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IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI TBILISI STATE UNIVERSITY

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

Sromis ekonomikis kaTedra DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR ECONOMICS

DANISH REFUGEE COUNCIL

ltolvilTa daniis sabWo

PUBLIC POLICY RESEARCH CENTRE

sajaro politikis kvleviTi centri

Mm i g r a c i a

MIGRATION

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gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi, 2009

am krebulSi Tavmoyrili samecniero statiebi asaxavs saqarTvelosa da samxreT kavkasiis mosaxleobis gare migracias, iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa SromiT emigracias, saswavlo emigraciis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs, diasporaTa formirebas saqarTveloSi, Siga organizebul migrantTa adaptacias da qveynis Sromis bazris koniunqturis gavlenas migraciul procesebze. gankuTvnilia migraciis sakiTxebiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelisaTvis saredaqcio kolegia: profesori mirian tuxaSvili (redaqtori), profesori irina molodikova (centraluri evropis universiteti, budapeSti), profesori leo van viseni (niderlandebi); naTia kviciani (migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia), varlam Wkuaseli (ltolvilTa daniis sabWo), niko nikolaZe (sajaro politikis kvleviTi centri); asocirebuli profesorebi: Tamaz zubiaSvili, naTia WeliZe (pasuxismgebeli mdivani). recenzentebi: profesori iuri ananiaSvili, asocirebuli profesori marina CavleiSvili The articles given in this collection reflect Georgia's and South Caucasian population external migration, labour emigration of the IDPs, main directions of educational emigration, formation of diasporas in Georgia, adaptation of internal organized migrants and impact of the country's labour market conjuncture on migration processes. The book is designed for readers interested in migration processes. Editorial board: Professor Mirian Tukhashvili (Editor in chief), Professor Irina Molodikova (Central European University, Budapest), Professor Leo Van Wissen (Netherlands); Natia Kvitsiani (IOM), Varlam Chkuaseli (Danish Refugee Council), Niko Nikoladze (Public Policy Research Centre); Associate Professor:Tamaz Zubiashvili, Natia Chelidze (Executive secretary). Reviewers: Professor Juri Ananiashvili Associate Professor Marina Chavleishvili krebuli gamoica Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis saredaqcio sagamomcemlo sabWos dadgenilebiT. krebulis gamocemaSi daxmarebisTvis madlobas vuxdiT ltolvilTa daniis sabWos, romelic axorcielebs evrokomisiis mier mxardaWeril proeqts `saqarTveloSi dabrunebis procesis xelSewyoba operaciul doneze~. © Tsu Sromis ekonomikis kaTedra, 2009 gamomcemloba `universali~, 2009

Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, E-mail: [email protected] : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

ISBN 978-99940-968-0-0

winaTqma

ruseT-saqarTvelos 2008 wlis omma, cxinvalis regionSi ganxorcielebulma eTnowmendam kidev ufro gazarda iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa ricxvi saqarTveloSi. afxazeTidan devnil mosaxleobasTan erTad aRniSnuli kontingenti warmoadgens mosaxleobis iseTi socialuri statusis mqone jgufs, visTvisac migraciis Semakavebeli faqtori sustia. amitom mobilobis done maRalia da gamoirCeva bevri TaviseburebiT, rac Seswavlasa da migraciul politikaSi gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs. miuxedavad didi survilisa, mainc ar cxreba SromiTi emigraciis maRali intensiuroba. misasalmebelia, rom TandaTan matulobs SromiTi emigraciis Taobaze gamoqveynebuli Sromebi, Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos, rom xSirad isini imeoreben da naklebad aRrmaveben ukve arsebul kvlevis Sedegebs. me-19 da me-20 saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos mTel mosaxleobaSi jer matulobda ucxo diasporaTa wili, xolo bolo aTwleulebSi emigraciuli procesebis gavleniT araavtoqTonTa wili mcirdeba. zogierTi diasporis demografiul ganviTarebaSi ki ukiduresi atrofia Camoyalibda, ramac maTi aRwarmoebis potenciali radikalurad Seasusta. aman Tavisi mecnieruli Sefaseba moiTxova, rac seriozuli kvlevebis ganxorcielebas saWiroebs. migraciis mkvlevarTa aqcenti postsabWoTa wlebSi gadavida gare migraciaze. Tumca Siga migraciuli procesebs yovelTvis udidesi mniSvneloba

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hqonda racionaluri gansaxlebis sistemis formirebasa da qveynis ekonomikur da demografiul usafrTxoebaSi. Siga organizebuli migraciis roli kvlavac didia da misi mecnieruli Sefaseba momavali migraciuli politikis gansazRvris aucilebeli winapirobaa. zemoaRniSnul problemebs Seexeba `migracia 3~-Si dabeWdili statiebi. siamovnebiT gvinda aRvniSnoT isic, rom krebulTan saqmianad TanamSromloben saqarTvelos parlamentis aparatis, migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis, daniis ltolvilTa sabWos, demografiisa da sociologiis institutis, saqarTvelos arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi, ucxoeli mecnierebi, studentoba. vvaraudobT, rom uaxloes momavalSi kvlavac amoqmeddeba migraciis kvlevis centri, rac ufro gaaRrmavebs migraciuli procesebis Seswavlas.Y

Tsu profesori mirian tuxaSvili

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mirian tuxaSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

rusebis Camosaxleba da emigracia saqarTvelodan

migraciuli eqspansia ruseTis imperiis simyaris erT-erT mTavar gzad iyo miCneuli da uwyvetad xorcieldeboda ruseTis saxelmwifos Casaxvis periodidan. cnobili rusi istorikosis, v. kliuCevskis daskvniT, `ruseTis istoria ­ esaa ganuwyvetliv kolonizebadi qveynis istoria~1. kolonizacias xels uwyobda rusi mosaxleobis swrafi demografiuli zrda, rac saSualebas iZleoda, warmoqmniliyo centridanuli migraciuli nakadebi, riTac uzarmazari sivrce iqna ekonomikurad da eTnikurad aTvisebuli. rusi mosaxleobis intensiuri imigracia saqarTveloSi 1830-iani wlebidan iwyeba. mas hqonda rogorc araorganizebuli, ise organizebuli xasiaTi. Tavdapirvelad Seiqmna e.w. samxedro soflebi, ganxorcielda 15 wliani samxedro samsaxuris moxdis Semdgom saxazino miwebze yofil samxedro mosamsaxureTa dasaxleba. soflebi ganlagebulni iyvnen samxedro banakebis mimdebare teritoriebze2. paralelurad daiwyo rusi seqtantebis ­ duxoborebisa da moloknebis Camosaxleba borCalosa da axalcixis mazrebSi. mainc, saqarTveloSi batonymobis gauqmebis dros rusi mosaxleoba ar aRemateboda 19 aTas

.. . . . http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusklush/2htm 2 anTaZe k. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XIX saukuneSi, Tbilisi, 1973. gv.129; guguSvili p. saqarTvelosa da amierkavkasiis ekonomikuri ganviTareba XIX-XXss. t.1. Tbilisi, 1949. gv.625.

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kacs3. Camosaxlebis intensiuroba TandaTanobiT izrdeboda. saukunis bolos rusebis ricxovnobam asi aTass, mTeli mosaxleobis 5,3% miaRwia. Seicvala maTi ganawileba saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze. Tu 1864 wels Tbilisis mazraze modioda saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi rusi mosaxleobis 60%, Semdgom intensiurad xdeboda maTi kolonizacia Savi zRvis sanapiro zolSi ­ soxumis okrugsa da baTumSi. amas xeli Seuwyo muhajirobis Sedegad afxazeTis gapartaxebam, afxazi mosaxleobis umetesobis ayram da TurqeTSi gadaxvewam. XX saukuneSi pirveli msoflio omis wina periodi xasiaTdeboda saqarTvelos qalaqebis mosaxleobis swrafi zrdiT, raSic evropuli ruseTis mosaxleobac monawileobda. pirveli msoflio omis dros, 1914-1917ww. monakveTSi, rogorc v. jaoSvili aRniSnavs, garemigraciuli saldo uaryofiTi gaxda4. rusi mosaxleobis emigraciuli procesebi metad intensiuri gaxda ruseTis imperiis daSlis Semdeg, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis periodSi. am dros ekonomika moiSala da socialuri yofa ukiduresad damZimda. meore mxriv, ruseTis imperiis mcxovrebTa nawili, romlis samSoblo ruseTis imperia iyo, misi daSlis Semdgom mSobliuri qveynis gareT aRmoCnda da savsebiT bunebrivad daiwyo dabruneba Tavis eTnikuri teritoriebisaken. es gansakuTrebiT gamovlinda qalaqis mosaxleobis SemcirebiT. magaliTad, Tbilisis mosaxle-

anTaZe k. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XIX saukuneSi, Tbilisi, 1973. gv.130. 4 jaoSvili v. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XVIII-XX saukuneebSi. Tbilisi, 1984. gv.97.

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oba 100 aTasi kaciT Semcirda5. unda aRiniSnos, rom 1917 wlisaTvis Tbilisis mosaxleobis 28,1% rusi iyo. aq isini am dros aRematebodnen qarTvelebs. Semdgom wlebSi rusebis didi nawili gavida saqarTvelodan. rogorc g. feraZe am periodis Sesaxeb wers, `mdgomareoba radikalurad Seicvala 1917 wlis oqtombris revoluciis Semdeg da metadre saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdeg, rodesac isini, vinc organulad ar iyvnen dakavSirebulni saqarTvelosTan ­ gaifantnen~.6 ruseTis mier saqarTvelos aneqsiam da politikuri viTarebis Secvlam axali safuZveli Seqmna imigraciuli procesebis ganviTarebisaTvis. amas daerTo isic, rom 1922 wels ruseTSi ifeTqa SimSilobam, ramac 35 mln kaciT dasaxlebuli teritoria moicva. milionze meti mcxovrebi daiRupa SimSilisa da amiT gamowveuli avadmyofobisagan7. aRniSnul garemoebaTa gamo saqarTvelodan axlad wasuli mosaxleobis nawili isev ukan Semobrunda. amis miuxedavad, 1926 wels rusebis wili saqarTvelos mTel mosaxleobaSi saukunis dasawyisTan SedarebiT mniSvnelovnadaa Semcirebuli da mxolod 3,6%-s Seadgens (cxrili 1)8.

guguSvili p. saqarTvelos ssr mosaxleobis aRwarmoebis sakiTxebi. Tbilisi, 1973. gv.168. 6 feraZe g. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 1917 wlis aRweris mixedviT. demografiuli mimoxilva. saqarTvelos statistikuri moambe. 1921, #1. gv.26. 7 : . , 1990, .243. 8 anTaZe k. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XIX saukuneSi, Tbilisi, 1973. gv.88-89. jaoSvili v. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XVIII-XX saukuneebSi. Tbilisi, 1984. gv.79, 112, 139, 213. mosaxleobis 1897, 1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 2002 wlebis sayovelTao aRweris masalebi.

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cxrili 1

rusi mosaxleobis ricxovnoba da wili saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi wlebi 1979 1959 1939

mosaxleoba

aTasi kaci (%)

0,5

19,0

76,4

96,1

308

407,8

396,7

371,7

341,1

97,39

0,0 2,0 5,3 3,6 8,9 10,1 8,5 7,4 6,3 2,1

-

meore msoflio omamdeli xuTwledebi xasiaTdeba swrafi ekonomikuri zrdiT. am dros ssrk-Si strategiul amocanad gamocxadda ganapira mxareebisa da nacionaluri respublikebis ekonomikuri CamorCenis daZleva maTi daCqarebuli samrewvelo ganviTarebis gziT. igi iTvaliswinebda investiciebis gadanawilebas da aRniSnul regionebSi axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas. 1940 wlisaTvis 1913 welTan SedarebiT saqarTvelos mrewvelobis mTliani produqti aTjer gaizarda10. axali samuSao adgilebi ki yovelTvis ar Seesabameboda mkvidri samuSao Zalis profesiul-kvalificiur struqturas. amitom ver xerxdeboda adgilobrivi SromiTi resursebiT samuSao Zalaze moTxovnis dakmayofileba da Cndeboda moTxovna saqarTvelos garedan muSaxelis Semoyvanaze, rac intensiuri imigraciis faqtori iyo. meore mxriv, ruseTsa da ukrainaSi mousavlianobisa da meurneobis totaluri transformaciebis viTarebaSi daSvebuli Secdomebis gamo 1932-1933 wlebSi ma9 10

saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze. . , 1984..34

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2002

1989

1926

1970

1897

1800

1865

1832

sobrivma SimSilobam ifeTqa. sxvadasxva SefasebiT, am dros 2-7 mln mcxovrebi gawyda11. damSeulTa didi masa ki moawyda ssrk aziuri nawilis qalaqebs, sadac im dros adgilobrivi mosaxleobis aramrewveluri tradiciebisa da naklebmobilurobis gamo ver kompleqtdeboda mrewvelobaSi axlad Seqmnili samuSao adgilebi. aRniSnul garemoebaTa gamo 19261939ww. aRweraTSoris periodSi saqarTvelos mTel mosaxleobaSi rusebis wili 3,6%-dan 8,7%-mde gaizarda. meore msoflio omis wlebSi saqarTveloSi evakuirda rusi mosaxleobis didi kontingenti, romelic maqsimalurad dasaqmda adgilobriv warmoebaSi, maT Soris, mrewvelobaSi. omisSemdgom maTi nawili sacxovreblad saqarTveloSi darCa. amave dros, grZeldeboda msxvili samrewvelo obieqtebis amoqmedebisas maRalkvalificiur muSaxelze moTxovnis Sevseba ruseT-ukrainidan. ZiriTadad, imigraciuli procesebis Sedegia, rom 1939-1959 wlebSi saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi rusebis wili 8,7%-dan 10,1%-mde gaizarda. maTma absoluturma ricxvma saqarTveloSi 408 aTass miaRwia. 1950-iani wlebis meore naxevridan ki saqarTveloSi rusi mosaxleobis garemigraciuli saldo stabilurad uaryofiTi gaxda. rusebSi Sobadobis done sxva erovnebebze metad Semcirda, e.w. demografiuli gadasvla mcireSvilian ojaxze daCqarebulad moxda. emigra . 1933 . . « », 45, 23-29 , 2002 . .2; : . , 1990, .243; .. 1932-1933 .. « » 30-40- . , 1988, 3, .116-121.

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ciul procesebTan erTad amanac gamoiwvia rusi mosaxleobis stabiluri kleba saqarTveloSi. aRniSnul periodSi saqarTvelodan rusi mosaxleobis gare migraciis ZiriTadi mizezebia: a) ruseTis centraluri da aRmosavleTi olqebis daCqarebuli ekonomikuri ganviTareba da samuSao Zalaze moTxovnis zrda. imavdroulad, iq cxovrebis donis swrafi amaRleba; b) ruseTTan SedarebiT saqarTvelos umaRles saswavleblebSi misaReb gamocdebze didi konkursi da rusulenovani mosaxleobis gareT gasvla umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad; maTgan mniSvnelovani nawilis iq mudmiv sacxovreblad darCena; g) araqarTveli mosaxleobis Tavisi eTnikuri teritoriebisken da sakuTari eTnokulturuli garemosaken bunebrivi swrafva da a.S. 1959-1990 wlebSi saqarTvelos garemigraciuli saldo neli cvlilebiT xasiaTdeba. saSualod, yovel 100 wasulze Camovida 80 kaci. 80-iani wlebis bolos uaryofiTi saldos intensivoba gaizarda. 1989 wlis aRweriT, saqarTveloSi 341 aTasi rusi erovnebis mcxovrebi iyo. rusi mosaxleobis saqarTvelodan gansakuTrebiT didi intensivobis emigraciuli procesebi daiwyo 1990ian wlebSi ssrk daSlis Semdgom. es ZiriTadad ganapiroba am dros aRmocenebulma yovlismomcvelma krizisma. igi saqarTveloSi bevrad meti siRrmiT ganviTarda, vidre ruseTSi. amitom warmoiqmna am qveynebs Soris cxovrebis doneTa mkveTrad gamoxatuli sxvaoba, rac mTavari faqtori gaxda saqarTvelodan ruseTSi mosaxleobis emigraciisa, pirvel rigSi, rusi mosaxleobis repatriaciisa.

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istoriuli samSoblosaken swrafvas xeli Seuwyo sxva garemoebebmac. nawilobriv, saxelmwifo enis ucodinarobamac. qarTulis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, konstituciuri aRiarebis miuxedavad, 1989 wlis aRweris mixedviT, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi 341 aTasi rusidan 253 aTasma (74,2%) rusulis garda sxva ena ar icoda12. 1989-2002ww. aRweraTaSoris periodSi rusebis ricxovnoba mTel saqarTveloSi 3,5-jer Semcirda. metad didi cvlileba moxda saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi rusebis demostruqturaSi. sqesobriv-asakobrivi Semadgenloba katastrofulad atrofirda. 2002 wlis aRweriT, rus qalTa ricxovnoba 2,5-jer aRemateba am erovnebis mamakacTa ricxovnobas13. aseTi asimetria mxolod bolo wlebSi ar Camoyalibebula, magram ukiduresi forma postsabWoTa periodSi miiRo. gamokvlevebi gviCveneben, rom rusi qalebis sxva erovnebis mamakacebTan qorwinebis maCvenebeli sakmaod maRali iyo aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc l. menabdiSvilis gamokvleviT dasturdeba, saqarTveloSi rusi qalebis qorwineba qarTvelebTan ufro mravalricxovani iyo, vinem Tavisive erovnebis warmomadgenlebTan. bieTnikurma qorwinebam rusi erovnebis mosaxleobis sqesobrivi struqturis formirebaSi mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa14. aseve atrofirebulia rusuli diasporis asakobrivi struqtura. maTSi daberebis procesi ufro adre

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saqarTvelos mosaxleobis erovnuli semadgenloba. statistikuri krebuli, Tbilisi, 1991. gv.62-63. 13 saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 wlis pirveli sayovelTao aRweris Sedegebi. statistikuri krebuli. Tbilisi, 2006. gv.73-77. 14 menabdiSvili l. bieTnikuri qorwineba da misi demografiuli Sedegebi. sakandidato disertaciis avtoreferati. Tbilisi, 2000. gv.17.

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daiwyo, vidre saqarTvelos sxva, SedarebiT mravalricxovan diasporebSi, magram postsabWoTa periodis intensiurma emigraciulma procesma mkveTrad aaCqara daberebis tempi. 2002 wlisaTvis 60 wels gadacilebuli mosaxleobis wilma rusul diasporaSi 34,4% miaRwia (cxrili 2). es katastrofuli zedaberebaa. aseTi struqtura, cxadia, mosaxleobis gafarToebul aRwarmoebas gamoricxavs. statistikuri aRricxvis mixedviT, 2005 wels saqrTveloSi rusi qalebis mier gaCnda mxolod 406 bavSvi, rac niSnavs, rom Sobadobis zogadi koeficienti mxolod 7,4 promiles udris. meore mxriv, daberebis gamo rusi mosaxleobis maRali sikvdilianoba (zogadi koeficienti 22,4 promile) gansazRvravs maRal bunebriv klebas (-15 promile). isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom amJamindel statistikaSi axalSobilTa erovnul WrilSi aRricxva dedis erovnebis mixedviT xdeba da, savaraudoa, rom rusi dedis mier naSobi bavSvebis mniSvnelovani nawili realurad sxva erovnebas ekuTvnis. T. futkaraZis gamokvleviT, 1999 wels rusi erovnebis qalisagan dabadebulTa 74%-s, anu oTxi bavSvidan sams sxva erovnebis mama hyavda15. 2002 wlis aRweris Sedegad gamovlinda, rom 1549 wlis asakis yoveli 1000 rusi qalis mier gaCenilia 1779 bavSvi. es yvelaze mcire maCvenebelia saqarTveloSi mcxovreb sxva erovnebaTa Soris, aSkaradaa gamoxatuli Sekvecili kvlavwarmoebis reJimi, regresuli demografiuli viTareba.

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futkaraZe T. aWaris mosaxleobis migraciis eTnologiuri problemebi. baTumi. 2006. gv.226.

istoriul-

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cxrili 2

rusi mosaxleobis daberebis maCveneblebi 1926-2002 wlebSi16

asakobrivi maCveneblebi

1926

1959

1970

1979

1989

2002

rusi mosaxleoba 0-14 w. 60w. da uxnesi medianuri asaki

23,3 5,8 24,9

23,6 8,5 30,6

19,7 13,0 34,8

18,8 17,3 36,1

19,3 20,0 36,7

8,4 34,4 48,8

saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleoba 0-14 w. 60 w. da uxnesi medianuri asaki

38,3 8,3

29,3 11,0

30,5 11,8

26,0 12,5

24,7 14,4

18,4 18,5

21,0

26,5

28,7

29,1

30,7

34,5

imave aRweris dros gamoikiTxa sxvadasxva erovnebis fertiluri asakis (15-49weli) gaTxovil qalTa azri mosalodnel bavSvTa ricxvis Sesaxeb. aqac yvelaze mcire Svilianobis ganzraxva rus qalebs aRmoaCndaT. igi ver uzrunvelyofs STamomavlobiT maTi ricxvis Ca-

demografiis da sociologiis problemebi, II t. Tbilisi, 2004. gv.129-132; Selia m. mosaxleobis dabereba saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi, 1999. gv.58.

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nacvlebas. rusi qalebis TviT survilSic ki gamoxatulia rusuli diasporis demografiuli depresia. amrigad, migraciuli da bunebrivi moZraobis yvela ganxiluli tendencia mianiSnebs saqarTveloSi rusi mosaxleobis ricxovnobis momaval gardauval klebaze.

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Mirian Tukhashvili RUSSIANS SETTLEMENT IN GEORGIA AND THEIR EMIGRATION (Abstract) Russian populations' intensive settlement in Georgia began after that when Russia incorporated Georgia into its empire. Since the 1830s immigration had permanent nature and it continued intensively up to World War First. In the years of Georgia's democratic republic a part of Russians left Georgia, and their number tripled during the authority existing until World War II. A part of evacuated Russians left in Georgia during the war. Russian populations emigration with low intensity began from the 1950s. It increased sharply after the 1990s when Georgia restored its independence. In the conditions of profound economic crisis a fifth of Georgia's population left the country. In this period the number of Russians decreased 3.5 times. The surveys attest that in this period Russians didn't suffer any kind of persecution or oppression. At present, demographic potential of Russian population is weak and the improvement perspective of reproduction of this contingent factually doesn't appear.

