòîðèÿ õà÷åíñêîãî êíÿæåñòâà (X-XVI ââ.), àâòîðåôåðàò äîêòîðñêîé äèññåðòàöèè, Åðåâàí, 1973, ñ. 30. 175 g. grigoriani, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 15.

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sivnieTis mmarTveli xdeba misi umcrosi Zma tarsaiW orbeliani, romelic, wyaroebis mowmobiT, saqarTvelos samefo taxtis gansamtkiceblad iRvwoda, risTvisac demetre II-m is aTabagad daniSnao. a. Sahnazarianis monografia gagelTa samTavros istoriis Seswavlas eZRvneba da is mTlianad agebulia s. eremianis xsenebuli koncefciis mixedviT. amitomac gagelebs vahramianebs uwodebs iseve, rogorc Tmogvelebs ­ `Tmogveci-s, e. i. mxargrZelebsa da maT ganStoebebs somxuri formiT warmogvidgens (qarTuli gvarebis somxuri formiT gadmocema saerTod axasiaTebT somxuri istoriografiis umetes nawils). e. w. `vahramianTa samTavros~ igi monapireTa institutis farglebSi ganixilavs da paralels avlebs Zvelsomxur sabdeSxoebTan (Zveli somxeTis sazRvrispira samTavroebi), riTac, etyoba, surs monapireTa qarTul instituts somxuri Zirebi mouZebnos. XII-XIV ss. saqarTvelos erTiani feodaluri monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi somxuri Temebi kavkasiis sxva qristianul nawilTan erTad rom myarad iyvnen Semosuli da qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis organul nawils Seadgendnen es kargad Cans TviT somexi istorikosebis naSromebSi nebiT Tu uneblied, wyaroebis zegavleniT, zogjer CarTuli realisturi pasaJebidanac. magaliTad, axali feodaluri saxlebis separatizmis gziT ganviTarebas, faqtobrivad, gamoricxavs s. eremianis xsenebul werilSi SeniSnuli garemoebani, romelTa mixedviT Crdilo somxeTis teritoriebis selCukianebisgan gamoxsnas mniSvnelovanwilad xeli Seuwyo msxvili qalaqebis (anisis, dvinis, yarsis da sxv.) somxurma Temebma, axlad warmoqmnilma savaWro da savaxSo aristokratiis warmomadgenlebma da xelosnurma gaerTianebebma, romlebic dainteresebulni iyvnen qarTvel bagratidTa centralizebuli feodaluri monarqiis ganmtkicebiT. qarTvel mefeTa farTo rjulTSemwynareblobis politikam qalaqebis somxuri da muslimanuri Temebis mimarT da maTma mfarvelobam xeli Seuwyo saxelmwifos Semdgom konsolidacias176. p. muradianis TvalsazrisiTac XII-XIII ss. saqarTvelo da somxeTi politikurad gaerTianebuli iyo bagratidTa qarTuli Stos skiptris qveS. igi msjelobs fulis

mimoqcevis da sagadasaxado saerTo sistemis arsebobaze im drois saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi, aRniSnavs, agreTve, saqarTvelos somxur nawilSi qarTuli enis oficialurobas177. roca saxezea qveynis suverenitetis gamomxatveli iseTi niSnebi, rogoricaa fuli, saerTo sagadasaxado sistema da saxelmwifo ena, aseTi qveynis romelime nawilis separatizmsa Tu damoukideblobaze msjeloba, aSkaraa, rom Zalze Znelia. amierkavkasiis qristianuli nawilis, da ara mxolod, gaerTianeba am qveynis istoriuli ganviTarebis saerTo kanonzomierebiT iyo ganpirobebuli da amitomac am gaerTianebas myari niadagi gaaCnda. am mxriv niSandoblivia kirakis ganZakecis erTi cnoba, romlis mixedviTac "erT dros arSakuniani somexi mefeebis kuTvnili Zvirfasi taxti da saocari gvirgvini, romlis msgavsi arc erT mefes ar hqonia, qarTvel mefeebs ergoT da dRemde maTTan rCebao178. qarTvel mefeTa ufleba, am gadmocemiT, ara marto saqarTveloSi Semosul nawilze vrceldeboda, aramed mTel istoriul, did somxeTzea aRiarebuli da isini somex mefeTa kanonier memkvidreebad arian miCneuli. aseTi gadmocemebis literaturuli dafiqsireba, gasagebia, xelsayrel ideologiur garemos qmnida xelisufalTaTvis saqarTveloSi Semosul somxur nawilSi da qveynis danarCen nawilTan mis Serwymas uwyobda xels. saqarTvelos erTian feodalur monarqiaSi somxeTis myarad Semosvlis dasturia, agreTve, XII-XIV ss. saqarTvelos am nawilis socialuri fizonomia da kulturuli saxe. politikurad saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi SemosvlasTan erTad somxeTi qarTuli feodaluri urTierTobis ganviTarebis farvaterSi CaerTo, riTac is socialurad da kulturulad kidev ufro metad dauaxlovda qarTuls. mxiTar goSis samarTlis muxlebidan aSkarad gamosWvivis qarTuli sazogadoebrivi wyobilebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli urTierTobani, rac imis mowmobac iyo, rom xsenebuli somxuri saero samarTlis Seqmnis droisaTvis SemoerTebuli somxeTis teritoriaze ukve feodalizmis qarTuli tipi gabatonebuliyo da es qveyana ara marto politikurad, aramed socialura-

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ix. Êàâêàç è Âèçàíòèÿ, ¹1, ñ. 9.

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Êèðàêîñ Ãàíäçàêåöè, Èñòîðèÿ Àðìåíèè, Ìîñêâà, 1976, ñ. 195.

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dac saqarTvelos organuli nawili gamxdariyo179, rac TavisTavad gamoricxavda qveynis am nawilSic socialur-politikuri nebismieri institutis damoukidebel arsebobas. es socialur-politikuri erTianoba imdenad myari aRmoCnda, rom monRolebi TavianTi samflobelo qveynis administraciuli mowyobisas Tavidanve iZulebuli iyvnen somxeTic saqarTvelosTvis (gurjistanis vilaieTisaTvis) mieTvalaT da, rogorc n. berZeniSvili varaudobda, aseTi gadawyvetileba maT miiRes `somexTa~ politikur moRvaweTa aqtiuri moqmedebis Sedegad, amitom iyo, SeniSnavda n. berZeniSvili, rom araviTari tomobrivi damoukideblobisaTvis brZola feodalurma saqarTvelom ar icoda180. niSandoblivi faqtia: maSinac ki, roca XIII-XV ss. ganviTarebulma decentralizaciis procesma qarTuli saxelmwifos administraciul-teritoriuli dayofis moSla da mis magier senioraluri principis TandaTan gabatoneba gamoiwvia, somxur TemebSi arsebuli feodaluri samTavroebis qarTuli socialur-politikuri Sinaarsi ar Secvlila da qarTul saxelmwifoebriobas is ar gaTiSvia, vidre XV s. damdegs Turqmanebma ZaliT ar mowyvites is saqarTvelos da iq pirSeuqcevlad aRmosavluri barbarosul-feodaluri urTierTobani ar gaabatones. amrigad, somxuri istoriografiis Tvalsazrisi Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos centralizebuli monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi myofi somxeTis, qveynis sxva nawilebisagan sruliad gansxvavebul, politikur statusze, araa gamarTlebuli saistorio wyaroebis monacemebiT da ewinaaRmdegeba realurad arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri, politikuri Tu kulturuli xasiaTis faqtorebs. samwuxarod, qarTveli da somexi xalxebis socialur-politikuri erTianobis samsaukunovanma epoqam, faqtobrivad, ver pova Sesaferisi asaxva somexi xalxis istoriis akademiur gamocemaSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom s. eremianisave dakvirvebiT, am xanis gavlena somexTa cnobierebaze imdenad didi iyo, rom mogvianebiT, roca somxur politikur wreebSi ganixileboda rusuli iaraRis

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daxmarebiT somxuri miwebis ganTavisuflebisa da somxuri saxelmwifos aRdgenis sakiTxi, is mxolod gaerTianebuli qarTulsomxuri saxelmwifos farglebSi moiazrebodao181. Sesabamisi Tavebis avtoris l. babaianis mixedviT, qarTuli saxelmwifos istoriuli roli somxeTisa da somxebisaTvis, ZiriTadad, selCukiani Turqebisagan somxuri miwebis gamoxsnaSi aRmoCenili daxmarebiT ganisazRvreba. amave rigis movlenad miiCnevs, ratomRac, daviT aRmaSeneblis mier qvemo qarTlis ganTavisuflebasac182. somexi avtoris pretenziebi istoriuli qarTuli teritoriebis mimarT TanamimdevrobiT iCens Tavs, TiTqmis, wignis bolo gverdebamde. magaliTad, monRolTa mier qveynis samxedro-administraciul erTeulebad (dumnebad) dayofaze saubrisas, aRniSnavs, rom gurjistanis vilaieTSi Sedioda aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo da zaqarianTa feodaluri samTavroebi, romlebic xels xvevdnen (anu moicavdnen) somxeTSi airarats, siuniqs, arcaxs, gugarqs. es ukanaskneli, mtkvris auzis qarTuli qveyana ­ gugareTi anu qvemo qarTli ­ yovelgvari SeniSvnis gareSe somxur samTavro olqebsaa miTvlili, Tanac im istoriuli periodisaTvis, roca somxeTis qristianuli nawili mTlianad da uSualod jer isev qarTuli saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi rCeboda183. amasTan, TviT qarTuli wyaroebidan citirebisasac ki mTeli rigi geografiuli da sakuTari saxelebi mxolod somxuri formiTaa gadmocemuli. magaliTad, Tbilisis magier `TfRis~, javaxeTis nacvlad `javaxq~ da a. S. aseve, `vahram gageci~, `sargis Tmogveci~ da sxv. 184 , somxuri feodaluri saxlebis warmomadgenlebad warmosaxuli mxargrZelebis adgili did qarTul saxelmwifoSi da maTi uflebrivi mdgomareobac cnobili tendenciis mixedviTaa gaSuqebuli, ris safuZvelzec cdiloben am saxelmwifodan misi somxuri nawilis gamocalkevebas, rac mkafiodaa asaxuli somxeTis atlasis rukaze, sadac is monRolebisdroindeli saqarTvelosagan gansxvavebuli feriTaa gamoyofili da, rac mTavaria, mTeli qvemo qarTli somxeTis aRmniSvnel ferSia moqceuli. sakiTxisadmi amgvarsave damokide181 182 183 184

z. ratiani, saqarTvelosa da somxeTis politikuri da socialuri urTierToba mxiTar goSis samarTlis wignis mixedviT, wyaroTa RaRadi, Tb., 1989, gv. 15, 16. 180 n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, VIII, gv. 416.

Êàâêàç è Âèçàíòèÿ, I, ñ. 9.

Ð³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝ« Ñ© III« ºñ»í³Ý« 1976« ¿ç. 524-525.

iqve« gv. 614. iqve, gv. 617, 621 da sxv.

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bulebas avlenen gamocemis meoTxe tomis avtorebic. magaliTad, Temur-lengis mesame laSqrobis aRwerisas l. xaCikiani wers, rom Temurma daarbia saqarTvelo da Crdilo-aRmosavleT somxeTis mxareebi da sailustraciod moyavs Tanamedrovis, grigol xlaTecis cnoba, sadac naTqvamia: Temuri `movida, moaRwia qveyanasa qarTvelTasa Semodgomidan vidre gazafxulamde, Svid Tves... daipyro mravali simagre da mravalni maTgani~...185. is rac pirvelwyarosTvis saqarTvelo da qarTvelTa qveyana iyo, sabWoTa istorikosisaTvis retrospeqtivis darRveviT or mezobel qveynad iqca. amgvaradve warmogvidgens monRolebisdroindel saqarTvelos g. stefanianic werilSi `1247-1249 ww. qarTvel-somexTa ajanyeba TaTar-monRolTa despotizmis winaaRmdeg~, sadac koxtasTavis SeTqmulebas saqarTvelos feodalTa gamosvlad ki ar ganixilavs, aramed qarTvel da somex feodalTa ajanyebad, romlis mizani, misi azriT, iyo orive qveynisaTvis politikuri damoukideblobis mopoveba186. ase rom, amjeradac calke politikur erTeuladaa gaazrebuli saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi jer isev myofi somxuri nawili istoriuli qvemo qarTliTurT. Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos politikuri istoriis damaxinjeba-gadakeTeba rom sabWoTa somex avtorebs kulturuli movlenebis gayalbebis survilsac aRuZravda, es savsebiT mosalodneli iyo. amjeradac lideris rolSi kvlavac b-ni p. muradiani mogvevlina. amgvari aqtiurobis niSandobliv magaliTs warmoadgens korneli kekeliZis 100 wlisTavis saiubileo TariRisadmi miZRvnili misi werili, sadac mimoixilavs ra iubilaris `etiudebis~ XII da XIII tomebSi dabeWdil statiebs, rusTvelologiur naSromebze saubrisas ixsenebs qarTveli mecnieris mier 1931 w. Jurnal mnaTobSi (#7-8 da 9-10) gamoqveynebul werils `vefxistyaosnis~ avtoris vinaobaze. k. kekeliZe maSin SesaZleblad miiCnevda poemis avtori sargis Tmogveli yofiliyo, Tumca es azri maleve uaryo. p. muradianis werilis gamoqveynebis droisaTvis, TiTqmis 40 wlis winaT avtorisave mier

uaryofili Sexedulebis gaxseneba da masze yuradRebis gamaxvilebas, mecnieruli TvalsazrisiT, TiTqos, arc hqonda azri, magram p. muradiani, Cans, sxvagvarad sjida. k. kekeliZis am saxeldaxelo Tvalsazriss da amitomac mis mier maleve uaryofils, p. muradianma originaluri daskvna uwoda da xazgasmiT ganacxada, rom `...àâòîðîì ïîýìû îí ñ÷èòàåò íå Ðóñòàâåëè, à Ñàðêèñà Òìîãâåöà~187. jer erTi, ramdenadac p. muradiani k. kekeliZis citirebas axdens, valdebuli iyo es saxeli da gvaric ise moeyvana, rogorc es mis avtors aqvs mocemuli anu qarTuli formiT ­ sargis Tmogveli. amas garda, sxva somexi avtorebisgan gansxvavebiT, p. muradiani qarTul gvar-saxelebs, araiSviaTad, originalis enazec gadmogvcems. Sors rom aRar wavideT, citirebuli teqstis Semdgom abzacSi sxva qarTuli gvar-saxeli ­ serapion zarzmeli dednis formiT aqvs gadmocemuli. maS raRatom dasWirda k. kekeliZis citirebisas qarTuli gvar-saxelis somxurad gadakeTeba, ra safuZveli gaaCnda saamisod? ra Tqma unda, araviTari. sargis Tmogvelis qarTveloba araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs, is qarTuli literaturis asparezze cnobili moRvawe, visramianis qarTul enaze brwyinvale mTargmnelia. saqme isaa, rom amjerad didi literaturuli ganZis `vefxistyaosnis~ avtoris vinaobaze msjelobasTan uSualod Sexvedrisas, etyoba, p. muradianSi mikerZoebis instinqtma imZlavra, cdunebas veRar gauZlo da Sua saukuneebis popularul qarTvel moRvawes saxeli da gvari somxurad gadaukeTa, Semdeg ki poemis avtorobac miawera, riTac mkiTxvels yalbi gancda gauRviZa. ra Tqma unda, amiT rusTvelologias arc araferi daklebia da arc araferi Sematebia. ubralod, samwuxaroa, roca profesionali mkvlevari mecnieruli interesebidan Sors mdgom ganwyobilebas ase SiSvlad amJRavnebs. Sua saukuneebis kavkasiaSi somxeTis kulturuli mowinaveobis Temas aviTarebs p. muradiani 1982 w. gamoqveynebul naSromSi `kavkasiuri kulturuli samyaro da grigol ganmanaTleblis kulti~, romelic daibeWda krebulSi `Êàâêàç è Âèçàíòèÿ~-s #3-Si. kavkasiis kulturuli erTianobis n. mariseul Tezisze dayrdno-

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Ð³Û ÅáÕáíñ¹Ç å³ïÙáõÃÛáõÝ« Ñ© IV« ºñ»í³Ý« 1972« ¿ç. 30. ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« N 1« 1986« ¿ç. 97-105.

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ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« N 1« 1975« ¿ç. 214.

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biT, igi cdilobs am erTianobis gamoxatulebad da simbolod somxeTis gamqristianebeli grigol ganmanaTlebeli warmogvidginos. misi mtkicebiT, lazar farpecis cnoba arSuSa qarTlis pitiaxSis mier grigolis ganmanaTleblad aRiarebis Taobaze, somxebis tendenciuri gamonagoni ki ar aris, aramed samive eklesiis ­ somxuris, qarTulis, albanuris ­ oficialuri koncefciaa188. misive mtkicebiT, m. xorenacis masalebi mowmobs nune/ninos TandaTanobiTi daviwyebis process da misi saxis grigolis saxeSi Serwymas, ramdenadac qarTvelebi grigols, rogorc ganmanaTlebels, ukve V s. meore naxevridan aRiarebdnen189. Sua saukuneebis kavkasiaSi somxeTis kulturuli upiratesobis Tema dominirebs somxuri arqiteqturis istoriis mkvlevarTa SromebSic. ukve dasaxelebul avtorTa garda (tokarski, marTuniani da sxv.) tipuria s. mnacakanianis naSromi `somxeTsa da bizantiaSi jvargumbaTovani taZrebis genezisis sakiTxisaTvis~, romelic somxeTis istoriul-filologiuri Jurnalis 1978 wlis #1 -Si gamoqveynda. misi ganmazogadebeli daskvniT, taZrebis jvargumbaTovani tipi, romelic pirvelad somxeTSi Seiqmna V-VI saukuneebis mijnaze (tekoris taZari), aqve ganicada ayvaveba da mTlianad Secvala ra gumbaTovani bazilika, iqca ZiriTad, wamyvan tipad saSualobizantiur xuroTmoZRvrebaSi. bizantiidan is gavrcelda marTlmadidebluri qveynebis arqiteqturaSi, sadac sul male wamyvani mdgomareoba daikava Suasaukunovani bevri ostatis SemoqmedebaSi190. aqedan gamomdinare daskvniT, somxur arqiteqturasa da mis gamomsaxvel mxatvrul formebs saqarTveloSic SemouRweviaT, magram ara uSualod somxeTidan, aramed bizantiis gziT. somexi istorikosebis tendenciuri damokidebuleba istoriuli Temebis gaSuqebisas adreve SeamCnies da aRniSnes ara marto CvenSi, aramed msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSic. mravalTagan sailustraciod moviyvanT cnobili bizantiologis, xelovnebaTmcodnisa da saeklesio istoriis mkvlevris remon Janenis (18821972) zogierT SeniSvnas. 1924 w. igi werda: somexma istorikosebma

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p. muradiani, kavkasiuri kulturuli samyaro da grigol ganmanaT263leblis kulti, gv. 10-11. 189 iqve. 190 ix. ä³ïÙ³-³Ý³ëÇñ³Ï³Ý ѳݹ»ë« N 1« 1978« ¿ç. 239.

wminda ninos cxovrebis Sesaxeb SeTxzes mTeli seria legendebisa, aSkarad im mizniT, rom kavkasiis regionebSi WeSmariti sarwmunoebis SemoRebis pativi TavianTi qveynisaTvis mieniWebinaT... dReisaTvis kargad aris cnobili movses xorenacis mier istoriis sistematuri damaxinjeba Tavisi samSoblos sasargeblod... sakuTari eris prestiJis asamaRleblad somexi istorikosebi erTsulovnad Tvlian, rom wminda grigol ganmanaTlebeli RmerTma mouvlina mwed wminda ninos mis samociqulo moRvaweobaSi191. somxuri tradiciis gaziarebas remon Janeni SeuZleblad Tvlis rig garemoebaTa gamo. maT Soris 1. grigol ganmanaTlebeli 315-320 wlebs Soris, e. i. CvenTvis saintereso movlenebze ramdenime wliT adre unda gardacvliliyo. 2. laTini da berZeni avtorebi, rogoricaa rufinusi, Teodorite, sokrate, sozimene, romlebic am movlenebTan sakmaod axlo epoqaSi werdnen da, romelTac araviTari interesi ar hqondaT, rom daemaxinjebinaT faqtebi somexTa sazianod, saerTod arafers amboben wminda ninos urTierTobis Sesaxeb grigol ganmanaTlebelTan. arc Semdgomdroindeli bizantieli istorikosebi, magaliTad, gelasi kvizikelic ambobs raimes amis Taobaze. 3. Tuki saqarTvelom WeSmariti sarwmunoeba somxeTisagan miiRo, maSin rogor unda avxsnaT is garemoeba, rom igi ase didi xnis ganmavlobaSi antioqiis eklesiaze iyo damokidebuli? somexTa kaTalikosebi emorCilebodnen kesarias da ara antioqias192. remon Janenis sityviT, somxebi ufro Sorsac midiodnen da amtkicebdnen, rom maTi kaTalikosebi faqtobriv iurisdiqcias axorcielebdnen am mezobel qveyanaze WeSmariti rwmenis SemoRebidan VI s. bolomde, e. i. daaxloebiT sami saukunis manZilze. misi azriT, qarTul da somxur eklesiebs Soris Seqmnili daZabuli situacia mainc garedan momarTuli iranis politikis Sedegi iyo. SesaZloa, zogi provincia da ara mTeli eri emorCileboda somex kaTalikosebs, roca es nawili sparselTa uRelqveS moeqca 498 wlidan. qarTvel mecnierTa uaxlesma gamokvlevebma ZiriTad nawilSi daadastura remon Janenis dakvirvebebis siswore kavkasiaSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis gavrcelebaSi qarTvel da somex misionerTa rolsa da maT urTierTdamokidebulebis Taobaze. magaliTad, q-ma nino afciaurma `grigolis cxovrebaTa ciklis dawvrilebiT

191 192

remon Janeni, saqarTvelo, Tbilisi, 1996, gv. 21. iqve, gv. 22.

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Seswavlis safuZvelze cxadyo, rom somexi ganmanaTlebeli mxolod somexTa momqcevelia, ramdenadac sxvadasxva redaqciebSi dasaxelebuli toponimebi didi somxeTis teritoriuli sazRvrebis konturebs hqmnian. somexTa momaqcevelis mniSvnelobis kavkasiis masStabiT gafarToeba ki `grigolis cxovrebis~ cnobaTa araswori interpretaciis Sedegia193. m. CxartiSvilis gamokvleviTac `qarTuli hagiografiis wyaroTmcodneobiTi Seswavlis problemebi~, Tbilisi, 1987 w., grigol ganmanaTleblis saerTo kavkasiur moRvawed gamoyvana tendenciuri interpretaciis Sedegia. misive daskvniT, nino, rogorc qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli, qarTlSi qristianobis mTeli istoriis manZilze iyo aRiarebuli da `ninos cxovrebis~ adgilobrivi versia ukve IV saukuneSive arsebobda. rac Seexeba qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis ierarqiuli damokidebulebis Taobaze somxur istoriografiaSi gavrcelebul Tvalsazriss, didi damajereblobiTaa is uaryofili zaza aleqsiZis gamokvlevebSi, razec ukve iTqva. bizantiur kulturul tradiciebTan mimarTebaSi ganixilavs remon Janeni qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis ganviTarebis xasiaTs da erTob sayuradRebo daskvnebamdec midis, romelTa gaTvaliswineba, vfiqrob, ufro zomiers gaxdis somxuri arqiteqturis istoriis mkvlevarTa gazrdil pretenziebs. igi wers: kavkasiaSi agebuli pirveli Zeglebi bizantiuri xuroTmoZRvruli nagebobebis nimuSebs warmoadgenda. umniSvnelovanesi epoqis XI-XV ss. Zeglebs aqvT bizantiuri konstruqciebis ZiriTadi elementebi: berZnuli jvris formis gegma, gumbaTi da sxv. Sua saukuneebis bolo periodSi saberZneTis eklesiebTan ufro TvalsaCino msgavseba igrZnoba. mravalricxovan analogiebs vxvdebiT, agreTve, wina aziaSi, siriaSia kerZod, horanSi pirvel saukuneebSi agebul eklesiebTan. miuxedavad aseTi mravalmxrivi gavlenisa, qarTuli xuroTmoZRvreba, ZiriTadad mainc, TviTmyofadia. masSi gamoxatulia individualuri niSnebi, romlebic mkafiod ganasxvavebs mas mezobeli somxuri xuroTmoZRvrebisagan, romelmac iseTive gavlenebi ganicada194.

amrigad, rogorc vxedavT, sabWoTa somxuri istoriografiis mniSvnelovani nawili, agrZelebs ra Tavis winamorbedTa tradiciebs, qarTul-somxur istoriul urTierTobaTa Temis gaSuqebisas, istoriuli da Tanamedrove saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan nawils ­ tao-klarjeTs, samcxe-javaxeTs da qvemo qarTls mTlianad (zogjer kaxeTsac) somxuri kulturisa da politikuri A Tu eTnikuri istoriis asparezad warmoudgens mkiTxvels, riTac cdilobs damajerebloba SesZinos saqarTvelos mimarT aSkara Tu farul teritoriul pretenziebs, ris garegnul gamovlinebasac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi warmoadgens mis mier qarTuli toponimebis somxuri formiT gadmocema, magaliTad, `taiq~, `klarjq~, `javaxq~, `Trelq~ da a. S.

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n. afciauri, grigol ganmanaTleblis qadagebaTa sazRvrebi, kr. amierkavkasiis istoriis problemebi, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 85-102. 194 remon Janeni, saqarTvelo, gv. 62.

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Tavi IV axali xedva, Tu Zveli inercia?

saqarTvelosa da misi istoriis mimarT wina TavebSi aRwerili damokidebuleba gansakuTrebiT mkafiod gamoikveTa sabWoTa kavSiris daSlisa da gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi damoukidebeli qarTuli da somxuri saxelmwifoebis Seqmnis Semdeg, roca sazogadoeba sabolood ganTavisuflda sabWoTa ideologiis marwuxebidan da somxuri istoriografiis rigma warmomadgenlebma, romelTac siTamame isedac ar akldaT, daufaravad gamoxates Sors mimavali geopolitikuri zraxvebi. akad. lendruS xurSudianma erevanSi gamoaqveyna statia ­ `somxeTis erovnuli ideologia: arsi da Sinaarsi~, sadac wamoyenebulia `didi somxeTis~ (zRvidan zRvamde) aRdgenis etapobrivi gegma 1 . daSnakTa partiis am cnobili fantastikuri gegmis realizaciisaTvis brZolis asparezze amjerad, ZiriTadad, axali Taobis warmomadgenlebi gamoCndnen, romelTa Soris Jurnalistebma, mwerlebma, politologebma, sxvadasxva dargis araprofesionalebma imZlavres. warsulis kritikuli Seswavlis nacvlad, maT winamorbedi da ufrosi Taobis mier gayalbebuli istoriis bazaze daSnakuri ideebis propagandas mihyves xeli da am procesSi araseriozulobis yovelgvar zRvars gadaabijes. sicrue, siyalbe, arakompetenturoba am rigis `mkvlevarTa~ saerTo damaxasiaTebel niSnad iqca. samagierod, es propaganda organizaciulad ufro qmediTunariani da farTo masStabisa aRmoCnda. am kampaniis avangardSia somxuri arqiteqturis Semswavleli organizacia, inglisuri abreviaturiT ­ RAA, romelic aqveynebs `samecniero Sromebis krebulebs, seriul gamocemebs, maT Sorisaa

1

ix. gaz. `kavkasioni", 1999, 17-23 Tebervali.

