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1041 THEORY OF STRUCTURES

7 Hours / Week Unit ­ 1 1.1 SLOPE AND DEFLECTION OF BEAMS Deflected shapes of beams with different support conditions ­ Flexural rigidity and stiffness of beams- Derivation of differential equation of flexure ­ Area moment method ­ Mohr's theorem for slope and deflection of beams ­ Derivation of expressions for maximum slope and maximum deflection of simple standard cases by area moment method for cantilever and simply supported beams subjected to symmetrical UDL & point loads ­ Numerical problems on slope & deflections at salient points from first principles ­ simple problems. 1.2 PROPPED CANTILEVERS Definition of Prop ­ Statically indeterminacy ­ Prop reaction from deflection consideration ­ SF & BM diagrams by area moment method for UDL throughout span, central and non-central concentrated loads. Unit ­ 2 2.1 FIXED BEAMS Introduction to fixed beam ­ sagging & hogging bending moments ­ Determination of fixing moments by area moment method ­ standard cases ­ Fixed beams subjected to symmetrical & unsymmetrical concentrated loads and UDL ­ SF & BM diagrams for supports at the same level (sinking of supports at different levels not included) ­ slope and deflection of fixed beams subjected to symmetrical UDL & concentrated loads by area moment method only ­ Problems. 2.2 ARCHES Eddy's theorem (no proof required) Line or resistance ­ Actual & theoretical arches ­ Different types of arches ­ 3 hinged arches ­ segmental & parabolic arches ­ problems with simple symmetrical loading only. Unit ­ 3 3.1 CONTINUOUS BEAMS ­ THEOREM OF THREE MOMENTS Introduction ­ Definition of indeterminate structures ­ General methods of analysis of indeterminate structures ­ Clapeyron's theorem of three moments - statement ­ Application of Clapeyron's theorem of three moments for the following cases ­ Problems on two span ­ simply supported ends ­ one end fixed and the other simply supported ­ simply supported with one end overhanging ­ Propped cantilever ­ sketching of SFD & BMD for the above cases. 3.2 CONTINUOUS BEAMS ­ MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD Introduction ­ sign conventions ­ stiffness factor ­ carry over factor ­ Distribution factor ­ Application to continuous beams upto three spans & propped cantilever ­ Problems ­ Portal frames symmetrical frames only (no sway correction) ­ sketching BMD only for beams and frames. 20 Hours 15 Hours 14 Weeks 98 Hours 17 Hours

Unit ­ 4 4.1 COLUMNS AND STRUTS :

16 Hours

Columns and struts ­ Definition ­ short and long columns ­ End conditions ­ equivalent length ­ Slenderness ratio ­ Axially loaded short column - Axially loaded long column ­ Euler's theory of long columns ­ derivation for hinged end conditions ­ other standard cases of end conditions (separate derivations not required) ­ problems ­ Rankine's formula ­ derivation ­ simple problems. 4.2 COMBINED BENDING AND DIRECT STRESSES : Introduction ­ Eccentric loading ­ Effects of eccentric loading on structures in general and short columns in particular ­ combined direct and bending stresses ­ maximum and minimum stresses ­ problems ­ conditions for no tension ­ Limit of eccentricity ­ Middle third rule ­ core or kern of sections for square, rectangular and circular sections ­ chimneys subjected to uniform wind pressure ­ chimneys of square & circular cross sections only ­ problems. Unit ­ 5 5.1 MASONRY DAMS Introduction ­ derivation for maximum and minimum stresses ­ stress distribution diagrams ­ Problems ­ Factors affecting stability of masonry dams ­ factor of safety problems on stability ­ minimum base width & maximum height for no tension ­ Elementary profile of a dam ­ Minimum base width of elementary profile for no tension. 5.2 EARTH PRESSURE AND RETAINING WALLS Definition ­ Angle of repose ­ state of equilibrium of soil ­ Active and passive earth pressure ­ Rankine's theory of earth pressure ­ Assumptions ­ lateral earth pressure with level back fill ­ level surcharge ­ earth pressure due to soils ­ Retaining walls with vertical back only ­ maximum and minimum stresses ­ stress distribution diagrams ­ problems ­ stability of earth retaining walls ­ problems to check stability. Revision & Test Reference Books : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Theory of structures by S. Ramamrutham Theory of structures by B.C. Punmia, Ashok Jain & Arun Jain Statically Determinate Structures part 1 by R.S. Khurmi Mechanics of structures (Vol.I) by S.B. Junnarkar Analysis of structures by V.N. Vazirani & MM. Ratwani Elementary theory of structures by R.L. Jindal Strength of materials by FV. Warnock 13 Hours 17 Hours