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ciuri anTaZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati saqarTvelos Sromis bazris funqcionirebis Taviseburebebi Tanamedrove etapze

Tanamedrove saqarTvelosaTvis siRaribe yvelaze mwvave socialur-ekonomikuri problema da ZiriTadi Siga safrTxea. oficialuri statistikuri monacemebiT, mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 40% siRaribis zRvars miRma cxovrobs. gansakuTrebiT Raribia is ojaxebi, romelTa wevrebi dausaqmebelni arian. siRaribis done, siRrme da simwvave izrdeba ojaxSi kmayofaze myof pirTa raodenobis zrdis paralelurad. uamravi gamokvleviT dadasturebulia, rom siRaribis ganmapirobebeli mTavari faqtorebia umuSevroba da dasaqmebidan miRebuli mcire Semosavali. Sesabamisad, qveyanaSi siRaribis daZleva arsebiTad damokidebulia dasaqmebis xelSewyobis mizanmimarTuli politikis ganxorcielebaze, Sromis bazris infrastruqturis ganviTarebaze, samuSao Zalis moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris arsebuli disbalansis Semcirebaze. yovelive es Sromis bazris funqcionirebaze aisaxeba. oficialuri statistikuri monacemebiT, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ekonomikuri aqtiurobis done 6265%-is farglebSia (cxrili 1). igi 7-8 procentuli punqtiT CamorCeba evrokavSiris qveynebis analogiur parametrebs, magram saqarTvelosnairi qveynisaTvis dabali ar aris. samagierod, Zalian dabalia 15 welze ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis dasaqmebis maCvenebeli (54,7%) da maRalia umuSevrobis done (13,3%). sagulisxmoa is faqtic, rom dasaqmebuli mosaxleobis raodenoba (gansakuTrebiT, daqiravebiT dasaqmebulebis) wlidan wlamde

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mcirdeba, rac TvalnaTliv adasturebs dasaqmebis sferoSi viTarebis gauaresebis tendencias.

cxrili 1

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ekonomikuri aqtiurobis, dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis done 1998-2007 wlebSi, % wlebi ekomomikuri aqtiurobis done* 65,2 (66,8) 66,0 (67,5) 65,2 (68,9) 66,2 (69,9) 65,0 (67,1) 66,2 (68,2) 64,9 (66,9) 64,0 (65,8) 62,2 (63,8) 63,3 dasaqmebis done 55,7 56,9 58,4 58,8 56,8 58,6 56,7 55,2 53,8 54,9 umuSevrobis done* 14,5 (16,6) 13,8 (14,0) 10,3 (14,6) 11,1 (16,4) 12,6 (17,3) 11,5 (14,2) 12,6 (15,2) 13,8 (16,1) 13,6 (15,7) 13,3

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 wyaro:

saqarTvelos statistikis departamenti.

*SeniSvna: frCxilebSi Cawerili monacemebi asaxavs e.w. `Serbilebuli kriteriumiT" aRricxul umuSevrebs (umuSevrebs, romlebic aqtiurad ar eZeben samuSaos). 2007 wlidan statistikis departamenti aseT monacemebs aRar aqveynebs.

swored dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis SezRuduloba da Sromis anazRaurebis dabali done ubiZgebs saqarTvelos mosaxleobis yvelaze aqtiur nawils, datovos samSoblo da arsebobis wyaro qveynis farglebs gareT

17

eZebos. specialuri kvlevebi adasturebs, rom SromiT emigrantTa 80-85% qveyanas ekonomikuri mizezebiT (umuSevroba, dabali xelfasi) tovebs.17 qveyanaSi umuSevrobis SemcirebisaTvis, biznes-garemos gaumjobesebis garda, aucilebelia Sromis bazris efeqtiani funqcionirebis pirobebis Seqmna, rac gulisxmobs Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo, organizaciuli da finansuri berketebis SemuSavebasa da gamoyenebas. gamokvlevebiT dasturdeba, rom saqarTveloSi sabazro ekonomikis adekvaturi Sromis bazari jer kidev formirebis stadiaSia. amJamad misi funqcionireba xasiaTdeba mTeli rigi TaviseburebebiT, romelTagan ZiriTadia: · dasaqmebis SezRuduli SesaZleblobebi (samuSao adgilebis mcire raodenoba), rac ganpirobebulia saqarTvelos ekonomikis ganviTarebis dabali doniT. 1990-iani wlebis ekonomikuri kolafsis Sedegad saqarTveloSi 1990-2000 wlebSi warmoebuli mTliani Siga produqtis moculoba 8-jer da metad Semcirda. 1999-2003 wlebSi mSp-s warmoebis zrdis tempma weliwadSi saSualod 3-4% Seadgina, rac gaCanagebuli ekonomikis aRorZinebisaTvis sakmarisi ar iyo. `vardebis revoluciis~ Semdgom periodSi (2004-2007ww.) ganxorcielebuli reformebis, ekonomikuri garemos gajansaRebis mizniT gatarebuli RonisZiebebis (sagadasaxado kodeqsis srulyofa, gadasaxadebis Semcireba, biznesis dawyebisaTvis pirobebis srulyofa, korufciasTan brZola, privatizaciis procesis daCqareba da a.S.) Sedegad mniSvnelovnad daCqarda mSp-s warmoebis zrdis tempi

17

a) SromiTi migracia saqrTvelodan. mso. Tb., 2003. gv.23-25; b) kvleviTi resursebisa da statistikis erovnuli centri. samuSao Zalis migraciis gamokvlevis Sedegebi. Tb., 2008. gv.13.

18

(saSualod 9,3%). Tumca, mSp-s dargobrivi struqtura TvalnaTliv warmoaCens qveynis ekonomikis mZime mdgomareobas. kerZod, is faqti, rom 2007 wels warmoebuli mSp-is 52,6% momsaxurebis sferoSi Seiqmna, xolo soflis meurneobasa da TevzWeraSi _ 16,9%, mrewvelobaSi, eleqtroenergiis, gazisa da wyalmomaragebaSi _ 18,4%, mSeneblobaSi _ 8,9% da a.S., adasturebs qveyanaSi mwarmoebluri dargebis ganuviTareblobas. garda amisa, saqarTveloSi importis moculoba TiTqmis 4-jer aRemateba eqsportis sidides da uaryofiTi saldo sul ufro izrdeba. 2007 wlisaTvis import-eqsports Soris uaryofiTma saldom TiTqmis 4 mlrd aSS dolari Seadgina. importis zrda da eqsportis Semcireba pirdapir asaxavs qveyanaSi samuSao adgilebis klebis tendencias. · moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris didi disbalansi. gamokvlevebiT dasturdeba, rom saqarTvelos Sromis bazarze samuSao Zalis moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris ara marto raodenobrivi, aramed seriozuli struqturuli (profesiebis mixedviT) da xarisxobrivi (kvalifikaciis mixedviT) disbalansia. profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemaSi momzadebulTa struqtura ar Seesabameba konkretuli profesiis kadrebze damsaqmebelTa moTxovnebs. imis garda, rom mTeli rigi profesiis (magaliTad, Jurnalistebi, ekonomistebi, finansistebi, iuristebi, eqimebi da sxv.) kadrebis momzadeba xdeba Warbi raodenobiT, arsebobs profesiaTa farTo speqtri, romlebzec moTxovna qveyanaSi daukmayofilebelia da maTi momzadeba saqarTveloSi ar xdeba.18 garda amisa,

amis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ixileT specialuri kvlevebis angariSebi: a) saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalaze damsaqmebelTa moTxovna. mso. Tb., 2007; b) samuSao Zalaze damsaqmebelTa

18

19

damsaqmebelTa naxevarze meti ukmayofiloa sakuTari momuSaveebis kvalifikaciiT, rac mianiSnebs profesiuli kadrebis momzadeba-gadamzadebis efeqtiani sistemis formirebis aucileblobaze da momzadebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis saWiroebaze. · moqmedebis SezRuduli areali. saqarTveloSi dasaqmebulTa saerTo raodenobidan mxolod 33-34%-ia daqiravebiT momuSave, danarCeni 6667% ki TviTdasaqmebulia. bolo 18 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganuxrelad mcirdeba daqiravebulTa absoluturi raodenoba. amasTan, maTi TiTqmis 2/3 saxelmwifo (ZiriTadad sajaro) seqtorSia, sadac SromiTi urTierTobebi mkacrad reglamentirebulia da sabazro berketebi naklebad gamoiyeneba. es niSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi Zalian SezRudulia Sromis bazris moqmedebis areali, ramdenadac sabazro meqanizmebi vrceldeba SromiTi urTierTobebis im segmentze, sadac daqiravebuli Sroma gamoiyeneba. · naklebi elastikuroba. Sromis bazris efeqtiani funqcionireba warmoudgenelia misi elastikurobisa da cvlilebebze swrafi reagirebis gareSe. Sesabamisad, unda arsebobdes informacia ekonomikasa da dasaqmebis sferoSi mosalodneli cvlilebebis Sesaxeb da unda iyos specialuri struqtura, romelic dagegmavda da ganaxorcielebda Sromis bazris mimdinare da perspeqtiul moTxovnebze reagirebis RonisZiebebs. samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis aramcTu xangrZlivi, aramed erTwliani gegma-prognozic ki, ar aris

moTxovna. mso, Tb., 2008; g) aWaraSi. mso, 2009.

Sromis bazris regionuli kvleva

20

Camoyalibebuli Sromis bazris kvlevis saxelmwifo sistema. Sesabamisad, ar arsebobs winapirobebi imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelos Sromis bazari ufro elastikuri iyos. · samuSao Zalis dabali mobiluroba. Sromis bazris araelastikurobas emateba is garemoebac, rom saqarTveloSi ganuviTarebelia zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis sistema. calkeuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis (zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis asociacia, Dvvinternational da sxva) didi mcdelobis miuxedavad, es sistema jer mxolod formirebis stadiaSia. saWiroa saxelmwifosa da damsaqmeblebis aqtiurobis gazrda samuSao Zalis profesiuli gadamzadebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebis gamarTuli da xelmisawvdomi sistemis Sesaqmnelad. saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis naklebmobilurobas xels uwyobs mentaluri problemebic, rac sazogadoebis nawils gadmohyva sabWoTa cxovrebis wesidan (roca yvelas nacvlad fiqrobda saxelmwifo). naklebmobilurobas ganapirobebs aseve Sromis bazris infrastruqturis ganuviTarebloba, roca adamianebma ar ician sad da vis mimarTon daxmarebisTvis, rogor eZebon samuSao, rogor ganiviTaron TviTprezentaciis unari da a.S. Sedegad, saqarTveloSi Zalian maRalia e.w. `xelCaqneuli~ umuSevrebis wili, anu im adamianTa kategoria, visac surT muSaoba, magram aqtiurad aRar eZeben samuSaos, vinaidan dakarges samuSaos Sovnis imedi. · samuSao Zalis mcire fasi. saqarTvelosaTvis uaRresad aqtualuria e.w. `Raribi dasaqmebulebis~ problema. misi arsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom dasaqmebidan miRebuli Semosavlebi momuSaveTa garkveuli kategoriisaTvis saarsebo minimumze naklebia. saqarTvelos statistikis departamentis mier

21

2006 wlis seqtemberSi Catarebuli specialuri kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom daqiravebulTa 31,9%-s TveSi 100 larze (e.i. saarsebo minimumze) naklebi xelfasi hqonda. aqedan: 4,3%-s _ 20 larze naklebi, 5,7%-s _ 20-40 lari, 7,6%-s _ 40-60 lari, 7,3%-s _ 60-80 lari, xolo 7,0%-s _ 80-100 lari. sagangaSoa dasaqmebulTa xelfasis didi diferenciacia, gansakuTrebiT saxelmwifo seqtorSi: Tanafardoba yvelaze dabalxelfasiani jgufis saSualo xelfassa (11 lari) da yvelaze maRalxelfasiani jgufis saSualo xelfass (3483,3 lari) Soris Seadgens 1:316. dasaqmebidan miRebuli Semosavlebis wili Sinameurneobis saerTo SemosavlebSi ar aRemateba 26-28%-s. dasaqmebidan miRebuli Semosavlebis simcire ubiZgebs dasaqmebulTa nawils, saWiro Semosavlis misaRebad eZebon damatebiTi samuSao. es iwvevs meoradi dasaqmebis farTod gavrcelebas. dasaqmebulTa serTo raodenobis 10-12% ZiriTad samuSaosTan erTad sxva samuSaosac asrulebs (soflad TviTdasaqmeba, vaWroba, kerZo servisi, mcire biznesi da a.S). · xangrZliv umuSevarTa didi wili. xangrZlivi ekonomikuri stagnaciis, saxelmwifos mxridan dasaqmebis stimulirebis ararsebobis, Sromis bazris infrastruqturis ganuviTareblobis Sedegad saqarTveloSi umuSevrobam e.w. `xangrZlivi umuSevrobis~ forma SeiZina: umuSevarTa saerTo raodenobis TiTqmis 2/3 xangrZlivad (1 welze meti droiT) umuSevaria. maTi Sromis bazarze dabruneba da konkurentunarianobis gazrda damatebiT Zalisxmevasa da finansebs saWiroebs saxelmwifosa da damsaqmeblebis mxridan.

22

· umuSevrebSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebis didi wili. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ganaTlebis SedarebiT maRali cenzi ganapirobebs im faqts, rom umuSevrebs Sorisac didia umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebis wili. statistikuri monacemebiT, umuSevarTa TiTqmis 1/3s umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvT (maTi wili 15 welze ufrosi asakis mosaxleobaSi 22,4%-ia). umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebis didi wili umuSevrebSi aixsneba rogorc samuSao Zalis moTxovna-miwodebas Soris arsebuli disbalansiT, aseve umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone samuSaos maZieblebis Sromis pirobebisadmi gazrdili moTxovnebiT. · `meoradi Sromis bazris~ dominireba. umuSevrebs Soris umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebis did wils ganapirobebs is faqtic, rom saqarTvelos Sromis bazarze dominirebs e.w. `meoradi Sromis bazari~, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebiT (dabalkvalificiuri da arakvalificiuri samuSao adgilebi, Sromis mZime pirobebi, socialuri dacvisa da garantiebis dabali done, mcire anazRaureba da a.S.). `pirveladi Sromis bazris~ (maRalkvalificiuri kadrebi, Sromis kargi pirobebi, didi xelfasi, socialuri garantiebisa da daculobis maRali xarisxi) areali ki SezRudulia da ZiriTadad moicavs saxelmwifo marTvis, sabanko da sadazRvevo seqtorebs. · araformaluri dasaqmebis didi wili. saqarTvelosa da sxva dabalganviTarebuli qveynebis Sromis bazris erT-erTi Taviseburebaa araformaluri dasaqmebis didi wili. rogorc cnobilia, oficialuri statistika araformaluri dasaqmebis Sesaxeb ar arsebobs. araformaluri dasaqmebis masStabebis Sefaseba

23

SesaZlebelia specialuri gamokvlevebiT, an iribad _ iseTi statistikuri maCveneblebis analizis safuZvelze, rogoricaa: daukvirvebadi (aRuricxavi) ekonomikis moculoba, dasaqmebulTa struqtura, TviTdasaqmebulTa raodenoba da a.S. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT, saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi daukvirvebadi (aRuricxavi) gamoSvebis wili 30-33%-ia, samewarmeo seqtorSi ki es maCvenebeli 51-56%-s Seadgens. cxadia, daukvirvebadi (aRuricxavi) ekonomikis moculobaSi aisaxeba araformaluri dasaqmebis sididec. evropis ganaTlebis fondis (ETF) mier 2005 wels organizebuli specialuri gamokvlevis mixedviT, q. TbilisSi daqiravebulTa TiTqmis 40% muSaobda SromiTi kontraqtis gareSe. TviTdasaqmebulTa absoluturi umravlesoba eweva araformalur, dauregistrirebel saqmianobas. didi masStabis araformaluri dasaqmeba saqarTveloSi ganpirobebulia im rTuli socialur-ekonomikuri procesebiT, romelic qveyanaSi gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi ganviTarda. araformaluri dasaqmebis zrda realurad mosaxleobis reaqciaa dasaqmebis pirobebis gauaresebaze, umuSevrobis zrdaze, cxovrebis donis dacemaze da a.S. · ganuviTarebeli infrastruqtura. Sromis bazris infrastruqturis ganuviTareblobis is xarisxi, rac saqarTveloSia, SeiZleba mis eqskluziur Taviseburebad dasaxeldes. 2006 wlidan saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs dasaqmebis saxelmwifo regulirebis sakanonmdeblo baza (gauqmda kanoni `dasaqmebis Sesaxeb~, 2006 wels miRebuli `Sromis kodeqsi~ ki momuSaves damsaqmebelTan mimarTebaSi absoluturad daucvels xdis); ar xorcieldeba `umuSevarTa socialuri dacvisa da dasaqmebis xelSewyobis saxelmwifo progra24

mebi~ (`samuSao adgilze profesiuli swavlebis~ saxelmwifo programebs, romlebic ganxorcielda 2006 da 2007 wlebSi, realurad araferi hqonda saerTo dasaqmebis xelSewyobasTan); ar arsebobs dasaqmebis saxelmwifo samsaxuri; ganuviTarebelia profesiuli swavlebisa da zrdasrulTa profesiuli momzadeba/gadamzadebis rogorc saxelmwifo, ise kerZo sistema; sustia profesiuli orientaciis, konsultaciisa da karieris dagegmvis sistema; ar arsebobs SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirTa da sxva socialuri riskebis mqone jgufebis dasaqmebis xelSewyobis meqanizmi da a.S. yovelive zemoaRniSnuli uaryofiT gavlenas axdens saqarTvelos Sromis bazris funqcionirebaze da aisaxeba umuSevrobis ganmapirobebel ZiriTad mizezebSi. es mizezebia: SezRuduli moTxovna samuSao Zalaze; specialobiT samuSaos Sovnis sirTule; araswori sakadro politika; Sromis anazRaurebis dabali done; profesiuli momzadebis dabali done; mcire profesiuli mobiluroba; samuSaos moZiebisa da TviTprezentaciis unarCvevebis nakleboba; samuSaos maZiebelTa pasiuroba (e.w. `xelCaqneulebi~); dasaqmebis sferoSi saSuamavlo servisis ganuviTarebloba-xelmiuwvdomloba. saqarTvelos Sromis bazris Camoyalibebisa da efeqtianad funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebelia RonisZiebaTa mTeli sistemis SemuSaveba da realizacia rogorc saxelmwifos, ise socialuri partniorebis (dmsaqmeble25

bi, profesiuli kavSirebi), profesiuli ganaTlebis sferos provaiderebis, arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da sxv. mxridan. wamyvani roli, ra Tqma unda, saxelmwifos ekuTvnis. ZiriTadi sferoebi da mimarTulebebi, sadac unda gatardes Sromis bazris efeqtianad funqcionirebisaTvis saWiro RonisZiebebi, Semdegia: axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis stimulirebisaTvis ekonomikuri berketebis gamoyeneba; Sromis bazris regulirebis sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmna-srulyofa; dasaqmebis saxelmwifo politikis realizaciisaTvis specialuri saxelmwifo uwyebis (saministro an departamenti) Seqmna; samuSao Zalaze damsaqmebelTa moTxovnis Seswavlis (Sromis bazris kvlevis) mwyobri sistemis Camoyalibeba; profesiuli kadrebis momzadebis sistemis miaxloeba Sromis bazris moTxovnebTan; profesiuli kadrebis momzadebis dagegmvis, swavlebisa da Sefasebis procesSi damsaqmebelTa aqtiuri monawileoba; samuSo Zalis mobilurobis amaRlebisaTvis specialuri sakonsultcio (proforientaciis, konsultaciisa da karieris dagegmvis) samsaxurebis qselis ganviTareba; zrdasrulTa profesiuli momzadeba-gadamzadebis sistemis ganviTareba; Sromis bazris infrastruqturis ganviTareba.; mezobel da evrokavSiris qveynebTan samuSao Zalis legalurad gacvlis (legaluri SromiTi migraciis) xelSewyoba.

26

Tsiuri Antadze CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESENT LABOR MARKET IN GEORGIA (Abstract) Labor market, adequate to the requirements of the market economy, is in its formation stage in Georgia. Its functioning is characterized by number of peculiarities including the following essential ones: · Limited employment opportunities (shortage of vacancies) determined by low scale of economic development in Georgia; · Discrepancy between the demand and supply of the workforce (numerical, structural and qualitative); · Limited area for activity (Only 33-34% out of the total number of employed in Georgia works for hire, 2/3 of which is employed in the public sector). · Law resilience. System enabling regular socio-economic prognosis and labor market surveys is absent in the country. Thus, there are no preconditions for the flexible and resilient labor market existence in the country, respectively. · Low level of mobility of the labor force. Adult education system is still in its infancy and steps to design the life-long learning strategy in the country have been made only recently. · Poorly paid jobs. Income of 1/3 of the employed in the country is below the existence minimum; · High share of long-term unemployment. 2/3 out of the total number of unemployed has been jobless more then a year; · High rate of highly educated among the unemployed (42-44%); · Predomination of the "Secondary labor market" over the" primary labor market"; · High share of employed in the informal sector (66-67% of employed in Georgia is self-employed. Unrecorded share of production is 30-33%, in the industrial sector this indices is even higher - 5156%) · Underdeveloped infrastructure. Exclusively low level of labor market infrastructure. 27

Joint effort, the government, social partners (employers, trade unions) education providers, NGO sector, etc. with the state, playing the leading role in the process, is essential in the elaboration and implementation of number of measures for formation and effective functioning of the labor market in Georgia. The spheres and directions important to be introduced and implemented for the efficient functioning of the labor market are as follows: Utilization of economic lever to stimulate new job opportunities; Advancement of the legislation regulating labor market; Creation of the specialized state agency (ministry, department) for the implementation of the state employment policy; Introduction of the sound system for studying demand on the work force (labor market survey); Approximation of the professional education with the labor market demands; Active participation of employers in the planning, provision and evaluation of the results of professional trainings; Development of the network of consultation services (professional orientation, consultation and career planning) in order to enhance the labor force mobility. Development of the Adult Education System and introduction of the life-long learning principle in practice; Development of the labor market infrastructure; Promotion of the legal exchange of the labor force with the neighboring and EU countries (promotion of legal labor migration).