­ "somxuri istoriuli dasaxlebani~, am dasaxlebaTa calkeul bukletebs, ruka-cnobarebs da a. S. am organizaciis wevrTa mTeli Zalisxmeva niSandoblivad mimarTulia maincdamainc Tavisi Crdiloeli istoriuli mezobeli qveynebisaken maSin, rodesac samxreTisa da samxreT-dasavleTis sivrceebze TavianTi istoriuli uflebis damtkicebas, eWvi araa, rom marTlac SeZlebdnen, mTeli es wamowyeba axla ukve samwuxaro anaqronizms rom ar ganekuTvnebodes. 1992 w. xsenebulma organizaciam `somxuri istoriuli dasaxlebebis~ seriiT erevanSi gamosca samenovani (somxur, rusul da inglisur enebze) bukleti saTauriT `axalqalaqi~. garekanis bolo gverdze `didi somxeTis~ ruka da momavalSi gamosacemi bukletebis rukaa mocemuli, sadac qvemo qarTlis, javaxeTisa da samcxis 30 sofeli da qalaqi istoriuli somxeTis dasaxlebebsaa miTvlili. TviT teqstis Zalze mcire moculobac (sul raRac or gverdamde) Tavidanve cxadyofs, rom mkiTxvelisaTvis axalqalaqis warsulsa da awmyoze obieqturi, mecnieruli codnis miwodeba misi avtoris interesebSi ar Sedis. igi kmayofildeba zogadi da kategoriuli gancxadebiT, romlis mixedviTac `axalqalaqi mTavari dasaxlebaa gugarqis gavar (anu provincia) javaxqSi~. amgvarive gancxadebiT somxuri mosaxleoba aq IX-X saukuneebidanaa, ris dasamtkicebladac miTiTebulia Zveli naqalaqaris teritoriaze aRmoCenili saflavis qva 1301 wlisa da axal eklesiaSi CaSenebuli 1289 w. somxuri qvajvari, agreTve, qalaqis maxloblad mdebare XII-XIII ss. eklesia, rac namdvilad arasakmarisia. teqstis danarCeni nawili eTmoba rusuli jaris mier axalqalaqis aRebas da maT mier arzrumidan Camosaxlebuli somxebiT am mxaris kolonizaciis aRweras. Tu Sua saukuneebis axalqalaqis istoriis gadmocemas 22 striqoni eTmoba, XIX s. qalaqis istoriis gadmocemas ­ orjer meti, rac arapirdapir imazec miuTiTebs, rom axalqalaqisa da javaxeTis somxuri mosaxleobis istoria, realurad am droidan iwyeba. miuxedavad amgvari Sedegebisa, gamocemis arCeuli forma (e. i. bukleti) mis avtors ufro met saSualebas aZlevs mkiTxvels is codna miawodos, rac mas awyobs, sawinaaRmdegos ki ufro moxerxebulad aaridos Tavi. normalur viTarebaSi, aseTi naSromebi mecnierul monacemebs unda emyarebodes da ara, piriqiT, politika gansazRvravdes faqtebis ganxilvis

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wess. xsenebuli organizaciis sagamomcemlo gegmebi da ukve gamocemuli produqcia eWvs aRar gvitovebs, rom am bukletiT istoriis gayalbebis kerZo SemTxvevasTan ki ar gvaqvs saqme, aramed, antimecnierul da antimezoblur farTo kampaniasTan. amitom misasalmebelia Jurnal `artanujis~ redaqciis iniciativa, romelmac cnobil mecniers, istoriuli geografiis specialists, devi berZeniSvils sTxova pasuxis gacema bukletSi aRZrul problemebze, risTvisac mas Jurnal `artanujis~ mTeli nomeri daeTmo (1998 w. # 7). pirvelwyaroebis farTo speqtris safuZvelze d. berZeniSvilma axalqalaqisa da javaxeTis istoriis Tanamimdevruli suraTi warmoudgina mkiTxvels uZvelesi droidan dRemde, ramac naTlad cxadyo bukletis avtoris gancxadebaTa sruli usafuZvloba. amasTan, somexi avtori amxila TvalTmaqcobasa da arakeTilsindisierebaSi, romelic am gziT cdilobs faqtebisa da wyaroTa monacemebis Sinaarsis misTvis sasurveli mimarTulebiT gaxmianebas. magaliTad, bukletis teqstis mixedviT, axalqalaqi ori mdinaris SesayarSia, romelTagan erTia `farvana (e. i. Tavfaravnis wyali), meore ki ­ `qarasun aRbiur~ (ormoci wyaro). aseTi saxelwodeba ar arsebobs. esaa somxuri Targmani Turquli yirxbulaxisa, romelic rusul xuTversian rukazea aRniSnuli. ufro adre mas dliviswyali, xolo Zvel qarTvel istorikosebTan axalqalaqiswyali ewodeboda. mdinaris gviani, Turquli saxelwodebis somxurad gadakeTebiT teqstis avtori cdilobs rogorme daamkvidros hidronimis somxuri forma, SeniSnavs d. berZeniSvili2 . bukletSi moyvanilia axalqalaqis somxuri da sxva erovnebis mosaxleobis raodenobis amsaxveli cxrili, romlis mowmobiTac somxebi raodenobrivad didad sWarboben sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebs. am Tanafardobis yvelaze adreuli maCvenebeli 1851 wlidan iwyeba da grZeldeba 1976 wlamde. cxrili asaxavs istoriul periods, roca carizmis moxeleebma, Semdeg ki sabWoTa mTavrobamac politikuri mosazrebiT demografiuli situacia am regionSi Zalis gamoyenebiT Zireulad Secvala somexTa sasargeblod. bukletis avtori ki XIX s. 30-iani wlebis Semdgomi xanis

movlenebis dasaxelebisa da moyvanili cxrilis STambeWdavi cifrebis CvenebiT akeTebs ganmazogadebel daskvnas, rom `axalqalaqSi yovelTvis somxuri mosaxleoba Warbobda~-o. amis gamo, d. berZeniSvili savsebiT marTebulad SeniSnavs: Tavisi istoriis mTel manZilze axalqalaqi qarTuli dasaxleba iyo saqarTvelos saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi, amitom bukletis avtoris azri, somxuri mosaxleobis aq mudmiv umetesobaze, aSkara siyalbea3 . msgavs siyalbeTa magaliTebi sxvac araerTia. Tundac is, rom XIX s. xaCqarebs bukletis avtori IX-X ss.ad asaRebs, raTa axalqalaqSi somxuri dasaxlebis arseboba am saukuniT daaTariRos. xelovnebaTmcodne eka jandieri ganmartavs: es calkeuli xaCqarebi, arqeologiuri stratigrafiis mixedviT XIX s. 30 wlebis Semdeg aq gadmosaxlebul somex moaxalSeneTa nakvalevia. am qvebis gviandel warmomavlobaze ara marto ornamentis analizi, aramed maTi garegnuli ieric da uzado Senaxulobac metyvelebs. paskeviCis alyas da 300 zarbaznis Sturms raRa marto es xaCqarebi gadaurCa zedapirze uvneblad, roca mTeli cixe Tavisi oTxsarTuliani koSkebiT Camoilewa. magaliTebis gamravleba kidevac SeiZleboda, magram moyvanilic, vfiqrob, sakmarisi unda iyos bukletis avtoris kvalifikaciisa da moqalaqeobrivi keTilsindisierebis warmosadgenad. d. berZeniSvilis mier mkacri mecnieruli sizustiT warmodgenili mdidari istoriuli faqtebi axalqalaqsa da mTlianad javaxeTs gvixasiaTebs, rogorc didi warsuli mqone, ekonomikuri da politikuri TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelos umniSvnelovanes da qarTuli kulturis sanimuSo regions. naqalaqaris teritoriaze arqeologiurma gaTxrebma gamoavlina eneoliTuri da adrebrinjaos xanis namosaxlari, roca somxebi kavkasiaSic jer ar iyvnen, ris gamoc, Cans, bukletis avtori am mniSvnelovan faqts, saerTod, arc axsenebs. aseve dumiliT gverds uvlis q. w. VIII s. urartul wyaroebSi moxseniebul qveyana `zabaxa~-s anu javaxeTs, romelsac mZime brZolebi hqonda urartelebTan. Zveli javaxeTis qarTlTan uaxloes kavSirze metyvelebs iberiis aristokratiaSi sakuTar saxelad qceuli javax (zevax)-is popularoba. es saxeli

2

Jurn. `artanuji~, 1998, # 7, gv. 12.

3

Jurn. `artanuji~, 1998, # 7, gv. 25.

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armazis warwerebSi samgzisaa dadasturebuli II s. iberiis pitiaxSebis sakuTar saxelad (Sdr.: kaxa ­ kaxeTi). qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, wundis saerisTavoSi gaerTianebuli javaxeTi uZvelesi droidanve qarTlis mefes emorCileboda. pirveli qarTuli eklesiebi iq IV-VI saukuneebSi aSenda, xolo vaxtang gorgasalma javaxeTSi saepiskoposo kaTedra daaarsa. arabuli da somxuri wyaroebi (balazori, ioane mamikoniani) javaxeTs qarTlis im mxareTa Soris asaxeleben, romlebic arabebma VII s. daipyres. naqalaqaris teritoriaze gaTxrili da Seswavlilia Zveli qarTuli eklesiis IX-X ss. naSTi, e. w. `Tavisufali jvris~ tipis centralurgumbaTovani nageboba. mis nangrevebSi napovni qvajvarTa bazisebi da karnizebi ki V-VII da VIII-IX ss. ganekuTvneba. ivaraudeba, rom isini IX-X ss. eklesiis mSeneblobaSi iq arsebuli ufro Zveli samlocveloebidan moxvdnen. xaCqarebze ufro adreuli da mniSvnelovani ZeglebiT dasturdeba, rom axalqalaqis koncxze arsebuli mozrdili samosaxlo imdenad dawinaurebula, rom XI sisaTvis igi javaxeTis umniSvnelovanesi centri gamxdara da bagrat IV-is daqvemdebarebaSi gadasula, romelsac mefem zRudec Semoavlo. d. berZeniSvils, amasTan, mohyavs vrceli amonawerebi wyaroebidan axalqalaqs Tavsgadamxdari omebis Taobaze da sagangebod moyvanil am amonawerebSi niSandoblivad ar Canan somxebi. yvelgan xazgasmulia `axalqalaqis mkvidrni~, `did-didni da warCinebulni mTavarni da erisTavni~ `mesxni aznaurni~, `qarTvelebi~ da `qarTvelTa meliqebi~. arsaidan Cans, rom iq `istoriuli somxuri mosaxleoba~ yofiliyos. sayuradReboa, rom saerTod javaxeTis epigrafikaSi somxuri warwerebi XIV s-mde ar Cans, xolo qarTuli warwerebis simravliT Cvens qveyanaSi es erTerTi gamorCeuli mxarea. 1595 w. Sedgenili `gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTridanac~ Cans, rom javaxuri soflebis mosaxleobis didi umravlesoba qarTvelebi arian. aris soflebi, sadac qarTul saxelebs Soris gamoereva TiTo-orola karapet, xaCatur, terakof da sxv. aris mahmadianuri saxelebic. samagierod, arsad Cans mxolod somxebiT dasaxlebuli soflebi. osmalTa batonobis periodSi axalqalaqi knindeba, mosaxleobisgan icleba da kvlavac qarTlidan gadmosulebiT ivseba, magram XVI-XVIII ss. javaxe-

Tis axalqalaqi ZiriTadad mainc osmalTa jaris sadgomi iyo, sadac Zlivs boginobda adgilobrivi mosaxleoba4 . amrigad, bukletis avtoris mtkiceba, TiTqos, axalqalaqis somxuri mosaxleoba yovelTvis sWarbobda qarTuls, Zveli somxuri miTia mxolod. sagulisxmoa isic, rom jer kidev 1919 w. gazafxulze damfuZnebeli krebisaTvis mowyobili arCevnebis dros axalqalaqis mazraSi, romelic somxuri mosaxleobis gansakuTrebuli siWarbiT gamoirCeoda maSin, arCevnebSi monawile 21. 687 kacidan 13 aTasma qarTul partiebs misca xma da mxolod rva aTasma ­ somxurs5 . imedia, axalqalaqisa da javaxeTis somxuri mosaxleobis 120 wliani istoria ver gadaSlis imave mxaris ramdenime aTasi wlis qarTul istorias. d. berZeniSvilis pasuxis gamoqveynebidan mokle xanSi, imave 1998 w. somxeTis gamomcemloba `mecnierebam~ dastamba somxuri arqiteqturis Semswavleli organizaciis samecniero Sromebis morigi wigni, romelic, faqtobrivad istoriuli simarTlis damaxinjebis axal sanimuSo cdas warmoadgens. wignis saTauri `saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi politika da somxuri kulturis Zeglebi~ da gansakuTrebiT misi Sinaarsi, samwuxarod, verafriT hgavs mecnierebasTan Tundac miaxloebul naSroms. wigns Tavidan bolomde gasdevs TavSeukavebeli, Rirsebas moklebuli gamoTqmebiT gamoxatuli, zRvarsgadacilebuli emociebis talRa, romelic avtorTa naRvaws nebiT Tu uneblied araseriozuli politikanobis xasiaTs aZlevs. krebulis Semdgenlis, samvel karapetianis ganmartebiT, RAA-s mTeli Zalebi da saxsrebi mimarTuli aqvs mxolod da mxolod axlandeli somxeTis respublikis sazRvrebs gareT arsebul somxur kulturul faseulobaTa Seswavlisaken, e. i. istoriuli somxeTis teritoriisakeno. saqarTveloSi ki, misive TqmiT, somxuri Zeglebi SemCneulia ara marto istoriuli somxeTis gugarqis olqSi, aramed sxva adgilebSico ­ qarTlSi, kaxeTSi da sxvagan6 . ase, kalmis erTi mosmiT qvemo qarTli da saerTod mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo istoriul somxeTadaa

4 5

6

Jurn. `artanuji~, gv. 13-27. v. nozaZe, saqarTvelos aRdgenisaTvis brZola mesxeTis gamo, Tbilisi, 1989, gv. 60. dasaxelebuli somxuri krebuli, gv. 83.

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gamocxadebuli. Tavis agresiul zraxvaTa gasamarTleblad qarTul mxares brals sdebs somxuri Zeglebis ganadgurebaSi da provokaciulad acxadebs, TiTqos, somxuri kulturis Zeglebis arseboba saqarTveloSi miCneuli iyos saSiSad im mizeziT, rom Tu qarTlSi, kaxeTsa da imereTSi somxebi, sxvebis msgavsad mosulebi arian, viTomc, samxreT saqarTveloSi isini aborigenebi iyvnen. amitomac, `ukanaskneli aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi somxurma istoriulma Zeglebma srulmasStabiani da mizanmimarTuli ganadgureba da miTviseba ganicadeso~7 . STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad ki cilismwameblurad acxadebs, TiTqos, somxuri civilizaciis damamtkicebel ZeglebTan erTad saqarTveloSi berZnuli, rusuli da germanuli Zeglebic mizanmimarTulad nadgurdebodes8 . faqtobrivad ki, s. karapetianis mTeli mrisxaneba Tbilisis somxuri Zeglebis `ngrevisa da dazianebis~ winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi `istoriuli somxeTis teritoriis~ miRma unda iTvlebodes TiTqos. krebulis Semdgenlis taqtikuri svla arc ise Zneli gamosacnobi unda iyos. s. karapetiani erTdroulad ori kurdRlis daWeras apirebs. qvemo qarTlis mitacebasTan erTad yuradRebis gadmotanas cdilobs javaxeTidan, sadac saukuneze metia mizanmimarTulad da sistematurad nadgurdeba somexTa gvian mosulobis mamxilebeli mravalricxovani qarTuli Zeglebi. gaRma gamodavebisa da ciliswamebis xerxiT s. karapetianis gundis wevrebi cdiloben qarTvelTa winaaRmdeg mimarTon istoriul ZeglTa daRupviT gamowveuli aRSfoTeba. sinamdvile ki TviT am krebulSi moTavsebuli zogierTi werilidanac ki Jonavs. magaliTad, somxeT-saqarTvelos sazogadoebis wevri armen ter sarqisiani Tavis statiaSi aRiarebs, rom ruseTis imperiis damxobis Semdeg sovetizirebul qveyanaSi daiwyo sakulto nagebobaTa sayovelTao msxvreva. miwis piridan daundoblad iRgveboda taZrebi, eklesiebi, meCeTebi, minareTebi, sinagogebi. am procesma amierkavkasiac moicva. TbilisSi dangreulma somxurma eklesiebma aTs gadaaWarba 9 . Semdeg CamoTvlilia am periodSi

ganadgurebuli TiTqmis yvela is nageboba, romelTa Sesaxeb wignis gverdebze zarebis rekvaa atexili. wignis avtorebs unda SevaxsenoT, rom im avadxsenebul 30-ian wlebSi qarTuli kulturis Zeglebi gacilebiT metad dazianda, vidre somxuri da am saqmeSi `qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi politika~ arafer SuaSia, miT ufro usafuZvloa pretenziebi damoukidebeli saqarTvelos mTavrobis mimarT. RAA-s warmomadgenelTa gansakuTrebuli aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia eliaze amierkavkasiis masStabebisTvis grandiozuli samebis qarTuli eklesiis aSenebam, ramdenadac maT raRatomRac sakuTrad miCneuli teritoriis Seuracxyofad miiCnies, ris gamoc samebis mSeneblebs `barbarosebi~ uwodes10 da provokaciulad ganacxades, TiTqos, mrisxanebis talRam gadauara saqarTvelos somxur da rusul mosaxleobas da imuqrebodnen `aucileblad daiqceva sisxlze, Zvlebze da sicrueze agebuli qarTuli taZrebio~11. miuxedavad imisa, rom samebis eklesia aSenda Zveli qarTuli sakulto Zeglis adgilas da misi mSenebloba savsebiT kanonieri iyo, qarTvelTa patriarqma pativiscemis niSnad es gadawyvetileba sruliad somexTa kaTalikoss SeuTanxma, romelic miesalma kidec `RvTis sasurvel~ am saqmes12. mrude sarkeSi faqtebis Cvenebis magaliTebi wignSi sakmaod bevria. mavne tendencia wignis avtorTa politikur sibeceze metyvelebs da mas zianis meti araferi SeuZlia moutanos mezobeli xalxebis urTierTobas. uRirsi gamoTqmebis siuxvec (qarTveli vandalebi, barbarosebi, xulignebi, mobandito qarTveli mRvdlebi, qarTuli sapatriarqos vandalebi da sxv.) imisTvisaa gamoyenebuli, rom saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis gulubryvilo nawilSi qarTuli saxelmwifos, qarTuli samRvdeloebisa da saerTod e. w. `daudevari qarTvelebisadmi~ siZulvili aRZras, rac, etyoba viRacis (albaT saerTo mtris) interesebSi Sedis. yvelaze miuRebeli am wignSi mainc Riad gacxadebuli teritoriuli pretenziebia. s. karapetiani akritikebs ra Jurnal `artanujSi~ dabeWdil devi berZeniSvilis maRalprofesiul, mec10 11 12

7 8 9

dasaxelebuli somxuri krebuli, gv. 7. iqve. iqve, gv. 80-81.

dasaxelebuli somxuri krebuli, gv. 51. iqve, gv. 52. iqve, gv. 51-52.

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nierul doneze Sesrulebul, Cvens mier ukve xsenebul kritikul werils, romelic RAA-s aseve sxva mavne gamonaTqvamebs exeba, yovelgvari argumentisa da mtkicebis gareSe acxadebs, rom mas, TiTqos, mecnierebasTan araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs, mxolod imitoma, rom qarTveli mecnieri, Turme, gaurbis Sua saukuneebis qarTul wyaroebSi farTod gavrcelebul saxels ­ `somxiTs~ da `istoriuli somxeTis olqis gugarqis Crdilo raionebis aRsaniSnavad iyenebs toponim `qvemo qarTls~. amiT devi berZeniSvils surs dafaros realoba, romelsac termini `somxiTi~ anu somxeTi asaxavso13. am SemTxvevaSic s. karapetiani, sxva somexi avtorebis msgavsad, TvalTmaqcobs. is aRarafers ambobs imaze, rom somxuri wyaroebi imave teritorias `vrac daSts~ anu qarTvelTa vels uwodeben, Zveli somxuri wyaroebi misTvis ukeTes SemTxvevaSi `gugarqSi~ narev mosaxleobas gulisxmoben da iq somxebi ar egulebaT. termini `somxiTi~ ki X s. Cndeba, roca qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze kvirikianTa mcire somxuri samefo Camoyalibda. niSandoblivia, rom Tanamedroveni amis Semdegac am raions isev saqarTvelod aRiqvamdnen. episkoposi mxiTar airivaneci qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze kvirikianTa samefos warmoqmnas ase gadmogvcems: `981 w. daiwyo bagratunianTa mefoba qarTvelebze rameTu gurgeni gamefda saqarTveloSi, xolo misi Zma smbati somxeTSi14. aSkaraa, rom somex episkoposs somexTa mier `gugarqad~ wodebuli es mxare eTnikuri da kulturuli niSniT saqarTvelod miaCnda. vfiqrob, komentari zedmetia. aseve safuZvels moklebulia javaxeTis saxelis somxuri formiT (`javaxq~) daJinebuli gadmocema da amiT garkveuli teritoriuli pretenziebis aRZvra. kargadaa cnobili, rom saqarTvelos bunebriv-istoriuli sazRvrebi bevrad ufro samxreTiT iyo gavrcobili da saukuneebis manZilze imdenad myari, rom amierkavkasiis administraciulad mowyobisas ruseTis mTavroba iZulebuli iyo Tbilisis gubernia Zvel istoriul sazRvrebSi moeqcia. samagierod, sazRvrispira raionebSi mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenloba meqanikurad da Zaladobrivi gziT qarTvelTa sazianod Secvala.

13 14

am gzas adga, rogorc TeTri, ise wiTeli ruseTi. amgvari sakiTxebis wamoweva da maT Sesaxeb diskusiebis mowyoba mezobeli xalxebisadmi mtrulad ganwyobili, politikurad gaumarTavi seriuli gamocemebis gziT, gansakuTrebiT axla, roca saqarTvelosa da somxeTis saxelmwifoTa urTierToba TanamSromlobis, saerTo interesebis Segnebisa da urTierTgagebis niSniT warmatebiT viTardeba, ubralod mavnea da ewinaaRmdegeba mezobeli xalxebis saerTo interesebs. am saZraxis saqmeSi gansakuTrebulad aqtiurobs ukve xsenebuli samvel karapetiani. mis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli RAA-s mier 1995 w. somxur enaze ruka-cnobaris `somxuri eklesiebi saqarTveloSi~ gamocema, romelic somxeTs garda Tbilisis eklesiebSic iyideba. mis avtors saqarTveloSi aRricxuli aqvs, misi TqmiT, 650 somxuri eklesia, romelTagan TiTqmis naxevari, sinamdvileSi, somxurs miwerili qarTuli eklesiebia, amasTan Zalze mcirea maT Soris istoriul-kulturuli Rirebulebis Zeglebi. magram es s. karapetians ar anaRvlebs, misTvis mTavaria raodenoba, romelmac saqarTvelos aRmosavleTi da samxreTi raionebis dasaxelebuli punqtebi mTlianad unda dafaros, raTa iq qarTuli eklesiisaTvis ubralod mosaniSni adgilic ar darCes. swored aseTia misi ruka-cnobaric, romlis daniSnuleba yvelaze gulubryvilo mkiTxvelisaTvisas, vfiqrob, savsebiT gasagebia. s. karapetiani Tavisi moRvaweobis geografiul areals TandaTan afarToebs da 2002 wlisaTvis ukve beiruTSi RAA-s egidiT ³³ù aqveynebs ruka-cnobars `javaxeTis istoriuli Zeglebi~ (æ í Ë Ç å ï ³ ³ Ñ õ ³ Ó Ý » ). amjeradac ar Ralatobs Cvevas da mis ³ Ù Ï Ý á ß ñ ³ Ýñ ruka-cnobarSi mxolod somxur Zeglebs afiqsirebs, ganurCevlad imisa gaaCniaT Tu ara maT istoriuli an kulturuli Rirebuleba. mizani igive rCeba. mkiTxveli daarwmunos javaxeTis somxur warsulSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom warmodgenil ZeglTa umetesoba XIX-XX ss. ganekuTvneba15. imave 2002 w. beiruTSi somxur enaze gamoqveynda mecnieruli naSromebisa da statiebis mozrdili krebuli ­ `mSobliuri javaxeTi~. s. karapetians am krebulSi ekuTvnis CvenTvis ukve kargad cnobili suliskveTebiT dawerili, sami statia sadac siyalbe da ciliswamebac sakmaod uxvadaa Tav15

xsenebuli somxuri krebuli, gv. 84. mxiTar airivaneci, qronografiuli istoria, l. davlianiZis gamoc. Tb., 1990, gv. 74.

ix. literaturuli saqarTvelo, 18-24 oqtomberi, 2002 w.

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moyrili. Tematurad axalia misi werili `qarTuli politika axalcixe-axalqalaqis mahmadiani mosaxleobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT~. problema s. karapetianis arcTu usafuZvlo SeSfoTebas iwvevs, ramdenadac man kargad icis, rom 1944 w. samcxe-javaxeTidan Sua aziaSi gasaxlebuli mosaxleobis udides nawils am qveynis mkvidri gamahmadianebuli mesxebi (muslimani qarTvelebi) Seadgendnen da dabrunebis SemTxvevaSi maTTan Sexvedra, bunebrivia, gaacocxlebs usiamo warsuls, roca XIX s. 30 wlebSi ZaliT gandevnili am mesxebis winaparTa sabinadroze erzerumidan Camosaxlebuli somxebi daamkvidra imdroindeli ruseTis mTavrobam16. amitomac aris, rom im droidan mokidebuli dRemde javaxeTis somxuri mosaxleoba s. karapetianisa da maTi msgavsebis waqezebiT mizanmimarTulad dReniadag Slis qarTvelTa kvals saqarTvelos am ZirZvel miwa-wyalze. arsebiTad wamqezebluri da aSkarad agresiulicaa somxeTis rusulenovan gazeTSi `novoe vremiaSi~ (2002 w. 5 noemberi) gamoqveynebuli somxeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis institutis mecnier TanamSromlisa da politologis aleqsandre kananianis werili, romelic gazeTis redaqciis ganmartebiT, xsnis dapirispirebaTa kvanZs, romelic javaxqis irgvliv Seikrao. samwuxarod, mecnieruli sabuTianobisa da eTikis dacvis sanacvlod, werili savsea TvalTmaqcobis, ciliswamebisa da wyaroebis cnobebis gayalbebis magaliTebiT, daSvebulia araerTi faqtobrivi Secdomac. erT-erTi didi Secdoma Tu tyuili, anda orive erTad, vfiqrob, aris al. kananianis mier am werilSi wamoyenebuli debuleba, TiTqos, `javaxqi~ somexi eris genezisis arealSi Sedioda. am debulebis siswores, misi TqmiT, mowmobs: `javaxqis~ toponimTa etimologia, iseve, rogorc arqeologiur gaTxrebSi aRmoCenili uZvelesi kulturuli plastebi, mxaris adre Suasaukunovani tradiciebis erTianoba, misi mWidro kavSiri somxeTis zeganis saerTokulturul arealTan da istoriuli wyaroebi. saerTod eTnogenezisis problema imdenad rTulia, rom CamoTvlili faqtorebis realurad arsebobis pirobebSic ki dasmul sakiTxze gadawyvetiT pasuxis gacema SesaZloa gaWirdes. am SemTxvevaSi ki,

16

ix. literaturuli saqarTvelo, 2-8 maisi, 2003 w.

roca dasaxelebuli faqtorebi didi eWvis qveSaa, miT umetes, rom arc erT maTgans konkretuli magaliTi an cnoba saerTod ar axlavs, faqtorTa mTeli es erToblioba imdenad zogadi da arafris mTqmelia, rom aseTive `warmatebiT~ SeiZleba miudges is nebismieri xalxis eTnogezs. al. kananians Tavisi debulebis gasamarTleblad, Tundac erTi seriozuli gamokvleva mainc rom daesaxelebina, kidev SeiZleboda misTvis raRaca angariSis gaweva, Torem TviTon, rom Zveli istoriis specialisti ar aris da etyoba arc Sua saukuneebisa, es misi werilidanac cxadad Cans. mTel teqstSi winaaRmdegobebiT gajerebuli erTmaneTis gamomricxveli debulebebi monacvleobs, romelTa mizani Tumca ki javaxeTis somxuri samyarosaTvis kuTvnilebis damtkicebaa, magram misdauneburad sapirispiroze ufro metyvelebs. magaliTad, al. kananianis TqmiT, qarTuli eTnikuri elementis SeWra javaxeTSi uZveles droSi xdeboda da am process mudmivi xasiaTi hqonia, rac XIX s. presaze dayrdnobiT daudgenia. IX s-idan moyolebuli, ganagrZobs werilis avtori, javaxqi bagrationebis artanujeli dinastiis gavlenis qveS eqceva da Zlier qalkedonur zewolas ganicdis. Sedegad, somxeTis am kuTxis mosaxleobis arcTu mcire nawils, Tavis politikur xelisufalTa msgavsad, qalkedonur saqarTvelosTan aqvs Sexeba, marTlmadideblobas iRebs da qarTveldeba. qalkedonuri rwmenis aRmsarebeli feodalebi aSeneben eklesiebs, sadac RvTismsaxureba wminda berZnuli iyo, oRond qarTulad aResruleboda. al. kananianis SeniSvniT, qarTuli epigrafika javaxeTSi IX s. gamoCnda da XIV s. Sewyda (aSkaraa cruobs an ar icis). XIV s-idan iq mxolod somxur epigrafikas vxvdebiTo (sinamdvileSi somxuri epigrafika aq XIV s-mde arca Cans) da ganagrZobs: qarTvelTa mravalsaukunovanma politikurma batonobam ver Seryvna javaxqis eTnikuri saxeo. qalkedonizmis mimdevrebma da gaqarTvelebulma somxebma TurqeTis batonobis dasawyisSive miiRes islami. somxuri mosaxleoba ki, umZimesi wnexis gamo, TandaTan Semcirda. amrigad, 1830 w. javaxqSi somexi mosaxleobis gadasaxleba unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc saqarTvelos teritoriis `kolonizacia~, aramed somxuri mosaxleobis migracia misi erTi regionidan meoreSio. Tuki al. kananianisave dakvirvebiT qarTuli eTnikuri elementis, ZiriTadad, mesaqonleebis javaxeTSi SeWra uZvelesi xani-

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danve xdeboda da am process mudmivi xasiaTi hqonda, e. i. `qarTuli elementi~ iq myarad ijda, Tu IX s-idan moyolebuli iq qarTveli bagrationebi batonobdnen da maT `somxeTis am kuTxis mosaxleobis arcTu mcire nawili~ gauqarTvelebiaT kidec, xolo somexTa kvalis maniSnebeli epigrafika mxolod XIV s-idan Cndeba, aqedan rogorRa gamohyavs daskvna, rom qarTvelTa mravalsaukunovanma politikurma batonobam ver Seryvna `javaxqis~ eTnikuri saxeo? anda qarTvelTa mravalsaukunovani politikuri batonoba, rom al. kananianis mixedviT, osmalTa batonobiT Seicvala, ris Sedegac somxuri mosaxleoba Zalze Semcirda, aseT politikur suraTze sadRaa `javaxqis~ adgili? ra Tqma unda, qarTlis es ganapira mxare anu qarTuli wyaroebis zemo qarTli Zvel da Sua saukuneebSi yovelTvis javaxeTad Seicnobda, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT somxuri dapyrobebis ramdenime umniSvnelo epizods. rac Seexeba eTnogenezTan dakavSirebiT al. kananianis mier dasaxelebul faqtorebs, unda SevniSnoT, rom iseve rogorc mTel samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi, javaxeTis toponimiaSic SeiniSneba zanuri enis nakvalevi. fiqroben, rom saxelebSi ­ WobareTi, toloSi, dadeSi, orxofia, miraSxani, koruSeTi, kvarSa, burnaSeTi, saloSeTi, areSti, baraleTi, janjRa, orja, CunCxa, oloda, eStio da sxva mravali unda iyos Semonaxuli uZvelesi zanuri saxelwodebani. arqeologiur masalaSic kargad Cans kolxuri brinjaos kvali. javaxeTSi dadasturebulia rogorc dasavlurqarTuli, ise aRmosavlurqarTuli kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli brinjaos nivTebi17. javaxeTis toponimebis udidesi nawili, cxadia, qarTulia, Tumca, rogorc d. berZeniSvili varaudobs, somexTa mier drodadro dapyrobil javaxeTSi ZvelTaganve iqneboda somxuri mosaxleobac, ris mowmobadac gaismis javaxeTis Zveli centris ­ wundis somxuri saxelwodeba. miuxedavad amisa, ganagrZobs qarTveli mkvlevari, javaxeTSi ar SemogvrCenia uZvelesi somxuri warwerebi, aseTi aq mxolod qarTuli Cans18, rac xsenebul dapyrobaTa epizodur da umniSvnelo xasiaTze unda miuTiTebdes.

