Read Microsoft Word - SAQARTVELOS SAMEFO XELISUFLEBISATVIS.doc text version

Temur kenkebaSvili

saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebisTvis brZola daviT IV aRmaSeneblis memkvidreTa Soris

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2010

uak(UDK) 929.732(479.22)+94(479.22) k-405

naSromSi ganxilulia saqarTvelos istoria daviT IV aRmaSeneblidan giorgi mesamemde. ZiriTadad gamokvleulia am periodis saqarTveloSi samefo xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis istoriis winapirobebi da misi Sedegebi. winamdebare broSura gankuTvnilia specialistebisa da saqarTvelos feodaluri xanis istoriiT dainteresebuli farTo sazogadoebisaTvis.

redaqtori

istoriul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori iulon gagoSiZe

© T. kenkebaSvili, 2010

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2010

Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, E­mail: [email protected] : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

ISBN 978-9941-12-831-8

2

I. saqarTvelo XII saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi daviT IV aRmaSeneblis mefobis zogadi mimoxilva

1089 wels saqarTvelos samefo karze moxda politikuri gadatrialeba. qveynis momavliT dainteresebulma saxelmwifo moRvaweebma aiZules giorgi II gadamdgariyo da mefoba Tavisi 16 wlis vaJsTvis daviTisTvis daeTmo. daviT IV-is gamefebiT da qveynis saWesTan am progresul moRvaweTa dasis mosvliT sruliad Seicvala saqarTvelos politikuri kursi rogorc Turqebis, ise didgvariani aznaurebis mimarT. daviT mefis yovel moqmedebaSi da yovel nabijSi Canda windaxeduleba da Sors gamiznuloba. ra Tqma unda, es am qveynisaTvis Tavdadebul pirTa gamocdileba da damsaxureba iyo, romlebic erTgulad amoudgnen mxarSi axalgazrda mefes. maT saTaveSi edga daviTis aRmrzdeli da misi ufrosi TanamoRvawe giorgi mwignobarTuxucesi. TviTon daviTic imTaviTve iCenda Zlier nebisyofas, did niWsa da mxedarTmTav-

3

daviT aRmaSeebeli.

robis SesaniSnav unars.1 ...daviTis mefobis pirveli xana gagrZelda 1097 wlamde, rodesac mefem TurqTa sulTans xarki Seuwyvita da amiT mas omi gamoucxada. upirveles yovlisa, daviTi TavdadebulTa gansakuTrebuli laSqris Seqmnas Seudga. is daJinebiT

1

n. asaTiani, saqarTvelos istoria. III gamoc. gv. 158-160.

4

wvrTnida da TandaTan imravlebda erTgul mxedarTa razmebs, romlebic umTavresad yma-molaSqreTa, msaxurTa aznaurTagan Sedgeboda. samxedro samsaxuris sanacvlod mefe am Tavis `taZreulebs~ uwyalobebda miwa-adgils, `sakargavs~, romliTac es `mosakargaveni~ maamde sargeblobdnen, vidre mefis am gansakuTrebul laSqarSi rCebodnen. am erTguli razmebiT mefe Tavs esxmoda da TandaTan aviwroebda Turq momTabareebs da amiT mTaSi gaxisnul qarTvel miwismoqmed mosaxleobas barad Camosvlis pirobebs uqmnida. imave dros mefe mtkice xeliT ebrZoda didaznaurTa Tavgasulobas. 1093 wels daviTma daapatimra erTi yvelaze ufro Zlieri feodali, kldekaris erisTavi liparit ivanes Ze baRvaSi. romelic mefis moRalateobaSi mama-papis kvals dasdgomoda. 1097 wels ki daviT IV-em gausworebeli mojanye saqarTvelodan gaaZeva, xolo mTeli misi qoneba-samflobelo samefo qonebad gamoacxada. baRvaSTa saxlis gamokleba mZime danaklisi iyo didgvarian aznaurTa reaqciuli opoziciisaTvis. amasTanave, liparitis saqmisadmi damokidebulebis magaliTidan kargad Canda daviT mefis politikuri kursi saSinao urTierTobaSi.

5

xelisufleba, romelic saTaveSi uda Casdgomoda qarTveli xalxis did erovnul brZolas, ra Tqma unda, SeRavaTianobis nasaxsac ver dauSvebda am saqmis xelisSemSlel moRalateTa mimarT. ganuxreli simkacre, romelic daviT mefes qarTvel didaznaurTa politikur brZolaSi axasiaTebda, sruliad aucilebeli da gamarTlebuli iyo. ...1092 wels sulTani maliqSahi gardaicvala da mis Zmebsa da Svilebs Soris atyda daundobeli saSinao omi, romelSic calke mxareTa moxele-mmarTvelebi (amirebi, aTabagebi) did monawileobas iRebdnen. Sedegi is iyo, rom naZaladevad da xelovnurad gaerTianebuli saxelmwifo mraval urTierTmoqiSpe politikur erTeulad daiSala. maliqSahis memkvidre sulTnebi SedarebiT ufro susti mflobelebi iyvnen, vidre TurqTa didi saxelmwifos pirveli xelmwifeni toRril begi, alf-arslani, maliqSahi. amdenadve maT winaaRmdeg brZolac gaadvilebuli iyo. imave dros daiwyo dasavleT evropelTa didi omebi axlo aRmosavleTSi - `jvarosnuli laSqroba~. 1097 wels evropelma jvarosnebma Zlier Seaviwroes Turqebi mcire aziasa da siriaSi, xolo 1099 wels xelT igdes palestina-ierusalimi. jvarosanTa warmatebiT gamxnevebulma bizantiamac Seutia dampyrobel Turqebs. amrigad, mebrZoli