28

giorgi wulaZe istoriul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori avTandil sulaberiZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori nika maRlaferiZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori saqarTvelo da saerTaSoriso migracia

gaeros monacemebiT, msoflioSi, 2000-2010 wlebze, saSualod wliurad sam milionamde saerTaSoriso (gare) migrantia navaraudevi. amasTan, aRniSnuli sami milioni gare migranti naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebidan ganviTarebul qveynebSi midis. yvelaze meti migranti aziidan da laTinuri amerikidanaa, xolo mimReb qveynebs ZiriTadad CrdiloeT amerika da evropa warmoadgens. unda aRiniSnos, rom 1960-1970 wlebTan SedarebiT, 2000-2010 wlebSi gare migracia 5,2-jer gaizarda. raodenobrivis garda hqonda adgili Tvisebriv cvlilebebsac. magaliTad, 1960-1970 wlebsa da wina periodSi evropisaTvis gare migraciis saldo uaryofiTi iyo, xolo 1970-iani wlebidan saldo ukve dadebiTia, anu evropaSi meti migranti Camodis, vidre gadis. zogadad msoflioSi, dRevandelTan SedarebiT momavalSi, gare migrantebis raodenoba ramdenadme daiklebs, Tumca 2010-2050 wlebis periodSi saSualod weliwadSi 2,3 milionis farglebSi stabilizdeba. praqtikulad, 1950-2050 wlebis periodSi (10 wliani intervalebis ganxilvisas) 2000-2010 wlebi gare migraciis yvelaze didi sididiT gamoirCeva. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, saqarTvelosaTvis 1960-iani wlebidan damaxasiaTebelia gare migraciis

29

uaryofiTi saldo, romlis sidide da intensiuroba gansakuTrebiT maRali iyo 1992-1995 wlebSi. bunebrivia, saqarTvelos garkveuli wvlili Seaqvs msoflios saerTaSoriso migraciaSi, Tumca, absoluturi raodenobis TvalsazrisiT, es wvlili sakmaod mokrZalebulia da 2000-ian wlebSi mxolod 1%-s Seadgens. rodesac saerTaSoriso (gare) migraciaze da mis saldoze vmsjelobT, SedarebisaTvis ufro mizanSewonilia zogadi koeficientis, anu mosaxleobis 1000 sulze gaangariSebiT warmodgena. aseT dros SesaZlebelia gare migraciis saldos intensivobis gazomva.

diagrama 1. saSualo wliuri gare migraciis absoluturi saldo msoflios msxvili regionebis mixedviT 1960-2050 ww.

afrika azia 1000 500 evropa laTinuri amerika CrdiloeT amerika 0 -500 -1000 -1500 19601970 19801990 20002010 20202030 20402050 okeania

1500

aTasi

wyaro:

World Population Prospects. The 2006 Revision UN N-Y, 2007, p.26; g. wulaZe, a. sulaberiZe, n. maRlaferiZe, g. mamardaSvili. saqarTvelos demografiuli ganviTareba: guSin, dRes, xval. Tbilisi, 2008, gv.131.

30

am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelos wvlili sxva mniSvnelobas iZens da aSkarad migviTiTebs imaze, rom gare migraciis intensiuroba saqarTveloSi sakmaod maRali iyo da sadReisodac aseTad rCeba. migraciis yvelaze didi saldo mosaxleobis 1000 sulze rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi msoflioSi 1990-2000 wlebSi aRiniSna. am periodSi gare migraciis uaryofiTi saldo saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebiT maRali intensiurobiT gamoirCeoda (mosaxleobis 1000 sulze_ 19,2).

diagrama 2. saerTaSoriso (gare) migraciis saldos sidide () ganviTarebul, naklebad ganviTarebul qveynebsa da saqarTveloSi

5 0 -5

ganviTarebuli qveynebi

-10 -15 -20

naklebad ganviTarebuli saqarTvelo

1960- 1970- 1980- 1990- 2000- 2010- 2020- 2030- 20401970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

wyaro:

World Population Prospects. The 2006 Revision UN N-Y, 2007, p. 26; World Population Prospects. The 1998 Revision V. 1: Comprehensive Tables UN N-Y, 1999, pp.10, 12, 20, 32, 42, 52, 60, 62; g. wulaZe, a. sulaberiZe, n. maRlaferiZe, g. mamardaSvili. saqarTvelos demografiuli ganviTareba: guSin, dRes, xval. Tbilisi, 2008, gv.132.

31

2000-ian wlebSi gare migraciis saldo mcirdeba. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani klebaa damaxasiaTebeli saqarTvelosaTvis, Tumca misi intensiuroba mainc sakmaod maRali rCeba (-8,5). Semdgomi periodisaTvis rogorc msoflios qveynebisaTvis, ise saqarTvelosaTvisac ZiriTad tendencias warmoadgens gare migraciis saldos Semcireba.

saerTaSoriso migraciis saSualo wliuri saldo

19601970 -10.7 19701980 -16.0 19801990 -17.5 migraciis saldo 1990- 20002000 2010 -88.5 -33.7 (aTasi) 2010- 2020- 2030- 20402020 2030 2040 2050 -20.0 -10.0 -2.0 0.0

saqarTvelo ganviTarebuli qveynebi naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebi afrika azia evropa laTinuri amerika da karibebi CrdiloeT amerika okeaneTi

556

1088

1530

2493

2902

2268

2269

2272

2272

-556 -242 -22 -31

-1088 -289 -377 288

-1530 -267 -451 441

-2493 -310 -1340 1051

-2902 -416 -1311 1271

-2268 -377 -1210 799

-2269 -395 -1221 805

-2272 -393 -1222 808

-2272 -393 -1222 808

-293 479 109

-415 748 44

-781 972 86

-775 1277 96

-1108 1453 111

-616 1305 99

-590 1300 101

-595 1300 102

-595 1300 102

saqarTvelo ganviTarebuli qveynebi naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebi afrika azia

-2.5

-3.4

-3.5

migraciis saldo () -19.2 -8.5 -5.1

-2.7

-0.6

0.0

0.6

1.0

1.4

2.1

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

-0.2 -0.8 -0.0

-0.4 -0.7 -0.2

-0.4 -0.5 -0.2

-0.6 -0.4 -0.4

-0.4 -0.3 -0.3

-0.3 -0.2 -0.2

-0.2 -0.2 -0.2

-0.2 -0.2 -0.2

-0.2 -0.1 -0.2

32

evropa laTinuri amerika da karibebi CrdiloeT amerika okeaneTi

-0.0

0.4

0.6

1.5

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

-0.1 2.2 6.2

-1.3 3.1 2.1

-1.9 3.6 3.5

-1.6 4.3 3.4

-0.8 2.9 2.7

-0.6 2.8 2.4

-0.4 2.6 2.3

-0.4 2.5 2.0

-0.3 2.4 1.9

wyaro:

World Population Prospects. The 2006 Revision UN N-Y, 2007; World Population Prospects. The 1998 Revision V. 1: Comprehensive Tables UN N-Y, 1999; g. wulaZe, a. sulaberiZe, n. maRlaferiZe, g. mamardaSvili. saqarTvelos demografiuli ganviTareba: guSin, dRes, xval. Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 172. 2000-2050 _ prognozis saSualo varianti.

ganviTarebuli qveynebisaTvis 2040 wlisa da Semdgomi periodisaTvis migraciis saldo mainc dadebiTi iqneba, anu ganviTarebuli qveynebi isev SeinarCuneben mimRebi qveynebis statuss, xolo naklebad ganviTarebuli qveynebi isev darCebian migrantebis mimwodeblebad. 2040-2050 wlebSi migrantTa yvelaze meti nakadi mimarTuli iqneba CrdiloeT amerikaSi da migraciis saldos intensivoba 6-jer meti iqneba, vidre evropis qveynebSi. aRniSnul periodSi saqarTvelosaTvis gare migraciis saldo 0-is farglebSi iqneba, anu gasulebisa da Camosulebis raodenoba erTmaneTs gautoldeba.

33

Giorgi Tsuladze Avtandil Sulaberidze Nika Maglaperidze GEORGIA AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION (Abstract) The paper presents international migration by the largest regions of the world for the period of 1960-2050. Simultaneously, the respective data for Georgia is presented. It is emphasized that in the near future the number of international migrants in the world will decrease and be stabilized around 2,3 millions in the period of 2010-2050. It is demonstrated that while considering the 10-year intervals within 1950-2010, the period of 2000-2010 is characterized with the highest rate of international migration. The highest net migration (both positive and negative) for 1000 population came to 1990-2000. In this period negative net migration in Georgia was especially intensive (19,2 for 1000 population).

34

giorgi melaZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati saerTaSoriso migraciis geografia da perspeqtivebi

Tanamedrove migraciuli nakadebis geografiuli sazRvrebis gafarToebis gamo XXI saukune kacobriobis istoriaSi qveynebsa da kontinentebs Soris migraciuli procesebis yvelaze maRali intensivobiT iqneba gamorCeuli. saerTaSoriso migraciis problemebi sul ufro mniSvnelovan adgils daikavebs saxelmwifoTa politikaSi. aRniSnuli movlenis umTavresi ganmapirobebeli faqtori iqneba ganviTarebuli CrdiloeTisa da naklebadganviTarebuli samxreTis qveynebSi mosaxleobis araTanabari ganawileba. miuxedavad imisa, rom gasuli saukunis bolo aTwleulebSi mosaxleobis swrafi matebis tempis Sesamcireblad rigi RonisZiebebi iqna gatarebuli, Sobadobis klebisaken mimarTuli RonisZiebebi msoflioSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom marcxiT dasrulda. 2008 wels ganviTarebadi qveynebis mosaxleobis raodenoba 4,5-jer aRemateboda ganviTarebuli qveynebis mosaxleobas. gaeros prognozis saSualo variantis mixedviT, 2050 wels aRniSnuli Tanafardoba 6,2-s miaRwevs, rac niSnavs, rom dedamiwis mosaxleobis 86% ganviTarebad qveynebSi icxovrebs. marto CineTsa da indoeTSi msoflios mosaxleobis 34% iqneba Tavmoyrili. problemas amwvavebs isic, rom msoflios ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris sul ufro izrdeba ekonomikuri ganviTarebis doneTa sxvaoba. msoflio bankis mixedviT, 1975 wels erT sul mosaxleze

35

mTliani Siga produqtis moculoba maRali Semosavlebis qveynebSi 41-jer aRemateboda dabali Semosavlebis mqone qveynebis analogiur maCvenebels. aRniSnulma Tanafardobam 2000 wels 66-s miaRwia.19 gaeros xalxTmosaxleobis ganyofilebis monacemebiT, 2005 wels msoflioSi 190,6 mln adamiani cxovrobda samSoblos farglebs gareT. maT Soris 60,5% ganviTarebul qveynebSi iyvnen gansaxlebulni. gansakuTrebiT swrafad izrdeboda migrantTa raodenoba msoflios ganviTarebul regionebSi (cxrili 1). 1990-2005ww. ganviTarebad qveynebSi saerTaSoriso migrantebis zrdam 3,6% Seadgina, drois igive monakveTSi ganviTarebul qveynebSi migrantebis zrda 40%-is toli iyo. rac Seexeba kontinentebis mixedviT migrantTa dinamikas, aSkarad liderobdnen CrdiloeT amerika da evropa, sadac ganxilul wlebSi migrantebma, Sesabamisad, 61,1 da 29,8%-iT moimates. 1990-ian wlebSi saerTaSoriso migraciis masStabis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani determinanti iyo socialisturi sistemis daSla, ris Sedegadac yofili ssrkis, aRmosavleT da centraluri evropis qveynebidan migrantTa didi masa warmoiqmna. SefasebiTi monacemebiT, mxolod ssrk-dan migrantebis raodenobam 27 mln adamiani Seadgina20.

World migration report 2005, Jeneve Facts on Migrant Labour. Geneve, International Labour Organization. 2006.

20

19

36

saerTaSoriso migraciis dinamika 1990-2005 ww.21 abs. monacemebi mln 1990 2000 2005 1990 procenti

cxrili 1

2000

2005

msoflio ganviTarebuli qveynebi ganviTarebadi qveynebi evropa afrika azia laTinuri amerika dakaribis auzi CrdiloeT amerika avstralia da okeaneTi

155.0 82.4

176.7 105.0

190.6 115.4

100.0 53.2

100.0 59.4

100.0 60.5

72.6

71.7

75.2

46.8

40.6

39.5

49.4 16.4 49.9 7.0

58.2 16.5 50.3 6.3

64.1 17.1 53.3 6.6

31.9 10.6 32.2 4.5

32.9 9.3 28.5 3.6

33.6 9.0 28.0 3.5

27.6

40.4

44.5

17.8

22.9

23.9

4.8

5.1

5.0

3.1

2.9

2.6

me-20 saukunis meore naxevarSi postindustriul samyaroSi Zireuli cvlilebebi moxda ekonomikis sferoSi, rac, Tavis mxriv, msoflios Sromis bazarze

21

http://www.esa.un.org/migration/p2k0data.asp

2005 w. 1990 w. mimarT (%) 123.0 140.0 103.6 129.8 104.3 106.8 94.3 161.1 104.2

37

cvlilebebis safuZveli gaxda. ganviTarebuli qveynebis Sromis bazarze gaCnda moTxovna rogorc dabalkvalificiur, aseve maRalkvalificiur Sromaze. bolo wlebSi recipienti qveynebi cdiloben, waaxalison kvalificiuri imigrantebis mozidva. aRniSnuli mizniT, rigi qveynebi axorcieleben imigraciuli kanonmdeblobis liberalizacias. ganviTarebul qveynebSi didi moTxovnaa mecnierebze, kompiuteruli teqnologiebis specialistebze, eqimebze, saerTod, inteleqtualur Sromaze. momavalSi migrantTa Soris gaizrdeba maRali ganaTlebis donisa da maRalkvalificiuri specialistebis wili. iusticiis, Tavisuflebisa da uSiSroebis sakiTxebSi evrokomisiis komisris f. fratinis gancxadebiT, momavalSi evropis qveynebSi mosalodnelia Tavisuflad moxvdnen im qveynebis moqalaqeebic, romlebic ar arian am kavSiris wevrebi. aRniSnuli faqti mniSvnelovanwilad ganpirobebulia ganviTarebul qveynebSi Seqmnili arasaxarbielo demografiuli viTarebiT, romlis determinantebsac _ Sobadobis kleba da sicocxlis saSualo xangrZlivobis matebis Sedegad xandazmuli asakis (65 da meti) adamianebis raodenobis mateba warmoadgens. arsebuli mdgomareoba ganapirobebs demografiuli datvirTvis maCveneblis matebas, rac negatiurad moqmedebs nebismieri qveynis socialur-ekonomikur mdgomareobaze da mis perspeqtivebze. sagulisxmo faqtia, rom evropaSi 2007 wels xandazmulebiT demografiulma datvirTvam gadaaWarba bav-

38

SvebiT datvirTvis maCvenebels. specialistebis azriT, es tendencia momavalSic gagrZeldeba22. Tanamedrove imigraciuli talRa arsebiTad gansxvavdeba adrindelisagan ara marto raodenobrivi TvalsazrisiT, aramed motivaciis mixedviTac. Tuki adrindel wlebSi imigrantebi TavianT qveynebs, ZiriTadad, religiuri devnisa da samxedro konfliqtebis gamo tovebdnen, bolo wlebSi migrantebis didi umravlesoba ganviTarebadi qveynebidan ganviTarebulebSi ekonomikuri mosazrebiT miemgzavreba. esaa SromiTi migrantebis uzarmazari armia, romelic Tavis qveynebSi arsebuli mZime socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gamo samuSaos saZebnelad sakuTari qveynis farglebs gareT miemgzavreba. Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis specialistebis SefasebiT, 21-e saukunis dasawyisSi msoflioSi 86 mln SromiTi migranti iyo, aRniSnuli kategoriis adamianTa raodenoba 1960 wels mxolod 3,2 mln-s Seadgenda. ganviTarebuli qveynebidan gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobi iyo SromiTi migrantebis wili luqsemburgSi, avstraliasa da SveicariaSi (naxazi 1). globaluri TvalsazrisiT, dResdReobiT saerTaSoriso migracia msoflios mosaxleobis raodenobis dabalansebis erT-erT faqtorad SeiZleba miviCnioT. igi xels uwyobs ganviTarebul qveynebSi mosaxleobis matebas, xolo ganviTarebad qveynebSi matebis tempis Semcirebas. 2000-2005ww. ganviTarebuli qveynebis migraciuli matebis koeficienti 3-jer aRemateboda bunebrivi matebis maCvenebels (cxrili 2).

22

http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2008/0357/barom03.php

39

naxazi 1

msoflios qveynebis pirveli aTeuli SromiTi migrantebis wilis mixedviT samuSao Zalis saerTo raodenobaSi23

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

%

45,0 24,9

22,0 9,3 9,0 8,6 8,4 8,0 6,4 5,9 irlandia

avstria

avstralia

Sveicaria

germania

luqsemburgi

belgia

aSS

dResdReobiT ganviTarebadi samyaros mosaxleoba umTavresad soflebSia gansaxlebuli, rac maT naklebad mobilurobas ganapirobebs. Tumca, urbanizaciuli procesebis intensifikaciis zegavleniT momavalSi TandaTanobiT gaizrdeba emigraciuli procesebisadmi ltolva. gaeros mosaxleobis prognozis saSualo variantis Tanaxmad, 2005-2050 ww. wminda migraciis maCvenebeli ganviTarebul regionebSi 103 mln-is toli iqneba, rac gadafaravs bunebrivi matebis sferoSi mimdinare negatiuri procesebis Sedegad gamowveul demografiul danakargs.

23

Sopemi. Trends in International Migration 2006. OECD, 2006. p.50.

40

saberZneTi

espaneTi

cxrili 2

saerTaSoriso migraciis roli Tanamedrove msoflios demografiul ganviTarebaSi24

bunebrivi matebis koeficienti () 0,9 15,0 -1,5 23,7 12,6 15,4 5,5 10,4

migraciuli matebis koeficienti ()

ganviTarebuli qveynebi ganviTarebadi qveynebi evropa afrika azia laTinuri amerika da karibis auzi CrdiloeT amerika avstralia da okeaneTi

2,7 -0,6 2,2 -0,5 -0,4 -2,5 4,7 3,9

igive wyaros mixedviT, ocdameerTe saukuneSi saSualowliuri migraciuli mateba dadebiTi iqneba evropis, CrdiloeT amerikis, avstraliisa da okeaneTis regionebSi (cxrili 3). drois igive monakveTSi msoflioSi udidesi recipienti qveynebi iqnebian: aSS, kanada, germania, italia, gaerTianebuli samefo, espaneTi, avstralia. yvelaze meti adamiani gaemgzavreba emigraciaSi CineTidan, meqsikidan, indoeTidan, filipinebidan, pakistanidan da indoneziidan25.

24 25

http://www.unhcr.org . 2006 . . . - 2007.

saerTo matebis koaficienti () 3,6 14,4 0,7 23,2 12,2 12,9 10,2 14,3 41

cxrili 3

saSualowliuri migraciuli mateba msoflios regionebSi 2010-2050 ww.26

20102020 ww. ganviTarebuli qveynebi ganviTarebadi qveynebi evropa afrika azia laTinuri amerika da karibis auzi CrdiloeT amerika avstralia da okeaneTi 2268 -2268 799 -377 -1210 -616 1305 99

20202030 ww. 2269 -2269 805 -395 -1221 -590 1300 101

20302040 ww. 2272 -2272 808 -393 -1222 -595 1300 102

20402050 ww. 2272 -2272 808 -393 -1222 -595 1300 102

ganxiluli masalis analizis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT, rom ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebi _ romlebSic dabali Sobadobis gamo Semcirdeba mosaxleoba, moeqcevian gacilebiT meti raodenobis mosaxleobis mqone Raribi da uRaribesi qveynebis garemocvaSi, rac uciloblad gamoiwvevs didi masStabis migracias, romlis veqtori mimarTuli iqneba ganviTarebuli qveynebisaken. msoflios masStabiT, saerTaSosiso organizaciebisa da Sesabamisi samTavrobo struqturebis erToblivi

World Population Prospects: the 2006 Revision. Highlights. New York, United Nations, 2006.

26

42

Zalisxmevis gareSe migraciis umarTaoba gamoiwvevs umwvavesi globalur geopolitikur, socialur, ekonomikur, konfesiur da a.S. problemebs.

43

Giorgi Meladze GEOGRAPHY AND PROSPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION (Abstract) In history of mankind the 21-st century will be distinguished with the highest intensity of international migration. The noted process will be the most significant factor of global demographic development. According to the United Nations Population Division 2006 estimates, more than 190.6 million migrants live outside their country of birth, 60,5% of all international migrants live in the more developed regions. Between 1990 and 2005 the number of international migrants in the world grew by 35,6 million people. In the developed countries the number of migrants grew by 33 million while in developing regions by 2.6 million persons. Modern negative tendencies of natural increase and population aging, will make international migration as a main factor of population growth in the developed countries. According to the United Nations projections in the middle of the 21-st century 86% of the world population will live in developing countries. Migratory growth will be fixed in the Europe to northern America, Australia and Oceania. In case of preservation of the noted phenomena, creation of problems geopolitical, economic, social, confessional character of global scale is expected.