17

ase rom, al. kananianis umTavres mignebas, TiTqos, `1830 wels javaxqSi somexi mosaxleobis gadasaxleba unda ganvixiloT ara rogorc saqarTvelos teritoriis `kolonizacia~, aramed somxuri mosaxleobis migracia misi erTi regionidan meoreSi~, araviTari mecnieruli safuZveli ar gaaCnia. mecnierul problemebze da Tundac politikur sakiTxebzec kamaTi, ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba da saWirocaa, magram patiosnad, obieqturad, argumentebisa da sabuTebis warmodgeniT. magram, roca amis sanacvlod, mecnieris pretenziis mqone piri ciliswamebas mimarTavs da iseT did mecnierebs, rogoric ivane javaxiSvili da niko berZeniSvili iyo, mecnieruli keTilsindisierebis da principulobis namdvil etalonebs, augad da cud tonSi moixseniebs, werilis avtori pirvel rigSi sakuTar pirovnul Rirsebaze iRebs xels. aSkaraa, rom al. kananians n. berZeniSvilis `arqeologiuri dRiurebi~, rogorc amas somexi avtori uwodebs javaxeTis 1933 wlis eqspediciis saangariSo moxsenebas, namdvilad ar waukiTxavs da zepir gadmocemas emyareba, Torem antisomxurs iq verafers naxavda. am `dRiurebSi~ saubaria im did siZneleebsa da dabrkolebebze, rasac eqspediciis muSaobas uqmnida javaxeTis somxur mosaxleobaSi CaTesili undobloba qarTvelTa mimarT. ase iyo n. berZeniSvilamdec da igive viTarebaa dResac19, qarTuli materialuri kulturis Zeglebi da masze gakeTebuli warwerebic dResac mizanmimarTulad da TanmimdevrobiT nadgurdeba. es faqtia da amis mizezi mxolod droTa svla da bunebrivi stiqiebi ar aris. al. kananiani gveficeba mTel saqarTvelos ki ara, mxolod somxebiT dasaxlebul javaxeTs gedavebiTo (etyoba, amisTvis unda madlobac gvaTqmevinos) da Tan dRevandeli saqarTvelos bolnisis, dmanisis, TeTriwyaros, marneulis raionebsac Cum-Cumad xelsa hxvevs. misi mtkicebiT, is garemoeba, rom somxeTs mravali saukunis manZilze gauqmebuli hqonda saxelmwifoebrioba da Crdilo somxeTis zogierTi kuTxe naxevrad damoukidebeli qarTuli politikuri warmonaqmnebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, ar aZlevs saqarTvelos uflebas, es teritoriebi istoriul kuTvnilebad

18

ix. d. berZeniSvili, narkvevebi saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiidan, Tbilisi, 1985, gv. 125. iqve, gv. 126.

19

ix. Jurn. `artanuji~, # 7, 1998, gv 32-34.

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gamoacxadoso da ganagrZobs ­ Seucnobelia gzani istoriisa ­ albaT, amitomac javaxqi, romlis somxuri saxe Sua saukuneebSi dasustda, XIX s. kvlav aRdga, rogorc wminda somxuri regioni, im dros, roca Crdilo-aRmosavleTi gugarqi ­ bolnofori, qveSafori, wobofori, kolbo fori, mangleacfori, praqtikulad Turquli eTnikuri elementebiT aris dasaxlebulio (rogorc Cans, amasac Cven gvsayvedurobs). radganac al. kananiani qarTvel avtorebsa da maT Sromebs eWvis TvaliT uyurebs, somexTa mier `gugarqad~ wodebul qvemo qarTlis eTnoistoriaze mouyvan cnobili somexi mecnieris leon meliqseT-begis Tvalsazriss. isic somxeTis patrioti iyo da amis gamo garkveulwilad subieqtur damokidebulebasac iCenda mwvave sakiTxebis ganxilvisas, magram ara imdenad, rom mecnieruli sindisisTvis aSkarad eRalata. ai, ras werda Rvawlmosili somexi mkvlevari e. w. gugarqis warsulze: `es kuTxe Tu preistoriul xanaSi ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi pirvel saukuneebSi qr. w., rogorc strabonis gakvriTi cnobebidan irkveva da agreTve TviT am kuTxis toponimikac gvidasturebs, iberTa (verTa) monaTesave anu qarTvelTa modgmis tomTa sadgomi yofila~20. dRes mecnierebisaTvis cnobilia, rom am ZvelqarTuli tomis saxeli gogarebi yofila, saidanac warmosdga kidec maTi sadgomi qveynis berZnuli saxeli `gogarene~ da somxuri `gugarqi~. es saxeli bolo dromde SemorCenili hqonda md. debeda-Cais saTavis sofel `gogarans~, romelic gugarqad gadaakeTes 21 . ZvelqarTuli provincia `gugareTi~ (somx. `gugarqi~) q. w. II s. Semdgom xuTjer gadavida xelidan xelSi iberiasa da somxeTs Soris sasazRvro davisas, vidre IV s. meore naxevridan sabolood ar SeuerTda qarTls. somxurive wyaroebis mowmobiT, gugarqis mkvidri mosaxleoba qarTuli iyo22. somxur istoriografiaSi mdare, mecnierebas dacilebuli naSromebis momravlebam bolo xans, Cveni mudmivi oponentis b-n

20

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l. meliqseT-begi, `Crdilo mxareTa somexTa moZRvarni~ da maTi vinaoba, tfilisi, 1928, gv. 22. Ä. Ë. Ìóñõåëèøâèëè, Èç èñòîðè÷åñêîé ãåîãðàôèè Âîñòî÷íîé Ãðóçèè, Òáèëèñè, 1982, ñ. 11-15. iqve, gv. 6-15, agreTve, d. berZeniSvili, narkvevebi saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiidan, qvemo qarTli, nak. I, Tbilisi, 1979, gv. 2123.

p. muradianis SeSfoTebac gamoiwvia da mas Semdeg, rac somxur istoriul dasaxlebaTa seriis bukletebisa da s. karapetianis ruka-cnobaris gamosvlas qarTulma sazogadoebam mwvave reaqciiT upasuxa, isic SeuerTda umwifari avtoris kritikas. erevanSi gamomaval gazeT `hzor haireniq~-Si dabeWda werili saTauriT `sindisisa da movaleobis gzajvaredinze~, romelic Semdeg qarTul enazec iTargmna da gazeT "axal epoqaSi" gamoaqveynes rusudan Wubabriam da bondo kupataZem 2001 w. 27 aprili ­ 4 maisis nomerSi. p. muradianis kritika ZiriTadad mimarTulia s. karapetianisa da zogadad RAA-s TanamSromlebisadmi, romlebic codnis naklebobis gamo sruliad aSkara faqtebs TiTqos `uneburad~ ayalbeben. mamxilebeli sailustracio masalac sakmaod uxvad mohyavs. eklesiebis eTnokulturuli kuTvnilebis gansazRvris s. karapetianis meTodze p. muradiani wers~: gaurkvevelia, `somxuri eklesiis~ sapirispirod arasomxur eklesiebs ratom vuwodebT `marTlmadideblurs~, `berZnuli wesis eklesias~ (abuli, azavreTi, alastani, bavra, extila, xorenia da sxv.), roca isini qarTuli eklesiebia da asec unda ewodos. ras uwodebda somexi mkiTxveli im naSroms, romelSic `somxuri eklesia~ Secvlili iqneboda terminebiT `monofizituri~ anda `iakobitur-asuruli wesisa?~ yoveli eri Tavis qmnilebas imsaxurebs da amis arcodna aravis epatieba. p. muradiani iZulebulia leqcia waukiTxos da elementaruli WeSmariteba Seaxsenos s. karapetians, rom mecnieris yuradRebas unda imsaxurebdes istoriul-kulturuli mniSvnelobis Zeglebi da ara nebismieri nageboba. pirobiTad dauSvaT, ganagrZobs b-ni p. muradiani, rom saqarTveloSi marTlac 650 somxuri eklesiaa, rogorc sjera s. karapetians, magram maTgan ramdenia istoriul-kulturuli Rirebulebis mqone da yuradRebis Rirsi? javaxeTSi, magaliTad, karinis somxobis damkvidrebis Semdeg agebul aTeulobiT sakulto nagebobidan me gamovyofdi soflebis `arakovas~ da `ganZas~ eklesiebs. sxvebi ZiriTadad XIX s. meore naxevarSia agebuli an gadaqceulia samlocveloebad, rogornic yvelganaa, maT Soris somxeTSi da srulebiTac araa mecnieruli Seswavlis sagani. xelovnurad da gaumarTleblad miiCnevs p. muradiani qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis gansasxvaveblad s. karapetianis mier gamoyenebul xerxs. misi TqmiT, somxebi TavianT RvTismsaxurebas asruleben kiolnSi, protestantebisgan simbolur fasad da-

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qiravebul eklesiaSi. gvaqvs Cven ufleba istoriul-kulturuli TvalsazrisiT kiolnis es eklesia somxurad movnaTloT? kiTxulobs b-ni p. muradiani da Tavadve pasuxobs mis mier dasmul kiTxvas: cxadia, ara. am SemTxvevaSi, ra mecnieruli da zneobrivi uflebiT Segvaqvs, magaliTad, sofel xospias (X-XIII ss.) `berZnuli wesis eklesia~ somxur eklesiaTa nusxaSi? mxolod imitom, rom 1829 wlidan moyolebuli akurTxes wminda 12 mociqulis saxelze `somxuri eklesiis wesiT~. uwinaresad aRvniSnav, rom is araa `berZnuli wesis~, aramed qarTulia, rogoric mravladaa javaxeTSi. meorec, ratom moxda, rom 1829 wlis xelSekrulebamde 7-8 saukunis ganmavlobaSi qarTvelTa samsaxurSi myofi da maT mier aSenebuli nageboba aRar ekuTvnoda Tavis namdvil mepatrones? aTeuli wlebis win islamur salocavebad gadaqceuli mravali somxuri eklesia axla aRaraa somxuri? konstantinopolis aia sofias taZari amJamad aRar aris bizantiis xuroTmoZRvrebis Zegli? aseve simarTlis damaxinjebis sxva aranakleb STambeWdavi magaliTebis moyvanis Semdeg b-ni p. muradiani daaskvnis: eTnokonfesiuri warsulis ugulebelyofa da qarTuli eklesiis somxurad monaTvla srulebiT ar SeSvenis Cvens kulturasa da istorias, arc mecnierebasTan aqvs kavSiri. savsebiT sworia da p. muradianis pozicias amjerad mivesalmebiT. somxuri kultura sakmaod mdidaria da igi s. karapetianisa da misi msgavsebis `daxmarebas~ namdvilad ar saWiroebs. b-ni p. muradianis am axal midgomas qarTul-somxuri kulturul-istoriuli urTierTobebisadmi sasiamovno siaxled aRviqvamT, ramdenadac misi Sromebis mniSvnelovani nawili, misive sityvebi rom gamoviyenoT, swored `mezoblis sakarmidamos xarjze sakuTaris gadidebisa da misive venaxis nayofis miTvisebisaken~ iyo yovelTvis mimarTuli, mxolod s. karapetianisagan gansxvavebiT, es keTdeboda saqmis codniTa da, ZiriTadad, mecnieruli taqtis dacviT. b-ni p. muradianis amJamindeli saxecvlilebis mizezi, vfiqrob, arc ise Zneli gamosacnobi unda iyos. aTeuli wlebis manZilze, ra Tqma unda, sxva mis kolegebTan erTad, misma amgvarma Zalisxmevam s. karapetinebi, al. kananianebi, s. mamulovebi da maTi msgavsebi Sves, romelTa SiSvelma agresiam da primitivizmma, bolo xans mainc, kuriozuli saxe miiRo. amiT SeSfoTebuli `maswavlebeli~ axla mdgomareobis gamosworebas cdilobs da

`akademizmis artaxebSi~ dabrunebas ukiJinebs Tavgasul moswavleebsa da mis amJamindel axalgazrda kolegebs. aseTi `saxecvlilebis~ miuxedavad b-nma p. muradianma xsenebul werilSi sayveduris sababi mainc mogvca, vis da qarTuli literaturis karg mcodnes b-n p. muradians ar ekadreba didi qarTveli mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis ilia WavWavaZis (sxvaTa Soris eris mamad aRiarebulisa da eklesiis mier wmindanad Seracxulis) arakeTilsasurvel aspeqtSi moxsenieba. marTalia, Cvens oponents ilia WavWavaZe gulze ar exateba, magram me mainc misi ramdenime striqoni unda Sevaxseno: `Cven kargad viciT, rom winandeli saqarTvelos uZlureba daiwyo im ubedur dReTagan, roca ki pirqve daemxo somxeTi ­ eg Cveni winandeli zRude samxreTiT. Cven CrdiloeTiT vicavdiT somxeTs da somxebi Cven gvinaxavdnen samxreTiT. minam somxeTi iyo, saqarTvelos rom TaTroba moesevoda, jer somxeTi unda gadmoelaxa. amitom Cveni udidesi mefeni da samefo kacni arafers ar hzogavdnen, rom eSvelnaT somxeTisaTvis, roca ki gauWirdebodaT~23. ase guldajerebiT qadagebda didi ilia qarTvelebisa da somxebis urTierTTanadgomisa da TanamSromlobis istoriul aucileblobas, im dros, roca gareSe Zalebis zegavleniTa da waqezebiT, Tu sxva ram mizeziT, somxuri inteligenciis erTi nawili, TviT saqarTveloSive antiqarTul propagandas aRvivebda da qarTvelTa warsulsa da teritoriul mTlianobas sadavod xdida. ilias sibrZnem ganapiroba, rom mmarTveli biurokratiisa da mecnier-inteligenciis am nawilis saZraxisi ganwyobileba somxuri mosaxleobis did nawils ar gadaedo. am werilSi b-n p. muradianis kritikas verc qarTveli istorikosebi acdnen. gansakuTrebiT gaRizianebulia igi bondo arvelaZis monografiis rusul enaze gamoqveynebiT, sadac naTqvamia, rom mcxeTis jvris somxuri warwera `nakawria~, `SemTxveviTi xasiaTi aqvs~, qarTuli warweris TanabarmniSvnelovani ar aris da ar SeiZleba is miCneuli iyos qtitorul warwerad. erTaderTi uzustoba, romelic daSvebuli aqvs b. arvelaZes isaa, rom somxuri warweris adgilad postamentis nacvlad `cokols~ asaxelebs24. am ararsebiT mcire Secdomaze xmauris atexviT b-ni

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ilia WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawerebi, t. V, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 110. Áîíäî Àðâåëàäçå, `Àðìÿíñêèå~ èëè ãðóçèíñêèå öåðêâè â Ãðóçèè?!, Òáèëèñè, 1996, ñ. 4-5.

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p. muradiani cdilobs sakiTxis arsebiTi nawilis gadafarvas, risTvisac g. CubinaSvilsac imowmebs, Tumca am ukanasknels mis sasargeblod araferi aqvs naTqvami. Tavis gamokvlevaSi `Ïàìÿòíèêè òèïà Äæâàðè~, Òáèëèñè, 1984 ã., b-ni giorgi CubinaSvili wers: `Íà çàäíåé øèðîêîé ãðàíè (saubaria mcxeTis jvris postamentze) ââåðõó èìåþòñÿ òðè ñòðîêè àðìÿíñêîé íàäïèñè (?) èëè ãðàôèòòè, î÷åíü íåÿñíî ðåçàííîé (gv. 83). rogorc vxedavT, somxuri `warweris~ bundovanebisa da gaurkvevlobis gamo, is kiTxvis niSnis qveSa aqvs dayenebuli da ufro grafitisaken ixreba. xolo gamoqveynebul fotoebze (gv. 31) imdenad aSkaraa sxvaoba mcxeTis jvris postamentis qarTul warwerasa da mis gverdiT waxnagze mqrqalad gamokveTil somxur warweras Soris, rom araspecialistisTvisac sruliad gasagebia, grafikulad mainc, maTi araTanabari mniSvneloba. etyoba, amitomacaa, rom am somxur `warweras~ gamokvlevis avtori amjerad ukve uyoymanod grafitTa ricxvs akuTvnebs. g. CubinaSvilis kvalifikaciasa da mecnierul keTilsindisierebaSi ki, vgoneb, p. muradiansac ki ar unda eparebodes eWvi. ase rom, Tu bondo arvelaZe mcxeTis jvris postamentis somxur `warweras~ nakawrs uwodebs, es sulac araa misi `danaSauli~. igi mxolod avtoritetul specialistebs emyareba. rac Seexeba am werilSi Cems mimarT gamoTqmul braldebas, TiTqos, saqarTveloSi mcxovreb somxebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs nacionalisturi poziciebidan vixilavde, esec mis sindisze iyos. da kidev erTi, am werilis mentoruli toni, ara gvgonia, maincdamainc Rirsebas sZendes mas. qarTul-somxur istoriul urTierTobaTa Temaze bolo xanebSi Seqmnil araseriozul naSromTa Soris Janris originalobiT gamoirCeva sergo mamulovis ori wigni erTnairi saTauriT `somxebi saqarTveloSi~. pirveli gamoica moskovSi 1995 w. 5000-iani tiraJiT, meorec ­ iqve, 2002 w. sul 800 egz. s. mamulovi erTgulad icavs ra cnobil tendencias kavkasiaSi somexTa gansakuTrebul istoriul-kulturul upiratesobaTa Taobaze, mTeli ZalisxmeviT cdilobs saqarTvelo somxeTad dauxatos mkiTxvels. aseTi mniSvnelovani problemis gadaWraSi misi kompetenciis donis maCveneblad, vfiqrob, gamogvadgeba 1993 w. moskovSi didi tiraJiT (20 aTasi egz.) gamocemuli misive Txzuleba ­ `saocari saswaulebis qveynidan (somxeTi da somxebi ­ civilizebuli msof-

lios unikaluri fenomeni)~. sul ramdenime damaxasiaTebel striqons moviyvan am Txzulebidan da mere mkiTxvelma gansajos ramdenad xelewifeba mis avtors seriozul sakiTxebze mecnieruli msjeloba. somxeTisa da somexi xalxis RirsebaTa CamoTvlisas igi wers: `somxeTi kacobriobis akvania... adami da eva cxovrobdnen samoTxeSi, romelic somxeTis zeganze mdebareobda (gv. 24)~, `gadmocemis Tanaxmad ki, adami da noe somxurad laparakobdnen~ (gv. 18). somxeTi da somexi xalxi ­ esaa mWvermetyveli faqtebis palitra, romelic umetesad gamoavlens pirvels, saukeTesos, ganumeorebels, somxeTia samSoblo xorblis, vazis, gargaris, ludis da a. S. (gv. 24-25). somxeTi msoflioSi erTaderTi qveyanaa, sadac arasodes arsebulan kastebi, monebi, ymebi (gv. 27). XX saukunis yvelaze damangreveli miwisZvrac somxeTSi iyo 1988 w. (gv. 29). nuTu esec somexi xalxis Rirsebas unda mieweros? da kidev, babilonisa da egviptis saxelmwifo moRvaweTa Soris pirveli adgili somxebs ekuTvnodaT, baRdadisa da marokos arabma xalifebma Zalian bevri qveyana somxebis xeliT daipyres (gv. 36), bizantiis imperiaSi makedonelTa anu somxuri dinastia ramdenime saukunis ganmavlobaSi saTaveSi edga saxelmwifos. iqaur taxtze ijda aranakleb 15 somexi imperatorisa da berZnulis gverdiT, somxuri saxelmwifo ena iyo (gv. 37) da a. S. da a. S. amis mere mkiTxvels, albaT, aRar unda gaukvirdes, Tuki s. mamulovi saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis istoriis gadmocemisas wyaros mniSvnelobas aniWebs, TiTqmis, anegdotur formamde dasul moarul gadmocemebsa da moZvelebul, uaRresad tendenciur literaturas (dawvrilebiT maT Sesaxeb ix. Cemi recenzia `ramdenime SeniSvna sergo mamulovis wignze `somxebi saqarTveloSi~, romelic gamoqveynda gaz. `7 dRe~-Si 1998 w. 24-26 ivlisis nomerSi), ris wyalobiTac qarTvelTa wm. nino mis wignSi (mxedvelobaSia 1995 w. gamocemuli wigni) erT-erT somex wmindanad iqca25, Cven ki gvegona, rom wm. nino berZnulad metyveli, kabadokieli romaeli qali iyo, rogorc amas qarTuli da ucxouri wyaroebi mowmobs26. misive, e. i. s. mamulovis ZalisxmeviT kaxaberisZeTa raWis erisTavis asuli da daviT ulus meuRle

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Ìàìóëîâ Ñ. Ñ., Àðìÿíå â Ãðóçèè, Ìîñêâà, 1995, ñ. 229. qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv. 72-93.

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gvanca dedofali somex varTuSad gardaisaxa. ilia WavWavaZec sanaxevrod gaasomxa, ramdenadac ilias deda mariam beburiSvili somex beburianad gamogvicxada, ra Tqma unda, yovelgvari sabuTis gareSe. rogorc Cans, amjeradac zogierT wreSi gavrcelebul Worebs daeyrdno. arada, kargadaa cnobili, rom beburiSvilebi kaxeli Tavadebi iyvnen. es gvari qarTuli sakuTari saxeli ­ beburidan warmodga, romelic sakmaod iyo gavrcelebuli Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi. jer kidev XVI s. aleqsandre kaxTa mefis bazierTuxucess erqva beburi27. es saxeli popularuli iyo vaCnaZeTa Tavadur gvarSi. es saxeli hqvia amJamad lagodexis raionis erT sofels. am sakuTari saxelidanaa nawarmoebi gvarebi ­ beburiSvili, beburia, beburiZe 28 . gasagebia, rom ucxo anTroponimi ase Rrmad ver SeiWreboda qarTul onomastikaSi da ase farTod ver moicavda mis sferoebs. yovelgvari sabuTianobisa da kvlevis gareSe qarTvel moRvaweTa da istoriul pirTa gasomxurebis SemTxvevebi wignSi sxvac ara erTia, riTac, etyoba, maTi avtori cdilobs aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo, s. mamulovis terminiT `somxuri sulisa~ da Semoqmedebis asparezad warmogvidginos da amiT gviani Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoria somxeTis istoriis nawilad aqcios. misi TqmiT, saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli ZaliT da yvelaze farTod gaixsna da gamovlinda somexi xalxis mravalmxrivi talanti, xolo somexTa erovnulma sulma, Tandayolilma fxianobam da Semoqmedebis uzarmazarma niWma Tavisi ganviTarebis yvelaze keTilsasurveli niadagi swored aq hpova29. avtoris Tvalsawieri mainc umTavresad Tbiliss utrialebs, radganac misive gancxadebiT: `Tbilisi didxans iyo somxuri sulis gamoxatvis asparezio~ 30. yuradRebis gamaxvilebas `somxur sulze~ da `somxur sisxlze~ naSromSi mravaljer vxvdebiT da misi gamovlenis cdebs wignis umetesi nawili eZRvneba. garda imisa, rom aseT Ziebebs xSir SemTxvevaSi realuri safuZveli ar gaaCnia, is mkveTrad emijneba msoflio sakacobrio Rirebulebebis Tanamedrove ga-

gebas da mis fonze mxolod Rimilismomgvreli xdeba. wignisTvis damaxasiaTebeli diletantizmi cud samsaxurs uwevs avtoris mier Sesaval nawilSi gacxadebul keTilSobilur miznebs. faqtebis zerele interpretacia da maTi mniSvnelobis gazviadeba mkiTxvelis TvalSi saeWvos xdis saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis mier saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi qveynisaTvis gaRebul sasikeTo Rvawlsac. Tavisi naRvawis erTgvari gaumjobeseba da `gakeTilSobileba~ scada s. mamulovma amave saTauris mqone meore wignSi, romelsac daskvniT nawils uwodebs, Tumca gverdebis raodenobiT is 170-iT aRemateba pirvels. gaumjobeseba ki imiT gamoixateba, rom aq ara marto SenarCunebuli, aramed ganviTarebulic kia is arajansaRi tendencia, rac ase niSandoblivi iyo pirveli wignisaTvis. aqac calke paragrafi eTmoba Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriis zogad mimoxilvas, Tumca es mimoxilva mxolod XII-XIII ss-iT ifargleba da mTlianad s. eremianis mecnierul-popularuli werilebis safuZvelze aris agebuli. SemoqmedebiTad gadmogvcems ra avtoritetuli mecnieris debulebebs, gzadagza uxeS Secdomebsac uSvebs. s. mamulovis mtkicebiT, XII-XIII ss. mijnaze qarTuli saxelmwifo federaciuli xasiaTisa iyo. is moicavda `Svid samefos~, romelTa ricxvSi Crdilo somxeTic iyo. misi TqmiT, ivane javaxiSvilis azriTac, im epoqis qarTuli saxelmwifo ZiriTadad ori xalxis ­ qarTvelebisa da somxebis gaerTianeba iyo da qarTul-somxuri federaciuli saxelmwifos xasiaTs atarebdao31. ras emyareba s. mamulovi am cnobis mowodebisas gaugebaria, ramdenadac msgavsi mosazreba iv. javaxiSvils arc erT Tavis naSromSi ara aqvs gamoTqmuli. s. mamulovi ar uaryofs, rom am drois saqarTvelo centralizebuli feodaluri monarqia iyo da misi Semdgomi gaZlierebiT somexi xalxic sisxlxorceulad iyo dainteresebuli32, imas ki ar uwevs angariSs, Tu saxelmwifos centralizebuloba ramdenad SeiZleboda Sehgueboda mis federalur mowyobas. misive azriT, qarTvel mefeTa titulaturac (mefe afxazTa da

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qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II, Tbilisi, 1965, gv. 196. ilia maisuraZe, qarTuli gvarsaxelebi, Tbilisi, 1981, gv. 33. s. mamulovi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 5. iqve, gv. 16.