6

saqarTvelos mdgomareoba SesamCnevad gaumjobesda: is TurqTa pirispir marto aRar iyo. daviT mefem sworad Seafasa Seqmnili saerTaSoriso politikuri viTareba. mefem sulTans xarkis micema Seuwyvita, xolo qarTul miwa-wyalze momTabare TurqTa winaaRmdeg gadamWreli Seteva daiwyo. gadamwyveti brZola saqarTvelos ZalTa ukidures mobilizacias moiTxovda, Tan ki qveynis didmniSvnelovani mxare, kaxeT-hereTis samefo, ganze igda da samamulo omSi monawileobas ar iRebda. aucilebeli iyo misi Semoyvana saqarTvelos erTian saxelmwifo organizaciaSi. im dros kaxeT-hereTSi bevri iyo iseTi, vinc mxars uWerda saqarTvelos politikur gaerTianebas da mzad iyo am erovnuli saqmisTvis ebrZola. daviT mefem kaxeT-hereTis didmoxele-aznaurTa Sorisac gaiCina momxreebi. 1104 wels didmoxele aznaurebma, qavTarma da misma diswulebma ariSianma da baramma Seipyres da saqarTvelos mefes mohgvares kaxeT-hereTis mefe aRsarTani. daviTma kaxeT-hereTi daikava, magram am qveynisaTvis saboloo omi saqarTvelos mefes jer kidev win eloda. kaxeT-hereTis SemoerTebiT daviT IV sultans mniSvnelovan moxarke qveyanas arTmevda da Tan SesamCnevad usustebda Turqebs sabrZolo pozicias aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi.

7

amitom sulTnis didmoxelem, ganZis aTabagma, saswrafod gamoilaSqra, raTa saqarTvelos mefe hereT-kaxeTidan ganedevna. mters miuvidnen daviT mefis Sinauri mowinaaRmdegenic. saqarTvelos mefes kargad hqonda gaTvaliswinebuli mosalodneli brZola da is momzadebuli dauxvda mters. omi imave 1104 wels moxda erwuxSi (axlandeli saingilo) da qarTvelTa brwyinvale gamarjvebiT dasrulda. kaxeT-hereTis SemoerTebam saqarTvelos ekonomikuri da samxedro Zalebi SesamCnevad gazarda.2 qveynis ZalTa sayovelTao Semokrebam daviT mefis winaSe saqarTvelos eklesiis saqmeTa mogvarebis sakiTxic dasva. misi brZanebiT 1103 wels mowveul iqna saeklesio kreba. kaTalikos-episkoposebisa da monastrebis winamZRvarTa gverdiT krebaSi monawileobis misaRebad mowveul iqnen didi avtoritetis mqone monazon-meudabnoeni, saxelmoxveWili mweral-mwignobrebi, mecnier-filosofosni. ruis-urbnisis saeklesio kreba rTuli sakiTxebiT aRsavse yofila. gansakuTrebiT mZime iyo eklesiidan `uRirsi~ mRvdelmTavrebis gaZevebis sakiTxi. `ara advil iyo ese naTesavTa maTTa ZlierebiTa~, `rameTu iyvnes mTavarTa da warCi-

2

n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi. t. VI. Tb. 1973. gv. 34-36.

8

nebulTa Svilni~.3 `amave dros am krebam sasuliero cxovrebis wesSi daakanona sxva demokratiuli RonisZiebebic. amis Sedegad mefem SeZlo eklesia samefo xelisuflebisa da qveyis ganmtkiceba-gaZlierebisaTvis brZolis samsaxurSi Caeyenebina~.4 mefe erTdroulad axerxebda ebrZola rogorc Sinauri, ise gareuli mtris winaaRmdeg. 1110 wels qarTvelebma aiRes samSvilde da Zerna. samSvilde TurqTa mTavari dasayrdeni punqti iyo, misi dakargvis Semdeg selCukebma qvemo qarTlis didi nawili datoves. 1115 wels daviT aRmaSenebelma Turqebi rusTavidanac gandevna.5 1116 wels daviTma Turq-selCukebi saqarTvelos ukiduresi samxreT-dasavleT kuTxidan - taodanac

gadareka sazRvrebs iqiT.6

cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb. 1955. 4 a. gogolaZe, daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZi SiomRvimisadmi. Tb. 2001. gv. 15-16. 5 iqve, gv. 17. 6 iqve.

9

3

1117 wels ki qarTvelebma hereTis ukiduresi cixe-qalaqi giSi aiRes.7 1118 wels qarTvelTa mxedrobam qvemo qarTlis samxreT mxareSi, taSirSi, Turqebs waarTva uZlieresi cixe-qalaqi lore, riTac TiTqmis mTlianad gaiwminda mTeli qvemo qarTli.8 1118 welsve daviT aRmaSenebelma gaatara samxedro reforma, man Seqmna mudmivi jari. man agreTve CrdiloeT kavkasiidan ramdenime aTasi yivCaRTa ojaxi gadmoasaxla saqarTveloSi. yivCaRTagan daviTma Seqmna mudmivi cxenosani laSqari. amas garda mefem gaimravla sakuTari mcvelTa jari, romelic exla ukve xuTi aTasi meomrisagan Sedgeboda. am jars `mona-spa~ ewodeboda. 1120 wels daviT IV daiwyo generaluri Seteva TurqTa winaaRmdeg amierkavkasiaSi. saqarTvelos mefem gailaSqra SarvanSi. TurqTa poziciebi aq susti iyo. Sarvanis mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawili TurqTa winaaRmdegi iyo da qarTvelebs aqtiurad exmareboda. daviTma qalaqi yabala aiRo.

cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. 334. 8 a. gogolaZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 17.