44

naTia WeliZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi migraciis SedarebiTi kvleva27

samxreT kavkasiis mosaxleobis SromiTi migraciis Sesaxeb oficialuri statistikuri informacia arasrulia. aseT viTarebaSi, eqspertebi SromiTi migraciis Seswavlas axdenen anamnestikuri meTodiT _ Semcvleli respondentebis (SromiTi migrantebis samSobloSi darCenili ojaxis wevrebisa da axloblebis) gamokiTxviT. sxva meTodebTan SedarebiT igi naklebad Sromatevadia da Cveni pirobebisaTvis respondentTa sakmao masis mocvis saSualebas iZleva. samive qveyanaSi(saqarTvelo, azerbaijani, somxeTi) Tanabrad gamoikiTxa 3600 respondenti. anketaSi iyo kiTxvebi, riTac unda gamovleniliyo mosaxleobis emigraciis ZiriTadi mizezebi, mosaxleobis Sexeduleba samxreT kavkasiaSi ganviTarebul migraciul procesebze, migraciis mimarTulebebi, qveynidan gasvlis organizaciuli formebi, emigrantTa socialur-demografiuli struqtura, profesiul-kvalificiuri Semadgenloba, misi Sesabamisoba iqaur dasaqmebasTan, samuSao pirobebTan da yofiT garemosTan Segueba, migraciis ganxorcielebiT miRebuli sargebeli da kmayofilebis xamigraciuli procesebis sociologiuri gamokvleva avtoris monawileobiT azerbaijanSi, saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi Catarda 2008 wlis seqtemberSi proeqtis - `xelisuflebisa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis TanamSromloba adamianTa vaWrobis aRkveTis mizniT~ farglebSi, rac ganxorcielda adamianTa harmoniuli ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi sazogadoebis (saqarTvelo), fondi taso-s (saqarTvelo) da qalTa kvlevisa da resursebis centris (estoneTi) mier evrokavSiris finansuri mxardaWeriT.

27

45

risxi da a.S. agreTve, azerbaijanis, saqarTvelosa da somxeTis mosaxleobis is kategoriebic, romlebic mzad arian sazRvargareT samuSaod, sacxovreblad an saswavleblad wasvlisTvis. gamokvlevis mixedviT, emigraciaSi monawileobs TiTqmis yvela socialur-demografiuli jgufi. Seswavlil emigrantTa Soris 26-55 ww. asakis mqone Sromisunariani mosaxleobaa (igi saqarTvelodan wasulTa 70,7% Seadgens, azerbaijanSi- 90,2%, somxeTSi- 75,1%s). samive qveynis emigrantTa 2/3 daojaxebulia. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTvel emigrantTa 23,7% dauqorwinebeli kontigentia. gamovilinda, rom reproduqciul asakSi myofi mosaxleoba, TviT 30 wels gadacilebuli, ar Cqarobs ojaxis Seqmnas, rasac demografiuli politikis SemuSavebisas depopulaciis safrTxis winaSe mdgomi qveyana (saqarTvelo, somxeTi) aucileblad unda iTvaliswinebdes. emigrirebulTa umravlesoba ekuTvnis am qveynis ZiriTad erovnebas, saqarTveloSi qarTvelia 94,5%, azerbaijanSi azerbaijanelia 97%, somxeTSi somexia 100%. emigraciamde qarTvel migrantTa naxevari ar muSaobda (sqema 1), kvalificiuri samuSaoTi dasaqmebuli iyo mxolod sazRvargareT wasulTa 20,4%, vaWrobiT Tavs irCenda migrantTa 17,2%. sazRvargareT gamgzavrebamde ar muSaobda mxolod azerbaijanelTa 20,6% da somexTa 26,1%, danarCeni ZiriTadad dasaqmebulni iyvnen: mrewvelobaSi (azerbaijanelTa 31%, somexTa 10,3%), mSeneblobaSi (azerbaijanelTa 22,1%), vaWrobasa da momsaxurebaSi (somexTa 20,7%) da transportSi (azerbaijanelTa 11,1%, somexTa 5,3%).

46

kvlevam ar uCvena azerbaijanis saxelmwifo struqturebSi momuSaveTa SromiT emigraciaSi wasvla, xolo somxeTidan emigrirebul nakadSi 8,5% yofili saxelmwifo moxelea, saqarTvelodan ki ­ 2,9%.

sqema1

migrantTa dasaqmebis sferoebi gamgzavrebamde

ar muSaobda vaWroba, momsaxureba transporti, komunikacia mrewveloba mSenebloba mecniereba/ganaTleba kultura/sporti jandacva banki/finansebi soflis meurneoba masmedia saxelmwifo administracia arasamTavrobo organizacia

20,6 4,2 4,2 3,2 2,9 5,3 11,1 10,3 9,1 7,8 5,4 6,2 22,1 31,0 17,2 20,7 26,1

51,0

4,4 1,4 2,6 1,2 0,2 1,4 1,0 2,0 0,3 0,2 2,9 8,5

0,5 0,6

3,0

0,8 2,6 0,2 miWirs pasuxis gacema 0,1

saqarTvelo azerbaijani somxeTi

7,9

sazRvargareT dasaqmebis saxeebi damokidebulia mimRebi qveynis Sromis bazris moTxovnaze (sqema 2), saberZneTSi migranti samuSao Zala ZiriTadad dasaqmebulia momsaxurebis seqtorSi: muSaobs momvlelebad da ZiZebad, ruseTis federaciaSi ki _ mSeneblobasa da transportSi. gamokvlevamac aCvena, rom samive qveynidan migrantebi imigraciis qveyanaSi dasaqmebulni arian vaW47

robisa da momsaxurebis sferoSi (saqarTvelodan migrirebulTa- 63,1%, azerbaijanidan- 56,4%, somxeTidan36,3%), Semdgom modis mSeneblobaSi dasaqmebulTa wili (saqarTvelodan migrantTa- 11,9%, azerbaijanidan27,2%, somxeTidan- 19,5%), xolo transportsa da komunikaciaSi dasaqmebulia azerbaijanel migrantTa 14,1%.

sqema 2

migrantTa dasaqmebis saxeebi sazRvargareT

ar muSaobs vaWroba, momsaxureba transporti, komunikacia warmoeba mSenebloba mecniereba/ganaTleba kultura/sporti jandacva banki/finansebi soflis meurneoba masmedia saxelmwifo administracia arasamTavrobo organizacia miirs pasuxis gacema

0,9

10,4 36,3 4,9 56,4

63,1

3,5 5,0 1,9 5,3

14,1

11,9 19,5 2,6 3,2 1,9 2,3 3,6 1,0 0,2 3,3 2,1

27,2

0,4 0,4 2,6 0,4 4,0 3,1 0,2

saqarTvelo azerbaijani

8,3

somxeTi

samwuxarod, dabrunebuli migrantebi saqarTveloSi kvlav umuSevrad rCebian (52%) an dabalkvalificiur samuSaos asruleben, ZiriTadad, vaWrobisa da momsaxurebis seqtorSi (18,6%) (sqema 3). sxva suraTia azerbaijanSi. ucxoeTidan dabrunebulebi iq umuSevarTa rigebs ar ematebian, aramed maTi 68,6% samuSao adgils poulobs vaWrobasa da momsaxurebis seqtorSi. azerbaijanSi dabrunebul migrantTa 78,3% sakuTar Tavs TviT48

dasaqmebuls uwodebs. somxeTSi dabrunebulTa 34,8%-ic TviTdasaqmebulia da SromiTi procesi gaagrZeles aseve vaWrobasa da momsaxurebaSi (35,9%), maRalkvalificiur samuSaos Seudga maTi 15,4% (ganaTlebis da mecnierebis sferoSi dasaqmebulia maTi 6,6%, arasamTavrobo organizaciebSi ki- 8,8%). magram aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom somex dabrunebul migrantTa 30,4% kvlav umuSevari darCa.

sqema 3

migrantTa dasaqmebis sferoebi dabrunebis Semdgom

ar muSaobs 2,1 18,6 vaWroba, momsaxureba transporti, komunikacia 0,4 mrewveloba 1,2 mSenebloba 3,2 1,1 2,2 2,1 0,8 8,8 6,3 4,4 19,2 4,6 5,5 6,6 5,0 5,5 8,8 35,9 52,0 30,4 68,6

mecniereba/ganaTleba

6,6

jandacva

soflis meurneoba arasamTavrobo organizacia miWirs pasuxis gacema

saqarTvelo azerbaijani somxeTi

gamokvleviT gamovlinda, rom saqarTvelodan migraciis veqtori ZiriTadad kvlav 4 qveyniskenaa mimarTuli: saberZneTi (23,3%), aSS (12,4%), germania (10,3%), ruseTi (10,2%). gamoikveTa axali migraciuli qveynebic: magaliTad, italia, sadac emigrantTa 9,8%-ia samuSaod wasuli (ZiriTadad momvleli qalebi), da espaneTi (5,6%). italiaSi wasulia Telavel migrantTa

49

21%. es miuTiTebs axali, kargad organizebuli migraciuli arxis gamoCenaze. magram kiTxvaze, Tu vin daexmara migrants daniSnulebis qveyanaSi gamgzavrebis organizebaSi, pasuxTa umravlesobaa (52%): `iq myofi aqauri nacnobebi an naTesavebi~. azerbaijanidan ZiriTadad emigrirebulni arian ruseTis federaciasa (74%) da TurqeTSi (19%). somxeTidan ki ­ ruseTis federaciaSi (52%), aSS (21%), safrangeTSi (6%), germaniasa (4%) da evropis danarCen qveynebSi (9%). rac Seexeba saqarTvelodan emigraciuli cxovrebis xangrZlivobas, SromiT emigrantTa 43,6% bolo 3 wlis manZilzea wasuli, azerbaijanidan - 73,5%, xolo somxeTidan ­ 54,7%. 1998-2002 wlebSi saqarTvelodan wasulia emigrirebulTa 56,3%, azerbaijanidan- 19,6%, somxeTidan ki gacilebiT didi procentuli maCvenebliT gamoirCeva 10 wliTa da meti xnis win emigrirebulTa kontingenti (25,9%). SromiTi emigraciis organizebis formebis analiziT dadginda, rom SromiT migrantTa umravlesoba eyrdnoba naTesav-megobrebis (saqarTvelo- 50,7%, azerbaijani - 99,8%, somxeTi- 50,3%) daxmarebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom somexTa 36,3%-ma sruliad damoukideblad moaxerxa sazRvargareT wasvla da samuSaos Sovna. gamokvleva uCvenebs, rom naTesauri kavSirebi sargeblobs ufro meti ndobiT samive qveynis mosaxleobaSi, vidre oficialuri organizaciebi. amitom dasaqmebis saagentoebis monawileoba emigrirebis organizebaSi umniSvneloa. ZiriTadi mizezi saqarTvelodan da somxeTidan samuSaod wasvlisa aris samuSaos uqonloba (Sesabamisad, 37,3% da 34,8%) da ojaxisTvis arasakmarisi Semosavali (Sesabamisad, 54% da 31%). kvalifikaciis amaRlebi50

sa da ganaTlebis miRebis mizniT wasulia migrantTa mxolod 5,2% da 3,4%, yuradsaRebia, rom migrantTa 5,9%-isTvis da 13,3%-isTvis qveynidan wasvlis mizezi aris arsebuli arasasurveli socialuri garemo da qveynis momavalze xelisCaqneva. azerbaijanidan emigraciis mTavari mizezi aseve didi masStabis umuSevrobaa­ 52,3%, aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom arasasurveli socialuri garemos gamo emigrirebulia da momavlis uperspeqtivobiT motivirebulia azerbaijanel migrantTa 46,2%. migrantTa 3/4 kmayofilia, rom maT aqvT imdeni Semosavali, rom samSobloSi darCenili ojaxi Seinaxon. aseve, maT aimaRles kvalifikacia, asruleben maTTvis profesiulad saintereso samuSaos, cxovroben sasiamovno socialur garemoSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom ucxoeTSi sakuTari biznesis wamowyeba SeZlo azerbaijanelTa 34%-ma. respondentebi agreTve informirebulni arian migrantebis ukmayofilebaze: migrantTa nawils aqvs nostalgia samSobloSi datovebuli naTesavebis mimarT. qarTvelebis 5,6% da somxebis 3,4% gamoTqvams ukmayofilebas mZime samuSaos gamo, nawili ki_ arasakmaris anazRaurebasa da aralegalobis pirobebSi samuSaos Sovnis sirTuleze. emigrantTa mniSvnelovan nawils uxdeba gaxangrZlivebuli samuSao dRiT muSaoba. gamokvleviT gamovlinda, rom dReSi 8 saaTze metxans muSaobs migrantTa 30%-ze meti. dRis ganmavlobaSi 12 saaTze metxans muSaoba uwevs italiasa da saberZneTSi wasul SromiT migrantebs. isini ZiriTadad dasaqmebulni arian ojaxebSi momvlelad an ZiZad da, Sesabamisad, valdebuli arian, mTe51

li dRis ganmavlobaSi Seasrulon dakisrebuli funqcia. saaTobrivi datvirTvis norma daculia mxolod germaniaSi, safrangeTsa da `evropis danarCen qveynebSi~ (masSi gavaerTianeT: Sveicaria, belgia, holandia, avstria, dania, Svecia). SromiTi migrantebis kviris samuSao dReebi araa gansazRvruli. xSiria SemTxveva, roca yoveldRiuri datvirTviT muSaoben TurqeTSi, ruseTsa da ukrainaSi. kviraSi 6 an 7 dRe muSaobs migrantTa 39%. ojaxis Semosavlebis simciriT samive Seswavlili qveynidan mkveTrad gamoirCeva saqarTvelo. saqarTveloSi 300 dolaramde Tviuri Semosavali aqvs ojaxTa 56%-s, 500 aSS dolarze meti Semosavali aqvs mxolod ojaxTa 17%-s. maSin roca azerbaijanSi 500 aSS dolarze meti Semosavali aqvs ojaxTa 63%-s. gamokvlevam gamoavlina, rom emigraciis survili samive qveyanis mosaxleobaSi sakmaod maRalia: saqarTvelo_ 50,9%; azerbaijani_ 77,2%; somxeTi_ 55,6%. gamokvleviT dadginda, rom migraciisadmi mzaoba uaxloes momavalSi ar Semcirdeba, radgan is faqtorebi, romlebic mimzidvelia, axlo momavalSic ar dakargavs aqtualobas. miTumetes, rom migrantTa 4/5 kmayofilia emigraciiT. maTi kmayofileba damatebiTi stimulia danarCenebisaTvis, vinc gegmavs an emigraciis survili aqvs, rasac mowmobs respondentTa Sexeduleba, rom SromiTi migraciiT igeben migrantebi, samSobloSi darCenili maTi ojaxis wevrebi da Sromisunariani moqalaqeebi (maTTvis Tavisufldeba samuSao adgilebi) da mogebuli rCeba, agreTve, mimRebi qveynis biujeti (iafi samuSao Zalis Sedegad). SromiTi migraciidan miRebuli sargebeli bevradaa damokidebulia migraciis organizebis xarisxze. dauregu52

lirebuli statusis gamo emigrantTa umravlesobisTvis SeuZlebelia, miiRos Sesrulebuli samuSaos Sesabamisi anazRaureba, moiTxovos saTanado Sromis pirobebi, isargeblos ojaxis wevrebisTvis fulis gadmogzavnisas oficialuri sabanko arxebiT. amitom aucilebelia SromiTi migraciis organizebis procedura xelmisawvdomi gaxdes mosaxleobisTvis. Sromis bazarsa da emigrirebis pirobebze meti informirebuloba, migrantTa organizebulad gayvana xels Seuwyobs SromiTi migraciis efeqtianad ganxorcielebasa da gansazRvruli vadis Semdgom Cveni moqalaqeebis ukan dabrunebas. saWiro xdeba emigrirebis organizebaze saxelmwifo kontrolis gaZliereba. xeli unda Seewyos dasaqmebis saagentoebis formirebas, saqmianobis legalizacias, da aseve gaformdes SromiTi migraciis sferoSi saxelmwifoTaSorisi xelSekrulebebi. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom msoflio ekonomikurma krizisma garkveuli koreqtivebi Seitana migraciis ganmsazRvrel motivaciaSi. erTerTi mniSvnelovani mimzidvelobis faqtori - samuSao Zalaze moTxovna problemad iqca mimReb qveynebSic. cnobilia, rom umuSevroba, pirvel rigSi, imigrantebs Seexo. aman kidev ufro gaamwvava SromiTi migraciis regulirebis problema, rac samxreT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebs ubiZgebs, erToblivad mimarTon Zalisxmeva migraciis regulirebisaken.

53

Natia Chelidze

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIGRATION IN THE SOUTH CAUCASIAN COUNTRIES (Abstracts) The conducted research contains 3600 "substitute respondents" in three South Caucasian countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia). The cause of emigration in three countries is of economic nature and it serves as subsistence for the left families members. Employment abroad occurs mainly in the secondary labour market, albeit a part of emigrants managed to develop their own business there. In this respect Azerbaijanians emigration stands out, which creates sufficient capital there to start a small business in their country. In Georgia's labour emigration the share of those who leave for Russia declines and the share of new migratory streams toward western countries (Italy, Spain) grows. For Azerbaijan Russia represents the major immigration country (74% of the total stream). A significant part of emigrants abroad works under abysmal conditions. Working day for 30% of them is much longer than it is established by legislation. Frequently they work 6-7 days in a week. This is conditioned by illegal nature of migration and complete social unprotectedness of labour emigrants. The research found that likelihood of reduction of labour emigration intensity is low in three countries. The primary task is full legalization of emigration.

54

Tamaz futkaraZe istoriul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori aWaridan gadasaxlebul [email protected] religiuri adaptaciis zogierTi sakiTxi

migraciuli procesebis regulirebisa da marTvis principebis gansazRvrisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba religiur faqtors. igi eTnikuri TviTSegnebis sxva komponentTan erTad mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs da eTnosTaSoriso diferenciis erT-erT faqtorsac warmoadgens. amitomacaa, rom migrantTa damkvidrebaSi religiuri adaptaciis roli da mniSvneloba ganusazRvrelia. aRniSnuli sakiTxi gansakuTrebul aqtualobas iZens mTiani aWaris sinamdvileSi, radgan aqauri mosaxleoba gansxvavdeba danarCeni qarTvelebisagan religiuri kuTvnilebiT. samcxeSi, javaxeTSi, TrialeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi cxovrobs eTnokonfesiuri TvalsazrisiT Wreli mosaxleoba: musulmanebi, qristianebi (marTlmadideblebi da kaTolikebi), grigorianebi da kaTolike somxebi, duxoborebi, iudaizmis mimdevrebi. amasTan, es regionebi saxelmwifos samxreT sasazRvro zolSi mdebareoben. TurqeTTan, somxeTTan da azerbaijanTan qarTvelTa mezobloba yovelTvis iyo aRniSnul regionSi mosaxleobis adgilmonacvleobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtori. mkvidri mosaxleoba samxreT saqarTveloSi religiuri umciresobis saxiTaa warmodgenili. aWaridan Casaxlebul migrantebs identuri religiuri garemo daxvdaT qvemo qarTlSi da, nawilobriv, dedofliswyaros raionis sofel samTawyaroSi, sadac sxva eTnikur jgufebTan erTad cxovroben saingilodan gadmosuli qarTvelebic. danarCen regionebSi aWarlebis

55

Casaxlebamde ZiriTadad marTlmadidebeli mosaxleoba iyo warmodgenili. qvemo qarTlSi mniSvnelovani eTnokonfesiuri jgufia azerbaijanelebi. maT am regionSi eTnokulturuli adaptaciis didi staJi aqvT. isini Tavidanve damkvidrnen msxvili kompaqturi jgufebis saxiT, daikaves perspeqtiuli sasoflo-sameurneo regioni noyieri miwebiT, Seqmnes ekonomikurad Zlieri dasaxlebebi da regionisaTvis specifikuri kultura. maT ician, rom qvemo qarTli saqarTvelos Semadgeneli nawilia, amitomac ar gamouxatavT aSkara protesti qarTvelebis Casaxlebis winaaRmdeg, Tumca igrZnoba maTi uaryofiTi damokidebuleba amave regionSi Casaxlebuli svanuri mosaxleobis mimarT. rac Seexeba aWarlebs, isini religiurad ar gansxvavdebian azerbaijanelebisagan, amave dros, isini kompaqturad arian Casaxlebulni, rac warmatebuli religiuri adaptaciis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom azerbaijanelebs ar axasiaTebT izolaciisadmi midrekileba. Sereul soflebSi (vaziani, muxrovani, krwanisi) imarTeba rogorc kulturuli, ise religiuri dResaswaulebi, raSic orive eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebi monawileoben. azerbaijanelebisagan gansxvavebiT, mkacri izolacionizmiT xasiaTdebian javaxeTis rusebi_ `sulisaTvis mebrZoli~ duxoborebi, isini saukunenaxevarze metia, rac iq cxovroben da religiur safuZvelze Camoayalibes jansaRi da Zlieri duxoboruli Temi, romlis karebi Caketilia araduxoborebisaTvis. maT gawyvetili aqvT kavSiri eklesiasTan, TavianT Tavs RvTis rCeulebad Tvlian da eswrafvian sazogadoebisagan izolacias, maTi eTnikuri TviTSegneba gadajaWvulia religiasTan da duxoboroba gaazrebulia, rogorc konfesiurobis,

56

ise erovnulobis aRmniSvnel cnebad. eTnikurobis maCveneblad iqca, agreTve, duxoborTa Cacmuloba28, urTierTdamokidebulebis formebi, tradiciebi da zne-Cveulebebi. bolo periodis cnobili movlenebis Sedegad duxoborTa nawili dabrunda ruseTSi, maT umravlesoba mxolod gorelovkaSi SeinarCunes, sxva soflebSi ki cotani darCnen. duxoborebSi Camoyalibda daucvelobis stereotipi, eTnikurobis_ duxoborobis waSlis SegrZneba, ramac kidev ufro Caketa isini TavisTavSi. duxoborTa religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi miuRebeli aRmoCnda, rogorc somexi, ise qarTveli mosaxleobisaTvis. somxebi, romlebic regionSi sakmao xania cxovroben, warmoadgenen eTnoreligiur umravlesobas. isini ver eguebian qarTvelTa aq Camosaxlebas. teritoriulad somxebi esazRvrebian maT ZiriTad eTnoss, saidanac iReben materialur da sulier daxmarebas _ ideologiur sazrdos. maTi religiuri centri aris eCmiaZini, romelTanac inarCuneben mWidro kontaqtebs. duxoborTa soflebSi Casaxlebuli somxebi religiur dResaswaulebze dadian im soflebSi, saidanac gadmosaxldnen. bavSvebi mosanaTlavad eCmiaZinSic ki mihyavT. swored eCmiaZinis xelSewyobiT iqna Sesyiduli somxuri ojaxebisaTvis duxoborTa saxlebi. amrigad, Casaxlebis adgilebSi erTmaneTis pirispir aRmoCndnen ZiriTadad marTlmadidebeli da musulmani qarTvelebi, marTlmadidebeli berZnebi, grigoriani da kaTolike somxebi, musulmani azerbaijanelebi da

28

xuciSvili q. religia heterogenul sazogadoebaSi, konfliqturi situaciebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi, Tb., 1998. gv.66.