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s. mamulovis dasaxelebuli wignis 2002 wlis gamocema, gv. 10. iqve, gv. 11-I5.

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qarTvelTa, ranTa, kaxTa da somexTa, SarvanSa da SahanSa...) adasturebs Svidi samefos momcveli Sua saukuneebis qarTuli saxelmwifos federaciul xasiaTs. aseTi daskvna principulad ewinaaRmdegeba centralizebuli qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis politikur aRnagobas. saqarTvelos mefis xelisufleba mis daqvemdebarebaSi myof CamoTvlil qveynebSi, maT Soris somxeTSic, mpyrobelobas emyareboda da ara ymadnaficobas, ris gamoc `samefoebad~ maTi moxsenieba mxolod simboluri da warsulis anareklia. Tanadrouli qarTuli wyaroebi ganmartavdnen, rom es `samefoebi~ sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara saqarTvelos `amer-imeris Svidi Temi~ ­ sakuTriv saqarTvelos Semadgeneli nawilebi. gavixsenoT Tundac daviT aRmaSeneblis sityvebi didi qarTuli centralizebuli feodaluri monarqiis Seqmnis saSualebebze: `borotad gardav£ed sazRuarTa da SevhrTe saxli saxlsa da agaraki agaraksa da uuZluresTa mivhxueWe nawili maTi da viRuwid umezoblobasa, viTarmca marto¡ vmk¢drobd queyanasa zeda~33. samefo xelisuflebis es TviTmpyrobeluri buneba savsebiT iyo SenarCunebuli Tamarisa da misi memkvidreebis drosac. centralizebuli qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis somxuri nawilis avtonomiurobaSi mkiTxvelis dasarwmuneblad s. mamulovi mimarTavs nacad xerxs da imeorebs misi winamorbedebis legendebs mxargrZelTa somxuri warmomavlobis Taobaze da mimarTavs maTi moRvaweobis hiperbolizacias. am sakiTxebze ukve sakmaod iTqva da maTi gameorebis azrs amjerad mainc ver vxedav. aseve ukomentarod vtoveb s. mamulovis mier gamoCenil istoriul pirTa gasomxurebiT gatacebasac, ramdenadac is iqac sxvas imeorebs, romelTa Sesaxeb Cveni damokidebuleba ukve gamovxateT. qarTvel da somex bagratovanTa saerTo warmomavlobaze saubrisas s. mamulovi sagangebod SeniSnavs, rom somxeTis es gavleniani aristokratiuli sagvareulo SemdgomSi saqarTveloSic gamoCndao, TiTqos, jer somxeTSi daewyoT mefoba, Semdeg ki saqarTveloSic gaegrZelebinoT maSin, rodesac, misive mowmobiT, maTi mefoba TavTavianT qveynebSi daaxloebiT erTdroulad daiwyo. somex bagratovanTa mefoba daiwyo 886 w. da 1044 w. Sewyda,

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qarTvel bagratovanTa mefoba ki 888 wlidan 1801 wlamde gagrZelda. Tundac amitom qarTveli bagratovnebi somex bagratidTa saxelmwifoebrivi politikis tradiciebis gamgrZeleblad ver CaiTvlebian, ris damtkicebasac guldajerebiT cdilobs s. mamulovi34. TiTqmis mTeli amierkavkasiis momcvel centralizebul qarTul feodalur monarqiaSi, sadac qarTuli socialurpolitikuri sistema da qarTuli feodaluri kultura dominirebda, s. mamulovi sakuTriv qarTul samefod (ñîáñòâåííî Ãðóçèíñêîãî öàðñòâà-ad) mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erT mcire nawils miiCnevs, romelsac am droisaTvis (XII-XIII ss-Tvis) sruliad Seuferebel da gaugebar saxels ­ `qarTl-kaxeTis samefos~ uwodebs, sadac, amasTanave, mmarTveli dinastiis mfarvelobis wyalobiT somxuri mosaxleoba yofila gabatonebuli. gamodis, rom arc es, s. mamulovis mier sakuTriv qarTul samefod miCneuli qveyana, yofila qarTuli. XIX da XX s. pirveli aTeuli wlebis istoriis gadmocemisas s. mamulovi, ise rogorc pirvel wignSi, ZiriTadad emyareba moZvelebul da tendenciur literaturas. saqarTvelos qalaqebSi somxuri mosaxleobis ricxovnobaze warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad, Cveulebriv, gaz. `kavkaz~-Si gamoqveynebul saeWvo cnobebs mimarTavs maSin, rodesac misTvis saintereso qalaqebis istoriaze (gori, Telavi, siRnaRi da sxv.) mecnieruli gamokvlevebi da monografiebia gamoqveynebuli. araprofesiuli midgomis Sedegad mis TxzulebaSi sakmao raodenobiT vxvdebiT faqtobriv Secdomebs. magaliTad, gaz. `kavkaz~-ze dayrdnobiT (1867, # 89) s. mamulovi gvamcnobs, rom Telavi dauarsebia 1010 w. kvirike III-s, sinamdvileSi ki q. Telavi jer kidev antikuri xanis avtorebisaTvisac iyo cnobili. ubralod, kaxeT-hereTis mefe kvirikem TelavSi samefo taxti daidga. s. mamulovi iqve uxeS Secdomas uSvebs, roca frCxilebSi ganmartavs, TiTqos, kvirike III didi somxuri dinastiis warmomadgeneli yofiliyos. arc imaSia marTali, roca amtkicebs `axalqalaqSi yovelTvis somxuri mosaxleoba prevalirebdao~35. vidre generali paskeviCi am raion-

daviT aRmaSenebeli, galobani sinanulisani, Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, sol. yubaneiSvilis Sedgenili, Tbilisi, 1946, gv. 375.

34 35

s. mamulovis wignis 2002 wlis gamocema, gv. 21-22. iqve, gv. 53.

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Si arzrumidan 30 aTas somexs gadmoasaxlebda, qarTuli mosaxleoba aq 90%-s Seadgenda. rogorc pirvel wignSi, aqac sakmao adgili ukavia ramdenadme gamoCenil sxva erovnebis pirTa sayovelTao gasomxurebis aSkarad mavne tendencias. gvaris mixedviT erovnuli kuTvnilebis gansazRvra Zalze rTuli saqmea, miT ufro saqarTveloSi, sadac Sua saukuneebidan momdinare tradiciis inerciiT sazogadoebrivi azri XIX s.c eTnikur kuTvnilebas, ZiriTadad, konfesiuri kuTvnilebis mixedviT gansazRvravda, amasTan, igive sazogadoebrivi azri `somxis~ cnebaSi socialur Sinaarssac debda da vaWroba­ xelosnobaSi Cabmul adamianebs erTianad somxebad miiCnevda. saqarTveloSi tradiciulad farTod gavrcelebuli aRmosavluri da bibliuri sakuTari saxelebis safuZvelze aRmocenebuli gvarebis qarTul­somxuri paraleluri formebis msgavsebis gamoc (magaliTad, aslan-i-Svili ­ aslan-ian; Sahyul-a-Svili ­ Sahyul-ian; isaka-Ze ­ isaak-ian; saak-a-Ze, saak-a-Svili ­ saak-ian; Tuman-iSvili ­ Tuman-ian; agreTve, bibliur-qristianuli abramiSvili ­ abramian; iakobaSvili ­ hakobian; azariaSvili ­ azarian; petriaSvili ­ petrosian; pavliaSvili ­ poRosian; ivaniSvili ­ hovhanisian; markozaSvili markosian; lukaSvili ­ Rukasian da sxva uamravi), konkretuli viTarebis gauTvaliswineblad, TiTqmis SeuZlebelia am gvarebis mixedviT erovnuli kuTvnilebis gamocnoba. amitomac calkeuli gvarebis specialuri kvlevis gareSe verc gvaris warmomavloba dadgindeba da verc pirovnebis erovnuli kuTvnileba. s. mamulovi ki yovelgvari Tavis Sewuxebis gareSe, maT Soris, ueWveli qarTuli sakuTari saxelebis safuZvelze aRmocenebuli gvarebis mqone (magaliTad, mamula-Svili, mama-saxlisi, orbeli da sxv.) moRvaweebsac erTianad somxur warmomavlobas miawers. sxvaTaSoris, aq moyvanili orive gvaris mawarmoebeli mama, albaT, erT-erTi yvelaze ufro Zveli qarTuli saxelia, ris gamoc is safuZvlad udevs mraval qarTul gvarsaxels, maT Soris warmoqmnilfuZianebs: mamulaiSvili, mamulaSvili, mamulia, mamuloZe, mamukaZe da sxv. agreTve, rTulfuZian saxelebsac: mamasaxlisaSvili, mamagulaSvili, mamisTvaliSvili da sxv.36 somxuri istoriografiis klasikosi nikoloz adoncic aRniSnavda am

36

qarTuli sityvis did siZveles da fiqrobda, rom is gvarovnuli xanis sityvaa, romelic safuZvlad daedo, agreTve, mamikonianTa cnobili gvaris warmoqmnas. misi azriT, am gvaris mTavari Semadgeneli Zireuli saxeli mamik-mamak sxva araferia, Tu ara armenizirebuli forma iberiuli mamasi37. s. mamulovi ki yovelgvari sifrTxilis gareSe rusuli formiT gadmocemul qarTul da somxur gvarebs erTianad somxurad acxadebs. yvela, met-naklebad mniSvnelovani moRvawis gasomxebiT gatacebuli s. mamulovi veRar xsnis, Tu ratom aris, rom XIX s. mcxovrebi bevri `somexi~ qarTul gvars atarebda im dros, roca mTavrobis antiqarTuli politikis pirobebSi somxuri gvaris tareba gacilebiT momgebiani iyo, vidre qarTulisa. orive wignSi sakiTxebisadmi araprofesiuli, zogjer primitiuli midgomis SemTxvevebi sxvac araerTia. yvela maTganze pasuxis gacema, albaT, arcaa saWiro. rac warmovadgineT, vfiqrob, isic sakmarisia samwuxaro tendenciis mavne xasiaTSi dasarwmuneblad. bolos, aRvniSav kidev ramdenime naSroms, romlebic `akademizmis~ poziciebidanac ki uaRresad tendenciurad aSuqebs qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis mTel rig sakiTxebs. esaa 2001 w. moskovSi gamocemuli marTlmadidebluri enciklopediis III tomSi, termin `armenia~-sTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli statiebi, romlebic mkiTxvels awvdis cnobebs somxeTis istoriis sxvadasxva sakiTxze. pirveli werili iwyeba qveynis istoriulgeografiuli mimoxilviT, sadac somxeTis istoriul olqebs Soris dasaxelebulia ori qarTuli istoriuli provincia ­ gugareTi anu qvemo qarTli da tao, ra Tqma unda, am toponimTa somxuri formiT (`gugarq~ da `taiq~). geografiuli mimoxilvis avtoris ganmartebiT, pirveli maTgani moicavs bambakis mTebsa da sevanis tbis Crdilo-dasavleT raionebs, xolo meore ­ md. Woroxisa da misi Senakadebis xeobebs. saenciklopedio statiaSi polemikis gamarTva da sakuTari argumentebis moyvana, SesaZloa, uadgiloc iyos, magram is mainc unda aRniSnuliyo, rom xsenebul istoriul provinciebze somxuri istoriografiis Tvalsazrisis garda arsebobs aranakleb argumentirebuli misi sapirispiro Sexedulebac.

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ilia maisuraZe, qarTuli gvarsaxelebi, gv. 100-101.

Í. Àäîíö, Àðìåíèÿ â ýïîõó Þñòèíèàíà, Åðåâàí, 1971, ñ. 402-403.

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somxeTis politikuri istoriis gadmocemisas statiis avtori xelovnurad zrdis qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze X s. 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Seqmnili taSir-Zoragetis somxuri samefos arsebobis dros da mas 979-1256 wlebiT sazRvravs. jer kidev bagrat IV-m 1065 w. taSir-Zoragetis mefes waarTva samSvilde, xolo qveyana Tavisi xelisuflebis kontrols daumorCila, ris Semdeg qarTveli mematianis TqmiT, `monebdes somexni~. male kvirikianTa somxuri samefo selCukiani Turqebis xelSi gadadis. 1110 w. daviT aRmaSenebeli Turqebs samSvildes arTmevs, 1118 w. ki ­ cixe-qalaqebs ­ lores da agarans, riTac asrulebs kidec qvemo qarTlis SemoerTebas. ase rom, am samefos Semqmneli pirveli kvirikianis gamefebis TariRad Tu ufro sando wyaros mxiTar airivanecis cnobas 981 w. miviRebT, maSin am samefos arsebobis xangrZlivoba 277 wliT ki ar unda ganisazRvros, rogorc amas saenciklopedio statiis avtori akeTebs (1256 ­ 979 = 277), aramed 137 wliT (1118 ­ 981 = 137, e. i. mTeli 140 wliT naklebi da ufro metadac, radgan didi Turqobis droidan (1080 wlidan) aq kvirikianTa xelisufleba erTob saeWvo Cans. XII-XIV ss. saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi Semosul somxur Temebs da maT mmarTvel saqarTvelos moxeleebs ­ mxargrZelebs, saenciklopedio statiis avtorebi somxuri istoriografiis tradiciis mixedviT ganixilaven, rogorc im droisTvis Zlevamosili qarTuli samefos SemadgenlobaSi myof da `gansazRvruli damoukideblobis~ mqone somxur samTavroebs, mxargrZelebs ki ­ zaqarianebad. somxeTis istoriis faqtebis gadmocemisas, maTda uneburad, Tavs iCens e. w. `zaqaridTa somxuri samflobeloebis~, Tu `somxeTis Crdilo raionebis~ danarCen saqarTvelosTan mudmivi da ganuyreli, organuli kavSiri, ris gamoc arc monRolebisaTvis, romlebmac `gurjistanis vilaieTSi~ Seiyvanes mTeli qvemo qarTli da arc rusebisaTvis, romlebmac aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo lore-bambak, SamSadinTan erTad 1801 w. ruseTs SeuerTes, sadavo ar yofila am teritoriebis saqarTvelosadmi kuTvnileba. faqtebis gayalbebis ostatobiT am gamocemaSi gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva statia `somex qalkedonitTa xelovneba~, romlis avtori, Tavisi winamorbedebis n. tokarskisa da t. maruTianis msgavsad, taos qarTul taZrebs (oSki, xaxuli, iSxani, bana, parxali,

oTxTa eklesia da sxvebi) somxur ZeglTa wreSi aqcevs. mTavari sayrdeni am saqmeSi misTvisac taosa da qvemo qarTlSi somex qalkedonitTa eTnokulturuli umravlesobis universaluri formulaa, romlis saSualebiTac, somexi avtorebi, Cveulebriv, advilad wyveten qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis nebismier kulturul-politikur problemas. Tavis droze n. tokarskisa da t. maruTianis msgavsi cdebi, rogorc iTqva, saaSkaraoze gamoitanes da siyalbeSi amxiles akademikosebma simon janaSiam da vaxtang beriZem. es ukanaskneli t. maruTians axsenebda, rom is nakleb yuradRebas aqcevda sakuTriv arqiteqturul-mxatvrul TaviseburebaTa ganxilvas, e. i. ZeglTa arsSi Cawvdomas, raSic uSualod vlindeba maTi nacionaluri Tavisebureba. Cans, saenciklopedio statiis avtorma kargad daimaxsovra qarTveli xelovnebaTmcodnis es SeniSvna da mis sapirispirod taosa da qvemo qarTlis qarTul ZeglTa stilisa da moxatulobis Taviseburebani, romelTac somex qalkedonitTa Semoqmedebis nayofad miiCnevda, TvalTmaqcurad qarTul xelovnebasTan kavSiriTa da misi gavleniT axsna. amas garda, somex qalkedonitTa samSeneblo moRvaweobis asparezic gaafarTova da maTve miawera petriwonis monastris mSeneblobac da maTsave kuTvnilebad gamoacxada daviT garejis monasterTa kompleqsSi sabereebis VII eklesiac da a. S. (gv. 316). niSandoblivia, rom amgvari varaudebi da daskvnebi iseT viTarebaSi keTdeba, roca saxezea tao-klarjeTis xsenebul Zeglebze amokveTili uamravi qarTuli warwera qarTveli qtitorebis, xuroTmoZRvrebis, mSeneblobis xelmZRvanelebis konkretuli CvenebiT (magaliTad, qarTveli mefe-mTavrebi: adarnase II qarTvelTa mefe, bagrat erisTavTerisTavi, daviT magistrosi da SemdgomSi taos saxelganTqmuli mefe daviT kurapalati, xuroTmoZRvari ivane morCaisZe iSxanSi, grigol oSkeli da sxv.). aseT konteqstSi Zalauneburad gvaxsendeba wyaroebis ugulebelyofisa da misi saSualebiT qveynis istoriis gadakeTebis ramdenime konkretuli SemTxvevis samarTliani kritika p. muradianis mier, romelic man samvel karapetianTan kamaTisas mogvca Tavis cnobil werilSi `sindisisa da movaleobis gzajvaredinze~. misi TqmiT, aris SemTxvevebi, roca Zeglis kedelze arsebuli warweraSi ixsenieba agebis TariRi da qtitoris vinaoba, maSin roca karapetiani iZulebulia, romeliRac saukuneebi ivaraudos da hipoTezebi wamoayenos.

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magaliTad ki mohyavs sof. Rrtilas SuagulSi mdebare eklesiis warwera, sadac naTqvamia: `gasrulda qveSeli lipartis meuRlisa da Tmogvelebis asulis rusudanis mier RmerTo Seiwyale q-ni 528 (1308 w. p. m.) Wormanis Ze ioane RmerTo Seiwyale~. p. muradianis marTebuli komentariT, Tmogvelebis asuli da qveSis gamgeblis lipartis meuRle rusudani, ra Tqma unda, qarTul eklesias aagebda. aseTi principiT rom midgomodnen sakiTxis ganxilvas saenciklopedio statiebis avtorebi, gasagebia, arc Cven gveqneboda rame maTTan sapretenzio. samvel karapetianis kritikisas b-n p. muradianis gancxadeba, rom warsulis gayalbeba `ar SeSvenis Cven kulturasa da istorias da arc mecnierebasTan aqvs kavSiri~, vfiqrob, erTob drouli da saWiro mowodebaa ara marto somxuri istoriografiis Rirsebis dasacavad, aramed saerTod, warsulis idealizaciis tendenciebisa da `erovnuli gansakuTrebulobis~ ideisgan Tavisufali istoriuli azris normaluri da obieqturi ganviTarebisaTvis kavkasiaSi. amgvar ganwyobaTa gaCena, Tundac Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi, TavisTavad, dadebiTi movlenaa da mezobeli istoriografiis warmomadgenelTa Soris meti urTierTgagebis imeds gvisaxavs. aseve sayuradReboa, qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis gansazRvrul etapebze mezobelTa Soris dapirispirebisa da Semdeg istoriografiaSi misi asaxvis globaluri politikuri movlenebiT axsnis mcdeloba somxeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis institutis direqtoris b-n aSot melqonianis moxsenebaSi `somxur-qarTul urTierTobaTa gakveTilebi: istoria da Tanamedroveoba~, romelic man waikiTxa TbilisSi rusTavelis sazogadoebis sxdomaze. mezobelTa urTierTobis calkeuli rTuli problemebis sagareo faqtoriT axsnam mis avtors saSualeba misca ufro metad gaemaxvilebina yuradReba istoriuli mezoblebis gamaerTianebel interesebze, politikuri da kulturuli TanamSromlobis faqtorebze. magram, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, am rigis masalis warmodgenisas somxur istoriografiaSi arsebul tendenciur Sefasebebze aRmoCnda mTlianad damokidebuli, Tumca maTi Serbileba-Selamazebac scada da istoriuli toponimebic paraleluri somxuri da qarTuli formebiTac warmogvidgina (magaliTad, taiq-tao, javaxq-javaxeTi da a. S.), riTac xazi gaesva

maTze gansxvavebuli azris arsebobasac. amasTan erTad, moxsenebaSi, SesaZloa misda uneburadac, daSvebulia uxeSi Secdomebic. magaliTad, igi wers: `X s.aTvis ukve gadasaxlebul somexTa ricxvi saqarTveloSi imdenad gaizarda, rom kerZod, hereTsa da kambeCanSi daarsda qarTul-somxuri samefo~. aseT faqts araTu qarTuli istoriografia, aramed somxuric ar unda icnobdes. srul gaugebrobazea damyarebuli sqolioSi Catanili SeniSvna, TiTqos, qarTveli istorikosis leonti mrovelis cnobiT, IV s. dasawyisisTvis javaxeTSi sakontaqto ena somxuri yofiliyos. leontis mixedviT saqarTvelosken momavalma wm. ninom somxeTis sazRvarTan (`sazRvarTa somxiTisaTa~) gamoizamTra. ramdenadac somex miaforTan yofnisas mcired somxuri eswavla, Cans, gamozamTrebis periodSi, enis mxriv mas winaaRmdegoba ar Sexvedria. viTareba icvleba javaxeTSi, faravnis tbis midamoebSi mosvlisas, sadac mwyemsebTan kontaqtis dasamyareblad saWiro xdeba somxuri enis mcodnis moZebna da `pova mwyemsTa maT Soris somxurad mzraxveli~, e. i. mraval mwyemsTagan mxolod erTi aRmoCnda somxuris mcodne. somxuri iq yvelas rom scodnoda da, rogorc b-ni aS. melqoniani fiqrobs, somxuri sakontaqto ena yofiliyo javaxeTSi, maSin xom somxuris mcodnis Zebnac ar iqneboda saWiro? cxadia, rom am SemTxvevaSi, sasurveli suraTis daxatvasTan ufro unda gvqondes saqme, vidre mecnierul ZiebasTan. moxsenebis teqstSi daSvebuli xsenebuli uxeSi Secdomebi ki mxolod imaze migvaniSnebs, rom Zveli da Sua saukuneebis amierkavkasiis istoria, ubralod, b-n aS. melqonianis specialuri kvlevis obieqti jer ar gamxdara. gacilebiT saintereso da damajerebelia misi msjeloba XIX-XX ss. amierkavkasiis istoriis gadmocemisas. misi dakvirvebiT XIX s. meore naxevridan SeimCneva xarisxobrivad axali etapis dawyeba somxur-qarTul urTierTobaSi, rac ganpirobebuli iyo orive xalxis erovnuli TviTSegnebis zrdiTa da sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisaken swrafviT. amasTan aRniSnavs, misi TqmiT, sxvadasxva faqtorebis (sinamdvileSi ki imperiuli politikis Sedegad. _ g. m.) zegavleniT urTierTobis gaciebas somxur da qarTul sazogadoebriv-politikur wreebs Soris. qarTul da somxur sazogadoebebs Soris urTierTobis daZabva, ra Tqma unda, ZiriTadad, oficiozis mier iyo provocirebuli, rac b-ni aS. melqo-

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nianis mier SeniSnuli garemoebidanac sakmaod kargad Cans. misi marTebuli dakvirvebiT, qarTvelTa ukmayofilebas gansakuTrebiT is viTareba iwvevda, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis zrda ruseTis mflobelobis periodSi, umTavresad sxva xalxTa xarjze xdeboda. imperiis es demografiuli politika qarTvelTa denacionalizacias da amiT misi winaaRmdegobis daTrgunvas iTvaliswinebda, ris gamoc am procesSi somexTa aqtiuri monawileoba, bunebrivia, mxareTa urTierTobis `gaciebas~ ki ara da urTierTdamokidebulebis ukidures gamwvavebasac iwvevda. gamonakliss Seadgenda maSindeli Cveni sazogadoebis SorsmWvreteli nawili ­ didi moRvaweebis _ ilia WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, ovanes Tumanianis, gabriel sundukianisa da sxva cnobil moazrovneTa meTaurobiT, romlebic warmoSobili daZabulobis CacxrobisaTvis iRvwodnen da keTilmezoblobisa da urTierTpativiscemis mravalsaukunovani tradiciebis dacvisaken mouwodebdnen istoriul mezoblebs, razec yuradRebas amaxvilebs momxsenebelic. XX saukuneSi warmoSobili problemebidan erT-erT umTavresad, savsebiT marTebulad, miCneulia amierkavkasiis administraciul-teritoriuli gamijvnis sakiTxi, rac SemdgomSi kidev ufro garTulda sagareo faqtoris zegavleniT. Tavdapirvelad erovnuli sabWoebis moqmedebis periodSi 1917 w. qarTvel moRvaweTa erTi nawili somxuri mxaris mier wamoyenebuli eTnikuri principis mimarT loialurad iyo ganwyobili, magram 1918 w. maisis bolos amierkavkasiaSi damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis warmoqmnam cxadyo teritoriuli mTlianobis dacvis aucilebloba. b-ni aS. melqoniani sinanuls gamoTqvams qarTvel politikosTa im nawilis poziciis Secvlis da saerTod `eTnikuri principis~ uaryofis gamo. b-ni aS. melqoniani aRniSnavs agreTve saqarTvelos somxuri mosaxleobis separatistul midrekilebebs sabWoTa xelisuflebis dasawyis xanaSi da am movlenas bolSevikuri xelisuflebis mkacri politikiT xsnis, ramac mTeli mosaxleobis masobrivi ukmayofileba gamoiwviao. qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis Tanamedrove problemebidan umTavresad miiCnevs regionaluri konfliqtebis mimarT saqarTvelosa da somxeTis gansxvavebul, ufro zustad, sapirispiro midgomas. teritoriuli interesebidan gamomdinare, somxeTi mxars uWers

erTa TviTgamorkvevis uflebis principiT sakiTxis gadawyvetas, raTa am gziT SeZlos yarabaRis mierTeba. saqarTvelo ki azerbaijanTan erTad teritoriuli mTlianobis princips aniWebs upiratesobas. amitom ariso, ganagrZobs b-ni aS. melqoniani, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobam ufro mWidro ekonomikuri da politikuri kavSirebi daamyara azerbaijanTan, vidre somxeTTano. saqarTveloazerbaijanis aliansis Seqmnas yovelmxriv xeli Seuwyo TurqeTma da dasavleTis saxelmwifoebma, romlebic kavkasiidan ruseTis gandevnas cdilobeno. am procesis gasaRrmaveblad dasavleTma ruseTis sawinaaRmdegod baqo-jeihanis sanavTobo kontraqtis xelmoweras miaRwia. aseT pirobebSi saqarTvelom SeinarCuna ra somxeTTan normaluri urTierToba, avtomaturad aRmoCnda ekonomikuri da politikuri Suamavlis rolSi rogorc somxeTsa da azerbaijans, ise somxeTsa da TurqeTs Soris. regionSi ZalTa aseTma ganlagebam somxeTi aiZula ufro mWidro kontaqtebi daemyarebina ruseTTan, maT Soris samxedro-politikur dargSic. yvelafridan Cans, ganagrZobs momxsenebeli, rom saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mopovebis pirvel xanebSi somex-qarTvelTa urTierToba arc Tu ise advilad viTardeboda. iyo momentebi, roca Cveni urTierTobani, arcTu mesame Zalis monawileobis gareSe, SeiZleboda sabrZolo situaciaSi gadazrdiliyo. sabednierod es ar moxda. gaimarjva gonierebam da TviTgadarCenis instinqtma. samagaliTod imowmebs general andranikis sityvebs, romelic mas noe ramiSvilTan da evgeni gegeWkorTan saubrisas 1919 w. aprilSi warmouTqvams: qarTvel-somexTa saomari konfliqtis gameorebis SemTxvevaSi orive qristiani eris daRupva gardauvali iqnebao. b. aS. melqonianis azriT, somexi generlis es sityvebi dResac inarCunebs Tavis aqtualobas. amJamad Cveni qveynebi, maTda uneburad, aRmoCndnen ori samxedro-politikuri blokis interesTa mijnaze, ramac aiZula isini ezrunaT amierkavkasiaSi koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis zonis Seqmnaze. dasasruls, gamoTqvams imeds, rom problemebi daiZleva, risi dasturicaa Cveni mravalsaukunovani istoriao. aseT optimistur notze amTavrebs b-ni aS. melqoniani Tavis moxsenebas da Cvenc gviCndeba imedi, rom somxur istoriografiaSi bolo xans gaCenili pozitiuri Zvrebis niSnebi Tavis logikur ganviTarebas poveben. peterburgis universitetis jer kidev me-