10

7

gv.

imave xanebSi qarTvelebma daarbies Sarvanisa da ranis sxvadasxva olqebi.9 1121 wlis agvistoSi TurqTa sulTanma saqarTvelos didi laSqari Semousia. omi TrialeT-manglisidan Sida qarTlisaken mimaval gzebze mimdinareobda. ZiriTadi brZolebi didgoris midamobSi warmoebda. qarTvelTa jarma mteri sastikad daamarcxa. 1122 wels daviT aRmaSenebelma, 400 wlis ganmavlobaSi ucxoelTa batonobis qveS namyofi Tbilisi aiRo da is saqarTvelos sataxto qalaqad aqcia. 1124 wels daviTma somxeTis dedaqalaqi anisi aiRo da amiT saqarTvelos SemouerTa somxeTis erTi nawili. axla saqarTvelo ukve didi saxelmwifo iyo, romlis sivrces `nikorTfsiidan darubandis sazRuramde da ovseTidan aragawadmde~ Tvlidnen.10 1125 wlis 24 ianvars gardaicvala daviT IV aRmaSenebeli da Tavis memkvidreebs dautova teritoriulad gazrdili, ganmtkicebuli, ekonomikurad gaZlierebuli, kulturulad ayvavebuli saqarTvelo.

9 10

n. berZeniSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 41. iqve, gv. 42.

11

II. saqarTvelo daviT aRmaSeneblis memkvidreTa zeobis xanaSi demetre I

daviT aRmaSenebelma `sicocxlesa Sina dasua mefed demetre da daadga gÂrgÂni TÂT misTa ÃelTa~. man Tavisi anderZiT saqarTvelos samefos taxti dautova Tavis ufros Svils demetres. demetre mefe 1093 wels dabadebula.11 demetrs Tavidanve miiCnevdnen daviTis Rirseul memkvidred. 1117 wels daviT aRmaSenebelma `gagzavna Ze TÂsi demetre Sarvans spiTa ZlieriTa laSqrad, xolo man qmna omni sakÂrvelni, romliTa ganakÂrna mxilvelni da msmenelni, gamoiRo cixe qalaZori da Zleva-mosili movida winaSe mamisa TÂsisa savse alafiTa da tyÂTa uricxviTa~.12 ...didgoris brZolaSi ki, demetre laSqris erT-erT frTas xelmZRvanelobda.13 mefedkurTxeuli demetresaTvis mTavar sazrunavs didebuli mamisagan datovebuli memkvidreobis

11

j. stefnaZe, demetre pirveli. Tb. 1990. gv. 7. cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, qarTlis cxovreba. t. I; iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria. t. II. Tb. 1931. gv. 221. 13 j. stefnaZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 30.

12

12

Ddemetre I-is mefed kurTxeva.

movla da SenarCuneba warmoadgenda. Tavdapirvelad, 1128 wels, man `dmanisi da qalaqi xunani sparselebs waarTva~.14 am warmatebebis Semdeg demerte iZulebuli iyo q. anisi winandel mepatrone manuCes SvilebisaTvis (Tu SviliSvilebisaTvis15) daeTmo imitom, rom mas Semdeg, rac daviT aRmaSenebeli gardaicvala, q. anisi sparsTa laSqarma Zalian Seawuxa. saqarTvelos mefem

14 15

iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 221-222. j. stefnaZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 32.

13

ymobisa da damorCilebis didi fici da simtkice moarTva manuCes Svilebs da mxolod amis Semdeg dasca maT q. anisi. maT aasrules piroba da mTel vis sicocxleSi saqarTvelos mefis morCilni vnen.16 es moxda 1126 wels.17

CagaTaiy-

1130 wels demetrem daasrula mamisagan dawyebuli gelaTis mTavari taZris mSenebloba da sazeimod akurTxa igi.18 1130 welsve demetre mefes mouwyves ajanyeba, amas vrclad ganvixilavT qvemoT.19 1138-1139 wlebSi demerte I-ma ilaSqra q. ganZaSi (ganjaSi) da iqidan saqarTveloSi Zlevamosili dabrunda. gamarjvebis niSnad mas Tan wamouRia q. ganZas karebi. es kari exlac gelaTis monasterSi inaxeba da zed am ambis damamtkicebeli dazianebuli qarTuli warwera aqvs. am warweraSi naTqvamia, rom demerte mefes es kari moutania `[we]lsa mef[o]bis... ig: (13) x' dasabamiTgan...~. (iqve) anu marTlac 1138-1139 wels.20'

iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 222. j. stefnaZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 32. 18 l. sanikiZe, uqarqaSo xmlebi. t. I. Tb. 1990. gv. 506. 19 radgan samefo xelisuflebisaTvis brZola aris Cveni gamokvlevis ZiriTadi sagani, vamjobineT misi calke gamokvleva. 20 iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 223.