57

rusi `sulisa da WeSmaritebisaTvis~ mebrZoli duxoborebi (RvTis rCeulni). Casaxlebuli aWarlebi mcirericxovani arian somxebTan, azerbaijanelebTan da marTlmadidebel qarTvelebTan SedarebiT. aRniSnul eTnokonfesiur jgufTagan Tavisi religiuri Tu sameurneo interesebiTa da strategiuli miznebiT aWarlebs yvelaze metad upirispirdebian somxebi. gasaTvaliswinebelia, agreTve, somexTa damokidebuleba saerTod muslimani mosaxleobis mimarT. aWarlebma Casaxlebis adgilebSi Caitanes muslimanuri elementebi. zogierT regionSi sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sfero, urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxi regulirdeba is-lamuri samarTlis normebiT (kikibo, derceli, zoti, Cxakaura, nasakirali). isini sargebloben yuraniT. migrantTa erTi nawilisaTvis savaldebulodaa miCneuli dReSi xuTjer locva, ramazani, aucilebeli moTxovnaa mamakacTa winadacveTa-dasunaTeba, yurban-bairamis dResaswaulis aRniSvna msxverplSewirviT, rac bibliuri ibraimis mier Svilis isakis msxverplSewirvas ukavSirdeba. savaldebuloa am dResaswaulis dReebSi micvalebulTa saflavebis monaxuleba. Tumca zogan es wesi ar sruldeba, radgan axal samosaxloSi ar aqvT `mezoloRebi~ (sasaflaoebi). axalCasaxlebul migrantTa erTi nawili Tavis micvalebuls miasvenebs pirvelsacxovrisSi. erT-erT mniSvnelovan dResaswaulad iTvleba muhamedis dabadebis dRe. morwmuneTa ojaxSi am dRis aRsaniSnavad kiTxuloben `mevluds~, loculoben da mosul stumrebs umaspinZldebian. dasaxelebuli da sxva wesCveulebebi Tu religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebi yvelgan ar sruldeba. mas, ZiriTadad, ufrosi asakis adamianebi misdeven da isic zogi58

erT sofelSi. gardabnis raionis sofel muxrovanSi, krwanisSi, vazianSi, sadac aWarlebTan erTad cxovroben azerbaijanelebic, aRniSnuli wesebidan misdeven mxolod windacveTas, rasac xSirad gamoclili aqvs religiuri safuZveli. igi Camoyalibebuli tradiciis gavleniT sruldeba. aseve SeiZleba iTqvas patarZeulSi, ninowmindaSi (sagarejos raioni), wiTelsofelSi, qiwnisSi, SavSebSi (goris raioni), axalsofelSi (qarelis raioni) da dasavleT saqarTvelos araerT sofelSi Casaxlebuli migrantebis mimarT, romlebic xSirad Segnebulad ar asruleben muslimanur ritualebs da mxolod im wesebs asruleben, romlebic yofis ZiriTad elementebad iqca. esaa, dakrZalvis wesebi da winadacveTa, rac maTSi ukve aRar aRiqmeba, rogorc religiuris kuTvnileba da aWarlebis `maidentificirebel~ niSnad ganixileba. aRniSnuli ritualebi xels uwyobs gansxvavebulobis stereotipis Camoyalibebas, rac garkveul fsiqologiur bariers qmnis sxva konfesiis adamianebTan urTierTobisas. Suaxans gadacilebuli adamianebisaTvis miuRebelia qristianuli religiis normebi, isini ganagrZoben islamis samsaxurs, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi analogiur momentebs T. oCiaurmac miaqcia yuradReba29. migrantTa nawili, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebi indiferentulad arian ganwyobilni rogorc qristianobis, ise islamis mimarT, rac garkveulwilad sabWoTa periodis ideologiuri normebis anareklicaa. gamokiTxul migrantTa 31% gardabnis raionSi, 34% qarelisa da goris

29

xuciSvili q. religia heterogenul sazogadoebaSi, konfliqturi situaciebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi, Tb., 1998. gv.84.

59

raionebSi, 22% samcxe-javaxeTSi qristianuli zneobis normebiT zrdian TavianT Svilebs. gardabnis raionis sofel vazianSi aWarlebs dakrZalvis dros ar aqvT calke sasaflao da soflis saerTo sasaflaoTi sargebloben. masiuri xasiaTi aRar aqvs islamuri ritualebis Sesrulebas. transformacia ganicada dakrZalvis ritualis elementebma. magaliTad, vazianSi Casaxlebuli migrantebi saflavis Siga kedlebs amoyoraven mSrali qvis wyobiT da zemodan qvis brtyel filebs afareben, romelzec eyreba miwa. saflavSi ukve ayoleben xis kuboebs. am sofelSi daviwyebas mieca saflavSi e.w. `merTeqebis~ (Txmelis Zelebi) gamoyeneba. erTiani sasaflao aqvT lagodexSic, sadac dasaflaveba calkeul SemTxvevaSi xdeba adgilobrivi tradiciebis mixedviT. sof. samRereTSi (TeTriwyaros raioni), disvelSi (bolnisis raioni) da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogierT dasaxlebaSi migrantebma gaxsnes calke sasaflao, sadac xdeba, ZiriTadad, axalgazrda asakis micvalebulTa dakrZalva, xolo moxucebs miasveneben pirvelsacxovrisSi. niSandoblivia isic, rom dakrZalvasTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli elementebi misaRebi da mosawoni aRmoCnda damxvdurTa erTi nawilisaTvis (kerZod, saflavSi xis Zelebis gamoyeneba). Casaxlebis regionebSi dasturdeba asakovani adamianebis religiuri transformaciis erTeuli SemTxvevebic, rasac mohyva musulmanTa uaryofiTi reaqcia. adigenis raionis sofel zarzmaSi sikvdilamde cota xniT adre gaqristianebuli asakovani adamiani musulmanTa winaaRmdegobis gamo ver dakrZales `aWarelTa sasaflaoze~. dasaflaveba mniSvnelovani emociur-fsiqologiuri datvirTvis mqone ritualia da, bunebrivia, yvela eTnokonfesiur jgufSi gansxvavebulia

60

dakrZalvasTan dakavSirebuli ritualebi: misamZimrebis forma, datireba, micvalebulis dasvenebis adgili, magram SeiniSneba garegani, sanaxaobiTi elementebis transformacia, gamoikveTa saerTo tendenciebic _ fuladi daxmarebis gaweva, qelexi, rac islamuri dogmebis mixedviT ikrZaleboda. zogan (guriaSi, samcxeSi, qarTlSi, kaxeTSi) qristianuli dResaswaulebi saerTo zeimad iqca. sabWoTa periodis aTeisturma propagandam da religiis devnam mosaxleobas Seuryia mrwamsi, gabatonda religiuri indiferentizmi. es gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevi iyo aWaraSi. istoriulma bedukuRmarTobam aqaurebSi gaorebuli stereotipebis Camoyalibebas Seuwyo xeli, aWarlebSi maRali iyo eTnikuri TviTSegneba. maT icodnen, rom winaprebi ZaliT gaamuslimanes, amave dros, ufrosi Taobis adamianebi Caagonebdnen islams. aseT pirobebSi kargad imuSava sabWourma aTeisturma meqanizmma da xeli Seuwyo religiuri indiferentizmis gaZlierebas. faqtobrivad, religia Tavidan ikidebs fexs, amitomacaa saWiro sifrTxile da mecnierulad gaazrebuli programis SemuSaveba, raTa gansaxlebis regionebSi Seiqmnas qristianobis aRiarebisaTvis Sesaferisi garemo da pirobebi. aseT politikas didi xania atareben somxebi. eCmiaZini materialuradac exmareba rogorc kaTolike, ise grigorian somxebs, xels uwyobs maT sxvaTa teritoriaze damkvidrebas, Sobadobis stimulirebas. rac Seexeba duxoborebs, isini dRes TviTgadarCenisaTvis ibrZvian, konfesiuri kuTvnileba maTTvis eTnikurobis gamomxatvelic gaxda. azerbaijanel mosaxleobaSi religia maTi socialuri jgufis arseboba-ararsebobaze veraviTar gavlenas ver axdens, radgan religia maTTvis araa eTnikurobis

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gamoxatuleba. garda amisa, isini cxovroben kompaqturad da TavianTi erovnuli Tu religiuri interesebis dasakmayofileblad winaaRmdegobebi praqtikulad ar xvdebaT. aWarlebi ki nawilobriv icaven (zogierTi raionisa da soflis gamoklebiT) islamis normebs, zogjer gaucnobierebladac, radgan winaparTagan miRebuli calkeuli elementi yofaSi gadavida da tradiciad iqca. qarTvelebiT Txlad dasaxlebul regionebSi (TrialeTi, javaxeTi) aWarlebma SeiZines konfesiurobis Tvisebebi, rac TviTdamkvidrebisa da brZolisunarianobis gaZlierebis erTerTi winapirobaa. Casaxlebuli aWarlebi pativs scemen da monawileoben kidec damxvdurTa religiur dResaswaulebSi. saintereso monacemebi davafiqsireT walkis raionis sofel xarabaSi, sadac aWarlebma berZnebis religiuri dResaswaulis dRe maTdami pativiscemis gamosaxatavad uqmed gamoacxades da Tavadac miiRes masSi monawileoba. irkveva erTi mniSvnelovani kanonzomierebac: marTlmadidebeli qarTvelebisagan aWarelTa religiuri gansxvavebuloba gaugebaria araqarTveli mosaxleobisaTvis. amis gamo maTi erTi nawili aWarlebs miiCnevs araqarTveli warmoSobis eTnikur jgufad. somxebiT dasaxlebul regionebSi Segnebulad mimdinareobs aRniSnuli specifikis wina planze wamoweva, raTa erTmaneTs daupirispiron religiuri kuTvnilebiT gansxvavebuli qarTvelebi, magram maRali eTnikuri TviTSegneba gamoricxavs aseTi dapirispirebis SesaZleblobas. TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis brZolis instiqti, brZolisunarianoba, darazmuloba da urTierTmxardaWeris unari mniSvnelovani faqtoria aWarelTa warmatebuli adaptaciisaTvis. saxelisuflebo struqturebis elementaruli yuradReba xels Seuwyobs Wrel eTnokonfesiur regioneb62

Si politikuri Tu fsiqologiuri problemebis daZlevasa da migrantTa saboloo damkvidrebas. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom aWarlebi tolerantuli bunebiT gamorCeuli eTnografiuli jgufia. akulturaciis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori ki aris eTnokonfesiuri jgufebis Semwynarebloba. Casaxlebis regionebSi religiur niadagze arc erTi gaugebroba ar momxdara, magram eTnokonfesiuri siWrele saxelmwifos mxridan mainc moiTxovs gaazrebul midgomas, saxelmwifo interesebis dacvas, mSvidobiani TanacxovrebisaTvis Sesabamisi pirobebis Seqmnas. aseTi midgoma Tavidan agvacilebs SesaZlo gaugebrobebs da xels Seuwyobs sxvadasxva eTnokonfesiuri jgufebis mSvidobian integracias. amrigad, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva raionSi Casaxlebuli aWarlebi gansxvavdebian damxvduri mosaxleobisagan religiuri kuTvnilebiT. zogierT regionSi maT uxdebaT cxovreba Wrel eTnokonfesiur garemoSi, sadac maT SeZles islamisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli calkeuli elementebis Tu religiuri dResaswaulebis gadatana. magram migrantTa nawilSi musulmanurma warmodgenebma ganicada garkveuli transformacia da dauaxlovda damxvdurTa religiur ritualebs. zogierTi qristianuli dResaswauli ki calkeul regionebSi saerTo dResaswaulad iqca.

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Tamaz Putkaradze SOME ISSUES OF RELIGIOUS ADAPTATION FOR MIGRANTS FROM ADJARA (Abstract) In the process of defining the principles for regulation and ruling of migration processes the religious factor have the crucial importance. Adjarian people established in different regions of Georgia differ from the local settlement with their religious concepts. In some regions they have to live in motley ethnoconfesional surroundings, where they used to take some separate elements of Islam or some religious occasion, but for the part of the migrants Moslem religious concepts as the result of transformation became close to the religious rituals of local inhabitants and some Christian holidays even became the public holidays in some regions.

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elguja menabdiSvili

ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori

Tamar SinjiaSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati Tamaz zubiaSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati lamara beriZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati

emigraciuli procesebi TbilisSi (sociologiuri gamokvleva)

sakuTari qveynis gareT sacxovreblad an samuSaod wasvlas yovelTvis hqonda adgili, magram civilizaciis ganviTarebis dRevandelma donem mas farTo masStabi misca. igi Tanamedroveobis erT-erT yvelaze mwvave problemaa da mniSvnelovani regionuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba. am specifikis dadgenis mizniT saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministros demografiisa da sociologiuri kvlevis institutis TanamSromlebma 2008 wels Seiswavles emigraciis zogierTi aspeqti TbilisSi. Catarda sociologiuri gamokvleva, romelmac moicva 802 respondenti. informaciis mosapoveblad gamoikiTxa is adamianebi, vinc sazRvargareT wasuli Cveni Tanamemamulis ojaxis wevrebi, megobrebi, naTesavebi da axloblebi arian da floben informacias emigrantis Sesaxeb. anketaSi gaerTianda kiTxvebi asakis, ganaTlebisa da ojaxuri mdgomareobis, dasaxuli miznis ganxorcielebis, imigraciis qveynebSi migraciis xangrZlivobis, saqmianobis, sabinao uzrunvelyofis, Sromis anazRaure-

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bis, samSobloSi fuladi gzavnilebis, misi gamoyenebis da a.S. Sesaxeb. gamokiTxulebma emigraciaSi wasvlis sxvadasxva mizezi aRniSnes. yvelaze mravalricxovanma nawilma sazRvargareT wasvla axsna ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebis surviliT (40,8%) da umuSevrobisgan Tavis daRwevis mizniT (31,6%). meaTedze meti (12,3%) sazRvargareT wavida ganaTlebis misaRebad. 8,3%-ma ojaxis fizikurad gadarCenisTvis datova samSoblo, 7,9%-ma ki samSobloSi ver dainaxa perspeqtiva. 7,8% wavida sazRvargareT ojaxis wevrebTan gaerTianebis surviliT. 3,6% sazRvargareT wavida qveyanaSi arsebuli politikuri mdgomareobis gamo. sazRvargareT cxovrebis survili da ojaxis wevrebTan gaerTianeba warmoadgens adamianebis sruliad gasageb ganwyobas _ bunebrivi cxovrebis pirobebisken swrafva. igi respondentTa meaTeds axasiaTebs (10,3%). amrigad, samSobloSi arsebuli materialuri pirobebi emigrantTa oTx mexuTeds (80,7%) ucxoeTSi wasvlas ubiZgebs. ra problemebi gadaWres emigrantebma emigraciaSi wasvliT? dadginda, rom emigrantebma SeZles iseTi problemebis gadaWra, rogoricaa: ojaxis saarsebo pirobebiT uzrunvelyofa (41,7%), valebis dabruneba (22,9%), binis SeZena (22,7%), umaRlesi ganaTlebisaTvis aucilebeli TanxiT ojaxis wevrebis uzrunvelyofa (18,1%). aucilebeli samedicino momsaxurebis ojaxisaTvis xelmisawvdomoba (12,9%), msubuqi avtomanqanis SeZena (16,4%). amave dros, sayuradReboa, rom emigrantTa nawilma ver SeZlo zemoT CamoTvlili romelime proble-

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mis gadaWra (8,9%), nawilma sxva problemebi gadaWra (11,8%). emigraciaSi wasulTa asaki yvela asakobriv jgufs moicavs. 20 wlamde asakisaa 3,2%, 20-29 wlis asakis 30,2%, 30-39 wlis asakis 25,9%, 40-49 wlis _ 24,1%, 50-59 wlis_ 12,7%, 60 weli da metis _ 3,9%. es imas niSnavs, rom emigraciaSi wavida Cveni qveynis aqtiuri, maRali SromiTi potencialis mqone adamianTa erToblioba.. emigrantTa ganaTlebis done maRalia. maT naxevarze mets (53,9%) umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvs, 12,6% ki _ daumTavrebeli umaRlesi. anu emigrantTa ori mesamedi maRali inteleqtualuri potencialis mqonea. samwuxaroa, rom Tavisi unarebis Sesabamisi saqmianoba mniSvnelovani nawilisTvis saqarTveloSic miuwvdomeli iyo. mxolod 25,3% eweoda gonebriv Sromas, 37,4% ki dausaqmebeli iyo, 10,6% swavlobda, xolo 26,7% fizikurad muSaobda. emigrantTa sakmaod mniSvnelovani nawili (31,3%) ucxoeTSi aralegalurad iyo Sesuli. sxva qveyanaSi cxovreba, Sroma araa da arc SeiZleba iyos sakuTari qveynis analogiuri _ yvela qveyanas aqvs urTierTobis normebis, wesebis, tradiciebis, qcevisa da molodinebis standartebi. naTesauri da megobruli garemos molodinebi, qcevisa da urTierTobis standartebi yvela qveyanaSi specifikuria. aRniSnuli da sxva analogiuri Taviseburebani emigrantis cxovrebis SeboWilobas ganapirobebs. isini daZlevadia, oRond maTi daZleva wlebis Semdegaa SesaZlebeli. ra problemebi wamoiWra emigrantebis winaSe sazRvargareT?

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uwinares yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia moqalaqeobis miRebasTan (18%), ojaxur da naTesaur urTierTobebTan (21,0%), samuSaoze mowyobasTan (10,3%), Sromis anazRaurebasTan (10,0%) da Sromis pirobebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. ufro mcire nawilma miuTiTa problemebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo enis arcodnasTan (6,4%), dokumentaciis gaformebasTan (5,2%) da samarTaldamcav organoebTan urTierTobasTan (5,1%). aRniSnuli problemebis gavrcelebis masStabebi minimumamde Semcirdeboda adamianebi sazRvargareT wasvlamde garkveul momzadebas rom gadiodnen da iRebdnen informacias mimRebi qveynis samarTaldamcav organoebTan urTierTobebze, SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadebisa da dacvis moTxovnebze, wesebsa da normebze; iTvisebdnen saxelmwifo enis codnis minimums; euflebodnen iqauri yofis, Sromisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb aucilebel elementarul codnas. gamokvlevis mixedviT, yvelaze mravalricxovani aRmoCndnen sam qveyanaSi myofi emigrantebi. es qveynebia: ruseTi (21,7%), saberZneTi (17,3%) da aSS (16,0%). maT CamorCebaT germaniaSi (8,0%), espaneTSi (7,0%), italiaSi (5,5%) da ukrainaSi (5,1%) myofi emigrantebi (diagrama 1).

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diagrama 1

SromiT emigrantTa ganawileba emigraciis qveynebis mixedviT (procentobiT jamTan)

gamokvlevis analizma gviCvena, rom emigraciaSi wasvlis dro erTi da ori wliT ar ifargleba. gamokvleul emigrantTa mxolod yvelaze mcire nawili (3,7%) sazRvargareT wavida 2008 wels, 10,1%_ 2007 wels, 8,2%_ 2006 wels, 7,2%_ 2005 wels, 7,4%_ 2004 wels, 8,1%_ 2003 wels, 5,9%_ 2002 wels, 6,5%_ 2001 wels, 9,9%_ 2000 wels, 4,2%_ 1999 wels, 7,9%_ 1998 wels, 4,1%_ 1997 wels, 2,4%_ 1996, 5,5%_ 1995 wels, 7,7%_ 1994 wels da ufro adre. emigraciaSi cxovrebis or da meti wlis gamocdileba aqvs Cvens mier Seswavlili emigrantebis oTx mexuTedze mets. es imas mowmobs, rom maT yofasa da cxovrebaSi ise Rrmad Cajda iqauri cxovrebisa da yofis wesebi da normebi, molodinebi da cxovrebis standartebi, rom ucxo qveyanasTan adaptaciis gamo usia69

movno grZnoba _ emociuri mdgomareoba mxolod mogonebebs SemorCa. gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom sakmaod mniSvnelovani nawili sazRvargareT aralegalurad imyofeba, es ki emigrantis uflebebis dacvis myar SesaZleblobas gamoricxavs, gansakuTrebiT ki _ SromiTi uflebebis dacvas, rac kidev ufro amZimebs mis mdgomareobas. gamokvleviT gamovlinda emigrantebis mier Sesrulebuli konkretuli saqmianobebi. dadginda, rom maTi mexuTedze meti (22,3%) ZiZaa an davrdomilis, moxucis da bavSvis movliTaa dakavebuli. meaTedze meti (12%) momsaxurebis sferoSia dasaqmebuli, meaTedze naklebi eweva sakuTar bizness (9,2%). mSeneblobaze fizikurad Sromobs 8,9%. samrewvelo warmoebaSi dasaqmebulia 7,2%, swavlobs da Sromobs 7,7%, damxmare an sezonur muSad muSaobs 5,6%, vaWrobis sferoSi dasaqmebulia 5,5%. Tavisi specialobiT saqmianobs 5,1%, samedicino sferoSia dasaqmebuli 3,0%, swavlobs 3,1%, mZRolia 1,1%, leqtoria umaRles saswavlebelSi 1%, qurdobs 0,6%, sxva saqmianobas eweva 3% (diagrama 2). aRsaniSnavia, rom adamianebi, romlebic sakuTari biznesiT arian dakavebulni, umetesad arian umaRlesi da daumTavrebeli umaRlesi ganaTlebiT, ufro mcirea specialuri da saSualo zogadi ganaTlebis mqoneni. xolo is qveynebi, sadac isini sakuTar bizness ewevian, aris: ruseTi (wasulTa 20,7%), ukraina (19,5%), avstria (12,5%), safrangeTi (7,7%), aSS (2,7%). saberZneTSi, TurqeTSi, italiaSi, israelsa da aSS-Si saqmianobis upirvelesi saxea ZiZad, momvlelad muSaoba, holandiasa da germaniaSi _ swavlisa da muSaobis SeTavseba, espaneTSi, portugaliasa da kanadaSi _

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mSeneblobaze muSaoba, ruseTsa da ukrainaSi _ sakuTari biznesi.

