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Name: DR. ASHOK SANTRA Designation: Senior Scientist Contact Address: National Research Centre on Yak Dirang ­ 790 101, West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh Phone/Mobile: +91 9434068023 Email-ID: [email protected] Educational Qualification: Degree(s) University / Institute Year of Passing 1990 Class % of Marks 67.08

B.V.Sc. & A.H.

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (West Bengal), India. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (U.P.), India. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (U.P.), India. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Floreat, Perth, Australia.

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M.V.Sc. (Animal Nutrition)* Ph.D (Animal Nutrition)** Post Doctorate (Rumen Microbiology) ***

1992

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83.42

1995

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2003

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* Thesis title:

Effect of defaunation on nutrient digestibility and enzyme profile in the rumen of buffalo

** Thesis title: Studies on recuperative changes and some immunological responses in cross-bred calves fed restricted concentrate and wheat qtraw in isonitrogenous diets. *** Research tropics: Isolation and characterization of rumen fungi and its feasibility for interspecies trans- inoculation to improve feed utilization Professional Experience: During my M.V.Sc dissertation work, the tropic of my research assignment for M.V.Sc thesis was on rumen manipulation by defaunation and its influence on nutrient utilization, measurement of rumen gas production by respiration calorimetry and rumen enzyme profile in buffalo calves. During my Ph.D programme, the work on rumen fermentation characteristics, its enzyme profile and kinetic in cattle maintained on diets with varying levels of roughage and concentrate was studied. The work as above was further extended after my joining as scientist at Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Avikanagar, Rajasthan ­ 304 501, India in the year 1995. At CSWRI, the thrust area of my research was on

comparison of rumen fermentation characteristics with special reference to rumen ciliate protozoa in sheep and goats maintained under varying feeding regimen and physiological stages. The locally available feed ingredients particularly top feed resources and low grade roughages were screened for their rumen degradability in vitro, in sacco and in vivo in both sheep and goats. Considerable informations are available on growth performance of post-weaner lambs while the informations on influence of pre-weaning nutrition of lambs on its post-weaning gain is lacking. Two organized studies on influence of plane of nutrition of lambs in pre-weaning phase on its post weaning growth indicated that 12 % DCP and 58 % TDN in creep mixture was adequate for 150 g average daily gain of pre-weaner lambs. A series of experiment indicated that a sheep (weaned at the age of sixty days) in active phase of growth on an average 150 g average daily gain with 15 ­ 20 % feed conversion efficiency under intensive feeding on 50 : 50 roughage and concentrate based ration attained 25 kg body weight at five months of age. The effect of defaunation on nutrient utilization and body metabolism have been extensively studied. Under a series of experiments conducted on the topic, the dosages of sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunating agent for complete defaunation of sheep and goats was standardized. The time lag in reestablishment of rumen fauna in sheep and goats after defaunation in mixed herd management was identified. Growth study conducted on post weaner lambs indicated 12% improvement in growth and 18% improvement in feed conversion efficiency in defaunated lambs. Effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation was studied. It was observed that sunflower oil reduced total gas production, methane production, ciliate protozoal population and ammonia nitrogen concentration in vitro. Dietary supplementation of sunflower oil improved growth performances and feed conversion efficiency in growing crossbred calves Current Research Area: Nutrients requirement and feeding management of yak at their different physiological stages. Major Research Accomplishment: Rumen fermentation and its manipulation

Publications:

A. Research Papers International Journal

1. Santra, A., Kamra, D.N., Pathak, N.N. and Khan, M.Y. (1994). Effect of protozoa on the loss of energy in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Buffalo Journal. 10(3): 249-253.

2. Santra, A., Kamra, D.N. and Pathak, N.N. (1996). Influence of ciliate protozoa on biochemical changes and hydrolytic enzymes in the rumen of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Buffalo Journal. 12(1): 95-100.

3. Santra, A., Karim, S.A., Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H. and Prasad, R. (1998). Rumen ciliate protozoa and fibre utilization in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research, 30(1): 13-18.