17

16

14

1150-ian wlebis maxloblad kvlav moxda demetres winaaRmdeg ajanyeba. amJamad mas Tavisi ufrosi vaJi daviTi aujanyda, amasac Cven vrclad SevexebiT naSromis mesame TavSi. 1153-1154 wlebSi `mouxda sa[l]dux amira anis[is] qalaqsa, moadga; aqaT demetre mefe movida; Seibnes, nebiTa RmrTisaÁTa mefes gaemarjva, daÃocna da amoswyvitna~.21

ganZidan Camotanili kari gelaTSi.

21

iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 225.

15

`1155 wels sruliad moulodnelad demetre mefem saqarTvelos taxt-gvirgvini daviTs miugdo, TviTon samefo samosi ganiZarcva da beris CoxiTa da sqemiT Semosili samonastro cxovrebas Seudga~.22 demetre Zalian male, daviT V-is gardacvalebis Semdeg monastridan droebiT dabrunda, Tavisi umcrosi vaJi giorgi (III) samefo taxtze aiyvana da umalve (daaxl. 1156w.) gardaicvala.*23

l. sanikiZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 507. Cven gadavwyviteT, rom daviT V-is cxovreba mTlianad gagveerTianebina mesame TavSi, radganac misi moRvaweoba srul kavSirSia samefo xelisuflebisaTvis brZolasTan.

*

22

16

III. brZola saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebisaTvis daviT IV-is memkvidreTa Soris daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZi da vaxtangis ajanyeba demetre I-is dasamxobad

`da mivanduÀn SÂlni da dedofalnica, SuamdgomlobiTa RuTisaTa, raTa Zma misi gazardos. da Tu inebos RmerTman da varg iyos cuata, Semdgomad missa mefe hyos mamulsa zeda, da daTa misTa pativ sces, viTar SvilTa CemTa sayuarelTa: amas yovelsa Tana waruZRuane wminda Zeli cxovrebisa da mivec droSa Cemi sviani, abjarni Cemni samefoni da saWurWleni Cemni zemoni da quÀmoni: xolo drahkani kostanti cuata[s]24 da Cemni lalni da Tual-margalitni, xaxulisa RuTismSoblisada Semiwiravs...~25 es gaxlavT daviT aRmaSeneblis meore, gelaTisadmi (demetresadmi) boZebuli anderZis

`[s]~ Camatebulia T. Jordanias mier - T.k. T. Jordania, qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa da mwerlobisa. t. II. tf. 1897. gv. 51; qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi. i. doliZis gamoc. t. II. Tb. 1965. gv. 18.

25 24

17

fragmenti, romelSic daviTi demetres ubarebs, rom misi Zma gazardos da Tu RmerTi inebebs da `ivargebs~ igi `Semdgomad missa (demetresa-T.k.) mefe hyos mamulsa zeda~. masSi dasaxelebulia `cuata~, romlis mniSvnelobis Sesaxebac mraval mosazrebas gamoTqvamen mecnierebi. zogierTi mecnieri, mag. j. stefnaZe, fiqrobs, rom `cuata~-`cvata~ unda niSnavdes demetre mefis Zmis saxels, magram aseTi daviTis vaJis saxeli, garda misi anderZisa, arc erT istoriul wyaroSi ar aris dasaxelebuli. e. gabiZaSvili samarTlianad SeniSnavs, rom `winadadebis aseT wyobaSi adamianis saxeli unda yofiliyo `Zma misi~-s Semdeg~,26 garda amisa, adamianis saxelad `cuatas~ miCneva Zalian ararealuria. anderZSi agreTve saubaria simdidreze, romelic daviTma xaxulis RvTismSoblis xats Seswira da iqac meordeba termini `cuata~. `xolo drahkani kostanti cuata da Cemni lalni da Tual-margalitni, xaxulisa RuTismSoblisada Semiwiravs~. sayuradReboa e. gabiZaSvilis mier gamotanili daskvnebi: `aseT konteqstSi kerZo pirisaTvis raime memkvidreobis datovebaze laparaki, da isic pirvel rigSi, moulodnelia. meorec, aq rom adamianis saxeli igulisxmebodes iqneba `cuatas~ (rogorc es T. Jordanias aRudgenia) da ara `cuata~ (rogorc xel-

26

Zveli qarTuli literaturis agiografiuli Zeglebi. e. gabiZaSvilis gamoc. Tb. 1968. gv. 281.

18

nawerebSia).27 ufro swori iqneba, rom aq `cuata~, orive SemTxvevaSi, aRniSnavdes mcires (cotas). marTlac, Sinaarsoblivad ufro marTebuli iqneba: Zma misi gazardos da Tu RmerTma inebos da ivargos cota, Semdgomad missa gaamefos. agreTve meore SemTxvevaSic: xolo drahkani kostanti cota da Cemni lalni da Tual-margalitni, xaxulisa RuTismSoblisada Semiwiravs. e. gabiZaSvili miiCnevs, rom pirvel SemTxvevaSi `cota~ aRniSavs mcirewlovans, rasac amarTlebs imiT, rom anderZis Sedgenisas vaxtangi mxolod Svidi wlis iyo.28 magram Cven vfiqrobT, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi mis mcire asakze saubari gaumarTlebelia da orive SemTxvevaSi `cuata~ niSnavs mcires (raodenobrivad)! axla rac Seexeba imas, Tu raSi dasWirda daviT aRmaSenebels demetresaTvis imis dabareba, rom mis Semdeg vaxtangi gaamefos. akad. m. lorTqifaniZe samarTlianad fiqrobs, rom `Zmidan Zmaze taxtis gadacema arRvevda saqarTveloSi ukve dakanonebul tradicias taxtis mamidan ufros vaJze gadasvlisa, rac samefo xelisuflebis centralizaciis erT-erT mniSvnelovan pirobas warmoadgenda da risTvisac agre TavgamodebiT iRvwoda TviT daviT mefe. daviTis moR27

Zveli qarTuli literaturis agiografiuli Zeglebi. gv. 282. 28 iqve.