1042 - HYDRAULICS

7 Hours/week UNIT ­ 1. 14 weeks 98 Hours 18 Hours

1.1 Introduction: Hydraulics-definition-properties of fluids - mass, force, weight, specific volume, specific gravity, specific weight, density, relative density, compressibility, viscosity, cohesion, adhesion, capillarity and surface tension-dimensions and units of area, volume, specific volume, velocity, acceleration, density, discharge, force, pressure and power. 1.2 Measurement of Pressure: Pressure ­Pascal's law of fluid pressure at a point types-static pressure, absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure, vacuum or negative gauge pressure-intensity of pressure and pressure and pressure head-conversion from intensity of pressure to pressure headformula and simple problems-measurement of pressure-atmospheric pressure-simple mercury barometer-pressure measuring devices-peizometer tube-simple U tube manometer-differential manometer-micrometer-problems1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure on Surfaces: Pressure on plane surfaces-horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces-total pressurecenter of pressure-depth of center of pressure-resultant pressure-practical application'ssluice gates, lock gates, problems.

UNIT - 2

18 Hours

2.1 Flow of fluids: Types of flow ­ steady and unsteady flow laminar and turbulent flow uniform flow equation for continuity of flow (law of conservation of mass) ­ Energy possessed by a fluid body-Potential energy and potential Head-Pressure energy and Pressure Head-Kinetic Energy and Kinetic Head- Energy equation ­Bernoulli's theorem-problems-VenturimeterOrificemeter- simple problem. 2.2 Flow through orifices and mouthpieces: Definitions types of orifices and mouthpieces with sketches small orifices vena contracta and its significance hydraulic coefficients Cd, Cv and Cc-Simple problems- Large orifice ­ Definition ­ Discharge formula derivation ­ Drowned orifice ­Definition - formula for finding the discharge of a fully submerged and partially submerged orifice ­ simple problems practical applications of orifices. Mouthpieces- types- External and internal mouthpieces -Practical Cd values -Discharge formula and problems.

UNIT- 3 Hours

18

3.1 Flow through notches: Definitions- Types of Notches ­ rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notches ­ Discharge derivation- Simple problems- Comparison of V-Notch and Rectangular Notch.

. 3.2 Flow through Weirs: Definitions- Classifications of weirs- Discharge over a rectangular weir ­ Derivation ­ simple problems ­ End contractions of a weir ­ Franci's formula ­ simple problems ­ Trapezoidal weir ­ simple problems - Cippoletti weir ­ Problems - Narrow crested weir Sharp crested weir with free over fall- Broad crested weir- submerged weir- Definition of terms -Crest of sill, nappe or vein, Free discharge, drowned or submerged weirs, suppressed weir Stepped weir ­ Velocity of approach ­ Spillways and Siphon spillwayDefinition.

UNIT- 4 Hours

18

4.1 Flow through pipes : Definition of pipe-Losses in pipes ­ Major losses- minor losses-, sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, obstruction in pipes-simple problems - energy/head loses of flowing fluid due to friction losses - Darcy's equation -Chezy's equation-Derivation Problems- transmission of power through pipes- Efficiency- Pipes in parallel connected to reservoir- Discharge formula and simple problems. 4.2 Flow through open channels: Definition-Classification-Rectangular and trapezoidal channel-Discharge-Chezy's formula, Bazin's formula and Manning's formula- Hydraulic mean depth - -problemsConditions of rectangular/trapezoidal sections-Specific energy, critical depth-Conditions of maximum discharge and maximum velocity-Problems-Flow in a venturiflume-Lining of canals ­ Types of lining-Cement concrete lining with sketches-Soil cement lining with sketches-LDPE lining.