diagrama 2

SromiTi emigrantebis ganawileba sazRvargareT saqmianobis mixedviT (%)

rogoria is anazRaureba, romelsac emigrantebi TavianTi SromiTi saqmianobisaTvis iReben? yvelaze mravalricxovani aRmoCnda emigrantTa is jgufi (26,3%), romelTa Tviuri anazRaureba 501-1000 dolaria. ufro maRali anazRureba (1001-1500 dolaramde) aqvs emigrantTa 17,1%-s. yvelaze dabali anazRaureba (500 dolari) aqvs emigrantTa 7,5%-s. samSoblosTan emigrantis kavSirurTierTobebi materialur-finansuri da socialuria. ojaxs materialur-finansur daxmarebas uwevs emigrantTa 72,3%, ar uwevs _ 17,8%. emigrantTa Semosavali samSobloSi darCenili ojaxis wevrebis arsebobis ZiriTadi wyaroa. ojaxebis

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34,3%-isaTvis fuladi gzavnilebis garda sxva formiTac xorcieldeba ojaxis aucilebeli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba. emigrantis yofa-cxovrebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mxarea misi biniT uzrunvelyofa. respondentTa informaciiT, emigrantebis naxevari (50,8%) cxovrobs qiriT, rac imas niSnavs, rom misi yovelTviuri gamomuSavebis arcTu umniSvnelo nawili sacxovrebeli binis qirisTvisaa gamiznuli. respondentebis informaciiT emigrantebis mexuTedze meti (21,2%) cxovrobs imave ojaxSi, sadac muSaobs. emigrantTa 15% sakuTar binaSi cxovrobs, e.i. yvela sxva emigrantisgan gansxvavebiT binis mflobelia. sakuTari binis SeZena SesZles emigrantebma ruseTSi, aSS-Si, espaneTSi, ukrainaSi, holandiaSi, saberZneTSi, inglisSi, germaniaSi, avstriaSi, irlandiaSi, kanadaSi da israelSi. respondentTa TiTqmis naxevarma (47%) aRniSna, rom mimReb qveyanaSi ar irRveva emigrantis cxovrebisa da muSaobis uflebebi, xolo meaTedze metma ki (11,2%) miuTiTa, rom imigraciis qveyanaSi aRniSnuli uflebebi irRveva. gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom emigranti mis winaSe wamoWrili, problemebTan, umetes SemTxvevaSi, Tavisi Tavisa da megobar-nacnobebis amara rCeba. 2/5-ze metma (42%) aRniSna, rom problemebis mogvarebaSi exmarebian nacnob-megobrebi, nawilma (6%) aRniSna, rom emigrants iq aravis imedi ara aqvs. ucxo qveynaSi socialuri, kulturuli da lingvisturi Seguebis Sesaxeb respondentTa umravlesobam (87,2%) dadebiTad upasuxa _ emigrantebi adgilobriv pirobebs kargad (37,9%) an damakmayofileblad (49,3%) Seeguen. mcire nawili cu-

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dad Seegua (7,7%), xolo respondentTa 3,6%-s am sakiTxze informacia ar hqonda. rogoria emigraciaSi myofTa saqarTvelosTan momavali uTierTobebis perspeqtiva? gamokvleviT dadgenilia, rom ucxoeTSi samuSaod mimaval adamianTa umravlesoba iq Semdgomi cxovrebis gagrZelebas ar gegmavs, Tumca mainc Tu yvela ara, nawili iq rCeba, qmnis ojaxsa da STamomavlobas. gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom mxolod emigrantebis mesameds (31,9%) aqvs samSobloSi dabrunebis mtkice gadawyvetileba, mexuTeds (20,2%) jer sabolood ar gadauwyvetia dabruneba. emigrantTa 15,5%-s ki sabolood aqvs gadawyvetili, rom SemdgomSi samSobloSi ar dabrundeba. samSobloSi mxolod droebiT Camosvlas gegmavs emigrantebis mexuTedze meti (23,3%). migrantebis gavlena Tavisi qveynis cxovrebaze didia. isini arc Tu iSviaTad TavianTi cxovrebiTa da moqmedebiT xels uwyoben naTesavebis, megobrebisa Tu nacnobebis emigraciaSi wasvlas. es vlindeba emigraciaSi wasvlis msurvelebisaTvis daxmarebiTa da, rac mTavaria, aseTi survilis gaRviZebiT. gamokiTxvam gviCvena, rom emigrantebis 52,4%-ma daxmareba aRmouCina adamianebs saqarTvelodan emigraciaSi wasvlis ganzraxvis ganxorcielebaSi. emigrantebis 17,1%-is daxmarebiT saqarTvelodan emigraciaSi wavida erTi kaci, 16,8%-is daxmarebiT _ ori kaci, 9,5%-is daxmarebiT _ sami, 4,9%-is daxmarebiT _ oTxi da 4,1%-is daxmarebiT _ xuTi kaci. gamokvlevam SesaZlebloba mogvca gagverkvia potenciuri emigrantebis raodenoba Cvens mier gamokvleul erTobliobaSi. aRmoCnda, rom respondentTa 27,3%s gadawyvetili aqvs sazRvargareT wasvla, 24,9%-s es

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sakiTxi jer ar gadauwyvetia, xolo 46,1% ar apirebs sazRvargareT wasvlas. amrigad, sazRvargareT SromiT emigracias Tu mxolod ekonomikuri aspeqtiT SevafasebT, igi uaRresad dadebiTi movlenaa. adamianebi, romlebic samSobloSi moklebulni arian samuSaos, ucxoeTSi mas iReben iseTi anazRaurebiT, romelic samSobloSi sanatrelia. Tumca mimRebi qveynis SromiTi anazRaurebis sistemaSi igi yvelaze dabal safexurzea. im qveynis yvelaze mcire SromiTi anazRaurebis miuxedavad emigrantebis umetesoba inaxavs aqaur ojaxs, iZens binas, avtomanqanas, afinansebs Svilebis umaRles ganaTlebas da ojaxis wevrTa aucilebel samedicino momsaxurebas. emigracias dadebiTi Sedegebi aqvs saxelmwifos finansuri gaZlierebis TvalsazrisiTac _ SromiT emigraciaSi wasulTa fuladi gzavnilebiT saqarTvelo ramdenime aseul milion dolars iRebs. Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos, rom adamiani aris ara mxolod ekonomikuri subieqti, aramed eTnikuri subieqtic. ekonomikurTan erTad, SromiT emigracias aqvs eTnikuri Sedegic, romelic calsaxad uaryofiTia, gansakuTrebiT ki iseTi qveynisTvis, sadac intensiuri depopulaciaa. intensiuri emigraciuli procesi fizikuri da kulturuli uwyvetobis procesze negatiur gavlenas axdens.

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Elguja Menabdishvili, Tamar Shinjiashvili Tamaz Zubiashvili, Lamara Beridze EMIGRATION PROCESSES IN TBILISI (Sociological Research) (Abstract) Some aspects of emigration were studied by the sociological research held in Tbilisi in 2008. Over 800 people were asked, especially family members, friends and relatives of emigrants. The questionnaire helped us to define emigrants' sex, age, education, family status, purpose of emigration, time of departure, recipient country, occupation, housing welfare, salary payment, help of family members, character and decision of existing problems, assistance of their family members, acquaintances and friends abroad. Following the research, there were defined the following results: 1. 80,7% of emigrants went due to an unemployment and abysmal economic conditions, 12,3% - to get education, 3,6% - because of existing political situation, 7,8% - to join their family members. Going abroad they solved the following problems: they solved the crucial family problems (41,7%), returned the debts (22,9%), bought an apartment (22,7%), financed higher education of their children (18,1%) and medical services of the family (12,9%), bought a car (16,4%), solved other problems (11,8%). 8,9% couldn't solve any of these problems. 59,3% of the emigrants are under the age of 40. 55,5% are women, 35% are single. 53,9% are with higher education, 12,6% are with incomplete education. 3. 22,3% of emigrants are nurses of the sick, the old and the children. 12,0% - are employed in service sphere, 9,2% - lead his/her own business, 8,9% - work in construction sphere, 7,2% - in manufacture, 7,7% -studies and works, 5,6% - are auxiliary or seasonal workers, 5,5% are employed in trade sphere, 5,1% work by their specialty, 3,0% - are employed in medical sphere, 3,1% study, 1,1% teach at universities, 3,0% lead other activities, 6,1% have no information about the emigrants' activities. Mainly, the emigrants with 75

higher and secondary special education have their own business. They are in Russia, the U.S., Ukraine, Greece, Italy, Germany, Austria, France and England. In respondents opinion (26,3%) emigrants' monthly salary is 501-1000 $, in 17,0% opinion ­ 1001-1500 $, 7,5% - 500 $. 72,3% of emigrants help their families financially, 17,8% don't help. 9,8% of respondents have no information on this question. In the respondents' opinions (23,9%) remittances is the main financial source of the family. 50,8% of emigrants live in rented houses, 4,5% live with their relatives, 21,2% live and in the families where they work. Only 15% of emigrants have their own flats. 42% of emigrants enable solving the problems with their friends' assistance. 9,2% appeal to consulate, 31% have no information about it, in 6% of respondents' views, emigrants have nobody to approach for assistance. 87,2% of emigrants adapted to local conditions well or satisfactory, 7,7% - bad. Only 31,9% of emigrants have desire to return home, 20,2% have not decided yet, and 15,5% will not return. 23,3% are going to return temporarily. Emigrants help their family members and friends in going abroad. With the help of 420 emigrants departed abroad 956 people. 27,3% of respondents have decided to migrate. They even named the countries where they have decided to depart. We should not evaluate only positive side of emigration. From the economic point of view it has positive sides for emigrants and the country by no means, because of systematically transferring remittances, but it is rather negative from economic point of view because of reduced physical and cultural reproduction of population.

76

mzia Selia ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati mariam gugutiSvili Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis studenti cxinvalis regionidan devnilTa socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi

XX saukunis bolo kacobriobis istoriaSi Sevida, rogorc iZulebiTi migraciis epoqa. stiqiurma ubedurebebma, epidemiebma, omebma da eTnokonfliqtebma uzarmazari migraciuli nakadi warmoSva. misi intensiuroba ar klebulobs. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom XX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi 70-ian wlebTan SedarebiT evropaSi ltolvilTa ricxvi 3-jer gaizarda, xolo 1992 wels bolo 50 wlis maqsimums miaRwia (700 aTasi kaci).30 1990-ian wlebSi ruseTis mier afxazeTsa da samaCabloSi ganxorcielebuli eTnowmendis gamo saqarTveloc devnilTa qveyana gaxda. 2008 wlis agvistos ruseT-saqarTvelos omma maTi raodenoba kidev ufro gazarda da 138 aTasi saqarTvelos moqalaqe devnilTa ricxvs miemata. iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa nawili dRevandeli okupirebuli teritoriis mimdebare regionebidan iyo da daubrunda Tavis naxevrad dangreul saxlebs, xolo okupirebul terotoriaze ver Sevida iqidan gamodevnili 31 aTasi piri, romelic amJamad droebiT TavSesafrebSi cxovrobs. maTgan SedarebiT kompaqturad arian Casaxlebulni mcxeTis raion sofel werovanSi (6083kaci), wilkanSi (1154 kaci) da goris raionis sofel karaleTSi (1559kaci).31

30

31

http://www.Demoscop Weekly, #57-58. samoqalaqo reestris saagentos monacemebi.

77

SevecadeT, sociologiuri gamokiTxviT Segveswavla iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa materialuri mdgomareoba da ojaxis finansuri biujeti, sayofacxovrebo pirobebi, axal garemoSi adaptaciis siZneleebi, maTi repatriaciasTan damokidebuleba, amJamindeli migraciuli da reproduqciuli ganwyoba, cxovrebiseuli gegmebi, Semosavlebi da a.S. gamoikiTxa okupirebuli teritoriebidan devnili, TbilisSi TavSefarebuli 202 iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri. gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi mTeli ojaxebiT arian devnilebi. umravlesoba ojaxSi saSualod 5 da meti sulia. respodentTa 71% daqorwinebulia. maTgan 75%-s ori an meti Svili hyavs. ganxorcielebuli eTnowmendis regioni sakmaod nayofieri miwebiTa da mdidari soflebiTaa cnobili. aq mcxovrebTa ojaxis biujetSi naxevarze meti (57%) Sina meurneobidan miRebuli Semosavali iyo. sarCos nawils ki ojaxi sxva gziT iRebda. kerZod, mosaxleobis nawili mcire bizness eweoda (vaWrobda), dasaqmebuli iyo saxelmwifo struqturebSi, ganaTlebaSi, jandacvaSi, kulturaSi. axalgazrda vaJebis nawili samxedro mosamsaxure iyo. xelisufleba did yuradRebas uTmobda regionis ganviTarebas, gansakuTrebiT, didi liaxvis xeobis soflebs (aCabeTi, kexvi, TamaraSeni da sxva), romlebic osebiT dasaxlebuli soflebis garemocvaSi iyo, raTa Seerbilebina gare Zalebisagan xelovnurad Seqmnili osi mosaxleobis nawilis separatuli ganwyoba. bolo wlebSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebis ZalisxmeviT iqaur soflebSi aSenda komfortuli sacxovreblebi, gaixsna Tanamedrove momsaxurebis obieqtebi, msxvili savaWro centrebi, uaxlesi teqnikiT aRWurvili skole78

bi, mimdinareobda aqtiuri kulturuli cxovreba. amitom iyo, rom am regionis mcxovrebTa saSualo Tviuri Semosavali ufro maRali iyo, vidre saSualod saqarTveloSi. amJamad ki maRali Semosavlis mqoneTa raodenoba 6-jeraa Semcirebuli. mxolod respondentTa 11% inarCunebs Zvel Semosavals. esac is kategoriaa, vinc omamde saxelmwifo struqturebSi muSaobda da xelisuflebam erTi wliT SeunarCuna Zveli odenobis xelfasi. danarCen iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa ojaxebis saSualo Tviuri Semosavali saarsebo minimumic aRaraa. amitom amJamad, devnilTa saarsebo wyaro droebiTi daxmarebis saxiT saxelmwifo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebisgan miRebuli nobaTia (sqema 1). sqema 1

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

de e de e e am d ar am am am d md ar a ar ar ar ze vi T

Semosavlebis moculoba didi liaxvis xeobaSi omamde Semosavlebis moculoba patara liaxvis xeobaSi omamde Semosavlebis moculoba didi liaxvis xeobaSi omis Semdeg Semosavlebis moculoba patara liaxvis xeobaSi omis Semdeg

l

l

l

l

l

10 0

-1 5 0

50

0- 3 0

-20

10 0

15 0

20

0-2

25

30 0

l

ar

0

0

is

79

mosaxleoba, romelic mudmivi da regularuli Semosavlis gareSe darCa, mravalmxriv gaWirvebas uCivis. gansakuTrebiT ki, mSobliuri mxaris, sakuTari komfortuli binis, Tavis warsulisadmi nostalgia awuxebs. garda amisa, respondentTa 33%-s tansacmeli da fexsacmeli ar yofnis, 21% ki sayofacxovrebo nivTebis metismet simcires aRniSnavs. unda iTqvas isic, rom tansacmlis naklebobas ufro metad uCivian mamakacebi, xolo sayofacxovrebo nivTebs _ qalebi. respondentTa mniSvnelovan nawils (43%) medikamentebi uWirs, didi nawilic _ mSobliuri garemos mowyvetisagan itanjeba (cxrili 1).

cxrili 1

respondentTa pasuxebis ganawileba kiTxvaze: `yvelaze metad ris naklebobas ganicdiT?~ pasuxebis mixedviT

sxva (medikamentebi, mSobliuri saxli da garemo da sxva) sayofacxovrebo nivTebis tansacmlis

sakvebis

fexsacmlis

didi liaxvis xeoba patara liaxvis xeoba sul

43,0

0,0

17,0

2,0

38,0

100

16,0

4,6

27,0

3,6

48,8

100

31,0

2,0

21,0

3,0

43,0

100

calkeuli asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT analizma gviCvena, rom tansacmlis naklebobas ufro metad axalgazrdebi ganicdian (50%), Sua asakis devnilebi erTnairad uCivian tansacmlisa da sayofacxovrebo nivTebis uqonlobas (22%), amasTan, gansakuTrebiT awuxebT mSob80

sul

liuri garemos nostalgia (39%), xolo `mesame asakis~ (50w.+) warmomadgenlebi ufro metad medikamentebis naklebobaze miuTiTeben da mwared ganicdian sakuTari binebisagan mowyvetas (70%). ojaxis suladobis mixedviT analizma uCvena, rom tansacmlisa da medikamentebis naklebobas yvelaze metad ganicdian mravalsuliani ojaxebi. omamde am regionis mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani nawili (56%) soflis meurneobaSi iyo dasaqmebuli. dRes es kontingenti, ZiriTadad, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva administraciuli centrebis droebiT TavSesafrebSia Casaxlebuli. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom saqarTveloSi omamdec sakmaod maRali iyo umuSevrobis done (13%), amJamad, ekonomikis krizisis pirobebSi umuSevarTa SromiTi reabilitaciis SesaZleblobebi kidev ufro metad SeizRuda. respondentebis umravlesoba Tanaxmaa, dasaqmdes nebismier samuSaoze, oRond saarsebo minimumiT mainc iyos uzrunvelyofili. mesamedi ki moiTxovs samuSaos sakuTari profesiis Sesabamisad, romlisgan miRebuli SemosavliT is ojaxis Senaxvas SeZlebs. sakuTari profesiiT muSaobis survils gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebi gamoxataven. omma da ekonomikurma krizisma devnilTa reproduqciuli aqtiuroba daaqveiTa. Cvens mier gamokiTxuli respondentebis 68%-s aRar surs Semdegi Svilis gaCena. am azrs ufro metad qalebi gamoTqvamen (76%), vidre mamakacebi (58%). kiTxvaze: `omi rom ar yofiliyo, ramden Svils gaaCendiT?~, yovelma meoTxem upasuxa, rom kidev ors an erTs mainc Sobda. es azri ufro gamokveTilia didi liaxvis xeobis respondentebSi, romelTagan yoveli mesame isurvebda Semdegi Svilis gaCenas (cxrili 2).

81

cxrili 2

cxinvalis regionidan devnilTa damokidebuleba Svilianobisadmi ramdeni Svilis gaCenas apirebT? arc erTis oris samis oTxis xuTi da erTis meti 68,3 9,4 9,9 7,4 3,0 2,0 76,0 7,0 9,4 5,2 2,4 58,1 12,8 10,5 10,5 3,5 4,6 omi rom ar yofiliyo ramden Svils gaaCendiT? 58,4 14,8 12,0 7,4 4,4 3,0 71,0 14,5 5,1 5,7 2,1 1,6 45,2 15,0 19,6 9,7 6,5 4,0

sul qali kaci sul qali kaci

1990-ian wlebSi saqrTveloSi emigraciis intensivoba gaizarda. arsebuli konfliqtebisa da ekonomikuri krizisis gamo saqarTvelo milionamde moqalaqem datova. amis miuxedavad, agvistos omamde respondentTa 97%-s arasodes ufiqria sxvagan gadasaxlebaze (cxrili 3).

cxrili 3

respondentTa omamdeli migraciuli ganwyoba omamde Tu fiqrobdiT sxvagan gadasaxlebaze? diax ara sul 3,0 97,0 didi liaxvis xeobi0,0 100 dan devnili patara liaxvis xeo7,0 93,0 bidan devnili

amJamadac, respondentTa umravlesobas ar surs mudmivi migracia, Tundac, saqarTvelos sxva regionSi gadasaxleba. am azrs gansakuTrebiT mamakacebi gamoTqva82

men. maTi TiTqmis 60% droebiT Casaxlebis adgilebSi mxolod dabrunebis imediT cxovrobs. kiTxvaze: `xom ar gegmavT sxva regionSi an sxva qveyanaSi sacxovreblad gadasvlas?~, respondentTa TiTqmis naxevari, gansakuTrebiT didi liaxvis xeobis soflidan devnilni, kategoriulad winaaRmdegia amisa da daJinebiT moiTxovs Tundac TavianT damwvar saxlebSi dabrunebas. naxevari, gansakuTrebiT qalebi, Tanaxma arian droebiT sxvagan cxovrebaze. maTi ZiriTadi moTxovnaa, Casaxldnen im teritoriebTan axlos, romelic omis Semdeg iZulebiT datoves. respondentTa mxolod umniSvnelo nawili (1%) fiqrobs sxva qveyanaSi sacxovreblad wasvlas (cxrili 4).

cxrili 4

cxinvalis regionidan devnilTa migraciuli ganwyoba amJamad xom ar gegmavT mudmiv sacxovreblad sxvagan gadasvlas? aucileblad, saqarTvelos sxva raionSi, Tu gamoiricxa cxinvalis regionSi Cveni dabruneba 32,3 25,0 27,0 22,0 43,0 vyoymanob araviTar SemTxvevaSi

sul

didi liaxvis xeoba

25,7 25,0 27,4 22,2 26,7

42,0 50,0 45,6 55,8 30,3

m.S qali kaci patara liaxvis xeoba m.S. qali kaci

48,0 34,0

31,5 19,0

20,5 47,0

83

sagulisxmoa isic, rom sxvagan gadasaxlebisadmi mkveTrad uaryofiTi damokidebuleba gamoxata axalgazrdobam. maTgan mxolod 23% fiqrobs saqarTvelos sxva regionSi gadasvlaze. gamokvlevam gviCvena, rom iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa absoluturi umetesoba gamosavals srul repatriaciaSi xedavs. saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis Zalisxmeva ki am procesSi gadamwyveti iqneba.