19

vaweobis mTeli xasiaTi gamoricxavs misgan aseTi gankargulebis gacemas~.29 mecnieri istoriuli faqtebis Sefasebis safuZvelze samarTlianad fiqrobs, rom anderZis es adgili nayalbevia da igi SeTxzulia demetres mowinaaRmdegeTa mier.30 marTlac, raSi unda dasWireboda daviT aRmaSenebels aseTi ram? man xom Tavis sicocxleSive `aRiRo gÂrgÂni samefo da daadga Zesa TÂssa Tavsa zeda da Seacva samefo beWedi marjvenasa Ãelsa missa~31 rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, anderZis es adgili gaayalbes da borotad gamoiyenes demetre I-is dros didma feodalebma da 1130 wels ajanydnen mefis winaaRmdeg. `uflis wuls [da] ivane abuleTis Zes undoda[T] demetre (mefisa) da Tavis Zmis mokvla. magram ivanes mamam abuleTma Tavis (Svilis) winaSe WaRara gaiSala da (ganzraxulis asruleba) dauSala. ZmaTa Soris (Camovardnil) mzakvrobis wyalobiT oriveni dmanisis cixeSi daamwyvdies. rodesac demetre (mefem) es (ambavi) Seityo, (mivida dmanisis cixeSi da) ivanes (dacinviT) uTxra: «aha Semipyar!»-o. xolo man sinanu29

m. lorTqifaniZe, saqarTvelos sagareo da Sinapolitikuri viTareba XII s. meore meoTxedidan 80-iani wlebis dasawyisamde. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. t. III. Tb. 1979. gv. 285. 30 iqve. igives fiqrobda n. berZeniSvilic. ix. misi. saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi. t. II. Tb. 1969. gv. 113. 31 cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. gv. 364.

20

liT upasuxa: «ara mefev, me xelT mogeciT Tqveni Zma, romelic Tqvens mefobas eZiebs». (mefem) Seipyra igi (Zma?), `(Tvali) daubnelbina da gaanTavisufla~32o,33 mogviTxrobs somexi istorikosi vardan arevelci. iv. javaxiSvili miiCnevda, rom am cnobaSi dasaxelebuli ufliswuli unda yofiliyo demetres ufrosi vaJi daviTi. imas, rom demetres Zma aujanyda igi gamoricxavs imiT, rom demetres Zma ar hyavda,34 magram mas rogorc Cans mxedvelobidan gamorCa demetres umcrosi Zma - vaxtangi. gavixsenoT Tundac, rodesac gardaicvala giorgi Wyondideli daviT IV iglovda manam, sanam ar iSva Ze misi vaxtangi.35 demetres Zmis arseboba dasturdeba zemoT moxmobili daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZis citatidanac.36 garda amisa, aRsaniSnavia isic, rom aq naxsenebi ufliswuli ver iqneboda demetres Ze daviTi, radganac rogorc vardani gvamcnobs im ufliswuls demetrem Tvalni daubnelebi-

Dfhlfy Dtkbrbq= Dctj,ofz Bcnjhbz\ Gth\ Y\ "vbyf\ V\ 1861 u\ Cnh\ 160-161\ 33 Cven aviReT misi iv. javaxiSviliseuli qarTuli Targmani. ix. iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 223. 34 iqve. gv. 224. 35 j. stefnaZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 11. 36 j. stefnaZec ewinaaRmdegeboda iv. javaxiSvilis azrs, magram igi miuTiTebda demetres umcros Zmaze - cvataze. ix. misi saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is pirvel meoTxedSi. Tb. 1985. gv. 71-72.

21

32

na.37 aqve unda aRiniSnos j. stefnaZis sayuradRebo azri, romelic fiqrobda, rom SesaZloa am ajanyebaSi yivCaRebic yofiliyvnen gareulni.38 1130 wels wamowyebuli ajanyeba ar ganxorcielda. demetrem Tavisi Zma - vaxtangi da misi ZiriTadi mrCeveli ivane abuleTis Ze sastikad dasaja. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, vaxtangs Tvalebi dasTxares, xolo 1132 wels `demetre[m] abuleTis Zesa ivanes Tavi mokueTa~.39

es azri Tavad iv. javaxiSvilmac gamoTqva. ix. misi. dasax. naSromi. gv. 224. 38 j. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is pirvel meoTxedSi. gv. 70-71. 39 iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 223; j. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is pirvel meoTxedSi. gv. 71.