UNIT ­ 5

18 Hours

5.1 Ground water: Aquifer-Water table -Taping of availability of ground water - Open well - bore well -Types of well construction - yield of a open well - Equation derivation - Specific capacity of well -Test for yield of well ­Sanitary protections - No problems. 5.2 Pumps Lifting of water ­ Pumps ­ Definition-classification of pumps-Positive displacement Pumps and rotodynamic pressure pumps-Characteristics of modern pumps-maximum recommend suction, lift, and power consumed-reciprocating pump-Advantages and disadvantages construction detail and working principle types single acting and double acting slip air vessels discharge and efficiency problems.

Centrifugal pump ­ Layout - Construction details - Classification based on working head ­ static, manometric and total effective heads ­ Based on type of casing - Volute and diffusion casing - Based on relative direction of flow through impeller - Radial, mixed and axial flows - Based on entrances of impeller single and double entry impeller ­

Fundamental equation of centrifugal pump Characteristics of a centrifugal pump ­ Discharge, power and efficiency - Problems specifications of centrifugal pumps and their sections. Hand pump - Jet pump, deep well pump - Plunger pumps - Pump section ­ Piping system. REVISION AND TEST Reference : 1. Fluid Mechanics K.L.Kumar 2. Fluid Mechanics Bansal 3. Hydraulics & Hydraulic machines P. Sankaran, DTE Publications 4. Hydraulics Dr. Jagadish Lal 5. Hydraulic Machines Dr. Jagadish Lal 6. Hydraulics Vol. I & II V.B. Priyani 7. Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics machines - R.S. Khurmi 8. Fluid Mechanics ­ Prof. S. Nagarathinam 9. Mechanics of fluids - Dr. N.S. Govinda Rao 10. Fluid Mechanics - Modi & Sethi 8 Hours

1043 - TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

6 Hours/ Week A. ROADS UNIT ­ 1 14 Weeks 84 Hours 16 Hours

1.1. Introduction Terms and definitions ­ Nagpur plan ­ Ribbon development ­ classification of roads­ Requirements of an ideal road. ­ Importance of roads in India ­ List of National Highways and state highways in Tamilnadu. 1.2. Technical features of a road Road structure ­ Road camber ­ Super elevation ­ Road gradient ­ Sight distances ­ Curves ­ Horizontal curves ­ Vertical Curves ­ types.. 1.3 . Traffic Engineering Traffic signals ­ Advantages ­ Types of road signals ­ Purpose ­ Traffic surveys ­ Express ways ­ necessity and requirements - Grade Intersections ­ Grade separation ­ Location ­ Types. Road accidents ­ causes of accidents Preventive measures. 1.4. Highway Surveys Survey ­ Reconnaisance survey ­ Preliminary survey ­ Location survey ­ Alignment ­ Factors to be considered in alignment ­ Highway realignment ­ Projects ­ General Principles. UNIT ­ 2. 16 HOURS

2.1. Road Arboriculture Introduction - Objects ­ Selection of trees ­ Location of trees ­ Highway lighting -Benefits. 2.2. Road Machineries Tractors ­ Dozers ­ Ripper ­ Scraper ­ Grader ­ Road roller ­ Road laying machinery. 2.3. Low Cost Roads Earthern and gravel roads Maintenance.- Soil stabilization. ­ Construction details with sketches ­

2.4. Water Bound Mecadam Roads Materials used ­ Construction details with sketches ­ Maintenance. 2.5. Bituminous Roads Bitumen - Coal ­ Tar ­ Asphalt ­ Cutback ­ Emulsions-Test on bitumin ­ Flash and Fire point test ­ Penetration ­ softening point - Types of bituminous roads ­ Surface dressing ­ Semi grouting ­ Full grouting ­ Bituminous concrete ­ Maintenance of bituminous roads.