84

Mzia Shelia Mariam Gugutishvili SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE IDPs FROM TSKHINVALI REGION (Abstracts) In August 2008, during the Russia-Georgia war, Russia occupied Tskhinvali region and 138000 dwellers who lived on this territory were forced to move to other regions of Georgia. The aim of our research was to study by the social inquires the migrants present circumstances, their financial conditions, the family budget, living conditions, the difficulties of the adaptation to the new circumstances, their opinion about the returning process to their villages, general feelings about the migration, the future plans, their income, and the social-demographic structure. 202 compulsory migrants were inquired during the researches. According to our research World Economic Crisis has highly decreased their social conditions.. The brief research showed their following problems: 1. The reproductive activity decreased (70% of women don't want to have one more child) 2. They have a need of their social security 3. They do not want to leave their country; they want to return to their places (only the 1% things to leave country) 4. There was a region of rich farmers, so they were not on government support, now they are without workplaces The great majority of the residents of the region (56%) worked in agriculture sphere, but now they are temporarily settled in cities. As you know, the problems of unemployment were before war also like every developing county's problem, the index of unemployment in Georgia before war was 13% . Now due to world economic crisis it becomes very hard to realize their working rehabilitation. The great majority of the interviewed refugees are ready to start any kind of job to earn money to cover their living costs. The problem solving of these people is to return them in their native regions, they hope that with the support of the international community it will be soon possible. 85

mirian tuxaSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori mamuka Toria ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati

afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa SromiTi emigracia

ruseTis imperialisturi Zalebis mier inspirirebuli 1990-iani wlebis cnobili movlenebis Sedegad afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa nawili postsabWoTa saqarTveloSi Seqmnili umZimesi ekonomikuri viTarebis gamo saqarTvelodan sazRvargareT wavida samuSaod. SromiT emigrantTa wili iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa kontingentSi ufro maRalia, vidre mTel mosaxleobaSi. amave dros, devnilTa Soris isedac kritikul donemde daklebuli mosaxleobis aRwarmoebis maCvenebeli SromiTi emigraciis gavleniT kidev ufro Semcirda. meore mxriv, SromiT emigraciaSi gaemgzavra metad maRali mobilobis mqone SromiTi kontingenti, romelsac aqvs maRali ganaTlebis potenciali, profesiuli momzadeba, ramac, bunebrivia, uaryofiTad imoqmeda rogorc iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli kontingentis, ise, cxadia, saqarTvelos SromiT potencialze. iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa SromiTi emigraciis Seswavlis mizniT 2008 wlis maisSi Cveni xelmZRvanelobiTa da uSualo monawileobiT Catarda SromiT emigrantTa nakadis Seswavla. es is periodia, roca msoflio finansuri krizisi jer kidev araa gaRrmavebuli, ruseT-saqarTvelos omic momxdari araa da ruseTSi qarTvelTa mimarT eTnofobias pikisaTvis ar miuRwevia. gamokvleva ganxorcielda cnobili `Semcvleli

86

respondentebis~ meTodiT. intervius gziT gamoikiTxa 350-ze meti afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piris ojaxis wevri, an axlobeli, vinc kargad iyo informirebuli SromiTi emigrantis ucxoeTSi Sromisa da yofis Taobaze. anketa Sedgenili iyo Cveni adrindeli gamokvlevebis dros gamoyenebuli kiTxvarebis safuZvleze da moicavda 49 kiTxvas. SromiT emigrantTagan 43,3% qalia, rac emTxveva SromiTi emigraciis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva gamokvlevebiT miRebul saqarTvelos saSualo maCvnebels. saqarTvelodan qalTa SromiTi emigracia mxolod postsabWoTa periodis movlenaa. maTi wili mTel msoflioSi saerTaSoriso SromiT emigraciaSic matulobs, xdeba SromiTi emigraciis intensiuri feminizacia, rasac zogierT dadebiT momentTan erTad uaryofiTi mxarec bevri aqvs. pirvel rigSi, es Seexeba ojaxebis da meuRleebis faqtobrivi Tanacxovrebis Seferxebas (faqtobriv Sewyvetas), xSir SemTxvevaSi_ qalebis ojaxTan da SvilebTan mowyvetas, Svilebis aRzrdisgan Camocilebas, ucxoeTSi reproduqciuli ganwyobisa da qcevis aSkara gauaresebas da a.S. SromiT emigrantTa 93% 50 wlamde asakisaa da, arsebiTad, aqtiur SromiT kontingents warmoadgens (cxrili 1). ar SeimCneva asakobrivi polarizacia.

cxrili 1

SromiT emigrantTa asakobrivi ganawileba, %

20 w-mde

26-30

41-50

31-40

21-25

asakobrivi intervali, ww.

50-ze meti 7,8

%

3,9

11,5

16,3

29,8

31,7

100 87

sul

mTeli kontigentidan ojaxiania 61,1% (cxrili 2). mamakacTa ori mesamedi daojaxebulia da maTi SromiTi emigraciis mizani ojaxis rCenaa. qalTa ojaxuri mdgomareoba gacilebiT Wrelia. maT naxevars Svilebi hyavs aq datovebuli, sakmao nawils ­ arasrulwlovani Svilebi. qalebi sxvis Svilebs uvlian, xolo maT Svilebze TavianTi mSoblebi an sxva axloblebi zrunaven. sakmaod didia im qalTa wilic, romlebic, faqtobrivad, meuRleTa gareSe darCnen da ojaxisa da Svilebis rCenis gamosavali sazRvargareT dasaqmebaSi naxes (qvrivebi, ganqorwinebulni, martoxela dedebi).

cxrili 2

SromiT emigrantTa qorwinebrivi mdgomareoba, %

mar toxela deda qorwine baSi arasodes yofila daojaxebuli uSvilod daojaxebuli SvilebiT

qvrivi

ganqor winebuli

ojaxuri mdgomareoba

sqesi mamakci qali sul

30,5 27,8 29,3

23,7 17,8 21,1

44,0 34,4 40,0

1,8 10 5,3

6,7 2,9

3,3 1,4

100 100 100

rogorc gamokvleva gviCvenebs, saqarTvelodan sazRvargareT samuSaod wasvlis mizezTa Soris dominirebs ekonomikuri mizezebi: umuSevroba, materialuri pirobebis gaumjobesebis survili, ojaxis fizikuri gadarCena (cxrili 3). im gamokvlevebSic, romelic saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis sxva kontingentzea Catarebuli, ekonomikuri xasiaTis mizezebi gadamwyvetia.

88

sul

cxrili 3

SromiT emigrantTa ganawileba saqarTvelodan wasvlis ZiriTadi mizezebis mixedviT

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

m i z e z i

materialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis survili ver iSova Sesaferisi samuSao ver iSova veranairi samuSao ojaxis fizikuri gadarCena qveyanaSi arsebuli politikuri mdgomareoba iq cxovroben misi uaxloesi naTesavebi ganaTlebis miReba ucxo enis daxvewa ainteresebda sazRvargaeT cxovreba da muSaoba samSobloSi perspeqtivas ver xedavda TviTrealizaciis SeuZlebloba iqorwina ucxoelze sxva mizezi s u l

kaci 39,0 22,9 15,2 14,4 2,5 3,4 3,4 1,7 2,5 5,1 1,7 1,7 100

qali 40,0 16,7 13 ,3 23,3 4,4 2,2 6,7 4,4 6,7 1,0 100

sul 39,2 20,1 14,4 18,3 3,3 2,9 4,8 2,9 1,4 5,8 1,4 0,4 1,0 100

saqarTveloSi 90-ian wlebSi cxovrebis donis katastrofuli dacema gansakuTrebiT ganicades iZulebiT gadaadgilebulma ojaxebma, romlebmac danarCeni mosaxleobisagan gansxvavebiT, dakarges bina da yovelnairi qoneba. dauZlurebuli, gaRatakebuli saxelmwifos daxmareba ki mizeruli iyo. ojaxis fizikuri gadarCena iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa sakmao nawilma mxolod ucxoeTSi dasaqmebaSi dainaxa. meore mxriv, mosaxleobis

89

es nawili iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa TavSesafrebSi cxovrobda. maTTvis obieqturad Seqmnili mZime sayofacxovrebo pirobebis gamo SromiT emigraciaSi yofna aRar warmoadgenda sabinao-sayofacxovrebo pirobebis gauaresebas, rogorc xSirad es SromiT emigrantTa sxva kontingents axasiaTebda. amitom iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa Soris SromiTi emigraciis sixSire ufro metad aRiniSneba, vidre mosaxleobis danarCen kontingentSi. am SemTxvevaSi e.w. migraciis Semakavebeli faqtori gacilebiT sustia. gamokvleva gviCvenebs, rom SromiT emigrantTa ganaTlebis done metad maRalia (cxrili 4). umaRlesi da daumTavrebeli umaRlesi ganaTleba aqvs naxevarze mets. profesia aqvs 81,7%-s. sazRvargareTaa wasuli yvelaze mobiluri, maRali SromiTi potencialis mqone kontingenti. saqarTvelos SromiT potencialze iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa SromiTi emigracia uaryofiT gavlenas axdens.

cxrili 4

SromiT emigrantTa ganawileba ganaTlebis donis mixedviT % arasruli saSualo daumTavrebeli umaRlesi profesiulteqnikuri saSualo specialuri

umaRlesi

zogadi saSualo

kaci qali sul

49,3 47,8 48,6

2,5 8,9 5,3

12,7 16,7 14,4

16,1 10,0 13,4

17,8 14,4 16,3

1,6 2,2 1,9

90

sul

100 100 100

SromiT emigrantTa umetesoba dsT qveynebSi, kerZod ki, ruseTsa da ukrainaSia samuSaod wasuli (cxrili 5).

cxrili 5

SromiT emigrantTa ganawileba imigraciis qveynebis mixedviT, % Soreuli sazRv. sxva qveynebi 15,8 16,7 16,2 saberZneTi TurqeTi germania dsT da sxva qveynebi ukraina ruseTi

kaci qali sul

52,5 30,0 42,8

17,0 3,3 11,2

3,4 32,2 15,7

5,1 8,9 6,7

2,5 5,6 3,8

1,7 3,3 2,4

2,0 1,2

100 100 100

ruseTis didi wili mravalma faqtorma, maT Soris, enis kargad codnamac gansazRvra. gansakuTrebiT didia ruseT-ukrainis wili mamakacebSi (69,5%). qalebi ki saberZneTSi arian yvelaze metad emigrirebulni (32,2%). es ukanaskneli gansazRvra Sromis saerTaSoriso meorad bazarze momvlel qalebze didma moTxovnam. Cveni im gamokvlevebisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic iZulebiT gadaadgilebul mosaxleobas ar exeba32, aq Semcirebulia germaniisa da, gansakuTrebiT, aSS-s wili. faqtia, rom afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli mosaxleoba saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebze ukeTesad flobs rusul enas. konfliqtebamdec ufro meti kavSirebi,

Labor Migration from Georgia. IOM, 2003. p.24-25. WeliZe n., tuxaSvili m. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi emigraciis faqtorebi da socialur-ekonomikuri Sedegebi. krebulSi: migraciuli procesebi postsabWoTa saqarTveloSi. Tb., 2003. tuxaSvili m. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi migraciis ZiriTadi tendenciebi da socialur-ekonomikuri Sedegebi. Jurnali demografia. 2004, #1. gv.54.

32

91

sul

aSS

nacnob-megobroba hqonda reseTTan. amitom am qveyanaze modis aSkarad gamoxatuli didi nakadi. rogorc araerTma gamokvlevam aCvena, saqarTvelodan samuSaod gasuli mosaxleoba Tavisi kvalifikaciis Seusabamo saqmianobas eweva. mamakacTa 27,9% mSeneblobaze muSaobs, 19,9%_ mrewvelobaSi. qalebis umeteseba (63,2%) momvleli, ZiZa an damlagebelia. isini dasaqmebulni arian, agreTve, oficiantad, gamyidvelad, sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebaSi (cxrili 6).

cxrili 6

SromiT emigrantTa ganawileba ucxoeTSi saqmianobis mixedviT, %

momvleli, ZiZa, damlagebeli, meezove gamyidveli oficianti momsax. sfero specialobis Sesabamisad mZRoli, avtoxelosani

sakuTari biznesi

mrewvelobis muSa

muSa

eqimi, eqTani

mSenebeli

kaci qali sul

3,4 63,2 28,9

27,9 16,0

19,9 3,3 12,5

5,9 17,9 11,0

14,4

8,7

2,2 1,0

20,3 6,7 14,4

6,8 5,5 6,2

1,4 1,2 1,3

100 100 100

sakmaod maRalia im emigrantTa wili, vinc dasaqmebulia sakuTar biznesSi. yovel mexuTe mamakacs aqvs Tavisi biznesi. isini umTavresad ruseTSi saqmianoben. miuxedavad imisa, rom specialistTa wili SromiT emigrantebs Soris didia, maTgan mxolod 6,2% muSaobs Tavisi profiliT. es gamowveulia imiT, rom ucxoeTSi samuSao Zalaze moTxovna, ZiriTadad, meorad Sromis bazrebzea, agreTve, ucxo enis arasrulyofili codniT. gamokvleviT gamovlinda, rom SromiT emigrantebs aq darCenil ojaxTan xSiri kavSri aqvT, razec miuTiTa

92

jami

sxva

respondentTa 84,6%-ma. kavSiri gawyvetili aqvs mxolod 2,4%-s. SromiT emigraciaSi wasvlis mizania sakuTari ojaxebis finansuri mxardaWera. rogorc gamokvleviT dadginda, SromiTi emigrantebi Tviurad saSualod gamoimuSaveben 1133 aSS dolars da TavianT axloblebs saqarTveloSi ugzavnian saSualod 358 dolars(cxrili 7). es maSin, roca aq darCenili ojaxebis saSualo Semosavali Tviurad 101 dolaria. amiT dasturdeba, rom fuladi gzavnilebi warmoadgens aq darCenili ojaxebis ZiriTad finansur wyaros da, jerjerobiT, misi mniSvneloba ojaxis biujetSi gadamwyvetia. amaze miuTiTa gamokiTxulTa 56,7%-ma. respondentTa mxolod 13% aRmoCnda, visTvisac igi ojaxis ZiriTad Semosavals ar warmoadgens.

cxrili 7

emigrantTa Tviuri Semosavali da gzavnili, aSS dolari

gzavnili sqesi kaci qali sul

Tviuri Semosavali 1178 1078 1133

gzavnili

366 349 358

aq darCenili ojaxis Semosavali 122 74 101

rogorc respondentebma ician, mimReb qveyanaSi maTi axloblis winaSe warmoSobil sxvadasxva problemaTagan unda gamoiyos: administraciuli xasiaTis winaaRmdegobani (27,4%), SromiTmowyobasTan da Sromis pirobebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi (20,6%) (cxrili 8).Cans, rom qalebs, vinem mamakacebs ufro metad uWirT

93

ojaxTan moSoreba, SromiTi mowyoba. metad aqvT ucxo enis problema.

cxrili 8

mimReb qveyanaSi Sexvedrili yvelaze mwvave problema

sayofac xovrebo da samedicino momsaxureba administraciuli xasiaTis winaaRmdegobani

ucxo enis arcodna

axloblebTan daSoreba

SromiTi moywoba, anazRaureba da pirobebi

kaci qali sul

17,1 25,6 20,6

27,3 27,5 27,4

6,8 7,8 7,2

3,4 7,8 5,3

4,2 8,8 6,2

41,2 22,5 33,3

100 100 100

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom adgilobriv mcxovreblebTan urTierTobis siZneleze miuTiTa respondentTa mxolod erTma procentma. rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, es is periodia, roca ruseTSi qarTvelebi jer kidev ar qceulan yvelaze arasasurvel imigrantebad. iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa SromiTi emigracia sakmaod myaria. mxolod mesameds aqvs gadawyvetili samSobloSi dabruneba. 12%-s es surs, magram sabolood mainc ar Sewyvets ucxoeTSi muSaobas, mesamedi Tavs ikavebs dabrunebisagan. mtkice gadawyvetileba, rom samSobloSi aRar dabrundeba, miRebuli aqvs mxolod 2,4%-s. samSobloSi dabrunebaze yoymanis arc Tu dabali wili bevradaa ganpirobebuli iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTaTvis afxazeTis saqarTvelos iurisdiqciaSi aRdge94

sul

sxva

nis gaurkveveli perspeqtiviT. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom TviT SromiTi emigrantis ojaxis wevrebis nawilic apirebs Tavis ojaxis wevrTan gadasvlas, Tu amis SesaZlebloba miecema (17,8%), xolo axlo momavalSi maT 3,6%-s ukve gadawyvetili aqvs gadavides sacxovreblad emigrantTan. mxolod mesamedze cota meti aRmoCnda, vinc ar apirebs Tavis ojaxis wevrTan ucxoeTSi samuSaod an, saerTod, emigracias, rac miuTiTebs uaxloes momavalSi SromiTi emigraciis intensiurobis maRal doneze. amrigad, afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa SromiTi emigracia maRali intensiurobiT gamoirCeva. ZiriTadi migraciuli nakadebi mimarTulia ruseTukrainisa da saberZneTisken. saSovarze wasuli kontingentis SromiTi potenciali maRalia da bevrad aRemateba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis saSualo maCveneblebs. amis miuxedavad, ucxoeTSi diskriminaciuli dasaqmebis gamo SromiT emigrantTa umetesoba xvdeba Sromis meorad bazarze, xSirad, aralegalur viTarebaSi. amis gamo maTi Sromis pirobebi da xelfasi diskriminaciulia. Tumca, mainc xerxdeba samSobloSi Tviuri Semosavlis mesamedis gamogzavna, rac, umetesad, aqauri ojaxis biujets saarsebo minimumis donemde avsebs. SromiTi emigrantebi ucxoeTSi awydebian mraval administraciuli xasiaTis winaaRmdegobas, rac, metwilad, iq maTi aralegaluri yofniTaa gamowveuli. remigraciis potenciali, jerjerobiT, sustia. es gamowveulia rogorc saqarTveloSi jer kidev dabali cxovrebis doniT, ise afxazeTis saqarTvelos iurisdiqciaSi moqcevis gaWianurebuli procesiTa da gaurkveveli perspeqtiviT. iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa mdgomareoba ruseT-saqarTvelos 2008 wlis agvistos omis

95

Semdeg ruseTSi damZimda. omma uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba moaxdina ruseTSi saqarTvelodan SromiT emigrantTa mdgomareobaze33 da Cveni mosaxleobis SromiTi emigraciis geografiaze, rac Semdgomi kvlevis sagani unda gaxdes.

33

tuxaSvili m. migraciuli eqspansiis dasasruli da ruseTis `axali migraciuli politika~. Tb., 2009. gv.34-37.

96

Mirian Tukhashvili Mamuka Toria LABOUR EMIGRATION OF THE IDPs FROM ABKHAZIA (Abstracts) Due to ethnic conflicts, inspired by Russia in 1993-2008, amount of internally displaced persons from Georgia's autonomic provinces, Abkhazia and South Ossetia reached 8% out of the whole population of Georgia. Most of them moved to foreign countries for jobs. We studied the labor emigration of the internally displaced persons with the method of "substitute respondents". Over 400 labor emigrants' families were studied. It was stated that main reasons for labor emigration are of economic character and caused by hard economic and social situation, formed by ethnic clearance from Georgia's autonomic provinces. The current of persons from internally displaced families who left for foreign countries hunting jobs is mainly directed to Russia (42,8%), Greece (15,7%), Ukraine (11,0%), Germany (6,7%), and other countries of Europe. Despite the discriminative labor conditions and remuneration, labor emigrants' remittances to Georgia (350 US$ monthly in average) is mainly used for providing the living wage.

97

manana lobJaniZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis kursdamTavrebulTa saswavlo migracia

axalgazrdoba mosaxleobis sxva socialur-demografiuli jgufebisagan gamoirCeva janmrTelobiT, ganaTlebis doniT, profesiuli momzadebiT, mobilurobiT, samuSaosadmi wayenebuli maRali moTxovnebiT da a.S. yovelive es gansazRvravs mis qcevas Sromis bazarze. axalgazrdobis dasaqmeba umwvavesi problemaa nebismieri qveynisaTvis da maT Soris gamonaklisi arc saqarTveloa. bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi moSlilia profesiuli ganaTlebis sistemasa da damsaqmebel organizaciebs Soris urTierTobis meqanizmi, yovelgvari moTxovnis gauTvaliswineblad xdeba specialistebis momzadeba. marTalia, sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi SeuZlebelia umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone specialistebis profesiul-kvalificiuri Semadgenlobis sruli Sesabamisobis miRweva ekonomikis mudmivad cvalebad moTxovnebTan, magram miRebuli ganaTleba SromiTi mowyobisa da srulfasovani cxovrebis garantias unda iZleodes. aqedan gamomdinare, Tanamedrove axalgazrdoba yovelmxriv cdilobs, miiRos iseTi donis ganaTleba, rom daikavos myari adgili Sromis bazarze, sadac sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi yovelTvis didi konkurenciaa. amisaTvis cdilobs igi swavlis gagrZelebas msoflios yvelaze prestiJul umaRles saswavleblebSi. ucxouri ganaTlebis miReba saqarTvelos mowinave axalgazrdobis erT-erTi cxovrebiseuli mizani gaxda. axalgazrdobis saerTaSoriso migracias Tan sdevs mniSvnelovani demografiuli, socialuri, kulturuli

98

da ekonomikuri Sedegi. rogorc aRvniSneT, dReisaTvis saswavlo-profesiuli mobiloba pirovnebis Camoyalibebisa da TviTrealizaciis erT-erT prioritets warmoadgens. axalgazrdas uyalibdeba damoukidebeli cxovrebis, swavlisa da muSaobis gamocdileba ucxo garemoSi. axalgazrdobis mudmivi emigraciis SemTxvevaSi migrantTa mimRebi qveyana Rebulobs momzadebul kadrebs, romelTa ganaTlebazec mas aranairi danaxarji ar gauRia. evrogaerTianebis qveynebi aqtiurad muSaoben imaze, rom Seiqmnas umaRlesi ganaTlebis erTiani sivrce, rac xels Seuwyobs saxelmwifoebs Soris akademiur TanamSromlobas. boloniis procesma daamtkica, rom es aris efeqturi gza saerTaSoriso konsesusis misaRwevad, imavdroulad igi pozitiurad iyenebs saganmanaTleblo tradiciebis mdidar mravalferovnebas, sxvadasxva dargobrivi sferos specifikur gamocdilebasa da codnas. saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sivrcis boloniis procesSi integraciis miRwevad unda CaiTvalos Cveni ganaTlebis damadasturebeli dokumentis _ diplomis aRiareba msoflios 102 qveyanaSi. adre msoflioSi sakmaod maRali moTxovna iyo yofili sabWoTa respublikebis umaRlesi saswavleblebidan fundamentur mecnierebaTa fakultetis kursdamTavrebulebze, magram maTi diplomis aRiareba msoflios arc erT qveyanaSi ar xdeboda, rac qmnida damatebiT problemebs sazRvargareT swavlis gagrZelebisa da muSaobis dros. rogorc umaRlesdamTavrebulebi, aseve damsaqmeblebi fiqroben, rom Zalian mniSvnelovania zogadi kompetenciebi, romelTa kavSiri tradiciul akademiur ganaTlebasTan aucilebelia. es kompetenciebia: codnis ga99

moyenebis unari, axal pirobebSi adaptaciis SesaZlebloba, damoukideblad muSaobis unari, jgufSi muSaoba, organizebisa da dagegmvis unari, zepiri da werilobiTi komunikacia mSobliur enaze. evropuli kreditebis transferis sistema (ECTS) evropis erTaderTi sakredito sistemaa, romelSic integrirebulia qarTuli saganmanaTleblo sivrce. swored amis Sedegia saqarTvelos umaRlesdamTavrebulTa maRali mobiloba da swrafva evropis sxvadasxva umaRles saswavlebelSi swavlis gasagrZeleblad. bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi yofili sabWoTa kavSiri warmoadgenda inteleqtualuri resursebis donor qveyanas. gansakuTrebiT maRali moTxovnaa fundamentur mecnierebaTa kursdamTavrebulebze. umaRlesdamTavrebulTa migracias rogorc uaryofiTi, ise dadebiTi mxareebi gaaCnia. qveyana, saidanac gaedineba axalgazrdebi, kargavs inteleqtualuri potencialis mniSvnelovan nawils, magram garkveuli periodis Semdeg kvalificiuri kadrebiT avsebs rogorc mecnierebas, ise erovnul ekonomikas. meore mxriv, yvelaze SemaSfoTebelia, rom ucxoeTSi midian da xSirad mudmivad rCebian yvelaze momzadebuli, ganaTlebuli da Sromismoyvare axalgazrdebi. migraciuli ganwyoba ki swored elitur student-axalgazrdobaSi SeimCneva, romelTa akademiuri moswreba da profesiuli momzadeba maRali maxasiaTeblebiT gamoirCeva. ibadeba kiTxva: sad, romel qveynebSi miemgzavrebian isini? rogoria procesis dinamika? Tu gadavxedavT saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis kursdamTavrebulTa saswavlo migracias aseTi suraTi gvaqvs (cxrili 1).