22

37

daviT V da misi ajanyebani demetre I-is dasamxobad

demetre I-is dros ajanyebebi ar damTavrebula zemoT dasaxelebuli vaxtangis SeTqmulebis mcdelobiT. samefo taxtisaTvis brZolam gansakuTrebiT mwvave xasiaTi miiRo demetresa da mis ufros vaJs daviTs Soris. demetre I-ma `dasues mefed Ze misi daviT. imefa equs Tue da mokuda~40 - gvamcnobs laSa-giorgis droindeli erT-erTi ucnobi qarTveli mematiane. daviT V-is Sesaxeb cnobebi naklebia, rac imiTac aixsneba, rom man mxolod eqvs Tves imefa. man gamefebisTanave sapyrobiledan gaanTavisufla mamamisis - demetre I-is mier tyvedqmnili TirqaSi (abuleTis Ze) da mas amirspasalaroba uboZa.41 1150 wels, wels demetre I-s aujanyda ufrosi vaJi daviTi. daviTma `Ralatsa da gandgomilebasa Sina mamisa mis demetressa amoswyvitna amis samefosa didebulni~.42 iv. javaxiSvili savsebiT samarTlianad miiClaSa-giorgis droindeli mematiane, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb. 1955. gv. 366. 41 Dfhlfy Dtkbrbq= dasax. naSromi. gv. 165. 42 istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. II. Tb. 1959. gv. 18.

23

40

nevda, rom ajanyebis mizezi gaxldaT demetre mefis umcrosi Zis - giorgisadmi mikerZoeba.43 Tamar mefis pirvel istorikoss - `istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis~ avtors uweria, rom demetre iyo `marCeveli Zisa umcrosisa~44 (anu giorgisa). Tumca ar aris gamoricxuli, rom daviTi mamamiss politikur mmarTvelobaSi winaaRdgomoda da ajanyeboda. ...am faqtis Semdeg demetrem samefo taxti kvlav SeinarCuna.

43

44

iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 225. istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis cxovreba t. II. gv. 3.

24

daviT V-is gardacvaleba da samefo taxtis `dasakuTreba~ giorgi III-is mier

rogorc Cven aRvniSneT, daviT V gardaicvala gamefebidan eqvs TveSi. misi gardacvalebis Sesaxeb istoriografiaSi mravali azria gamoTqmuli. `istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis~ avtors uweria, rom demetre mefis `vedrebisa Semasmenelman RmerTman daviTis dReTa SemcirebiTa srulyo pirvel mamisa~.45 anu istorikosi ambobs, rom demetre RmerTs evedreboda urCi Svilisagan exsna. somexi istorikosi vardani pirdapir asaxelebs daviTis mkvlelebad sumbat da ivane orbelebs.46 daviTis uecari gardacvalebis Semdeg berad aRkvecili demetre dabrunda samefo taxtze da Tanamosaydred giorgi dasva. `...da mamaman ZiTurT Ze tkbili, Semguari mamisa, aRamaRla Tavisa Tana da Zisa sworad mosaydred gamoaCina~.47 magram es yovlad gaumarTlebelia, faqtiurad demetrem daarRvia taxtis memkvidreobis kanoni. rogorc akad. m. lorTqifaniZe aRniSnavs SesaZloa momxdariyo aseTi

45

istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis cxovreba. t. II. gv. 3.

Dfhlfy Dtkbrbq= dasax. naSromi. gv. 154; m. lorTqifaniZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 287. 47 istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis cxovreba. t. II. gv. 3.

25

46

ram: `daviT mefe gardaicvala; misi gardacvalebis Semdeg, marTalia taxti mis Svils demnas ekuTvnoda, magram daviTis Semdeg isev demetre dabrunda taxtze da axla demetres gardacvalebis Semdeg ukve taxtis kanonieri memkvidre misi Svili giorgi iyo da ara SviliSvili demna~.48 ...magram, somex istorikoss stefanos orbelians es ambavi sxvagvarad aqvs moTxrobili. igi ambobs, rom mefe demetre gardaicvala da gamefda misi Ze daviTi. daviTma sikvdilis win mouxmo didebulebs da Tavisi mcirewlovani demna (demetre) maT Caabara, kerZod, ivane orbels, daviTis Zma giorgi, mefis meurved daniSna demnas srulwlovnobamde.49 iv. javaxiSvili samarTlianad aRniSnavda, rom es cnoba araa marTali, radgan daviTsa da giorgis Soris arsebuli mtruli urTierTobis pirobebSi ar aris mosalodneli, rom momakvdav daviTs Tavisi mcirewlovani Svilis meurved giorgi daeniSna.50 ufro swori Cans vardanis cnoba, rom daviTi giorgis momxreebma

48

m. lorTqifaniZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 288. iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 242-243; m. lorTqifaniZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 288. 50 iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 243.

49

26

giorgi III.

mokles51, agreTve sayuradReboa `istoriani da azmani SaravandedTanis~ avtoris mier nauwyebi ambavi, rom daviTis gardacvalebis Semdeg, berad aRkvecili demetre daubrunda taxts da Tavisi `Ze tkbili~ giorgi mefed dasva. stefanos orbelianis mier dasaxelebuli daviT V-is `anderZebi~ haerzea gamokidebuli, araviTari kavSiri ar aqvs istoriul sinamdvilesTan da SeTzulia TviT stefanosis mier.