2.6. Concrete roads Classification of concrete road ­ Constructional details ­ Merits and demerits. 2.7. Hill roads Factors considered in alignment ­ Formation ­ Hairpin bends- Drainage ­ Retaining and Breast walls. B. RAILWAY UNIT ­ 3 3.1. Introduction Introduction ­ History ­ Development ­ Definition ­ Classification of Indian Railways - Gauges ­ Broad gauge ­ Narrow gauge ­ Meter gauge ­ Loading gauge ­ Construction gauge - Difficulties in having different gauges 3.2. Rails General ­ Rail function ­ Types of Rail sections ­ Comparison of rail sections ­ Kinds of rails ­ Length of rails ­ welding of rails ­ Coning of wheels ­ Bending of rails ­ Creep ­ Wear of rails ­ Hogged rails. 3.3. Sleepers and ballast Functions of sleepers ­ Types of sleepers ­ Wooden, Cast Iron Prestressed concrete sleepers ­ Requirements of good sleepers ­ Sleeper density ­ Functions of ballast ­ Characteristics of good ballast ­ Ballast materials. 3.4. Track fixtures, fastenings and plate laying Rail joints ­ Fish plates ­ Fish bolts- Fang bolts- Hook bolts ­ Rail chairs and keys ­ Bearing plates ­ Blocks ­ Spikes-Elastic fastenings- Anchors & Anti creepers ­ Plate laying ­ Different methods - PQRS method of relaying . 3.5. Maintenance of track Necessity ­ Maintenance of track materials, Bridges & Rolling stocks. UNIT ­ 4 15 Hours 16 Hours

4.1. Points and Crossings Purpose and definition of points and crossings - Turnouts ­ Points and switches ­ Types of switches - Sleepers laid for Points and Crossings ­ Types of Crossings. 4.2. Stations and yards Definition of station and yard ­ Types of stations ­ Wayside stations ­ Junctions and Terminal station ­ Classification of yards ­ Passenger yard ­ Goods yard ­ Marshalling yard ­ Level crossing. 4.3. Station equipments General ­ Engine sheds ­ Water columns ­ Drop pits ­ Turnouts ­ Turn tables ­ Triangles ­ Buffer stops ­ Fouling marks ­ Sand hump ­ Weigh bridges. 4.4. Signalling Objects of signalling ­ Types ­ Classification according to location ­ Special signals ­ Typical layouts ­ Control of movement of trains ­ Following train system ­

Absolute block system- Automatic signaling ­ Pilot guard system ­ Centralised traffic control system.

4.5. Interlocking Definition ­ Essential principles of interlocking ­ Methods of interlocking ­ Tappets and lock system and key system.

C. BRIDGES

UNIT ­ 5

15 Hours

5.1. Introduction Bridge definition ­ Components of a bridge ­ IRC loading ­ Selection of type of bridge ­ Scour ­ Afflux ­ Economic span ­ Waterway. 5.2. Site selection and alignment Factors governing the ideal site selection ­ Alignment of Bridges ­ Points to be considered . 5.3. Classification of bridges Classification according to IRC purpose, Materials, Life, Float position, Culverts and Cause ways ­ Classification of Culverts with sketches ­ Classification of Causeway ­ Condition to construct Causeway. 5.4. Foundation Function of foundation ­ Depth of Bridge foundation ­ Different types of foundation - Selection of foundation ­ Control of ground water for foundation ­ Caisson foundation ­ Coffer Dam. 5.5. Substructure Piers ­ Different types of Piers ­ Abutments ­ Types ­ Wingwalls ­ Types . 5.6. Superstructure Types - Description ­ Girder Bridges ­ Balanced Cantilever bridges Continuous bridges ­ Arched bridges ­ Suspension Bridges ­ Cantilever Bridges ­ Steel Arched bridges ­ Rigid frame steel bridges ­ Bowstring girder bridges ­ Continuous steel Bridges 5.7. Bridge bearings Purpose of bearings ­ Function ­ Types of bearings & suitability. REVISION & TEST REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Roads, Railways & Bridges Highways Engg. Highways Engg. Transportaion Engg. Railway Engg. Road Railways Bridge and Tunnel T.D. Ahuja & G.S.Birdi P.A. Krishnamoorthy. S.K. Khanna V.N.Vazrani & S.P.Chandala S.C. Rangwala 6 Hours

Engg. 7. Railways Bridges and Tunnels

- B.L. Gupta - D.L. Gupta, O.P. Supple & O.P. Sharma

1044 - HYDRAULICS LABORATORY PRACTICE.

3 Hours/ Week 14 Weeks 42 Hours

Experiments 1. Study of manometers and pressure gauges 2. Verification of Bernoulli's theorem 3. Flow through Venturimeter ­ Determination of Cd. 4. Flow through Orificemeter ­ Determination of Cd. Flow through orifice : 5. Determination of Cd by time and fall in head method 6. Determination of Cd by constand head method Flow through external cylindrical mouth piece : 7. Determination of Cd by time and fall in head method 8. Determination of Cd by Constant head method Flow through pipes : 9. Determination of friction factor for the given GI pipe /PVC pipe. Flow through notch : 10. Determination of Cd for rectangular notch / V-notch Pumps : 11. Centrifugal pump ­ To draw characteristic curves 12. Reciprocating pump ­ To draw characteristic curves.