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same kursis studenti, didi ivane javaxiSvili werda: `Zvel xanas da Zvel adamianebs mietevebaT legendebis Seqmna, magram Tavis mxriv Cven gvevaleba ganvasxvavoT legendebi istoriuli WeSmaritebisagan~38. cxadia, rom gayalbebuli faqtebidan da movlenebidan mxolod mcdari daskvnebis gamotanaa SesaZlebeli, rac istoriis gakveTilebs qmediTunarianobas ukargavs. amitomac aris aucilebeli yovelma erma icodes `utyuari, WeSmariti istoria da ara gazviadebuli, yalbi~39. mxolod am principis dacvis SemTxvevaSi SeuZlia istoriografias sargebloba moutanos xalxs, romelsac is emsaxureba.

daskvna

qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis tendenciuri gaSuqeba, ZiriTadad Zveli somxuri istoriografiis yvelaze gavleniani warmomadgenlis ­ movses xorenacidan iRebs saTaves, misi Semdgomi ganviTareba ki sagareo faqtoris zemoqmedebis Sedegi iyo, ramac metadre negatiuri saxe kavkasiaSi rusuli mflobelobis damyarebis droidan miiRo, romlis gamoZaxili dResac sakmaod igrZnoba. somxuri istoriografiis `oqros saukune~ maSin dadga (V s.) roca somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis didma marcxma (erovnuli xelisufleba dasavleT somxeTSi 391 w. gaauqmes romaelebma, aRmosavleTSi sparselebma ­ 428 w.) erovnul TviTSegnebas samkvdrosasicocxlo mniSvnelobis funqcia daakisra. aseT situaciaSi somex istorikosTa patriotul movaleobad iqca Zlierebis xanis somxeTis istoriis mTeli didebulebiT, Tundac gazviadebiT, warmoCena, oRondac mas damoukideblobisaTvis xalxis darazmva da sulierad ganmtkiceba SesZleboda. aqedan gamomdinare, somxeTisa da somexTa gamorCeulobis ideam Sua saukuneebis somxur istoriografiaSi myarad daimkvidra adgili da saxelmwifoebrivi marcxiT Selaxuli Rirsebis dacvis erT-erT ZiriTad saSualebad iqca. somxeTis gandidebis idea Tavis apogeas aRwevs movses xorenacis `somxeTis istoriaSi~, sadac somexTa gamorCeulobis azri koncefciis donezea ayvanili. miznis misaRwevad Txzulebis avtori faqtebisa da movlenebis araTu Selamazebas, aramed, rig SemTxvevebSi, gayalbebasac ar erideba. mematianisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia, rom kavkasiis qveynebsa da xalxebs ver amCnevs (n. berZeniSvili) da mas mxolod zogadi, geografiuli terminiT `CrdiloeTiT~ da `CrdiloelebiT~ aRniSnavs, riTac, etyoba, cdilobs kavkasiaze mkiTxvels somxeTs daqvemdebarebuli qveynis STabeWdileba Seuqmnas. amitomaa mis TxzulebaSi qarTli somxeTis naw-

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sergo jorbenaZe, cxovreba da Rvawli ivane javaxiSvilisa, Tbilisi, 1981, gv. 43. iv. javaxiSvili, mamuliSviloba da mecniereba, Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 68.

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ilad, xolo qarTveli xelisuflebi somxeTis samefos moxeleebad warmodgenili. ufro metic, m. xorenaci qarTlsa da masTan erTad kavkasias politikuradac da sulieri kulturiTac somxeTze damokidebul qveynad warmogvidgens, rogorc Zvel warmarTul, ise qristianul xanaSic. es koncefcia erTob mimzidveli aRmoCnda sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisaTvis mebrZoli politikuri wreebisaTvis, romelTa saSualebiT, etyoba, misi gavlena mTel somxur istoriografias gadaswvda mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi. somxuri istoriografiis zviadobas da mis Semdgom ganviTarebas aranakleb uwyobda xels sagareo faqtoriT gamowveuli misTvis zogjer xelsayreli ZalTa Tanafardoba kavkasiaSi. magaliTad, sasanianebi somxeTs, rogorc aRmosavluri tradiciebis matarebel qveyanas, TavianTi politikis sayrden bazad iTvaliswinebdnen am regionSi. amasTan, somxuri eklesiis dogmaturi uTanxmoeba bizantiasTan irans saSualebas aZlevda masze dayrdnobiT ideologiuri situacia kavkasiaSi Tavisi mTavari metoqis sawinaaRmdegod waremarTa. aqedan gamomdinare, somxuri eklesiis mfarveloba sparsuli politikis mniSvnelovani faqtori gaxda. cnobilma sparsulma saeklesio krebam 614 w. ktezifonSi somxuri sarwmunoeba savaldebulod gamoacxada misi qveSevrdomi qristianebisaTvis, ris Semdegac somxuri eklesiis ierarqiulma pretenziebma aq farTo gasaqani miiRo da msaxurma istoriografiamac ara marto somxuri eklesiis, aramed kavkasiis politikuri istoriis suraTis warmosaxvac am Targze scada. analogiuri viTarebis mowmeni vxdebiT saxalifo-bizantiis dapirispirebis periodSic, roca arabTa egidiT aRdgenili somxuri saxelmwifos mesveurebi mfarvelTa politikur interesebTan garkveuli TanxvedriT iwyeben mTeli kavkasiis dasaufleblad brZolas, am xanis somxuri istoriografia, Tavis mxriv, kavkasiaSi somexi bagratuni mefeebis ganusazRvreli Zalauflebis iluziur suraTs hqmnis da mxolod somxuri samefoebis dasustebisa da TandaTanobiTi gaqrobis kvalobaze, Sua saukuneebis somex avtorTa Txrobis mediduri toni da hegemonisturi midrekilebebi TandaTan cxreba da sapirispirod icvleba. qarTvelTa qristianuli warsulis mniSvnelobis eWvqveS dayenebisa da misi damcrobis cdebi somxur istoriografiaSi sak-

maod argumentirebulad iyo adridanve uaryofili `moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡s~ krebulSi Sesuli `wm. ninos cxovrebiT~ (Zegli TariRdeboda VII-IX ss-iT, bolo xans ki V s. meore naxevariT). qarTuli hagiografiuli Txzulebis avtoris daskvniT, qarTlisa da wm. ninos mniSvneloba aRmosavleTis saqristianos winaSe gacilebiT didia, vidre somxeTisa da misi ganmanaTleblis grigol parTelisa. qristianuli rwmenis siZveliTac qarTli win uswrebs somxeTs, ramdenadac qarTlis gansakuTrebuli roli qristianobis gavrcelebamde winaswar iyo gansazRvruli da qarTlis am upiratesobas Tavisi piriT aRiarebda dvineli somexi miaforic. amitom moxda, rom qristianuli rwmenis Casaxvisas somxeTi mTlianad qarTlze aRmoCnda damokidebuli, vinaidan somexTa eklesiis safuZveli im adamianTa Zvlebze daido, romlebic ninos mier iyvnen moqceuli (e. i. rifsimianelebi) da maTTan erTad moevlinnen somxeTs (k. kekeliZe). XI s. Sua wlebSi, roca Sua saukuneebis somxurma saxelmwifoebriobam saboloo marcxi ganicada, saqarTvelo ki mowodebuli aRmoCnda im centrad qceuliyo, romlis garSemo mTeli kavkasia erTiandeboda, saWiro gaxda iseTi ideur-moraluri sayrdenis Seqmna, romelic kavkasiaSi saqarTvelos wamyvani rolis samarTlianobas istoriuli ganviTarebis kanonzomierebiTac gaamarTlebda. albaT, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom XI s., TiTqmis erTdroulad, ramdenime qarTveli istorikosi (leonti mroveli, juanSeri, `matiane qarTlisa¡s~ avtori da sumbat daviTis Ze) wers uZvelesi droidan XI s-mde Tavisi qveynis gabmuli istoriis sxvadasxva nawilebs, romlebic qmnis damoukideblobisa da progresisaTvis qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani gmiruli brZolis mTlian suraTs, erT-erT umniSvnelovanes pirobas kavkasiis erTiani qristianuli samyaros warmoqmna-ganviTarebis warmosaCenad. kavkasiis gaerTianebis procesis avangardSi myofi qveynis politikuri amocanebidan gamomdinare qarTuli istoriografia (leonti da sxvebi) kavkasiis istoriis imgvar models qmnian, romelsac qarTvelTa mimarT somexTa gaucxoeba unda gamoericxa, raTa somxeTis memkvidreobisaTvis bizantiasTan brZolaSi xeli ar SeSloda. amitom, am droisaTvis praqtikul mniSvnelobas moklebuli m. xorenacis koncefciis kritikis nacvlad leonti mrovelma misi ZiriTadi debulebebi da maTs safuZvelze gaSuqebuli

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faqtebi Seaswora da xorenacis eqspansiurobas kavkasiis xalxTa sisxliT naTesaobisa da Zmobis sakuTari koncefcia daupirispira, riTac ara marto moraluri upiratesoba moipova `somxeTis istoriis mamaze~, aramed drois moTxovnasac ukeT moergo. ramdenadac kavkasiis Semkrebis politikuri lideroba kulturuli liderobiTac unda yofiliyo uzrunvelyofili, leonti qarTuli damwerlobisa da mwignobrobis did siZveles (somxeTTan SedarebiT 7-8 saukuniT) aRniSnavs da SesaniSnavad asabuTebs Zveli qarTuli saxelmwifos SeqmnisTanave gaCenili kulturul-politikuri moTxovnilebebiT, mkiTxvelis yuradRebas amaxvilebs, agreTve, kavkasiis politikuri lideris sxva upiratesobebzec. istoriuli somxeTis didi nawilis saqarTvelos centralizebuli monarqiis SemadgenlobaSi Semosvlis Semdeg somxeTis istoria saqarTvelos istoriis nawilad iqca, ris gamoc somex avtorTa interesi mis mimarT kidev ufro gaizarda da maTi damokidebuleba am istoriisadmi daTba. gasagebia, rom XII-XVIII ss. somxuri istoriografiis produqcia Tanadroul qarTvelTa gansakuTrebul komentars ukve aRar saWiroebda. qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis marcxTan erTad (1801 w.) somxuri istoriografiis damokidebuleba saqarTvelos istoriis mimarT erTbaSad Seicvala da, ZiriTadad, negatiuri saxe miiRo. amis mizezi sxva pirobebTan erTad, carizmis kolonialuri politika iyo, romlis uSualo gamtareblebi qarTveli xalxis winaaRmdegobis Zalismieri daTrgunvis RonisZiebebTan erTad misi istoriisa da kulturis waSla-aRmofxvrasac cdilobdnen. am uRirs saqmeSi adgilze TavianT mokavSired da sayrden socialur bazad rusuli biurokratia somxur elements da mis burJuazias miiCnevda, romlis gaZlierebac man Tavisi batonobis damyarebisTanave daiwyo. imperiis administraciis keTilganwyobilebisa da mfarvelobis pirobebSi somxuri burJuaziis interesebis gamomxatveli istoriografia saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis mniSvnelobis damcrobis gziT kavkasiis istoriis Tanamimdevrul gadakeTebas Seudga, rasac Tan axlda somexTa `gamorCeulobis~ xorenaciseuli ideebisa da teritoriuli pretenziebis farTo propaganda. XIX s. meore naxevridan mainc saqarTvelos istoriis gayalbebam somxur istoriografiaSi, TiTqmis, sistematuri xasiaTi miiRo, ramac saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis moRvaweTa

mwvave reaqcia gamoiwvia. qarTuli cnobierebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli rusuli da somxuri istoriografiis es erToblivi kampania miznad isaxavda ruseTisaTvis xelsayreli saerTaSoriso sazogadoebrivi azris Seqmnas, romelic saqarTvelos dapyrobas gaamarTlebda da mas ruseTis humanur aqciad, xolo somxeTisaTvis istoriuli saqarTvelos mTel teritorias mosaxleobiTac da politikuri warsuliTac somxeTad warmosaxavda. am mTavar politikur amocanas daeqvemdebara somxur istoriografiaSi qarTulsomxuri urTierTobis nebismieri sakiTxis ganxilva ruseTis mflobelobis TiTqmis ori saukunis manZilze. am TvalsazrisiT, erTob mcirea sxvaoba burJuaziuli da sabWoTa somxuri istoriografiebis poziciebs Soris. XIX s. dawyebuli Seteva saqarTvelos istoriaze misi mniSvnelobis damcrobisa da gabiabruebis mizniT, XX s. 40-iani wlebidan ukve farTo frontiT, Tanadmimdevrul da gegmazomier laSqrobaSi gadaizarda, romelmac saistorio kvlevis TiTqmis yvela sfero da dargi moicva. amjerad kvlevis mizani daSnakuri partiis fantastikuri rukebis mixedviT, e. w. `didi somxeTis~ Crdilo nawilSi qarTulis nacvlad somxuri civilizaciis nakvalevis dadastureba iyo. aseTi ganwyobileba sruliad Tavisuflad ikiTxeba mTel rig sabWoTa somex mecnierTa gamokvlevebSi, romlebic exeba somxeTis istoriul geografias, toponimikas, politikur istorias, saistorio mwerlobas, xelovnebis istorias, kulturis istorias da sxv. rogorc am naSromTa kritikulma ganxilvam dagvarwmuna tendenciurad ganwyobili somexi avtorebi miznis miRwevas faqtebze ZaldatanebiTa da istoriuli movlenebis gamrudebiT cdiloben. magaliTad, taoklarjeTisa da qvemo qarTlis qarTuli arqiteqturuli Zeglebis somxuri arqiteqturisaTvis misaTvlelad sakmarisad miaCniaT maTi gamocxadeba qarTuli wesis somex qalkedonitTa naxelavad, am Zeglebis qarTul warwerebsa Tu sxva werilobiT ZeglebSi moxseniebuli istoriuli pirebi ki qarTul enaze metyvel somxebad. qarTuli wesis somex qalkedonitTa magiuri formula am avtorebma faqtebis gayalbebis xelisSemSleli wyaroebis avTenturi cnobebis winaaRmdegobis daZlevis universalur iaraRad aqcia, `daiviwyes~ ra, rom tao-klarjeTSi, istoriul niadagze rom araferi iTqvas, qarTuli iyo ara marto arqiteqtura, aramed literatura, xelnaweri wignebi, miniatiurebi, monumenturi ferwera, Weduri

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xelovnebis nawarmoebebi da yvela isini organulad iyvnen dakavSirebulni saukuneTa manZilze saqarTvelos erovnuli xelovnebis saerTo ganviTarebiT. amgvarive damokidebuleba SeiniSneba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxva regionebisa da istoriuli periodebis gaSuqebisas. erTi sityviT, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos totaluri gasomxurebis tendencia wiTel zolad gasdevs somxur istoriografias mTlianad sabWoTa periodSi. sabWoTa da Tanamedrove somxuri istoriografiis mniSvnelovan naklad unda CaiTvalos, agreTve, qarTuli istoriografiis TiTqmis, sruli ignorireba da mis monacemTa gauTvaliswinebloba. gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, damoukidebeli qarTuli da somxuri saxelmwifoebis warmoqmnis Semdeg, sruli Tavisuflebis SegrZnebis pirobebSi, somxuri istoriografiis rigma warmomadgenelma daufaravad gamoxata Sors mimavali geopolitikuri zraxvebi. warsulis kritikuli Seswavlis nacvlad, winamorbedi da ufrosi Taobis mier gayalbebuli istoriis bazaze maT daSnakTa ideebis propagandas mihyyves xeli da am procesSi araseriozulobis yovelgvar zRvars gadaabijes. amasTan erTad, am bolo xans somxur istoriografiaSi pozitiuri Zvrebis niSnebic SeimCneva. magaliTad, qarTul-somxuri kulturul-istoriuli urTierTobis Temaze mdare, mecnierebas dacilebuli, primitiuli naSromebis momravlebiT SeSfoTebuli, CvenSi tendenciur avtorad cnobili b-ni p. muradianic ki kritikulad ganewyo da sajarod dagmo Tavisi axalgazrda kolegis s. karapetianis mier faqtebis aSkarad zRvars gadacilebuli gayalbeba, rac misi avtoris codnis ukmarisobiT axsna. miuxedavad amisa, p. muradianis es gamosvla urTierTgagebisken gadadgmul sasikeTo nabijad unda miviCnioT. misasalmebelia, agreTve, XIX-XX ss. qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis SedarebiT axleburi gaazreba somxeTis mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis institutis direqtoris aS. melqonianis moxsenebaSi, romelic man TbilisSi waikiTxa. cxadia, gayalbebuli faqtebi swori daskvnis saSualebas ar iZleva, amitom, iv. javaxiSvils rom davesesxoT, aucilebelia yovelma erma icodes utyuari, WeSmariti istoria da ara gazviadebuli, yalbi.

Guram Maisuradze

FROM THE OF GEORGIAN ­ ARMENIAN RESATIONS Summary The subject of our resaerch has various interpretations in historiography. Opposite evalution of the facts and events in interpretations of one and the same sources have long been attracting the interest of the readers. This paradox needs scientific explanation. The given work is the first attempt of such an explanation. The tendentious interpretation of the history of Georgian ­ Armenian relations originates mainly from the most influential representative of the old Armenian historiography Movses Khorenats. The further development of tendentious interpretation of Georgian history was the result of external factor attaining the mosts negative quality after the all-powerful government of Russians in the Caucasus, the echo of which sounds strongly even today. The ,,Golden Age" of Armenian historiography started (the 5th century) when Armenian state suffered the great defeat (Romans abolished national government in western Armenia in 391 and Persians in the east part of the country in 428) and the national self-idenification attained the decisive function. In this situation the supreme patriotic duty of Armenian historians was to show in full greantess, even though exaggerated, the history of Armenia, to unite the nation for liberation movement and strengthen the spirit of Armenian people. As a result, the idea of uniqueness of Armenia and Armenians was firmly established in medieval Armenian historiography and had become one of the main sources of defanding shaken national honour. The idea of the glorification of Armenia reaches its climax in ,,The History of Armenia" by Movses Khorenats where the idea of Armenians' uniqueness gains conceptual character. To reach the aim the author of the history is not only coloring the facts and events but in some cases even falsifies them. The chronicle disregards the Caucasian countries and peoples (N. Berdzenishvili) and denotes them with generalgeographical term ,,the north" and ,,norterners". Thus, apparently he tries to make readers belive that the Caucasus is a country subordinated to Armenia. That is why in account Kartli is a part of Armenia 285

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and Georgian authorities are the officials of the Armenian kingdom. More than that according to Movses khorenats the Caucasus together with kartli had been a country politically and culturally (meaning spiritual culture) subordinated to Armenia both in pre-Christian and Christian periods. The concept seems to be quite attractive for the Armenian political circles trying to rebuilt abolished statehood. These circles must have promoted the concept and established it in the and its further development was also supported and encouraged by advantageous distribution of forces in the Caucasus conditioned by exterior factors. For example, Armenia as the country bearer of the oriental traditions was considered by Sasanian as a support of their policy in the region. Besides, the dogmatic disagreement of the Armenian Church was a significant factor of the policy of Iran. The well known Persian church countcil in Kteziphon in 614 announced Armenian religion as obligatory for his Christian subjects which caused the wide extension of the pretensions of the Armenian Church hierarchs. Armenian historiography was ready in trying to picture not only the history of the Armenian Church but also the political of the Caucasus in the given frame. The similar situation can be witnessed in the period of caliphate ­ Bizantium opposition where the authorities of Armenian state was restored under the aegis of Arabs. Sharing the political interests of their protectors, Armenian political forces started the fight for gaining the whole Caucasus. The Armenian historiography of those days created the impression that Armenian kings-Bagratunshad an absolute power in the Caucasus. Only after weakening and gradual disappearance of the Armenian kingdom the arrogant tone and hegemonic tendentious of the medieval Armenian authors gradually died down and changed to the opposite. The attempts raising doubts about the importance of Georgia' s Christian past and of belittle it, had been reasonably critcized already in ,,The Life of St. Nino" (the monument was dated earlier to the 7th -9th centuries, and according to current investigations to the II half the 5th century) which is a part the collection ,,Moktsevai kartlisai" (The Conversion of Kartli). The author of the Georgian historiograpic account concludes that the contribution of Kartli and St. Nino towards Eastern Christianity is much more important than that of Armenia and its enlightener Grigorius the special role of Kartli before the dispersion of Christianity was determined beforehead. Armenian miafor himself (a person who looks after the sancuary) from Dvini admits this priority oof kartli. So, when the Christian faith had been conceived in kartli, Armenia became wholly depended on it, as the Church of Armenia was founded on the

holy bones of those martyrs (i. m. ripsimians) who were converted by St. Nino ans had crossed the frontier with her (K. Kekelidze). In the middle of the 11 th century, when the medieval Armenian state underwent the final collapse and Georgia became the centre uniting whole Caucasus, the creaion of ideological and moral basis for justifying the leading role of Georgia in history of the Caucasus was necessary. It mast not have been accidental that in the 11 century some Georgian historians (Leonti Mroveli, Juansher, the author of "The Chronicle of Georgia" and Sumbat the son of David) wrote different parts of the country history from the ancient times till the 11 century almost simultaneously displaying the whole picture of the centuries-long heroic straggle the creation and development of the united Christian world of the Caucasus. In the process of uniting the Caucasus, determined by the political aims of the vanguard country, Georgian historiography (Leonti and others (creates the model of the Caucasian history which should have overcome the Armenian estrangement to fight freely with Byzantinium for the heritage of Armenia. That' s why instead of criticizing M. Khorenats' concept, that had no practical importance for those period, Leonti Mroveli corrected his main statements and treatments of the facts and opposed his own concept of the Caucasian peoples' kinship and brotherhood to Armenian historians' expansion. Thus, Leonti gained not only moral priority over ,,The father of Armenian history", but met well the demands of the time. The political leader had to the cultural leader as well. So, Leonti speaks about the ancient origin (7-8 centuriel-older in comparison with Armenian script) of Georgian script and literature and proves the cultural leadership of newly establishd ancient Georgian state had from the very beginning. Leonti draws the attention of the readers to other priorities of Caucasian political Leader as well. When the great part of the historical Armenia became a part of the Georgian centralized monarchy, the history of Armenia had become a part of Georgian history as well. Because of this the interest of Armenian historians towards history of Georgia had grown and the attitude became warmer. Naturally, there was no need for making special comments on the Armenian historiography of the 12th -13th centuries at that time. With the downfall of Georgian history was completely changed. The reason, among other circumstances,was the colonial policy of Tsarism. Besides the violent repression of the Georgian resistance the main figures of this policy

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were trying to wipe out its history and culture. Russian beaurocracy found Armenia and its bourgeoisie to be their supporters in carrying out this unhonourable job. Supported by the empire administration, Armenian historiography, expressing the interests of Armenian bourgeoisie, started changing the Caucasian history diminishing the value of Georgian history and culture; consequently, wide proragation of Khorenats' ideas about Armenians' ,,Exceptionality" and erritorial pretensions. From the second half of the 19th century distortion of the Georgian history in the pretensions. From the second half of the 19th century distortion of the Georgian history in the Armenian historiography gained almost systematic character causing the sharp reaction and activities of Georgian national liberation movement. The united campaign of Russian and Armenian historiography against Georgian mentality aimed at the oreation of suitable international opinion favored by Russia; it justified the annexation of Georgian, as a humane action and favored by Armenia which was to show that historic Georgia with its whole territory, population and political past belonged to Armenia. Any subject of Georgian-Armenian relations during almost two centuries of Russian domination served this main political aim in Armenian historiography. From this point of view bourgeois and Soviet Armenian historiography have mostly the same positions. The attack on Georgian history started at the beginning of the 19th century and gained its speed in the 40s of the 20th century; it developed into well planed and organized attack, embracing almost all fields and trends of investigation. On this stage of investigation Armenian historiography basing on absolutely absurd maps of Dashnaks' party aimend to prove that the northern part of so calles ,,Great Armenia" traced the exixtence of Armenian civilization in the place of Georgian one. The attitude and position can be well seen in the investigations dealing with historical geography, toponimy, political history, chronicles, the history of art, the history of culture etc. The critical investigation of these works has proved that the Armenian scientists tried to reach the aim by distortion of the historical facts and events. For instance, Georgian anchitectural monuments in Tao-Klardgeti (historical province of Georgia, now in Turkey) and Kvemo Kartli (one of the regions of east Georgia) were declared to be Armenian because they were built by Chalcedonit Armenians of Georgian canon and declare historical persons mentioned in the inscriptions of these monuments or in historical sources as Armenians speaking Georgian; the magic formula ,,Armenian Chalcedonits of Georgian right" became a universal means for overcoming the obstacles on the way of distortion of the 288

authentic records.They have ,,forgotten" that in Tao-Klardgeti not only architecture was Georgian but also rich literature, manuscripts, miniatures, monumental paintings, engravings and all of them were united by the centuries-old common Georgian culture development process to say nothing of hisorical reasons. The same attitude can be traced in the treatment of the history of other regions of east Georgia and historic epochs. Thus, the tendency of total Armenisation of past Georgia runs through the whole Soviet Armenian historiography. The serious demerit of the Soviet and current Armeniam historiography is also, almost total ignoring of the Georgian historiography and its data. After establishing independent Georgian and Russian states in the 90s of the last century, feeling absolute freedom, some representatives of Armenian historiography openly unveiled their far going geopolitical interests. Instead of critical study of the past on the ground of the history destroyed by elder generation, they began the propagation of Dashnaks' ideas and had exceeded all limits. But the positive tendentions can also be viewed in the Armenian historiography lately. For example even Mr. P. Muradian, notorious in Georgia for his joung colleague S. Karapetian's exceeding all limits and explained it as lack of knowledge. Dispite this evaluation, Muradian's position is realistic and pozitive. Comparatively modern interpretation of the 19th -20th centuries Georgian-Armenian relations by the head of the Institute of History of the Academy of Armenia, Ash. Melkonyan presented in Tbilisi is welcomed, indeed. It is obvious that interpretation of the facts enables us make right conclusions. That is why Iv. Javakhishvili used to say that each people should know the true and not falsified history of his nation.