51

Dfhlfy Dtkbrbq= dasax. naSromi. gv. 154

27

demetre (demna) batoniSvilisa da orbelTa amboxi

ajanyebaTa cikli, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, ar Sewyvetila giorgi III-is mefobaSic. 1177 wels giorgi III-is winaaRmdeg didi ajanyeba moewyo. saTaveSi didgvariani feodalebi - orbelebi idgnen, romlebic, TiTqos, daviT V-is Svilis demnas (demetres) uflebebis dacvis sababiT moqmedebdnen. ajanyebis yvelaze aqtiuri xelmZRvaneli iyo ivane orbeli. aq uneburad Cndeba kiTxva, es xom is orbelebi iyvnen daviT V-is mkvlelobaSi rom iRebdnen monawileobas? akad. m. lorTqifaniZe aRniSnavs, rom `rogorc Cans, orbelni, romelnic Tavidan giorgis momxreni iyvnen da romelTac miiRes misgan amirspasalaroba, giorgisagan daxmarebis safasurad ufro met sazRaurs elodnen da radgan ar gaumarTldaT, axla mis winaaRmdeg demnas kandidatura wamoayenes~.52 akad. r. metreveli eWvis TvaliT uyurebs im faqts, rom `orbelTa amboxi~ demna (demetre) batoniSvilis uflebebis dacvas isaxavda miznad. `wyaroebis mier demnas taxtismaZieblobis dasaxeleba amboxebis mizezad ususuria, radgan ajanyeba 1177 wels

52

m. lorTqifaniZe, dasax. naSromi. gv. 289.

28

moxda, roca demna sul cota ocdaori wlis mainc unda yofiliyo~, `xom ar aris Zalze didi weli srulasakovnebisaTvis, nuTu manamde ar SeiZleboda srulwlovnad CaTvliliyo saqarTvelos taxtis memkvidre?~53 sayuradReboa mecnieris mier gamotanili daskvnebi aRniSnul faqtTan dakavSirebiT. igi miiCnevs, rom demna ufliswulis gamefebis sakiTxi sruliadac ar yofila ajanyebis mizezi. es momenti faqtiurad iyo sababi, romelsac efareboda msxvil feodalTa survil-zraxvani da moqmedeba. TviT demna ajanyebis Zalze pasiuri monawile Cans. `odes orbelni ukuagdes giorgi mefisa, igi (demetre-T.k.) Tanaukuitanes da lores Seagdes~54. TviT giorgi mesamec aRniSnavda Tavis erT-erT sigelSi, rom `odes birebiTa da ganzraxviTa eSmakisaTa SeiTques vieTnime mefobisa Cuenisa didebulni da aznaurni orgulobisa CuenisaTvis da Zmiswuli Cueni gaguiyenes~.55 `orbelTa ajanyebis~ ZiriTadi mizezi gaxldaT ekonomikurad dawinaurebuli da gaZlierebuli feodalebis brZola politikuri uflebebis gazrda-gafarToebisTvis.

53

r. metreveli, Sinaklasobrivi brZola feodalur saqarTveloSi. Tb. 1973. gv. 122. 54 laSa-giorgis droindeli mematiane, qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. gv. 366. 55 r. metreveli, dasax. naSromi. gv. 123-124.

29

...ajanyebas saTaveSi orbelTa garda kidev ivane vardanisZe, SoTa Ze araTavaCosZisa, qarTlis erisTavi sumbat liparitisZe, mejinibeTuxucesi qavTar ivanesZe, anania dvineli, mxargZeli, didi gamrekeli, memna jayeli, hasan kaeneli, grigol aneli apiratisZe da a.S. edgnen.56 SeTqmulebs saxateSi mdgomi giorgi III-is moulodnelad dapatimreba hqondaT ganzraxuli, magram maTi survili giorgisaTvis cnobili gaxda da man TbilisSi Caketva moaswro. mefis Sepyrobis gegma CaiSala. man TandaTan Semoikriba meomrebi, daiqirava mTielebi da ajanyebulebs Seutia. mefis warmatebebma bevri feodali Seafiqra da zogi maTgani giorgi III mxareze gadavida (gamrekeli, grigol aneli, mxargrZeli da sxv.). Seviwroebuli meamboxeebi laSqris sididis miuxedavad* warumateblobas ganicdidnen da bolos

stefanos orbelianis `cxovreba orbelianTa~-s Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi. e. cagareiSvilis gamoc. Tb. 1978. gv. 4546; j. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is pirvel meoTxedSi. gv. 81. * istoriografiaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom amboxebulTa laSqari 30 000 kacs Seadgenda, magram axla es Cveni kvlevis sagani ar aris.

30

56

loris cixeSi `Seixuewes~.57 ajanyebulTa mTavari Zalebi lores cixeSi Caiketa, giorgi mesamem cixes alya Semoartya. giorgi III loreSi Caketili ajanyebulebis mSvidobianad Cabarebas cdilobda, magram garkveul dromde ivane orbeli civ uarze iyo. piriqiT, moiTxovda, rom demnasTvis saxelmwifos naxevari gadaeca. cixis alya TandaTan damZimda. erT Rames ki demna cixidan gaipara da biZas warudga. amas cixis dacema mohyva.58 giorgi mesamem `urCTa da mterTa misTa zeda Semsgavsebuli saqmeTa maTTa miago misagebeli~.59 ivane orbels Tvalebi dasTxares. ajanyebis bevri moTave sikvdiliT dasajes. demetre ufliswuls Tvalebi dasTxares da amasTanave daasaWurises. r. metreveli aRniSnavs, rom demnas dasaWurisebiT `giorgi mesamem Zirianad mospo momavalSic raime gaugebroba taxtis memkvidreobis Taobaze, radgan demetre amieridan STamomavlis gareSe unda gadaSenebuliyo~. demetre batoniSvili gardacvalej. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is TxedSi. gv. 81; iv. javaxiSvili, dasax. naSromi. gv. 58 j. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is TxedSi. gv. 82. 59 istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis II. gv. 20.