100

cxrili 1

saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis kursdamTavrebulTa ganawileba swavlis gasagrZeleblad gamgzavrebis qveynebis mixedviT 2008 wels * studentTa # studentTa qveyana ricxovnoba qveyana ricxovnoba

#

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

espaneTi italia ruseTi avstria poloneTi latvia CexeTi aSS TurqeTi israeli ukraina belgia bulgareTi

portugalia

307 450 409 223 12 141 21 193 17 61 82 39 18 40 16 5 18 8 14 4

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

safrangeTi azerbaijani litva bosnia-hercogovina somxeTi

samx.afrikis

49 115 46 3 8 3 14 34 5 3 5 1 23 1 3 9 2 2 1

240

norvegia SvedeTi didi britaneTi Sveicaria holandia fineTi

respublika estoneTi indoeTi slovakeTi ungreTi belorusi dania yazaxeTi argentina irlandia kviprosi iaponia meqsika

luqsemburgi

sul

wyaro: saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro. aq Sesulia mxolod im qveyanaSi wasulTa informacia, sadac aRiarebulia saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis diplomi. aq araa Setanili germania, sadac saqarTvelodan saswavleblad wasulTa didi kontingenti swavlobs.

101

saqarTvelodan saerTaSoriso saswavlo migraciis ZiriTadi marSuti evropisa da amerikis umaRlesi saswavleblebia. 1990-ian wlebamde ki saswavlo miracia mxolod yofili sabWoTa respublikebisaken iyo mimarTuli. axallgazrdobis saswavlo migraciis aseTi maRali intensiuroba ganpirobebulia Sromis bazarze arsebuli didi konkurenciiT, maRalanazRaurebadi samuSaos povnis surviliT da axalgazrdobis axal garemosTan adaptaciis meti unariT. saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis kursdamTavrebulTa saswavlo migraciis ormoci qveynidan yvelaze didi nakadi mimarTulia germaniis, italiis, ruseTis, espaneTis, avstriisa da aSS-sken. Semdeg modian latvia, Azerbaijani da ukraina. sagrZnobi kontingentia israelSi, safrangeTSi, belgiaSi, portugaliasa da litvaSi. postsabWoTa qveynebidan bunebrivia ruseTisken miswrafeba. saqarTvelos azerbaijaneli axalgazrdoba upiratesobas Azerbaijanis umaRles saswavleblebs aniWebs. didi miswrafebaa baltiis qveynebiskenac, romlebic amJamad evrokavSirSi arian da warmatebas miaRwies umaRlesi ganaTlebis doneSi, gansakuTrebiT, mis meore safexurze. studentTa nawili swavlis gagrZelebas apirebs aziis qveynebSic. am mxriv aSkarad TvalSisacemia indoeTi (34 studenti) da yazaxeTi (23). mTlianad aziis saxelmwifoebSi saswavleblad gasulia 260 axalgazrda, emigrantTa nakadis 10,8%. nakadis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba ki evrokavSirisa da sxva mowinave evropuli qveynebia (60%).

102

miuxedavad imisa, rom germaniaSi araa aRiarebuli saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis mier gacemuli diplomi, iq sxvadasxva safexurze swavlas saqarTvelos axalgazrdobis mniSvnelovani kontingenti axerxebs. 2005 wlis monacemebiT, 3210 pirma daamTavra germaniis saswavleblebi. maT Soris TiTqmis naxevari (49%) enisa da literaturis specialobaze swavlobda. uSualod germanistikas daeufla mTeli kontingentis 27%, samarTlis, ekonomikisa da socialur mecnierebaTa Seswavlas mTeli kontingentis 24%, maTematikasa da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebs ­ 11,8%, xelovnebasa da xelovnebaTmcodneobas _ 5,2%, sainJinro specialobebs _ 4,5%, medicinisa da jandacvis specialobebs _ 3,8%, agrarul, ekologiur da kvebis produqtebis specialobebs _ 1,3%, sportis specialobebs _ 0,4% da a.S. gasagebia enisa da literaturis specialobebze germaniis saswavleblebSi Cveni TanamemamuleTa miswrafeba, magram did gulistkivils iwvevs _ saqarTvelos Sromis bazrisTvis metad saWiro sainJinro da agrarul mecnierebaTa dauflebis msurvelTa metad dabali xvedriTi wona. germanuli umaRlesi teqnikuri ganaTleba xom msoflios yvelaze saukeTeso ganaTlebadaa miCneuli. aseve didad gamoadgeboda saqarTvelos agrokompleqss evropis umaRles saswavleblebSi agrarul seqtorze Cveni Tanamemamule specialistebis momzadeba, rac amJamad mcire masStabiT xorcieldeba.

103

Manana Lobjanidze EDUCATIONAL MIGRATION OF GRADUATES GEORGIAN HIGH SCHOOL (Abstracts) Migration of the international youth the result accompanies demographic, cultural and economic result. At present educational and professional mobility represents a priority for formation of the person The successful future for any nation depends on correctly organized educational system. The basic idea behind all educational EU-plans is economic: the basic idea is the enlargement of scale of the European systems of higher education, in order to enhance its 'competitiveness' by cutting down costs. Therefore a Europe-wide standardization of the 'values' produced in each of the national higher educational systems is called for. Transfer system of the European credits -is unique system where integrated Georgian educational sphere and it is result of high mobility of the Georgian graduates. EU- actively works over creation of uniform educational sphere which will promote the academic cooperation between the states.

104

lela menabdiSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati nana menabdiSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa kandidati elguja menabdiSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori emigrantTa samSobloSi darCenili ojaxebi (sociologiuri gamokvleva)

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis migraciis problemas mravali gamokvleva mieZRvna, magram jer kidev migraciis problemis mravali aspeqti sociologiur Seswavlas elis. arasaTanadodaa Seswavlili migraciuli procesis is mxareebi, rac adamians aiZulebs, datovos ojaxi, samSoblo da megobar-naTesavebi. araa gamovlenili is siZneleebi, romlebic xels uSlis migrantis ucxo qveynis socialur sistemaSi CarTvas. srulad araa dadgenili saqarTvelos regionebSi emigrantTa nakadebis ricxovnoba da mimarTuleba, agreTve, emigraciaSi wasvlis motivTa dinamika bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi. Sesaswavlia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva asakis mosaxleobis sazRvargareT cxovrebis survili da moTxovnileba, masze moqmedi faqtorebi. arasaTanado yuradReba aqvs daTmobili emigrantTa ojaxebis demografiul, materialur da socialur-kulturul portrets. araa Catarebuli emigraciaSi myofTa meTodurad gamarTuli, mecnierulad Rirebuli sociologiuri gamokvleva da a.S. am gamokvlevis mizania, ojaxis, rogorc emigraciis xelis Semwyobis Seswavla. mizanma ganapiroba teritoriul jgufebSi emigraciis gavrcelebisa da mimRebi qveynebis dadgenis amocana. ojaxebi SeviswavleT ekono105

mikuri, socialuri, kulturuli da demografiuli aspeqtiT. kiTxvari moicavda ojaxis wevrebis Sesaxeb Sedeg maxasiaTeblebs: asaks, sqess, ganaTlebas, dasaqmebas, Semosavlis wyaros, ojaxis tips, 18 wlamde asakis bavSvTa raodenobas, ojaxis erT wevrze Semosavals da ojaxis wevrTa raodenobas. gamokiTxva Catarda ormocdaaTze met teritoriul jgufSi (sofeli, raionuli centri). TiToeul sofelSi gamoikiTxa 20, xolo raionul centrSi_ 40 ojaxi. kiTxvars pasuxobda ojaxis erT-erTi ufrosi wevri. ojaxebi SeirCa SemTxveviTi SerCevis wesiT. gamokiTxulma erTobliobam Seadgina 1260-ze meti ojaxis srulwlovani warmomadgeneli. gamokiTxulTa erTobliobam ar moicva saqarTvelos yvela mxare. amdenad daskvna exeba ara imdenad saqarTvelos yvela sofelsa da raionul centrs (Tumca maTzec gviqmnis garkveul warmodgenas), ramdenadac gamokvleul erTobliobas. emigrantebi, mimRebi qveynebi. gamokiTxul erTobliobaSi ojaxebi, romlis wevric emigraciaSi imyofeba 74-ia. rac Seadgens gamokiTxuli erTobliobis 5,9%-s. qveynebi, romlebSic emigrantebi imyofeba, 11-ia. isini emigrantTa gansxvavebuli raodenobiT xasiaTdebian. yvelaze mravalricxovani emigranti imyofeba saberZneTSi (33,8%), ruseTsa (21,6%) da germaniaSi (17,6%). ufro mcirericxovania emigrantebis raodenoba aSS-Si (6,7%) da espaneTSi (5,4%). kidev ufro mcirea maTi xvedriTi wili italiaSi (2,7%), holandiaSi (2,7%), kuveitSi (2,7%), kviprosSi (2,7%) da ukrainaSi (2,7%). yvelaze mcire aRmoCnda maTi xvedriTi wili litvaSi (1,35%). ojaxebis sidide. emigrantTa mier samSobloSi datovebuli ojaxebi wevrTa raodenobiT gansxvavdebian.

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yvelaze gavrcelebulia oTxi (25,7%), xuTi (22,97%) da samwevriani (22,97%) ojaxi. meaTeds aRemateba eqvsi (10,8%) da orwevriani (10,8%) ojaxi. yvelaze mcire xvedriTi wili aqvT erT (5,4%) da SvidSvilian (1,35%) ojaxebs. ojaxis saSulo sididea 3,87, soflidan wasulisa_ 4,26, xolo raionuli centridan wasulebisa_ 3,39. vfiqrobT, ojaxis mravalricxovnoba ar ganapirobebs misi wevris emigraciaSi wasvlas. saqmianoba. saqmianoba adamianis ara marto Semosavlis wyaroa, aramed misi identobis, SegrZnebisa da daniSnulebis mniSvnelovani nawilia. identobis didi nawili samsaxuris meSveobiT iqmneba34. emigrantTa ojaxebis naxevarze naklebSi (45,9%) arcerTi wevri ar saqmianobs, mesamedSi (33,8%) mxolod ojaxis erTi wevri saqmianobs. ojaxebis 15,5%-Si ori wevri saqmianobs, 2,7%-Si_ sami. es imas mowmobs, rom emigrantebis TiTqmis naxevris fuladi gzavnili warmoadgens samSobloSi datovebuli ojaxis arsebobis safuZvels, xolo sxva ojaxebis arsebobis aucilebeli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba emigrantTa fulad gzavnilebTan erTad pensiiTa da maT xelT arsebuli an maTTvis xelmisawvdomi SemTxveviTi SromiTi saqmianobis anazRaurebiT xdeba. iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqos adamianebis sazRvargareT wasvlis motivia masobrivi umuSevroba. TavisTavad am debulebis sawinaaRmdego TiTqos araferia, magram igi emigraciaSi wasvlis erT-erTi da ara erTaderTi faqtoria. sxvagvarad gaugebaria erT, or da sam dasaqmebul wevriani ojaxebis TiTqmis Tanabari xvedri34

kalhuni q., laiTi jeleri d. sociologia. Tb., 2007w. gv.80-82,

94.

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Ti wili emigrantebisa da araemigrantebis Cvens mier gamokiTxul erTobliobaSi. Semosavlis wyaro. emigrantebis ojaxebSi Semosavlis ramdenime wyaroa gavrcelebuli. yvelaze mravalricxovan ojaxebSi Semosavlis wyaroa pensia da xelfasi. SedarebiT mcire nawilTan Semosavlis wyaroa Warbi produqtis realizaciiT miRebuli Tanxa, zogan ki socialuri daxmareba. Semosavlebis analiziT dasturdeba, rom yvelaze gaWirvebuli yofa warmoadgens emigraciaSi wasvlis aucilebel, magram araskmaris pirobas. ojaxis erT sulze Semosavali. saqmianobis saboloo Sedegi ojaxis finansuri uzrunvelyofaa. es ukanaskneli Sesrulebuli samuSaosa da qveynis cxovrebis donis mixedviT icvleba. is rac erTi qveynisaTvis yvelaze dabali maCvenebelia, sxva qveynisaTvis SeiZleba yvelaze maRals Tu ara, saSualo dones gamoxatavdes. xolo ojaxis wevrebis ricxovnobis mixedviT erTi da igive odenobis finansuri Semosavali moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis gansxvavebul dones uzrunvelyofs. finansuri SesaZleblobebis niSniT ojaxebis dasaxasiaTeblad gamoviyeneT erT sulze Semosavlis sidide. masSi emigrantis gamogzavnili Tanxa ar Sesula. emigrantebisa da araemigrantebis ojaxebi finansuri uzrunvelyofiT mkveTrad gansxvavdeba. arian ojaxebi, sadac erT sulze Semosavali 191-300, 301-500 an meti laria. oRond, gvxvdeba iseTi ojaxebic, sadac erT sulze Semosavali mxolod 11-20 an 21-30 laria. gamovlinda, rom gamokvleul emigrantTa ojaxebis nawili maRali finansuri Semosavlebis mqone ojaxebs warmoadgens, romelTa wevris emigraciaSi wasvlis motivi, saeWvoa, ojaxis fizikuri gadarCenis problema yofiliyo. araemigrantTa ojaxebs Sorisac bevria yve108

laze dabali Semosavlebis mqone ojaxi, romelTa wevrebi emigraciaSi ar imyofebian. amrigad, emigracia yovelTvis gaWirvebiT araa nakarnaxevi. sqesi da asaki. emigrantTa ojaxebSi mamakacebis wili (52,6%) qalebisas aRemateba (47,4%). asakobrivad isini diferencirebul jgufebs qmnian. ocwliani asakobrivi intervalis mixedviT yvelaze mcire wiliTaa warmodgenili 20 wlamde asakis jgufi (11,8%). ojaxis 20-39 wlis wevrebi yvelaze mravalricxovan jgufs qmnian (36%), xvedriTi woniT meore adgilzea 40-59 wlis warmomadgenelTa jgufi (30%). 60 wlis da meti asakis ojaxis wevrebi emigrantTa ojaxis wevrTa mexuTedze metia (22,2%). Sobadobis dabali donis gamo socialurad aqtiuri, Sromisunariani adamianebis raodenoba Semdgom oc wels mniSvnelovnad Semcirdeba. kvlavac gagrZeldeba mosaxleobis daberebis procesi. emigrantebis ojaxis wevrTagan umaRlesi saswavlebeli aqvs damTavrebuli 30,5%-s. e.i. emigrantebis ojaxebi maRali inteleqtualuri potencialiT xasiaTdeba. ojaxis tipi. bolo aRweris monacemebiT saqarTveloSi Sinameurneobis 17 tipi arsebobs. emigrantebis ojaxebis SedarebiTma analizma gviCvena, rom isini moicaven Sinameurneobis mxolod 10 tips. emigrantTa sruli ojaxis tipidan yvelaze mravalricxovania ori da meti qorwinebiTi wyvilisagan Semdgari Sinameurneobebi (25,7%). ufro mcire xvedriTi woniT xasiaTdeba ori da meti qorwinebiTi wyvilisagan Semdgari Sinameurneobebi: gamokvleul erTobliobaSi (14,7%) da saqarTvelos SinameurneobebSi (10,3%). emigrantTa ojaxebSi gavrcelebiT meore adgilzea Sinameurneobebi erTi qorwinebiTi wyviliT bavSvebiT da bavSvebis gareSe (16%).

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18 wlamde asakis bavSvebi ojaxebSi. emigrantebis ojaxebis TiTqmis sam mexuTedSi (59,5%) 18 wlamde asakis arcerTi bavSvi ar aris. mxolod erTi bavSvia ojaxebis meoTxedze metSi (28,4%), ori bavSvi meaTedze naklebSi (9,5%) da sami bavSvi ojaxebis 2,7%-Si. emigrantTa ojaxebSi 18 wlamde asakis bavSvTa saSualo ricxvi Seadgens 0,55 bavSvs. es maCvenebeli bevrad naklebia vidre saSualod saqarTveloSi. ar SeiZleba imis uaryofa, rom emigrantebis saxiT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis garkveulma nawilma fizikuri arsebobis, aucilebeli socialuri da kulturuli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis myari safuZveli miiRo, magram vidre migraciis saboloo Sefasebas movaxdendeT, aucilebelia misi Sedegebi sxva kuTxiTac gavaanalizoT. emigrantTa ojaxebis sami mexuTedi moklebulia 18 wlamde asakis bavSvs. es imas gviCvenebs, rom xuTidan sam ojaxSi TaobaTa cvla ar moxdeba da adgili eqneba Sekvecil aRwarmoebas.

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Elguja Menabdishvili Nana Menabdishvili Lela Menabdishvili EMIGRANTS' FAMILIES LEFT IN THE HOME COUNTRY (Soiological Research) (Abstract) In order to study emigrants' families we conducted sociological research in more than 50 villages and regional centres of Georgia in 2008. 20 families were selected randomly in each village and 40 families in the regional centre.The aggregate of respondents were from 1260 families. The family members of these respondents were abroad. They are in: Greece (33,8 %), Russia (21,6 %), Germany (17,6 %), USA (6,7 %), Spain (5,4 %), Italy (2,7 %), Holland (2,7 %), Kuwait (2,7 %), Cyprus (2,75%), the Ukraine (2,7 %) and Lithuania (1,4 %). We have studied the family members': number, age, sex, education level, imployment, source of income, income per one person of the family, type of housholds, number of people under 18. With the correlative and evaluative analysis of emigrants and emigrants's families it is defined: 1) in the both aggregate in the majority of the families (43-45 %) none of the member is not employed. 2) the income per each person in the emigrants and nonemigrants's families is fluctuating from 10-20 till 600-800 dollars. 3) The highest level of the income per one person is spread in the part of the emigrants' families. 4) There is no children under 18 in the third part of the families. 5) The majority of emigrants are from the families with one or two marriage couples.

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Sinaarsi 5 mirian tuxaSvili rusebis Camosaxleba da emigracia saqarTvelodan 16 2. ciuri anTaZe saqarTvelos Sromis bazris funqcionirebis Taviseburebebi Tanamedrove etapze 3. giorgi wulaZe, avTandil sulaberiZe, nikoloz 29 maRlaferiZe saqarTvelo da saerTaSoriso migracia 35 4. giorgi melaZe saerTaSoriso migraciis geografia da perspeqtivebi 45 5. naTia WeliZe samxreT kavkasiis qveynebSi migraciis SedarebiTi kvleva 55 6. Tamaz futkaraZe aWaridan gadasaxlebul migrantTa religiuri adaptaciis zogierTi sakiTxi 7. elguja menabdiSvili, Tamar SinjiaSvili, Tamaz 65 zubiaSvili, lamara beriZe emigraciuli procesebi TbilisSi 77 8. mzia Selia, mariam gugutiSvili cxinvalis regionidan devnilTa socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi 86 9. mirian tuxaSvili, mamuka Toria afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa SromiTi emigracia 98 10. manana lobJaniZe saqarTvelos umaRlesi saswavleblebis kursdamTavrebulTa saswavlo migracia 11. ellguja menabdiSvili, nana menabdiSvili, lela 105 menabdiSvili. emigrantTa samSobloSi darCenili ojaxebi

1.

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CONTENT

Mirian Tukhashvili Russians Settlement in Georgia and Their Emigration 2. Tsuri Antadze Characteristics of the present labor market in Georgia 3. Tsuladze G., Sulaberidze A., Maghlaferidze N. Georgia and international migration Georg Meladze 4 Geography and prospects of international migration 5. Natia Chelidze Comparative Study of Migration in the South Caucasian Countries 6. Tamaz Putkaradze Some issues of religious adaptation for migrants from Adjara 7. Menabdishvili E., Shinjiashvili T., Zubiashvili T., Beridze L. Emigration processes in Tbilisi (Sociological Research) 8. Mzia Shelia, Mariam Gugutishvili Socio-Economic Problems of the IDPs from Tskhinvali Region 9. Mirian Tukhashvili, Mamuka Toria Labour Emigration of the IDPs from Abkhazia 10. Manana Lobjanidze Educational migration of graduates Georgian High school 11. Menabdishvili E., Menabdishvili N., Menabdishvili L. Emigrants' families left in the home country (Sociological Research) 1. 5 16 29 35 45 55 65 77 86 98 105

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Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, E-mail: [email protected] : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

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