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Ãóðàì Ìàéñóðàäçå

ÈÇ ÈÑÒÎÐÈÎÃÐÀÔÈÈ ÀÐÌßÍÎ-ÃÐÓÇÈÍÑÊÈÕ ÎÒÍÎØÅÍÈÉ Ðåçþìå Íàáëþäàåìîå â èñòîðèîãðàôèè ñîâåðøåííî îòëè÷àþùååñÿ äðóã îò äðóãà îòíîøåíèå ãðóçèíñêèõ è àðìÿíñêèõ èñòîðèîãðàôîâ ê èññëåäóåìîé òåìå, ïðè íàëè÷èè îäíîé è òîé æå èñòî÷íèêîâîé áàçû ­ â îñíîâíîì ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîå îñâåùåíèå è îöåíêà ôàêòîâ è ÿâëåíèé ­ äàâíî îáðàùàåò íà ñåáÿ âíèìàíèå ÷èòàþùåé îáùåñòâåííîñòè è òðåáóåò îáúÿñíåíèÿ ñîçäàâøåéñÿ ïàðàäîêñàëüíîé ñèòóàöèè. Ïðåäñòàâëåííàÿ ðàáîòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíîé èç ïåðâûõ ïîïûòîê å¸ îöåíêè. Òåíäåíöèîçíîå îñâåùåíèå ãðóçèíî-àðìÿíñêèõ îòíîøåíèè áåð¸ò íà÷àëî îò îäíîãî èç âëèÿòåëüíåéøåãî ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ­ Ìîâñåñà Õîðåíàöà. Äàëüíåéøåå æå å¸ ðàçâèòèå áûëî óæå èòîãîì âíåøíåãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ, ïîëó÷èâøåãî îñîáî íåãàòèâíûé õàðàêòåð ïîñëå óñòàíîâëåíèÿ íà Êàâêàçå ðóññêîãî âëàäû÷åñòâà, îòãîëîñêè ÷åãî äîñòàòî÷íî ÷óâñòâèòåëüíî ïðîÿâëÿþòñÿ è ïî ñåé äåíü. «Çîëîòîé âåê» àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè íàñòàë, êîãäà (V â.) ïîëíàÿ ëèêâèäàöèÿ àðìÿíñêîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòè (ìåñòíàÿ âëàñòü â Çàïàäíîé Àðìåíèè áûëà óïðàçäíåíà ðèìëÿíàìè â 391 ãîäó, à â Âîñòî÷íîé Àðìåíèè ­ ïåðñàìè â 428 ãîäó) âîçëîæèëà íà íàöèîíàëüíîå ñàìîñîçíàíèå àðìÿí æèçíåííî âàæíóþ ôóíêöèþ.  òàêîé ñèòóàöèè àðìÿíñêèå èñòîðèêè ñî÷ëè çà ñâîþ ïàòðèîòè÷åñêóþ îáÿçàííîñòü ïðåäñòàâëÿòü èñòîðèþ ìîãóùåñòâåííîé Àðìåíèè âî âñåé å¸ êðàñå, ïóñòü äàæå çà ñ÷åò ïðåóâåëè÷åíèÿ, ëèøü áû ýòî ñïîñîáñòâîâàëî ñïëî÷åíèþ è äóõîâíîé ñòîéêîñòè íàðîäà â áîðüáå çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, èäåÿ «èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîñòè» Àðìåíèè è àðìÿíñêîãî íàðîäà â ñðåäíåâåêîâîé àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ïðî÷íî çàêðåïèëàñü è ïðåâðàòèëàñü â îäíî èç îñíîâíûõ ñðåäñòâ çàùèòû ÷åñòè, ïîðóãàííîé óòåðåé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòè. Èäåÿ âîçâåëè÷åíèÿ Àðìåíèè äîñòèãàåò ñâîåãî àïîãåÿ â «Èñòîðèè Àðìåíèè» Ìîâñåñà Õîðåíàöà, â êîòîðîé «èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîñòü» àðìÿí 290

âîçâåäåíà äî óðîâíÿ êîíöåïöèè. Äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ ýòîé öåëè àâòîð íå ïîñòåñíÿëñÿ íå òîëüêî ïîäêðàøèâàíèÿ ôàêòîâ è ÿâëåíèé, íî è, â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ, ôàëüñèôèêàöèè èõ. Äëÿ ýòîãî ëåòîïèñöà õàðàêòåðíî, ÷òî îí íå «çàìå÷àåò» (Í. Áåðäçåíèøâèëè) äðóãèå ñòðàíû è íàðîäû Êàâêàçà, ïîìèíàÿ èõ îáùèìè òåðìèíàìè «Ñåâåðíûå» è «ñåâåðÿíå», ïûòàÿñü, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ñîçäàòü ýòèì ó ÷èòàòåëÿ âïå÷àòëåíèå î Êàâêàçå êàê î ñòðàíå, ïîäâëàñòíîé Àðìåíèè. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó â åãî ñî÷èíåíèè Êàðòëè ïðåäñòàâëåíà â êà÷åñòâå ÷àñòè Àðìåíèè, à ãðóçèíñêèå âëàñòèòåëè - êàê ñàíîâíèêè àðìÿíñêîãî öàðñêîãî äâîðà. Áîëåå òîãî, Êàðòëè, à âìåñòå ñ íåé è Êàâêàç, Ì. Õîðåíàö ïðåäñòàâëÿåò òàêèì îáðàçîì, áóäòî ýòà ñòðàíà çàâèñåëà îò Àðìåíèè êàê ïîëèòè÷åñêè, òàê è ïî äóõîâíîé êóëüòóðå è âî âðåìåíà ÿçû÷åñòâà, è â ïîðó õðèñòèàíñòâà. Òàêàÿ êîíöåïöèÿ îêàçàëàñü âåñüìà ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîé äëÿ ïîëèòè÷åñêèõ êðóãîâ, áîðþùèõñÿ çà âîññòàíîâëåíèå ñîáñòâåííîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòè è îíà, âèäèìî íå áåç ïîìîùè óêàçàííûõ ñèë, îêàçûâàëà âëèÿíèå íà àðìÿíñêóþ èñòîðèîãðàôèþ è â ïîñëåäóþùåì. Íåìàëî ñïîñîáñòâîâàëè ñïåñèâîñòè àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè è äàëüíåéøåìó å¸ ðàçâèòèþ è îïðåäåë¸ííûå ñîîòíîøåíèÿ ñèë íà Êàâêàçå, âîçíèêàþùèåñÿ âðåìÿ îò âðåìåíè áëàãîäàðÿ âíåøíèì ôàêòîðàì è îêàçûâàþùèåñÿ âåñüìà âûãîäíûìè äëÿ ýòèõ öåëåé. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, Àðìåíèþ, êàê ñòðàíó âîñòî÷íûõ òðàäèöèé, Ñàñàíèäû ñ÷èòàëè îïîðíîé áàçîé ñâîåé ïîëèòèêè â ýòîì ðåãèîíå. Ïðè ýòîì, äîãìàòè÷åñêèå ðàçíîãëàñèÿ àðìÿíñêîé öåðêâè ñ âèçàíòèéñêîé ïîçâîëÿëè Èðàíó íàïðàâëÿòü èäåîëîãè÷åñêóþ ñèòóàöèþ íà Êàâêàçå ïðîòèâ ñâîåãî ãëàâíîãî ïðîòèâíèêà è, èñõîäÿ èç ýòîãî, ïîêðîâèòåëüñòâî àðìÿíñêîé öåðêâè ñòàëî íåìàëîâàæíûì ôàêòîðîì åãî ïîëèòèêè. Èçâåñòíîå ïåðñèäñêîå öåðêîâíîå ñîáðàíèå 614 ãîäà â Êòåñèôîíå ïîñòàíîâèëî ñ÷èòàòü àðìÿíñêóþ ðåëèãèþ îáÿçàòåëüíîé äëÿ ïåðñèäñêîïîäàííûõ õðèñòèàí, ïîñëå ÷åãî èåðàðõè÷åñêèå ïðåòåíçèè àðìÿíñêîé öåðêâè ïîëó÷èëè øèðîêèé ïðîñòîð è ïîñëóøíàÿ åé èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ ïîïûòàëàñòü îòîáðàçèòü ïî ýòîìó îáðàçöó êàðòèíó ïîëèòè÷åñêîé èñòîðèè íå òîëüêî àðìÿíñêîé öåðêâè, íî è âñåãî Êàâêàçà. Àíàëîãè÷íîå ïîëîæåíèå ìîæíî çàñâèäåòåëüñòâîâàòü è â ïåðèîä ïðîòèâîñòîÿíèÿ Õàëèôàòà ñ Âèçàíòèåé, êîãäà äåÿòåëè àðìÿíñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà, âîññòàíîâëåííîãî ïîä ýãèäîé àðàáîâ, èñïîëüçóÿ îïðåäåë¸ííîå ñîâïàäåíèå ñâîèõ ÷àÿíèé ñ ïîëèòè÷åñêèìè èíòåðåñàìè ïîêðîâèòåëåé, íà÷èíàþò áîðüáó çà îâëàäåíèå Êàâêàçîì ïîëíîñòüþ. Àðìÿíñêàÿ èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ ýòîãî âðåìåíè, â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü, ñîçäà¸ò èëëþçîðíóþ êàðòèíó íåîãðàíè÷åííîé âëàñòè àðìÿíñêèõ Áàãðàòóíè íà Êàâêàçå è òîëüêî ïîñëå îñëàáëåíèÿ 291

àðìÿíñêèõ öàðñòâ è ïîñòåïåííîãî èõ èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ íàäìåííûé òîí ïîâåñòâîâàíèÿ àðìÿíñêèõ àâòîðîâ è èõ ãåãåìîíè÷åñêèå íàêëîííîñòè ïîñòåïåííî çàòèõàþò è ìåíÿþòñÿ íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûå. Ïîïûòêè ïîñòàâèòü ïîä ñîìíåíèå è óìàëèòü õðèñòèàíñêîå ïðîøëîå ãðóçèí âåñüìà àðãóìåíòèðîâàííî áûëè îòâåðãíóòû â ñâî¸ âðåìÿ «Æèòè¸ì Ñâ. Íèíû», âîøåäøåì â ñáîðíèê «Ìîêöåâàè Êàðòëèñàè» («Îáðàùåíèå Êàðòëè â õðèñòèàíñêóþ âåðó»). Óêàçàííûé èñòî÷íèê äàòèðîâàëñÿ VIIIX âåêàìè, â ïîñëåäíåå æå âðåìÿ ­ âòîðîé ïîëîâèíîé V âåêà. Ïî çàêëþ÷åíèþ àâòîðà ýòîãî ãðóçèíñêîãî àãèîãðàôè÷åñêîãî ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ, ðîëü Êàðòëè è Ñâ. Íèíû ïåðåä õðèñòèàíñòâîì Âîñòîêà ãîðàçäî çíà÷èòåëüíû, ÷åì Àðìåíèè è å¸ ïðîñâåòèòåëÿ ­ Ãðèãîëà Ïàðôÿíñêîãî. Êàðòëè îïåðåæàåò Àðìåíèþ è ïî äàâíîñòè âåðû, ïîñêîëüêó îñîáàÿ ðîëü Êàðòëè â ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè õðèñòèàíñòâà áûëà çàðàíåå ïðåäîïðåäåëåíà è ýòî ïðåèìóùåñòâî Êàðòëè ïðèçíàâàë ñâîèìè óñòàìè àðìÿíèí Ìèàôîð èç Äâèíà. Ïîòîìó è ïðîèçîøëî òàê, ÷òî â ìîìåíò çàðîæäåíèÿ õðèñòèàíñêîé âåðû Àðìåíèÿ îêàçàëàñü âñåöåëî çàâèñÿùåé îò Êàðòëè, èáî îñíîâàíèå àðìÿíñêîé öåðêâè îêàçàëîñü çàëîæåííûì íà êîñòüÿõ ðèôñèìÿí, ò. å. ëþäåé, îáðàùåííûõ â ñâî¸ âðåìÿ Ñâ. Íèíîé è âìåñòå ñ íåé ïîÿâèâøèõñÿ â Àðìåíèè (Ê. Êåêåëèäçå).  ñåðåäèíå XI âåêà, êîãäà îêîí÷àòåëüíî ïðåêðàòèëà ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ñðåäíåâåêîâàÿ àðìÿíñêàÿ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòü, à Ãðóçèÿ îêàçàëàñü ïðèçâàííîé ïîñëóæèòü öåíòðîì åäèíåíèÿ âñåãî Êàâêàçà, ñòàëî íåîáõîäèìûì ñîçäàíèå òàêîé èäåéíî-ìîðàëüíîé îïîðû, êîòîðàÿ ïîñëóæèëà áû îïðàâäàíèåì ñïðàâåäëèâîñòè âåäóùåé ðîëè Ãðóçèè íà Êàâêàçå è îáúÿñíèëà ýòî çàêîíîìåðíîñòüþ èñòîðè÷åñêîãî ðàçâèòèÿ. Íå ñëó÷àéíî, ïî-âèäèìîìó è òî, ÷òî â XI âåêå, ïî÷òè îäíîâðåìåííî íåñêîëüêî ãðóçèíñêèõ èñòîðèêîâ (Ëåîíòèé Ìðîâåëè, Äæóàíøåð, àâòîð «Îáðàùåíèÿ Êàðòëè», Ñóìáàò ñûí Äàâèäà) ïèøóò ðàçíûå ÷àñòè, íà÷èíàÿ ñ äðåâíåéøåãî âðåìåíè, ñêâîçíîé èñòîðèè ñâîåé ñòðàíû, ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ åäèíóþ êàðòèíó ìíîãîâåêîâîé ãåðîè÷åñêîé áîðüáû ãðóçèíñêîãî íàðîäà çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü è ïðîãðåññ ­ îäíó èç çíà÷èòåëüíåéøèõ óñëîâèé îòîáðàæåíèÿ ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ è ðàçâèòèÿ êàâêàçñêîãî åäèíîãî õðèñòèàíñêîãî ìèðà. Èñõîäÿ èç ïîëèòè÷åñêèõ çàäà÷ ñòðàíû, ñòîÿùåé â àâàíãàðäå ïðîöåññà îáúåäèíåíèÿ Êàâêàçà, ãðóçèíñêàÿ èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ (Ëåîíòèé Ìðîâåëè è äð.) ñîçäàþò òàêóþ ìîäåëü èñòîðèè Êàâêàçà, êîòîðàÿ èñêëþ÷àëà îò÷óæäåíèå àðìÿí îò ãðóçèí, ÷òîáû ýòî íå ìîãëî ïîìåøàòü â áîðüáå ñ Âèçàíòèåé çà íàñëåäîâàíèå Àðìåíèåé. Ïîýòîìó, âçàìåí êðèòèêè óòðàòèâøåé ê ýòîìó âðåìåíè ïðàêòè÷åñêîå 292

çíà÷åíèå êîíöåïöèè Ì. Õîðåíàöà, Ëåîíòèé Ìðîâåëè ïîäïðàâèë å¸ îñíîâíûå ïîëîæåíèÿ è îñâåùåííûå íà èõ îñíîâå ôàêòû è ïðîòèâîïîñòàâèë ýêñïàíñèâíîñòè Õîðåíàöà ñîáñòâåííóþ êîíöåïöèþ êðîâíîãî ðîäñòâà è áðàòñòâà íàðîäîâ Êàâêàçà. Ýòèì îí íå òîëüêî äîáûëñÿ ìîðàëüíîãî ïðåéìóùåñòâà íàä «Îòöîì àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèè», íî è áîëåå àäåêâàòíî îòêëèêíóëñÿ íà òðåáîâàíèÿ âðåìåíè.  âèäó òîãî, ÷òî ïîëèòè÷åñêîå ëèäåðñòâî îáúåäèíèòåëÿ Êàâêàçà äîëæíî áûëî áûòü ïîäêðåïëåíî ëèäåðñòâîì è â ñôåðå êóëüòóðû, Ëåîíòèé Ìðîâåëè óêàçûâàåò è íà áîëüøóþ äðåâíîñòü (íà 7-8 âåêîâ ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ àðìÿíñêîé) ãðóçèíñêîé ïèñüìåííîñòè è ëèòåðàòóðû è çàìå÷àòåëüíî îáîñíîâûâàåò èõ âîçíèêíîâåíèå êóëüòóðíî-ïîëèòè÷åñêèìè òðåáîâàíèÿìè, ïîÿâèâøèìèñÿ ñðàçó æå ïðè ñîçäàíèè äðåâíåãðóçèíñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà. Îí çàîñòðÿåò âíèìàíèå ÷èòàòåëåé òàêæå è íà äðóãèå ïðåéìóùåñòâà ïîëèòè÷åñêîãî ëèäåðà Êàâêàçà. Ïîñëå âêëþ÷åíèÿ áîëüøîé ÷àñòè èñòîðè÷åñêîé Àðìåíèè â ñîñòàâ öåíòðàëèçîâàííîé ìîíàðõèè Ãðóçèè, èñòîðèÿ Àðìåíèè ñòàëà ñîñòàâíîé ÷àñòüþ èñòîðèè Ãðóçèè, âñëåäñòâèå ÷åãî èíòåðåñ àðìÿíñêèõ èñòîðèêîâ ê íåé åùå áîëåå âîçðîñ è èõ îòíîøåíèå ê íåé ïîòåïëåëî. Îòñþäà âïîëíå ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî ïðîäóêöèÿ àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè XII-XVIII âåêîâ óæå íå òðåáîâàëà êàêèõ-ëèáî îñîáûõ êîììåíòàðèåâ ñî ñòîðîíû ñîâðåìåííûõ åé ãðóçèíñêèõ èñòîðèêîâ. Âìåñòå ñ ïðèõîäîì ê êîíöó ãðóçèíñêîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòè (1801 ã.) îòíîøåíèå àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ê èñòîðèè Ãðóçèè ñðàçó è ðåçêî èçìåíèëîñü, ïðèíÿâ, â îñíîâíîì, íåãàòèâíûé õàðàêòåð. Ïðè÷èíîé ýòîìó, íàðÿäó ñ äðóãèìè, ïîñëóæèëà è êîëîíèàëüíàÿ ïîëèòèêà öàðèçìà, îñíîâíûå èñïîëíèòåëè êîòîðîé, âìåñòå ñ ïðîâåäåíèåì ìåðîïðèÿòèé ñèëîâîãî ïîäàâëåíèÿ ïðîòèâîáîðñòâà ãðóçèíñêîãî íàðîäà, ïûòàëèñü ñòåðåòü è èçúÿòü åãî èñòîðèþ è êóëüòóðó.  ýòîì íåäîñòîéíîì äåëå ðóññêàÿ áþðîêðàòèÿ ñâîèì ñîþçíèêîì è îïîðíîé ñîöèàëüíîé áàçîé íà ìåñòå ñ÷èòàëà àðìÿíñêèé ýëåìåíò è åãî áóðæóàçèþ, óêðåïëåíèå êîòîðîé îíà íà÷àëà ñðàçó æå ïîñëå óñòàíîâëåíèÿ ñâîåãî ãîñïîäñòâà. Àðìÿíñêàÿ èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ, îòðàæàþùàÿ èíòåðåñû àðìÿíñêîé áóðæóàçèè, â óñëîâèÿõ áëàãîæåëàòåëüíîñòè è ïîêðîâèòåëüñòâà ñî ñòîðîíû èìïåðñêîé àäìèíèñòðàöèè, ïðèñòóïèëà ê ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîé ïåðåäåëêå èñòîðèè Êàâêàçà ïóò¸ì óìàëåíèÿ èñòîðèè è êóëüòóðû Ãðóçèè, ñîïðîâîæäàÿ ýòî øèðîêîé ïðîïàãàíäîé Õîðåíàöñêîé èäåè «èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîñòè» àðìÿí è òåððèîðèàëüíûìè ïðåòåíçèÿìè. Ôàëüñèôèêàöèÿ èñòîðèè Ãðóçèè â àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ïðèíÿëà, 293

îñîáåííî âî âîòîðîé ïîëîâèíå XIX ñòîëåòèÿ, ïî÷òè ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêèé õàðàêòåð, âûçâàâ òåì ñàìûì ðåçêóþ ðåàêöèþ äåÿòåëåé íàöèîíàëüíîîñâîáîäèòåëüíîãî äâèæåíèÿ Ãðóçèè, èáî ýòà ñîâìåñòíàÿ êàìïàíèÿ ðóññêîé è àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè, íàïðàâëåííàÿ ïðîòèâ ãðóçèíñêîãî ñàìîñîçíàíèÿ, ñòàâèëà öåëüþ ñîçäàíèÿ òàêîãî, âûãîäíîãî äëÿ Ðîññèè ìíåíèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîé îáùåñòâåííîñòè, êîòîðîå îïðàâäàëî áû çàâîåâàíèå Ãðóçèè Ðîññèåé è îáúÿñíèëî áû ýòîò àêò êàê ãóìàííóþ àêöèþ Ðîññèè, ïðåäñòàâèâ, íàðÿäó ñ ýòèì, âñþ òåððèòîðèþ èñòîðè÷åñêîé Ãðóçèè êàê ïî íàñåëåíèþ, òàê è ïî ïîëèòè÷åñêîìó ïðîøëîìó, Àðìåíèåé. Ýòîé ãëàâíîé çàäà÷å áûëî ïîä÷èíåíî ðàññìîòðåíèå â àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ëþáîãî âîïðîñà ãðóçèíî-àðìÿíñêèõ îòíîøåíèé íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äâóõ âåêîâ ðóññêîãî ãîñïîäñòâà. Ñ ýòîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ âåñüìà íåçíà÷èòåëüíà ðàçíèöà â ïîçèöèÿõ àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè áóðæóàçíîé è ñîâåòñêîé ýïîõ. Íà÷àòàÿ â XIX âåêå àòàêà íà èñòîðèþ Ãðóçèè ñ öåëüþ óìàëåíèÿ è ïðèíèæåíèÿ å¸ çíà÷åíèÿ, îíà ñ 40-âûõ ãîäîâ XX ñòîëåòèÿ ïåðåðîñëà â îñóùåñòâëÿåìûé óæå øèðîêèì ôðîíòîì ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíûé è ïëàíîìåðíûé ïîõîä, îõâàòèâøèé ïî÷òè âñå ñôåðû è îòðàñëè èñòîðè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé. Íà ýòîò ðàç çàäà÷åé èññëåäîâàíèé ÿâëÿëîñü ïîäòâåðæäåíèå â ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè ñîñòàâëåííîé ïàðòèåé äàøíàêîâ ôàíòàñòè÷åñêîé êàðòû ò. í. «Âåëèêîé Àðìåíèè» ñëåäîâ àðìÿíñêîé öèâèëèçàöèè âìåñòî ãðóçèíñêîé. Òàêîé íàñòðîé ëåãêî ÷èòàåòñÿ â èññëåäîâàíèÿõ öåëîãî ðÿäà àðìÿíñêèõ ñîâåòñêèõ èñòîðèêîâ, êàñàþùèõñÿ èñòîðè÷åñêîé ãåîãðàôèè, òîïîíèìèêè, ïîëèòè÷åñêîé èñòîðèè, èñòîðè÷åñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû, èñòîðèè èñêóññòâà, èñòîðèèè êóëüòóðû è ò. ä. Êðèòè÷åñêîå ðàññìîòðåíèå ýòèõ ðàáîò ïîäòâåðæäàåò, ÷òî äîñòèæåíèÿ ñâîåé çàäà÷è òåíäåíöèîçíî íàñòðîåííûå àðìÿíñêèå àâòîðû ñòàðàþòñÿ ïóò¸ì íàñèëîâàíèÿ ôàêòîâ è èñêàæåíèÿ èñòîðè÷åñêèõ ÿâëåíèé. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, äëÿ ïðè÷èñëåíèÿ ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â Òàî-Êëàðäæåòè è Êâåìî Êàðòëè ïàìÿòíèêîâ ãðóçèíñêîãî çîä÷åñòâà ê àðìÿíñêîé àðõèòåêòóðå, îíè ñ÷èòàþò äîñòàòî÷íûì ïðîâîçãëàøåíèå èõ ðóêîòâîðåíèåì «àðìÿíñêèõ õàëêåäîíèòîâ ãðóçèíñêîãî ïîðÿäêà», èëè æå ­ óïîìèíàåìûõ â ãðóçèíñêèõ íàäïèñÿõ ýòèõ ïàìÿòíèêîâ èëè â äðóãèõ ïèñüìåííûõ ïàìÿòíèêàõ èñòîðè÷åñêèõ ëè÷íîñòåé ­ ãðóçèíîãîâîðÿùèìè àðìÿíàìè! Ìàãè÷åñêóþ ôîðìóëó - «àðìÿíñêèå õàëêåäîíèòû ãðóçèíñêîãî ïîðÿäêà» - ýòè àâòîðû ïðåâðàòèëè â óíèâåðñàëüíûé èíñòðóìåíò äëÿ ïðåîäîëåíèÿ èìåþùèõñÿ â àóòåíòè÷íûõ èñòî÷íèêàõ ïðîòèâîðå÷èé, ïðåïÿòñòâóþùèõ ôàëüñèôèêàöèè ôàêòîâ, «ïîçàáûâ», ïðè ýòîì, ÷òî â ÒàîÊëàðäæåòè ãðóçèíñêîé áûëà, íå ãîâîðÿ óæå îá èñòîðè÷åñêîé ïî÷âå, íå 294

òîëüêî àðõèòåêòóðà, íî è áîãàòàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà, ðóêîïèñíûå êíèãè, ìèíèàòþðû, ìîíóìåíòàëüíàÿ æèâîïèñü, ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ÷åêàííîãî èñêóññòâà, è âñ¸ ýòî áûëî îðãàíè÷åñêè ñâÿçàíî ìåæäó ñîáîé îáùèì ðàçâèòèåì ãðóçèíñêîãî íàöèîíàëüíîãî èñêóññòâà íà âñ¸ì ïðîòÿæåíèè âåêîâ. Ïîäîáíîå æå îòíîøåíèå íàáëþäàåòñÿ è ïðè îñâåùåíèè äðóãèõ ïåðèîäîâ èñòîðèè è äðóãèõ ðåãèîíîâ Âîñòî÷íîé Ãðóçèè. Îäíèì ñëîâîì, ïîïûòêà òîòàëüíîãî «îáàðìåíèâàíèÿ» Âîñòî÷íîé Ãðóçèè êðàñíîé íèòüþ ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ â àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè íà âñ¸ì ïðîòÿæåíèè ñîâåòñêîãî ïåðèîäà. Ñåðü¸çíûì íåäîñòàòêîì ñîâåòñêîé è ñîâðåìåííîé àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ñëåäóåò ñ÷èòàòü òàêæå è ïî÷òè ïîëíîå èãíîðèðîâàíèå ãðóçèíñêîé èñòîðèãîðàôèè è íåïðèíÿòèå âî âíèìàíèå ïðåäîñòàâëÿåìîé åþ èíôîðìàöèè.  íà÷àëå 90-õ ãîäîâ ïðîøëîãî ñòîëåòèÿ, ïîñëå îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåçàâèñèìûõ ãðóçèíñêîãî è àðìÿíñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâ, â óñëîâèÿõ îùóùåíèÿ ïîëíîé ñâîáîäû, ðàäîì ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè ñîâåðøåííî îòêðûòî áûëè âûñêàçàíû èäóùèå äàëåêî ãåîïîëèòè÷åñêèå çàìûñëû. Âìåñòî êðèòè÷åñêîãî ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ïðîøëîãî, îíè çàíÿëèñü ïðîïàãàíäîé äàøíàêöóòþíñêèõ èäåé íà áàçå èñòîðèè, èçâðàùåííîé èõ ïðåäøåñòâåííèêàìè è ñòàðøèì ïîêîëåíèåì è ïåðåñòóïèëè â ýòîì ïðîöåññå âñå ìûñëèìûå ðóáåæè íåñåðü¸çíîñòè. Âìåñòå ñ ýòèì, â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ â àðìÿíñêîé èñòîðèîãðàôèè îòìå÷àåòñÿ è ïðèçíàêè ïîçèòèâíûõ ñäâèãîâ. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, äàæå èçâåñòíûé ó íàñ êàê òåíäåíöèîçíûé àâòîð ã-í Ï. Ìóðàäÿí, îáåñïîêîåííûé óìíîæåíèåì íèçêîïðîáíûõ, äàë¸êèõ îò íàóêè ïðèìèòèâíûõ ðàáîò íà òåìó ãðóçèíî-àðìÿíñêèõ êóëüòóðíî-èñòîðè÷åñêèõ îòíîøåíèé, íàñòðîèëñÿ êðèòè÷åñêè è ïóáëè÷íî îñóäèë ÿâíóþ è íåîáóçäàííóþ ôàëüñèôèêàöèþ ôàêòîâ ñâîèì ìîëîäûì êîëëåãîé Ñ.Êàðàïåòÿíîì, îáúÿñíèâ ýòî íåäîñòàòî÷íûìè çíàíèÿìè àâòîðà. Ýòî âûñòóïëåíèå Ï. Ìóðàäÿíà ìû âîñïðèíèìàåì êàê øàã äîáðîé âîëè íà ïóòè ê âçàèìîïîíèìàíèþ. Ñëåäóåò ïðèâåòñòâîâàòü, òàêæå, è îñìûñëåíèå, ñðàâíèòåëüíî ïî-íîâîìó, ãðóçèíî-àðìÿíñêèõ îòíîøåíèé â XIX-XX âåêàõ, èçëîæåííîå â äîêëàäå äèðåêòîðà èíñòèòóòà èñòîðèè Àêàäåìèè íàóê Àðìåíèè À. Ìåëêîíÿíà, ïðî÷èòàííîì èì â Òáèëèñè. ßñíî, ÷òî ïîääåëàííûå ôàêòû íèêîãäà íå äàäóò âîçìîæíîñòü ñäåëàòü ïðàâèëüíûå âûâîäû. Ïîýòîìó, ñëåäóÿ Èâ. Äæàâàõèøâèëè, ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî êàæäûé íàðîä îáÿçàòåëüíî äîëæåí çíàòü ñâîþ äîñòîâåðíóþ, èñòèííóþ èñòîðèþ, à íå ïðåóâåëè÷åííóþ, ïîääåëüíóþ. 295

saZieblebi

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a abasianebi 195 abaSiZeebi 208 abgari (somexTa mefe) 29 abgar IX edesis mefe (179-214) 29 abgar ukama, edesis mefe (daaxl. I s.) 29 abdalaZe, al. 21(sq.), 28(sq.), 29(sq.), 58(sq.), 68(sq.), 90(sq.), 135(sq.), 193(sq.), 205(sq.) abeRiani m. 16, 17(sq.), 20, 29(sq.), 31 abramiani 270 abramiSvili 270 abulabas somexTa erisTavi 85 abulasani 148 abulaZe il. 71, 102(sq.) abuseri, xixaTa, cixisjvrisa da awyuris cixis patroni 231 agaTangelosi 15, 16, 19, 28, 40, 76, 102 adarnase bagrationi 196 adarnase II qarTvelTa mefe 32, 86, 228, 229, 273 adarnase, guaram mamfalis Zma 85 aderki 55, 56, 59, 102 adonci n. 152, 194, 271 avaliSvili 211 avaliSvili z. 126 avetiqi 210 azariani 270 azariaSvili 270 azoni, azo 50, 68 azork (farsmanisa da kaisis memk.) 60, 61