39 hours

Revision Test

Reference Books : 1. Hydraulic Lab Manual Compiled by T.T.T.I., Chennai ­ 113.

3 hours

2. Experimental Hydraulic by Ghosh and Talapohia - published by Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

Exam mark : 75 marks Record mark : 25 marks Total : 100 marks

1045 CAD IN CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING PRACTICE

6 Hours/Week Preparation of drawing using AUTOCAD 1. AutoCAD 1.1 Definition of various commands used 1.2 Simple Exercises using AutoCAD commands - 9 Hrs. - 6 Hrs. 14 Weeks 84 Hours

2. Produce drawing using AUTOCAD and output of all the drawings are taken print out in A4 sheet using INKJET/LASER PRINTER or PLOTTER and produced in file form as regard. 2.1. Section of Semicircular Arch. - 3 Hrs. 2.2. Elevation of door partly paneled and partly glazed. - 3 Hrs 2.3. Section of a lean-to roof. - 3 Hrs 2.4. Section of Spread footing foundation. - 3 Hrs 2.5. Section of a Load bearing wall from parapet to Foundation Partly showing all the details across the section.(single storey) - 3 Hrs 2.6. Plan, section and elevation of single bed roomed building. - 12 Hrs. (R.C.C. Roof) 2.7. Plan, section and elevation of a prayer Hall. - 12 Hrs 2.8. Plan, section and elevation of a school Building. - 12 Hrs 2.9. Preparation of approval drawing to be submitted to Corporation or Municipality showing required details in one sheet such as - 18 Hrs a. Site plan (Land boundary, Building boundary, car parking, passage, sanitary layout, septic tank location etc). b. G.F.Plan, F.F.Plan, Section and Elevation (line diagram is enough) c. Key plan d. Septic Tank plan and section (line diagram) e. Rain water harvesting pit. ( with all detail) f. Typical foundation details.( Column foundation or Spread footing) g. Title block showing -Joinery details, Specification, Area Statement, color Index, Title of the property, Space for Owners Signature and Licensed Surveyor's Signature and Planner company Address etc. Reference : 1. Building Drawing ­ Khanna Publishers, New Delhi. 2. AutoCAD quick reference manual ­ Bpb Publications.

1046 SURVEY PRACTICE II

6 Hours / Week 1. Levelling 1.1 L.S and C.S for a canal / Road alignment ­ Plotting the profile 1.2 Contouring by Block levels plotting by interpolation 1.3 Site survey for Civil structures a. Setting out of a building b. Setting out of simple circular curve (offsets from long chord) 1.4 Fly Levelling ­ 10 staff reading 4 Change points 2 Inverted levels, 2. Theodolite 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 (36 Hours) 18 Weeks 84 Hours (30 Hours)

Setting up of Theodolite ­ Temporary Adjustment ­ Reading horizontal angles Measurement of horizontal angle by general method Measurement of horizontal angle by reiteration method Measurement of Horizontal angle by repetition method Closed theodolite traverse measuring included angle Distance between two in accessible points measuring angle from a baseline. Measurements of vertical angles Height of the object when the base is accessible Height of an object when the base is inaccessible i) Single plane method ii) Double plane method

3. Tachometry 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.

(18 Hours)

Determination of constants of a Tacheometer Determination of distance and elevation of a point by Tacheometric observations Determination of gradient between two points of different elevations Tangential tacheometric observation ­ Exercise

Survey Camp (Outside the Campus) 1. Duration 7 days 2. 15 marks to be allotted for survey file in Examination 3. Works to be conducted in survey camp i) L.S and C.S for a cannal / road alignment ii) Radial Tachometric contouring iii) Contouring by block levels iv) Curve setting by deflection angle v) Check levelling vi) Setting out of building and culvert vii) Theodolite / Tacheometric traverse (Balance in the traverse by Bowdich rule)

Note: For examination 1) Part A ­ Fly leveling with 10 points including 2 change in points and inverted point. (25 Marks) 2) Part B ­ Using theodolite one question (30 Marks).

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