57

pirvel meo241. pirvel meocxovreba. t.

31

bis Semdeg sagvareulo saZvaleSi gelaTSi ki ara, mcxeTaSi dakrZales.60

* * *

saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebisTvis brZola daviT IV aRmaSeneblis memkvidreebs Soris aris feodaluri saqarTvelos Sinaklasobrivi brZolis erTerTi klasikuri gamovlineba. igi TiTqmis ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobda naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi da man faqtiurad `moSala~ saqarTvelos samefos ZiriTadi tradicia - samefo xelisuflebis taxtis memkvidreobis kanoni. es sakiTxi, gansakuTrebiT ki `orbelTa amboxis~ mizezebi da TviTon demetre (demna) batoniSvilis pirovneba kvlav mravalmxriv saWiroebs gamokvlevas mecnierTa mier.

60

r. metreveli, dasax. naSromi. gv. 133.

32

TEMUR KENKEBASHVILI

THE STRUGGLE FOR ROYAL POWER BETWEEN THE HEIRS OF GREAT KING DAVID IV THE BUILDER

Summary

The struggle for Royal Power between the heirs of The Great King David IV The Builder is one of the interclassical elicitations of Feudal Georgia. This process starts in period of reigning of the king Demetre I "The Devoted", and lasts during almost half a century. The most remarkable thing is the second will of the king David The Builder (1125), which later was falsified for vicious reasons by the Feudals of Georgia and was used as a main motive of rebellion. Later, in 1150, the older son of the king Demetre I, David, rose against his father. The reason was a partiality to his younger brother Giorgi. In 1155 David again rose against his father and this time he succeed, precipitated his father Demetre, took power and throne and became the king. Demetre went to the monastery. The king David reigned for six months and then passed away. The reason of his death, as an Armenian historian Vardan gives us information about this, were feudals The Orbels and his younger brother Giorgi. After this the king Demetre returned from the monastery and made his son Giorgi as a king. In 1177-1178 The Orbels and the son of David V Demetre (Demna) rebelled against the king Giorgi III. In this battle the winner was the king and he punished the rebels very severely.... The struggle for Royal Power between the heirs of The Great King David IV The Builder and especially "The Rebellion of The Orbels" and a personality of Demna Batonishvili needs a specific investigation by the scientists.

33

wyaroebi da literatura

1. Dfhlfy Dtkbrbq= Dctj,ofz Bcnjhbz\ Gth\ Y\ "vbyf\ V\ 1861 u\ 2. T. Jordania, qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa da mwerlobisa. t. II. tf. 1897 w. 3. cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisi, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb. 1955 w. 4. laSa-giorgis droindeli mematiane, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tb. 1955 w. 5. istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani, qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. II. Tb. 1959 w. 6. qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi. i. doliZis gamoc. t. II. Tb. 1965 w. 7. Zveli qarTuli literaturis agiografiuli Zeglebi. e. gabiZaSvilis gamoc. Tb. 1968 w. 8. stefanos orbelianis `cxovreba orbelianTa~-s Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi. e. cagareiSvilis gamoc. Tb. 1978 w.

34

9. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria. t. II. Tb. 1931 w. 10. n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi. t. II. Tb. 1969 w. 11. n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi. t. VI. Tb. 1973 w. 12. r. metreveli, Sinaklasobrivi brZola feodalur saqarTveloSi. Tb. 1973 w. 13. m. lorTqifaniZe, saqarTvelos sagareo da Sinapolitikuri viTareba XII s. meore meoTxedidan 80-iani wlebis dasawyisamde. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. t. III. Tb. 1979 w. 14. j. stefnaZe, saqarTvelo XII s. da XIII s-is pirvel meoTxedSi. Tb. 1985 w. 15. l. sanikiZe, uqarqaSo xmlebi. t. I. Tb. 1990 w. 16. j. stefnaZe, demetre pirveli. Tb. 1990 w. 17. a. gogolaZe, daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZi SiomRvimisadmi. Tb. 2001 w.

35

Sinaarsi

I. saqarTvelo XII saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi ............. 3 - daviT IV aRmaSeneblis mefobis zogadi mimoxilva......3 II. saqarTvelo daviT aRmaSeneblis memkvidreTa zeobis xanaSi............................................................................................... 2 - demetreI ............................................................................................ 12 III. brZola saqarTvelos samefo xelisuflebisaTvis daviT IV-is memkvidreTa Soris..............................................17 - daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZi da vaxtangis ajanyeba demetre I-is dasamxobad ............................................................. 17 - daviT V da misi ajanyebani demetre I-is dasamxobad ............................................................................................. 23 - daviT V-is gardacvaleba da samefo taxtis `dasakuTreba~ giorgi III-is mier ..................................................... 25 - demetre (demna) batoniSvilisa da orbelTa amboxi ...................................................................................................... 28 *** (boloTqma) ................................................................................. 32 Summary............................................................................. 33 wyaroebi da literatura ..........................................................34

36

gamomcemloba `universali~

Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, E-mail: [email protected] : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

37

38

39

Information

Microsoft Word - SAQARTVELOS SAMEFO XELISUFLEBISATVIS.doc

39 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

242911


You might also be interested in

BETA
Microsoft Word - SAQARTVELOS SAMEFO XELISUFLEBISATVIS.doc
Microsoft Word - xazaradze, todadze.doc