*

aleqsandre kaxTa mefe 266 aleqsandre makedoneli 26, 49, 50, 80 aleqsandre I (ruseTis imp.) 98, 99 aleqsiZe z. 38, 129, 130(sq.), 181(sq.), 211(sq.), 244 aliSani m. 145 amazaspi 65 amilaxorebi 208 amirqurd arwruni 148 anaiti RvTaeba 28 ana komneni 165, 170, 171, 174, 179 andrianiki, generali 277 andria bogolubski 147 anTaZe k. 110(sq.) antioqozi 49, 68 antioqosi, asurastanis mefe 50, 51, 52 antioqos III 52 antoniusi 27 aJRalan sparsTa mefe 68 aramazdi, RvTaeba 28, 80 aramaisi (aramaneakis Ze) 23 aramaneaki (haikis Ze) 22, 23 araqel davriJeci 92 araqeliani b. 154 ardaSir sasaniani (igive artaSiri) 66 arvelaZe b. 140, 263 aristakes lastiverteci 174, 175, 176, 177, 230, armazel (farsmanisa da kaosis memk.) 60, 61 armazi 28, 79, 80

arsen safareli 38 artabani (parTiis mefe) 66 artagi 55 artavazdi 62 artavazd II 27 artaSes I, sparsTa mefe (Zv. w. II s.) 27, 29 artaSesi 52, 54, 61 artem ararateli 117, 120 artem Saverdovi (somexi vaWari) 98 aruTiniani p. t. 135 aruTinova-fidaniani v. 173, 177, 179, 181, 182, 189, 190, 191, 192, 198, 229 arSaki 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, arSaki (parTiis pirveli arSakidi mefe) 26, 44, 75 arSakidebi (parTeli) 27 arSakidebi, arSakunianebi, arSakunebi 16, 21, 27, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 67, 91 arSuSa qarTlis pitiaxSi 129, 242 arwrunebi 53, 148 aslaniani 270 aslaniSvili 270 astvawatur mRvdeli 203 asfaguri 65, 67, 72 afroditos 80 afciauri n. 243, 244(sq.) aRa-mahmad xani 137 aSot I 32, 33, aSot II 33 aSot I bagratidi 132, 227, 230 aSot I didi, adarnases Ze 197 aSot II kurapalati, adarnase II-is Ze 86 aSot msakari (xorciWamia) bagratuniani 196 aSot smbatis Ze 32, 228 b babaiani l. 232, 239 bagrati, qarTvelTa mefe 189 bagrat III 87, 88, 229

saZieblebi daurTo irma beriZem.

bagrat IV 37, 38, 53, 87, 88, 130, 230, 231, 250, 272 bagrati, guaram mamfalis Zma 85 bagrat erisTavT-erisTavi 273 bagrat vxkaci (vixikeli), smbatis mama 179, 180, 181 bagrationebi 39, 54, 56, 185, 196, 216, 229, 258, 268, 269 artanujeli bagrationebi 184, 185, 186, 257 taoeli bagrationebi 157 bagratunebi, bagratunianebi, bagratidebi 31, 33, 53, 86, 124, 125, 144, 145, 150, 184, 191, 196, 216, 222, 226, 227, 228, 230, 233(sq.), 254, 268, 269, 280 qarTveli bagratidebi 226, 236 somexi bagratidebi 226, 227 Sirakeli bagratidebi 226, 227, 229 bakalova e. 172 bakuri, somexTa pitiaxSi 84 bakuriani, ZeY baldadisi (VIII s. moRvawe) 168 bakuriani (grigolis mama), taos erisTavT-erisTavi 167, 171, 179 bakuriani (xuasrovanis Ze, grigol bakurianis biZaSvili) 167 balazori 250 baraTaSvili 211 bardosi 44 barseRi 215 bartami 64, 76 bartomi 55, 57, 59 basili I 54, 55 basili II 187 baqraZe 211 baqraZe d. 103, 104 bayaTar, osTa mTavari 87 bizantiosi 49 biWianci 216 biWiaSvili 216 boriani b. 200 beburi 266 beburia 266

296

297

beburiani 266 beburiSvili 266 beburiSvili mariami 266 beburiZe 266 begTabegisSvilebi 203 bezobrazovi p. 172 beriZe v. 143, 162, 163, 273 berZeniSvili d. 9, 128 (sq.), 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 258, 260(sq.) berZeniSvili n. 26, 37(sq.), 40, 57(sq.), 69, 70, 71, 81, 83, 119(sq.), 182, 238, 259, 279 berZniSvili m. 208(sq.) beSqen jayeli, Tuxarisis erisTavi 198 bogveraZe, a. 21(sq.), 168(sq.), 171, 192(sq.), 194(sq.), 198(sq.) bludovi, grafi 98 brose, m. 69, 102 burnaSovi s. 132 butkovi p. g. 117, 119 buRa Turqi 85 g gabriel sundukiani 276 gagelebi 141, 236 gagik I 228 gagik II 227 gagiki, somexTa mefe 189 gagik I SahanSa (anisis mefe) 87 gai 79 gaci 79 gegeWkori evgeni 277 gelami (haikis STamomavali) 24 gelasi kvizikeli 243 gvanca dedofali 266 giorgaZe 211 giorgi I 88, 174, 176, 177, 229 giorgi III 103, 104 giorgi brwyinvale 148 giorgi kedrene 190(sq.) giorgi merCule 37 giorgi mTawmindeli 198 giorgi mwerali 198

giorgi saakaZe 93 giorgi (wminda) 203, 214, 215, 216 giunaSvili e. 37(sq.) grigol akaneci 91 grigol artanujeli 198 grigol bakurianis Ze 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 192(sq.) grigol ganmanaTlebeli (wminda) 17, 18, 19, 30, 36, 66, 85, 215, 216, 241, 242, 243, 244, 281 grigol daranaRci 92, 93(sq.) grigol mamikoniani 195 grigol oSkeli (oSkis mSeneblis xelmZRvaneli) 163, 273 grigol orbeliani 110, 113 grigol xanZTeli 186, 196 grigol xlaTeci 240 grigoriani g. 233, 235 guaram goderZis Ze, beWis cixis patroni 231 guaram mamfali 85 guguSvili p. 100(sq.) guzan taoskareli 148 gurgeni (taSir-Zoragetis kvirikiani mefe) 228, 254 gurgeni, adarnases Ze 86 d daviT aRmaSenebeli 101, 118, 130, 132, 157, 239, 268(sq.), 272 daviT batoniSvili (bagrationi) 202 daviT begi 93 daviT zargarovi (somexi vaWari) 98 daviT kurapalati 86 daviT soslani 146, 148 daviT umiwawylo (lore-taSiris mefe) 229 daviT II, adarnase II-is Ze 86 daviT III kurapalati 87, 88, 157, 174, 186, 187, 188, 192, 199, 225, 229, 273

daviT VII ulu 265 daviTi 203 davlianiZe-tatiSvili l. 88(sq.), 228(sq.), 254(sq.) danina 80 demetre II 236 deriberi m. 172 doliZe i. 210 dondua v. 154, 155, 157, 158, 159 don piedro avitabele (misioneri) 212, 213 e ezovi (eziani) g. 106, 107, 116, 117, 135 ekaterine II 118 elene dedofali 35 emini m. 106, 107 erasti (Saras Ze) 23 erekle II 93, 94, 117, 118, 119, 120, 134, 206 eremiani s. 19, 90, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 158, 187, 226, 227, 232, 235, 236, 238, 267 ericiani al. 106, 107 `erkainabazuki~ 147 esaia hasan jalalianci, somexTa kaTalikosi 93, 116, 175 eqvTime grZeli, qarTveli beri 37 v valarSaki (arSakis Zma) 26 valuevi 110 varam gageli 147, 236 `vahram gageci~ 239 vardan arevelci 89, 148, 196(sq.) varTuSa 266 varsqen pitiaxSi 129 vasilievi a. 172 vaCnaZe 266 vaxtang gorgasali 72, 75, 84, 85, 102, 156, 196, 197, 250 vaxtang VI 93, 104, 116, 135, 136, 207, 209, 210

vaxuSti batoniSvili 82, 83(sq.), 208 vahagni (tigran I-is vaJi) 28 vahan I, somexTa kaTalikosi 37 vahan mamikoniani 128, 156 vahramianebi 236 vermiSevi g. 159 voroncov daSkovi 100, 121 vramSapuhi 16 z zabiloni (wminda ninos mama) 35 zagurski l. 97 zadeni 80 zareni, somexTa mefis Ze (an zarehi) 61, 62 `zaqare spasalari~ 124, 125 `zaqaria erkainabazuki~ 146 zaqaria valaSkerteli 178 zaqaria mxargrZeli 135, 146, 147, 148, 180 zaqaria I (sargis mxargrZelis mama) 147 zaqaria qanaqerci 93 `zaqarianebi~ 145, 147, 148, 232, 233, 234, 235, 272 zaqaridebi 158, 233 zedgeniZeebi 208 zviadi 178 zubalaSvili stefane 113 zubovi valerian 119 T Tadeosi (qristes mowafe) 29 Tamazovi 112 TamaraSvili m. 111(sq.), 113, 114, 214(sq.) Tamar mefe 146, 148, 158, 232, 234 Targamosi 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 81, 89, 90 Targamosianebi 46, 47, 50, 51, 59 TarxniSvilebi 206 Teimuraz II 93 Temur-lengi 240 Teodorite 243

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299

Teodoros rStuni (somxeTis mmarTveli) 31, 222 Tmogvelebi 147, 236 Tovma mewofeci 90, 91 (sq.), 92 Tornike erisTavi 190, 192, 193 Torosiani x. 233, 234 TofCiSvili r. 110(sq.) Trdati 18, 19,43, 44, 76, 77, 78, 79 Trdat didi 92 Trdat I 55 Trdat III 22, 74, 84, 85 Trdat somexTa mefe 27 Tumaniani 270 TumaniSvili 270 i iazkert sparsTa mefe 129 iakobaSvili 270 iarvandi (somexTa mefe) 59, 60 ivane dadiani 231 ivane erisTavi 231 ivane morCaisZe (iSxnis xuroTmoZRvari) 163, 273 ivane mxargrZeli 147, 148, 180 ivaniSvili 270 ivanovi i. 172 ioane batoniSvili 120 ioane drasxanakertci 32, 101, 228 ioane varazvaCe 190 ioane zosime 37 ioane Tornike 178, 190 ioane mamikoniani 250 ioane sabanisZe 34 ioane WormanisZe 274 iob somxad wodebuli qarTlis mTavarepiskoposi 218, 220 ingoroyva p. 53 ionnisiani a. 154 ioseb orbeli 228 isakaZe 270 isaakiani 270 iuzbaSiani, k. n. 55(sq.), 176, 188, 191, 222, 230, 231, 233(sq.) iuri andrias Ze bogolubski 148

k kadmosi (aramaneakis Ze) 22 kavkasosi 89, 90 kazarovi d. 172 kakabaZe s. 100(sq.) kananiani a. 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262 kaosi (aderkis SviliSvili) 59, 60 kaJdani a. 172 karapet 250 karapetiani s. 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 261, 262, 273, 274, 284 karen fahlavi 66 kaxaberisZeebi 265 kekeliZe k. 35, 36(sq.), 37(sq.), 197, 218(sq.), 219(sq.), 220(sq.), 240, 241, 281 kvaWantiraZe e. 89(sq.), 196(sq.) kvirike III 269 kvirikianebi 130, 254, 272, kirakos ganZakeci 91, 237 kirakos diakvani 216 konstanti, afxazTa mefe 87 konstantine didi, romis imperatori 18, 19, 43, 44, 78, 79 konstantine keisari (VIII s.) 196 konstantine I (1407-1411) 90 konstantine porfirogeneti 171 koriuni 15, 19, 28, 30, 83, 217 kosaro (xosro) somexTa mefe 65 kostova a. 172 kostovi a. 172 kupataZe b. 261 kucia k. 92(sq.), 93(sq.), 116(sq.) l lazar farpeci 129, 156, 242 lazarevi g. 172 lalaiani e. 145 laji (senatori) 126 levondi 177, 195(sq.), 196(sq.) leonti mroveli 11, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61,

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 216, 217, 218, 275, 281, 282 leo (araqel babaxaniani) 123, 124, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 135, 136, 137, 139, 145 lipariti 86, 178 liparit baRvaSi (bagrat IV-is Tanamedrove) 198 liparit baRvaSi 38 liparit qveSeli 274 lomiZe 211 lomouri n. 28(sq.), 71(sq.) lomsaZe S. 97(sq.), 111(sq.) lorTqifaniZe m. 68(sq.), 233 loRoTeti 80 lubarski i. 172 lui pti 164, 172 lukaSvili 270 m maeJan spaspeti 67, 68, 69, 71, 73 maTevosiani r. 188 mazniaSvili giorgi 127 maTeos ganZasareli 90 maTeos urhaeci 171, 179, 180, 181, 182(sq.), 230 maisuraZe g. 9, 81(sq.) maisuraZe i. 266(sq.), 270 mamagulaSvili 270 mamamisTvaliSvili 270 mamasaxlisaSvili 270 mamasaxlisi 270 mamikonianebi 20, 195, 196, 271 mamukaZe 270 mamulaiSvili 270 mamulaSvili 270 mamulia 270 mamulovi s. 99, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271 mamuloZe 270 manandiani h. 145, 146, 151, 152, 194, 230

mananovi daviT (somexi vaWari) 98 mari niko 96, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 193, 198, 205, 241 mariam dedofali (bagrat IV-is deda) 53 markovi a. 100 markozaSvili 270 markosiani 270 maruTiani t. 162, 163, 242, 272, 273, maCabeli 211 mgalobliSvili m. 208(sq.) menabde l. 172, 173(sq.) meliqiSvili g. 52, 58, 151(sq.) melqseT-begi l. 18(sq.), 66(sq.), 91(sq.), 92, 145, 146, 260 mesrop maStoci 16, 19, 30, 83, 219 mesxi s. 99 mesxiaA S. 147, 148, 206(sq.), 233 miafori dvineli 36, 217, 218, 275, 281 mirvan nebroTiani (farnajomis vaJi) 55 mirdati 63 mirianaSvili n. 141(sq.) mirianaSvili p. 113 mirian mefe 27, 28, 43, 44, 51, 52, 53, 55, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 mihrdati 26, 27 mkrtumiani g. g. 223, 227 mnacakaniani a. S. 186, 187, 242 moavia xalifa 31, 222 movses xorenaci 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 70, 72, 73, 74, 77, 79, 83, 84, 101, 102, 105, 141, 174, 193, 221, 242, 243, 279, 280, 281, 282 mose 209 muradiani p. 159, 160, 161, 162, 173, 175, 176, 177, 179, 189, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207, 209, 210,

300

301

211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 236, 240, 241, 242(sq.), 261, 262, 263, 264, 273, 274, 284, murvan yru (736-738) 195 musxeliSvilebi 215, 216 musxeliSvili daviT 21(sq.), 43, 128(sq.), 153, 193(sq.), 195(sq.), 196, 197(sq.), 260(sq.) musxelovebi 215 muSeR mamikoniani 20, 156 muSeRi, yarsis mefe 229 muCaiZe 211 muxranbatonebi 208 mxargrZelebi 124, 130, 145, 146, 147, 158, 233, 235, 239, 268, 272 mxiTar airivaneci 88, 89, 228, 254, 272 mxiTar goSi 147, 209, 210, 237 n nabuqodonosori 82 napoleoni 120 nasra, guaram mamfalis Ze 86, 87 naxapetiani 112 nebroTi (sparsTa mefe) 52, 53, 68, 84 nebroTiani 75 nerses III kaTalikosi 195 nersehi asureTis mefe 29 nikoloz I 109 nikoloz mistikosi, konstantinopolis patriarqi 32 nikoloz ColoyaSvili 213 nino wminda 28, 30, 34, 35, 36, 193, 216, 217, 218, 242, 243, 244, 265, 275, 281 noe 75, 85 novoselcevi a. 152, 153 nozaZe v. 126, 251(sq.) nune 30, 242 o omeadTa dinastia 222

oniani aleqsandre 160 orbelebi 103, 104, 233 orbeli 270 orbelianebi 147, 208, 235 ormaniani malaqia 145 ostrogorski g. 172 p pavliaSvili 270 papaSvili m. 113(sq.) papi, somxeTis mefe (369-374) 20 paskeviCi 249, 269 patkaniani q. 101-106 perovski 111 petriaSvili 270 petre didi 106, 136 petrosiani 270 poRosiani 270 poRosiani s. 187 protiCi a. 172 J Janeni remon 242, 243, 244 Jozef piton de turnefori (frangi mogzauri) 207 Jordania noe 137, 138 (sq.) r ramiSvili noe 277 rati 178 revi 80 revi (mirianis Ze) 78 rifsime 30, 35 rifsimianelebi 281 rozeni baroni 98 rtiSCevi n. T. (infanteriis generali) 98, 99 rusudan, liparit qveSelis, meuRle 274 rufinusi 243 s saakaZe 270

saakaSvili 270 saakiani 270 saak bagratuni 156 saba (wminda), iSxnis aRmdgeneli an mSenebeli 184 sabinini 37(sq.) salia kalistrate 221 salome (Trdatis qaliSvili) 79 sargis vesti 230 sargis zaqariani 234 sargis Tmogveli 240, 241 `sargis Tmogveci~ 239 sargis mxargrZeli 147 sargis sarkavagi 203 saruxani 112 sarqisiani g. 151 sarjvelaZe z. 160 sasanianebi, sasanidebi 66, 68, 75, 194 saurmagi 52, 80, 156 sahaki, kaTalikosi 16 sebeosi 31, 101, 222 senkovski o. 101, 102, 104, 105, sen-marteni 107 serapion zarzmeli 241 sefelia loRoTetis as. (revis coli) 80 silvestri, romis papi 19 simeoni, somexTa kaTalikosi 94 simon I 92, 93 sisaki (gelamis Ze) 24 smbat bivritiani (somexTa sardali) 60, 62 smbati (gurgenis Zma) 228, 254 smbat I bagratidi 33, 227, 228 smbat bagratis Ze 179 smbat II Sirakis mefe 229, 187 sozimene 243 sokrate 243 sosTeni, somexi winamZRvari 37 spandiat sparsTa mefe 48 sula kalmaxeli 198 sulxan-saba orbeliani 69, 70, 73

sumbat daviTis Ze 39, 53, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 229, 281 sumbat orbeli 235 smbat tiezerakali, somexTa mefe 87 surenianTa gvari 67 sureniani a. 67 stalini 139 stefaniani g. 240 stefanos orbeliani 91, 103, 104, 235 stefanos taroneci asoRiki 32, 193, 229 straboni 27, 131, 193, 194, 260 struve 151 suji dedofali 35 t tarsaiW orbeli 236 tacitusi 64, 131 terakof 250 ter-mkrtiCiani k. 145 ter-sarqisiani a. 252 ter-Revondiani a. n. 222, 223, 224 tigran ervandiani 22, 25, 27 tiberiosi, romis keisari 29 tigran I 28 tigran II 27, 121 tokarski n. 142, 143, 144, 149, 159, 162, 163, 242, 272, 273 u ulumbabiani b. 235 umeki, somexTa mTavari 203 uxtanesi 181, 211(sq.) f fadloni, ganZis amira 87 favstos buzandi 15, 20, 28 farnavazi 43, 48, 50, 51, 52, 68, 72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 89, 104, 193 farnavazi (farsmanis spaspeti) 63

302

303

farnavazianebi 20, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 67, 75 farnajomi 54, 55, 56, 57, 80 farsman armazeli (aderkis SviliSvili) 59, 60 farsman I 64 farsman II qveli 63, 64, 65 filartos varaJnuni, (antioqiis Temis bizantieli gamgebeli) (1078-1084) 182 fsevdo Sapuh bagratuni 32 q qarTami (aderkis Ze) 55, 59 qarTlosi 42, 44, 49, 50, 79, 81, 89, 90 qarTlosianni 50, 81, 82 qarZami, qarTvela mefe 62 qasre sasaniani, sparsTa mefe 65, 69, 75, 84 qiqoZe g. 105 qiSmiSovi s. 117, 118, 119, 120 quji 48, 55 R RarRaZe 216 RarRaZeanci 216 Rukasi (luka), somexTa kaTalikosi 93 Rukasiani 270 y yauxCiSvili s. 168 yubaneiSvili sol. 268 S Saburi, sparseTis mefe 156 Saverdovi amiran (somexi vaWari) 98 SaniZe a. 167(sq.), 169, 170, 172, 173, 177, 190(sq.) Sapuh amatuni 196 Sara aramairis Ze 23 Sardeni 208(sq.)

Sahamiriani iakob 94 Sahamiriani Samir 94 Sahnazariani as. 145, 233, 235, 236 SahyulaSvili 270 Sahyuliani 270 Sirinkini gen. 100 SoTa rusTaveli 241 SoSiaSvili n. 89(sq.), 196(sq.) SuSaniki 129 C CamCiani m. 145 Cordvanelis Zeebi (karineli memamuleebi) 192 CubinaSvili g. 159,264 CxartiSvili m. 34(sq.), 244 c cagareiSvili, el. 31(sq.), 32(sq.), 104(sq.), 174, 175, 176, 179, 182, 192(sq.), 195(sq.), 228(sq.) cankova-petkova g. 172 cincaZe i. 120(sq.) ciciSvilebi 208 w wereTeli akaki 276 W WavWavaZe ilia 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 116, 263, 266, 276 WiWinaZe z. 112, 113, 114, 211, 212 Wubabria r. 261 x xanlariani, n. a. 92(sq.) xatisovi al. 121 xaCatur 250 xaCaturi 203 xaCaturi, somexTa arqiepiskoposi 215 xaCikiani l. 240 xeCaturi 210

xorxorunTa gvari 23 xosrovi, Trdat didis mama 92 xosrov somexTa mefe 66, 77 xuaranZe, vaxtang gorgaslis da 84 xuasruvani (bakurianis Zma) 167 xudabaSevi al. 106, 107 xurSudiani l. 246 j javadi, ganjis xani 116 javax (zevax) 249 javaxiSvili i. 13, 19, 123, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 140, 151(sq.), 209(sq.), 259, 267, 278, 284 jala 217 janaSia l.-n. 21(sq.), 27, 28, 129(sq.) janaSia s. 91, 142, 143, 144, 155, 159, 222, 224(sq.), 273 jandieri e. 249 jaoSvili v. 97(sq.), 207(sq.) jorbenaZe s. 13(sq.), 278(sq.) juanSeri 39, 75, 84, 85, 88, 281 h haiki 22, 23, 24, 44, 45, 46, 88, 89 haikiani arami 24 hakobiani 270 hamam amatuni 196 haosi 42, 44, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 68, 90 herakle 28 hmaiak mamikoniani 129 hovhannes drasxanakertci 32 honigmani e. 172

Bagratuns 286 Berdzenishvili N. 285 David 287 Grigorius 286

Javakhishvili Iv. 289 Juansher 287 Karapetian S. 289 Kekelidze K. 287 Leonti Mroveli 287 Melkonyan Ash. 289 Movses Khorenats 285, 286, 287, 288 Muradian P. 289 St. Nino 286, 287 Sumbat 287

Àáåãÿí Ì. 16(sq.), 19(sq.), 20(sq.), 28(sq.) Àäîíö Í. 194(sq.), 271(sq.) Àðàêåëÿí Á. Í. 154(sq.) Àðâåëàäçå Á. 221(sq.), 263(sq.) Àðè÷ñòêåñ Ëàñòèâåðòöû 175(sq.), 188(sq.) Àðóòþíîâà-Ôèäàíÿí Â. À. 180(sq.), 182(sq.), 190(sq.), 229(sq.) Àðóòþíÿí Ï. Ò. 135(sq.) Áàáàÿí Ë. Î. 233(sq.) Áàãðàòèäè 31(sq.), 54(sq.), 191(sq.), 222(sq.), 233(sq.) Áåðèäçå Â. 143(sq.), 162(sq.), 197(sq.) Áîðÿí Á. 200(sq.) Áóòêîâ Ï. Ã. 119(sq.) Ãðèãîðèé (ñâ.) 19 Ãðèãîðèé Áàêóðèàíèñ-äçå 170(sq.), 177(sq.), 190(sq.) Ãðèãîðÿí Ã. Ì. 233(sq.) Äàðáèíÿí-Ìåëèêÿí Ì. Î. 32(sq.) Äæàíàøèà Ñ. 91(sq.), 142(sq.) Äîíäóà Â. 154 (sq.) Åðåìÿí Ñ. Ò. 90(sq.), 148(sq.) Çàãóðñêèé Ë. 97(sq.) Çàõàðèé Êàíàêåðöè 93(sq.)

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Èîàííèñÿí À. Ð. 154(sq.) Êèðàêîñ Ãàíäçàêåöè 92(sq.), 93(sq.), 237(sq.) Êîðþí 19(sq.) Êèøìèøåâ Ñ. Ã., ãåíåðàë-Ëåéòåíàíò 117(sq.), 119(sq.) Ëîìîóðè Í. 189(sq.) Ëóêèí Â. Ã. 17(sq.) Ìàìóëîâ Ñ. Ñ. 99(sq.), 265(sq.) Ìàíàíäÿí ß. À. 194(sq.) Ìàðêîâ À. 100(sq.) Í. ß. Ìàðð 18(sq.), 96(sq.), 164(sq.), 183(sq.), 184(sq.) Ìàøòîö 19(sq.) Ìêðòóìÿí Ã. Ã. 223(sq.), 227(sq.) Ìêðÿí Ì. Ì. 31(sq.) Ìíàöàêàíÿí À. Ø. 186(sq.) Ìîâñåñ Õîðåíàöè 31(sq.) Ìóðàäÿí Ï. Ì. 175(sq.), 199(sq.), 203(sq.), 207(sq.) Ìóñõåëèøâèëè Ä. Ë. 260(sq.) Íîâîñåëüöåâ À. Ï. 152(sq.) Îíèàíè À. 160(sq.) Îðáåëè È. À. 228(sq.) Ïàòêàíîâ Ê. 102(sq.) Ïåòð Âåëèêèé 117(sq.) ïñåâäî-Øàïóõ Áàãðàòóíè 32(sq.) Ñàðäæâåëàäçå Ç. 160(sq.) Òåð-Ãåâîíäÿí À. Í. 195(sq.), 222(sq.), 224(sq.) Òèãðàí âòîðîé 194(sq.) Òîðîñÿí Õ. 233(sq.) Òîêàðñêèé Í. Ì. 91(sq.), 142(sq.) Óëáàáÿí Á. À. 235(sq.)

Õàíëàðÿí Ë. À. 92(sq.) Øàíèäçå À. Ã. 170(sq.), 177(sq.), 190(sq.) Ýçîâ Ã. 117(sq.) Þçáàøÿí Ê. Í. 31(sq.), 54(sq.), 188(sq.), 221(sq.), 233(sq.) Þðèé Áîãîëþáñêèé 148(sq.) Þñòèíèàí 194(sq.), 271(sq.) ² ³Ø Ñ ³ Ë Ý120 (sq.) Õ ³ Ù ¹ ³ ² Ç ï Ï ëÈ ë Ç » ï Ç 176(sq.) ñ ë ³ » ³ ï íñ ó ¶»áñ·Û³Ý ì. ². 176(sq.) ºñ»ÙÛ³Ý Æ. ü. 187( sq.) ºñ»ÙÛ³Ý ê. 146(sq.) ¼ ù ñ ³º Ï Ç ³ ³ á Ï 146( ³ ³ Ç ñ ³ Ý ½ õ sq.) È á 124( » sq.), 128( sq.), 135( sq.) Î ñ Ï ë¶ Ý ³ » Ç 92( Ç ³ á ³ Ó Ïó sq.) g Ô»íáݹ ì³ñ¹³å»ï 195( sq.) Ú Ï Ø Ý Ý Û Ý 146( ³ á ³ ³ ¹ ³ sq.), 230( sq.) Ø ï » ëà é ³ » Ç 179( ³ Ãá õ Ñ Ûó sq.) Øáõñ³¹Û³Ý ä. Ø. 237(sq.) Þ³Ñݳ½³ñÛ³Ý ². Æ. 234( sq.) Þ Ñ ³ ³ Û ÝÎ 19( ³ Ý ½ ñ ³ . sq.) äáÕáëÛ³Ý ê. ä. 187(sq.) ê»»áë »åÇëÏáåáë 17( sq.) ê » ³ á î ñ Ý ó ² á Ç 37 ï÷ Ý ë ³ á » Ç ë Õ Ï 193( sq.) î ñ Ô í Ý Û 223( » ­ » á ¹ Ý sq.) ö í ï ë´ õ ³ ¹ 20( ³ ë á á ½ Ý sq.) germaneli 99 gogarebi (tomi) 260 guTebi 76 d daRestneli 137 didoeli 60 durZuki 60 e ebraeli 82 egriseli 55 espaneli 190 a

eTnikuri saxelebi

i iberieli 101, 171 iverieli 20, 26, 175 imereli 99 ingliseli 126, 127, 139 iraneli 15, 17, 18 italieli 213 k kabadokieli 26, 265 kavkasieli, kavkasiis xalxi 27, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 53, 53, 58, 60, 62, 79, 81, 89, 282 Crd. kavkasieli 72 kaxeli 266, 267 l lazi 165, 184 laTini 64, 243 leki 40, 48, 60, 65, 116, 136 m makedoneli 265 megreli 40, 48, 99, 165, 184 mesxi 198, 256 monRoli 238, 272 o osi 48, 50, 60, 61, 65, 72, 87 osmalo 92, 121, 250, 251, 258 p parTeli 75 paWaniki 60 r T TaTar-monRoli 240 Turqi 47, 48, 102, 136, 187, 272 Turqmani 92, 238 TuSi 98 romaeli 15, 18, 27, 30, 52, 66, 72, 171, 179, 265, 279 rusi 99, 107, 134, 136, 138, 148, 204, 221, 553, 272

abazgi 177 avRani 93(sq.), 116 (sq.) azerbaijaneli 122, 123 alani 19, 61, 62 albaneli, alvaneli 19, 26, 27, 30, 31 amierkavkasiis xalxi 170, 221, 226 arabi 31, 84, 152, 195, 196, 198, 222, 223, 224, 225, 250, 280 afxazi 12, 19, 86, 87, 97, 175, 177 b berZeni 16, 18, 25, 34, 48, 50, 64,' 65, 78, 164, 171, 175, 184, 185, 186, 225, 243 bizantieli 157, 191, 225, 226, 230, 231, 243 branjTa eri 35

306

307

s sabWoTa kavSiris xalxi 221 sarkinozi 84, 86 selCuki 179, 227, 235, 236 selCukiani Turqi 40, 45, 130, 232, 239 sirieli 15, 16, 164 somexi 13, 15, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28-30, 35, 38-42, 44-53, 56-68, 70, 72-75, 78, 84-87, 90-92, 97-100, 102, 105109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 120, 122, 124-138, 140-142, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 165, 169-172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180-182, 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 194, 196, 198-203, 205, 206, 209, 211(sq.), 212, 214, 215, 218, 219, 222, 226228, 234, 237-244, 247-249, 253, 256-261, 263-267, 270-273, 275, 277, 279, 280, 282, somexi qalkedonitebi 163-166, 168, 172, 174, 177, 178, 181-183, 185, 189, 193, 198, 273, 283 somexi mosaxleoba 96, 97, 122, 123, 166, 199, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 219, 220(sq.), 247, 249, 250, 251, 253, 259, 267, 269, 270, 276 sparseli 15, 47, 50, 51, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 92, 93, 117, 130, 156, 243, 279 u urartueli 249 f frangi 102 q qarTveli 9, 13, 19, 26, 27, 30, 31, 34, 35, 37, 40, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49,

50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59-68, 72-75, 78-80, 82, 84-89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 99, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108-116, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 129, 131-138, 141, 149, 154, 156, 157, 164-166, 168, 169, 171, 173-178, 180, 181, 184-186, 189192-194, 196, 197, 198, 202, 204210, 211(sq.), 212-214, 216, 219, 226-228, 230, 231, 236-238, 240, 241, 243, 250, 252, 256-258, 260, 262, 263, 266, 267, 270, 272, 273, 276, 277, 280-282 `qarTveli grigoriani~ 211, 213215 y yivCaRi 72, 118, 148 x xazari 46, 47, 65, 68 xevsuri 98 j jiqi 60 h heri 40 àáõàçåö 18(sq.), 19 àëàí 18(sq.), 19 àëáàíåö 19 àðìÿíèí 18(sq.), 99(sq.), 123(sq.), 148(sq.), 265(sq.) ãðóçèí 18(sq.), 19, 123(sq.), 148(sq.) Ð Û 20( ³ sq.), 22( sq.), 93( sq.), 106( sq.), 151( sq.), 187( sq.), 223( sq.), 240( sq.)

geografiuli saxelebi

a aboci 43, 85 abuli 261 agarani 272 agulisi 160 adarbadagani 76, 87 adrianopoli 55 avlabari 120 azavreTi 261 azia 26, 199, 202 azerbaijani 12, 122, 139, 140, 277 aTonis qarTvelTa monasteri 171, 178, 190, 192, 197 akanis 160 aksigomsi 160 akura 201 alastani 261 albaneTi 16, 18, 31, 152, 186, 223, 224 alberis 160 amerika 126 amierkavkasia 9, 12, 14, 20, 32, 35, 43, 100, 101, 102, 105, 111, 115, 119, 122, 123, 125, 127, 135, 141 (sq.), 144, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 174(sq.), 176(sq.), 188, 189, 198, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 232, 237, 244(sq.), 252, 253, 254, 269, 275, 276, 277 ananuri 120 anisi (q.) 87, 124, 179, 190, 192, 236 anisis samefo 38, 225, 227, 229, 230, 231 anisis cixe 228, 229 antioqia 181, 243 agarani 132 arabeTi 31(sq.), arabTa saxalifo 226 aragaci (mTa) 23, 130 `arakova~ 261 arani 222 araradis qveyana (vanis tbis sax.) 22 aras mTebi 130 araratis gavari 205 araratis mTa 46 araratis olqi 124 araqsi 43, 45, 107 areSti 258 arzrumi, erzrumi 247, 256, 269 armaviri (dasax. punqti) 23 armazi (geograf. punqti) 250 armazis cixe 68, 85 `arminia~ 222, 223, 225, 226, arnis 160 artaani 196 artani 59, 61 artanujis saerisTavo 198 artanujis cixe 197 arcaxi 93, 124, 130, 239 asisfori 196 asurastani 49, 50, 51, 52 asureTi 26 atropatena 26 afxazeTi 97 aSoci 132 aSS 121 aWara 196 axali naxiWevani 205 axali julfa 205 axalqalaqi 128, 140, 247, 249, 250, 251, 256, 269 axalqalaqis mazra 121, 122, 125, 139 axalqalaqis wyali 248 axalcixe 256 axalcixis mazra 125 axpati 148 axuriani md. 93 b babiloni 22, 44, 52, 265 bagrevandi 60, 62 bavra 261

308

309

bazari 201 baTumi 97, 126, 127(sq.) baTumis olqi 126 bambakis mTebi 271 bambak-Sorageli 97 bana 197, 272 baraleTi 258 bardavi 223 basiani 60, 187 baRdadi 265 beiruTi 255 berduji md. 42, 43 berlini 121 bizantia 156, 17, 32-34, 37, 38, 41, 55, 68, 74, 131, 156, 162, 171, 174, 182, 187, 189, 191, 192, 196, 224, 226, 227, 231, 241, 262, 265, 280, 281 bodbe 35 bodbisxevi 201 bolnisi 132, 160, 161, 259 bolnisis sioni 219 bolnofori 260 borCalo 93, 97, 139 borCalos mazra 121, 122, 125, 126, 134, 139 breZa 215 breZis grigol ganmanaTleblis monasteri 215, 216 breZis wm. giorgis eklesia 215, 216 britaneTi 125 bulgareTi 167(sq.), 173(sq.) burnaSeTi 258 buqaresti 164 g ganZa 87, 136, 261 ganZaki 93 ganja 116, 126 gardabani 131 gelaquni 24, 130 geli 24 germania 121, 125 gogarani sof. 260

gogarene 27, 155, 194, 260 gori 97, 126, 201, 216, 269 gorisTavi 201 gorisjvris somxuri eklesia (Calabandis saydari) 203 gugareTi 128, 131, 132, 133, 135, 154, 239, 271 gugarqi 20, 124, 128, 155, 194, 217, 239, 247, 251, 254, 260, 271 aR. gugarqi 130 Cr.-aR. gugarqi 260 gumbri 121 gurgenis zRva 42, 87 gurjistanis vilaieTi 238, 239, 250 d dadeSi 258 daviT garejis veli 140 daviT garejis monasteri 273 daTvisi 160 damasko 222 dariali 89 darialis cixe 61 darubandi 89 dasavleTis zRva 26 debeda-Cai md. 260 demoTis cixe 61 derbendi 222 dvini 223, 236 dvliswyali 248 `didi somxeTi~ 107, 123, 125, 141, 193, 244, 146, 247, 283 dmanisi 132, 160, 161, 259 duisi 161 e egvipte 265 egrisi 43, 47, 50, 75 evropa 126, 199, 202 evfrati 107 eldaris veli 140 elarbini 217 elias mTa 253 elizavetopoli 126

elizavetopolis gubernia 128 erasxi md. 23 erevani 89(sq.), 93, 97, 133, 142, 149, 154, 174, 177, 188, 199, 203(sq.), 246, 247, 261 erevnis gubernia 122 eruSeTi 34 eStio 258 extila 261 v vanis tba 22, 23, 24, 42, 44, 188, 192 vaspurakani 35 vaspurakanis samefo 54, 227 vaRarSapati 94 `vahramianTa samTavro~ 235, 236 vixiki sof. 181 vladikavkazi 118 z `zabaxa~ 249 zadenis mTa 80 zaqaTalis olqi 140 zaqarianTa samTavro 235 zemo ubani 108 zemo qarTli 178, 258 zerti 204, 214 zertis wm. giorgis eklesia 214 zindisi 161 T Tavfaravnis wyali 248 TamaraSeni 201 Tbilisi 13(sq.), 19(sq.), 21(sq.), 27(sq.), 28(sq.), 29(sq.), 31(sq.), 32(sq.), 34(sq.), 36(sq.), 37(sq.), 38(sq.), 43(sq.), 53(sq.), 57(sq.), 58(sq.), 66(sq.), 68(sq.), 69(sq.), 71(sq.), 83(sq.), 88(sq.), 89(sq.), 90(sq.), 92(sq.), 93(sq.), 94, 97(sq.), 99, 100, 102(sq.), 103(sq.), 104(sq.), 105(sq.), 107(sq.), 110(sq.), 111(sq.), 112, 113(sq.), 116(sq.), 117(sq.), 118(sq.), 119(sq.), 120, 121, 123,

125, 126, 127, 129(sq.), 132, 135, 137, 138, 141(sq.), 148, 151(sq.), 153(sq.), 154(sq.), 159(sq.), 160, 161, 164(sq.), 167(sq.),168(sq.), 172(sq.), 173(sq.), 174(sq.), 181(sq.), 193(sq.), 196(sq.), 197(sq.), 199, 203, 206, 207, 208, 210(sq.), 218(sq.), 220(sq.), 221(sq.), 222(sq.), 223(sq.), 225(sq.), 228(sq.), 231(sq.), 238(sq.), 243(sq.), 244, 251(sq.), 252, 254(sq.), 255, 258(sq.), 264, 266, 268(sq.), 278(sq.), 284 Tbilisis gubernia 122, 254 Tbilisis samebis taZari 253 Tbilisis wm. giorgis somxuri eklesia 203 TeTriwyaro 259 Telavi 134, 206, 269 Tetalia 26 `Trelq~ 245 TrialeTi 132 TurqeTi 97, 120, 125, 126, 139, 257, 277 Tuxarisi 46 Tuxarisis saerisTavo 198 `TfRis~ 239 i iberia 18, 19, 21(sq.), 131, 154, 155, 156, 171, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 198, 223, 226, 249, 250, 260 `iberiis Temi~ 225 iberiis sakatebano 225 ierusalimi 35, 82 iveria 20 imereTi 252 inglisi 121, 125, 126 indoeTi 200 indoelTa qveyana 66 irani 15, 17, 27, 33, 65, 66, 152, 156, 200, 205, 224, 280 iranis azerbaijani 97 italia 200

310

311

iSxani 163, 165, 166, 184, 197, 272, 273 k kavkasia 11, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21(sq.), 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 59, 64, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 81, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 105, 106, 109, 110, 112, 119, 121, 123, 124, 126, 136, 139, 141, 144, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157, 159, 221, 222, 226, 229, 232, 236, 239(sq.), 241, 242, 243, 244, 249, 264, 274, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282 samxr. kavkasia 22, 23, 96, 139, 140 Crd. kavkasia 72 kavkasioni, mTa kavkasia 31, 42, 46, 62 kala 208 kalmaxis saerisTavo 198 kalmaxis cixe 196 kambeCani 275 kari 232 karini 190, 192, 261 karinis olqi 154, 155 karwaxi 131 kaspiis zRva 88, 90, 126 kaxeTi 93, 114, 199, 200, 203, 204, 206, 212, 245, 251, 252 kaxeT-hereTi 269 kesaria 243 kvarSa 258 kvirikianTa samefo 130 kilikia 126 kiolni 162, 262 klarjeTi 42, 43, 148, 164, 184, 185, 193, 194, 195, 196 `klarjq~ 245 kola 43, 196 kolbofori 260 konstantinopoli 32

konstantinopolis aia sofias taZari 262 koruSeTi 258 koxtasTavi 240 krwanisi 160 ktezifoni 17, 280 l lagodexis raioni 266 lilo 206 lixi 42 lore 234, 272 lore-bambaki 272 lore-taSiri 128, 130, 135, 229 m magnezia 52 madrasi 94 manglisi 34, 160, 161 mangleacfori 260 marneuli 259 maroko 265 martyofis veli 93 maRaro 201 maCxaani 201 maxl. aRmosavleTi 22, 151(sq.), 155, 158, 225 mahkanaberdi 148 mesopotamia 152 mesxeTi 97, 126, 198, 251(sq.) `mefis qalaqi~ 206 miraSxani 258 mirzaani 201 mijnaZori 166 movakani 75, 76 moskovi 53(sq.), 106, 174, 188, 264, 271 mtkvar-araqsis wyalgamyofi 193 mtkvari 20, 33, 42, 43, 44, 45, 59, 79, 87, 107, 126, 131, 155, 239 mtueris cixe 46 mudrosi 125 muxrani 204

mcire azia 152, 197 mcxeTa 57, 67, 76, 80, 82, 85, 126, 162, 220 mcxeTis jvris monasteri 220, 263, 264 n nasomxari 201 naxWevani 60 nigali 296 nizibini 26 niCbisi 204 nukriani 201 o oTxTa eklesia 273 oloda 258 oreTis zRva 42 orxofia 258 orja 258 oseTi 67 osmaleTi 122, 134 oSki 163, 181, 197, 272 p palan-kurdani 87 palestina 26 parTia 26, 64, 66, 75, 84, 155 pariadris sanaxebi 131 pariadris ferdobebi 155 parizi 19(sq.), 127, 220 parxali 197, 272 petriwoni 164, 167 petriwonis monasteri 165, 166, 169, 170, 171, 173, 178, 183, 190(sq.), 273 ponto 27 pontos zRva 26, 42, 88, 90 r rabati 217 rani 75, 76, 224 raxsi 43, 79 romi18, 19, 28, 66, 72, 155, 156

ruseTi 95, 86, 98, 99, 100, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 130, 133, 134, 152, 200, 206, 221, 255, 276, 277, 283, ruseTis imperia 253 ruisi 160 ruxi 201 s

101, 120, 139, 256,

109, 121, 140, 272,

sabereebi 273 saberZneTi 49, 77, 78, 80, 244 sabWoTa kavSiri 143, 149, 159, 221, 246 sabWoTa saqarTvelo 161 saloSeTi 258 samSvilde 42, 130, 272 samSvildis saerisTavo 43, samcxe 195, 247 samcxe-javaxeTi 97, 245, 256 samwevrisi 161 sankt-peterburgi 18(sq.), 101, 106, 110, 277 sasanianTa irani 17, 72 sasanianTa saxelmwifo 66 safrangeTi 121, 221 safurcle 217 saqarTvelo 12, 13, 16, 21(sq.), 29(sq.), 31(sq.), 37(sq.), 38-41, 43(sq.), 44, 45, 49, 51(sq.), 53-56, 57(sq.), 5860, 64(sq.), 67-69, 70(sq.), 74, 75, 81, 82, 83(sq.), 88, 90-93, 95-99, 101, 103-107, 110(sq.), 112, 113(sq.), 115-119, 120(sq.), 121, 122, 124, 125, 126(sq.), 127, 128(sq.), 129(sq.), 130-135, 137-141, 144-151, 153(sq.), 154, 156-164, 174, 176, 190, 191, 193, 195, 199-202, 203(sq.), 204208, 209(sq.), 210-215, 218, 219, 220(sq.), 224(sq.), 225(sq.), 228, 230-234, 236-240, 243, 244(sq.), 245, 246, 249, 251-257, 258(sq.), 259, 260(sq.), 261, 263-270, 272, 275277, 280, 282-284

312

313

aRm. saqarTvelo 100, 114, 155, 190, 201, 220, 221, 226, 239, 266, 269, 284 das. saqarTvelo 64, 65, 230 samxr. saqarTvelo 143, 154, 251, 252 samxr-das. saqarTvelo 149, 163, 197, 258 saRore (sof.) 201 sacxenisi 160 saxalifo 280 sevanis tba 24, 271 selevkia 16 selevkidebis samefo 49, 54 sivnieTi 24, 31, 35, 37, 93, 137, 235, 236, sivnieTis samTavro 235 siria 152, 222, 244 siuniqi 130, 239 siRnaRi 134, 269 svaneTi 144 sparseTi 15, 20, 38, 52, 57, 63, 64, 65, 71, 72, 75-78, 80, 84, 117, 120, 129, 131, 133, 134, 156 sparseTis azerbaijani 126 speri 131, 193 speris zRva 43 speris olqi 154, 155 somxeTi 9, 12-22, 24-33, 35, 36, 41, 43-46, 49, 51, 53, 54, 56-60, 62-65, 66(sq.), 67-69, 71-78, 81, 84, 88, 90-94, 105, 106, 108, 114, 121-125, 127, 128, 130-135, 137, 139, 140, 142, 144-147, 149-157, 161, 162, 170, 183-185, 187, 193-195, 202, 211, 212, 218-230, 232-239, 241243, 246, 247, 251, 252, 254-261, 263-265, 268, 271, 272, 275-277, 279-283 aRm. somxeTi 156, 224 das. somxeTi 16, 224, 279 zaqarianeli somxeTi 234 `zaqariduli somxeTi~ 232

Crdilo somxeTi 124, 125, 158, 232, 234, 269 Crd-aRm. somxeTi 234, 240, Crd-das. somxeTi 184, 185 centraluri somxeTi 232 somxiTi 49, 51, 52, 59, 63, 76, 78, 132, 134, 254, 275 soxumi 97 stamboli 93 sxvilisi 161 t tabaxmela 201 `taiq~ 245, 271, 274 tao 42, 43, 131, 148, 157, 162, 164, 174, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 227, 229, 272, 273, 274 samxr. tao 189, 190, 191, 193, 195, 196 tao-klarjeTi 142, 143, 144, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 178, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 193, 196, 197, 197, 198, 199, 245, 273, 283 taroni 227 taSiri 128, 132 taSir-Zoragetis samefo 228, 272 taZrisi 161 tekoris taZari (somxeTi) 242 tibaani 201 tirZnisi 161 toloSi 258 trapizoni 89 tfilisi 18(sq.), 66(sq.), 105(sq.), 131, 145(sq.), 260(sq.) u ufliscixe 87 f fazisi 160 faniani 201 faravnis tba 217, 275

fxoveli 201 q qalaqni araratisani 47 `qarasun aRbiur~ (ormoci wyaro) 248 qarTli 20, 21(sq.), 26-38, 43, 49-52, 54, 56-64, 66-69, 71-74, 76-83, 86, 87, 89, 93, 114, 132, 152, 153, 155, 177,185, 191-195, 198-200, 203, 204, 206, 212, 216, 218, 219, 221224, 228, 239, 244, 249-252, 258, 260, 279, 280, 281 `qarTlis axalqalaqi~ 206 qarTl-kaxeTi 35, 94, 98, 112, 115, 117, 118, 120, 206 qvemo ubani 208 qvemo tao 196 qvemo qarTli 20, 21(sq.), 27, 97, 128(sq.), 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 178, 206, 219, 228, 239, 240, 245, 247, 251, 252, 254, 260, 271, 272, 273, 283 qvemo xaCeni 235 qvewafori 260 qinZari 217 quTaisi 138, 160, 201 R Rado 42 Rrtila 37, 274 y yazaxi 93 yanda 216 yarabaRi 12, 123, 137, 277 aRm. yarabaRi 122 yaraia 206 yarai-Siraqis veli 140 yarsi 236 yarsis samefo 229 yvibisi 161 yirxbulaxi 248 yulaRisi 161

S Savi zRva 126 SavSeTi 196 SavSeT-klarjeTi 197 Sami 76 SamSadini 272 Sarvani 87 Satberdi 166, 197 Sida qarTli 12, 46, 86 Siraki 23, 38, 226, 228, 229 Sirakuani 60, 62 Sua azia 256 C Cixori 201 CunCxa 258 Cxari 201 c celis tba 61 curtavi 128, 129, 210, 219 Z Zorogeti 145 w walka 97 wina azia 44, 75, 244 wkadisi 161 wnisi 161 wobofori 260 wunda 57, 59, 61, 258 wundis saerisTavo 250 W WobareTi 258 Woris cixesimagre 31 Worox-evfratis wyalgamyofi 193 Woroxi md. 43 107, 196, 271 Woroxis xeoba 107 x xazareTi 46, 47 xanZTa 197

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315

xaCeni 124 xaCenis samTavro 235 xaxuli 197, 272 xerTvisi 160 xmelTaSua zRva 42, 44, 126 xoreni 261 xorzeni 131 xorZene 155 xospia sof. 262 xunani 43, 46 xrami md. 127 j javaxeTi 57, 60, 61, 140, 217, 218, 239, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 262 `javaxq~ 239, 245, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 274 jazireTi 76 janjRa 258 jiqeTi 87 h haikaSeni (sof.) 22 haiqi 23 harqi (zeganis saxeli) 22 hereTi 37, 42, 43, 75, 76, 275 hioc Zori (somxTa xevi) 23 holandia 200 horani (siria) 244

Russia 287, 288 Tao-Klardgeti 288, 289 Tbilisi 289 Turkey 288 àðàáñêèé Õàëèôàò 195(sq.), 222(sq.), 224(sq.) Àðìåíèÿ 20(sq.), 91(sq.), 96(sq.), 142(sq.), 151(sq.), 194(sq.), 195(sq.), 200(sq.), 205(sq.), 222(sq.), 223(sq.), 224(sq.), 233(sq.), 237(sq.), 271(sq.) Àõàëöèõå 97(sq.) Áàêó 123(sq.) Áîëãàðèÿ 170(sq.) Âàí 102(sq.) Âèçàíòèéñêàÿ èìïåðèÿ 180(sq.), 190(sq.), 229(sq.) Âèçàíòèÿ 31(sq.), 54(sq.), 191(sq.), 222(sq.), 233(sq.), 236(sq.), 239(sq.) Âîñòî÷íàÿ Ãðóçèÿ 128(sq.), 260(sq.) Ãðóçèÿ 99(sq.), 199(sq.), 201(sq.),207(sq.), 211(sq.), 221(sq.), 263(sq.), 265(sq.) Åðåâàí 16(sq.), 19(sq.), 20(sq.), 28(sq.), 31(sq.), 32(sq.), 90(sq.), 99(sq.), 142(sq.), 151(sq.), 154(sq.), 180(sq.), 186(sq.), 194(sq.), 195(sq.), 199(sq.), 201(sq.), 207(sq.), 222(sq.), 223(sq.), 228(sq.), 233(sq.), 235(sq.), 171(sq.) Çàêàâêàçüå 100(sq.), 119(sq.), 152(sq.), 205(sq.), 236(sq.), 239(sq.) Èðàí 17(sq.), 151(sq.) Êàâêàçñêàÿ Àëáàíèÿ 186(sq.) Êàðòëè 199(sq.), 201(sq.), 211(sq.) Êàõåòèÿ 199(sq.), 201(sq.), 211(sq.), 223(sq.), 227(sq.) Ìîñêâà 17(sq.), 31(sq.), 54(sq.), 92(sq.),

93(sq.), 99(sq.), 135(sq.), 151(sq.), 152(sq.), 188(sq.), 191(sq.), 233(sq.), 237(sq.), 265(sq.) Ïåòðèöîíñêèé ìîíàñòûðü 177(sq.), 189(sq.) Ïåòðîãðàä 96(sq.), 205(sq.) Ïåðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ 102(sq.) Ðèì 194(sq.) Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã 119(sq.), 136(sq.) Ñðåäíÿÿ Àçèÿ 151(sq.) Ñþíèê 233(sq.) Òàî-Êëàðäæåòè 143(sq.), 162(sq.), 197(sq.) Òáèëèñè 91(sq.), 128(sq.), 142(sq.), 143(sq.), 162(sq.), 179(sq.), 195(sq.), 201(sq.), 207(sq.), 221(sq.), 260(sq.),

263(sq.) Òèôëèñ 112(sq.), 117(sq.) Õà÷åíñêîå êíÿæåñòâî 235(sq.) ²³ùÉ Ë É ³ ³ù 128( sq.) ºñ»õ³Ý 17(sq.), 20(sq.), 120( sq.), 35( sq.), 146( sq.), 51( sq.), 175( sq.), 76( sq.), 87( sq.), 89( sq.), 230( sq.), 234( sq.), 237( sq.), 239( sq.), 240( sq.) È é 128( áÇ sq.)  ý Ç 92( ÇÉë sq.), 106( sq.) Ú Û ë ³ 187( ³ ³ ï Ý sq.), 237( sq.) Ô³ñ³³Õ 124( sq.), 128( sq.) Ø ë í 187( áϳ sq.) æ í Ë 255( ³ ³ ù sq.) ê.ä»ï»ñáõñ· 37( sq.), 177( sq.), 193( sq.), 195( sq.) ì Õ ñÕ ³ ³ ³å³ï 179( sq.)

Armenia 285, 286, 287, 288, 289 Byzantium 287 Caucasus 285, 286, 287 Dvini 286 Georgia 285, 286, 287, 288, 289 Iran 286 Kartli 285, 286, 288 Kteziphon 286

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Tbilisi, ilia WavWavaZis gamz. 17 b. 25-05-22, 91-22-83, 8(93) 25-05-22.

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