4. Santra, A., Agarwal, N., Kamra, D.N. and Pathak, N.N. (1999). Effect of level of concentrate supplement on blood biochemical changes and testosterone level in crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) calves. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 12(6): 881-885.

5. Santra, A. and Pathak, N.N. (1999). Nutrient utilization and compensatory growth in crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) calves. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 12(8): 1285-1291.

6. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (1999). Effect of protein levels in creep mixture on nutrient utilization and growth performance of pre-weaner lambs. Small Ruminant Research. 33(2): 131-136.

7. Karim. S.A., and Santra, A. (2000). Growth performance of Malpura and crossbred lambs under intensive feeding. Small Ruminant Research. 37(3): 287-291.

8. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2000). Growth performance of faunated and defaunated Malpura weaner lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 86(3-4): 251-260.

9. Karim, S.A., Santra, A. and Sharma, V., (2000). Nutrient intake and utilization by range managed sheep in critical physiological stages maintained on grazing with concentrate supplementation in a hot semiarid environment. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 13(9): 12281234.

10. Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H., Khali, A., Prasad, R., Santra, A., Mishra, A.K., Parthasarathi, S. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2000). Effect of sodium hydroxide and alkaline peroxide treatment on physical and chemical characteristics and IVOMD of mustard straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 84( ): 257-264.

11. Santra, A. and Pathak, N.N. (2000). Effect of dietary concentrate level on body immune response in calves fed wheat straw based diet. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 71(4): 244-245.

12. Karim, S.A., Santra, A. and Sharma, V.K. (2001). Pre-weaning growth response of lambs fed creep mixture with varying levels of energy and protein. Small Ruminant Research. 39(2): 137-144.

13. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2001). Nutrient utilization and growth performance of Malpura and Malpura X Awassi crossbred lambs under intensive feeding. Small Ruminant research. 41(3): 277-282.

14. Karim, S.A., Santra, A. and Sharma, V.K. (2001). Growth performance of weaned lambs fed creep mixture with varying levels of protein and energy in pre-weaning phase. Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 14(9): 1394-1399.

15. Santra, A. and Pathak, N.N. (2001). The effect of dietary concentrate level on rumen enzyme profile and ciliate protozoa population in cattle fed wheat straw diet. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences. 10: 589-604.

16. Santra, A., Karim, S.A. and Chaturvedi, O.H. (2002). Effect of concentrate supplementation on nutrient intake and performance of lambs of two genotype grazing a semiarid rangeland. Small Ruminant Research. 44(1): 37-45.

17. Karim, S.A., Santra, A. and Verma, D.L. (2002). Growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics of Malpura and Malpura x Awassi crossbred lambs in a hot semiarid environment. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 15(3): 377-381.

18. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2002). Influence of ciliate protozoa on biochemical changes and hydrolytic enzyme profile in the rumen ecosystem. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 92(5): 801-811.

19. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2002). Nutrient utilization and growth performance of defaunated and faunated lambs maintained on complete diets containing varying proportion of roughage and concentrate. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 101(1-4): 87-99.

20. Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H., Tripathi, M.K., Kumar, R. and Karim, S.A. (2003). Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs. Small Ruminant research. 47(3): 203-212

21. Chaturvedi, O.H., Bhatta, R., Santra, A., Mishra, A.S. and Mann, J.S. (2003). Effect of supplementary feeding of concentrate on nutrient utilization and production performance of ewes grazing on community rangeland during late gestation and early lactation. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences. 16(7): 983-987.

22. Karim, S.A. and Santra, A. (2003). Nutrient requirements for growth of lambs under hot semi-arid environment. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 16(5): 665-671.

23. Tripathi, M.K., Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H. and Karim, S.A. (2004). Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization and growth of lambs fed high concentrate diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 111( ): 27-39.

24. Sen. A.R., Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2004). Carcass yield, composition and meat quality attributes of sheep and goat under semiarid conditions. Meat Science. 66(4): 757-763.

25. Mishra, A.S., Misra, A.K., Tripathi, M.K, Santra, A., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2004). Effect of sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide treated mustard (Brassica campestris) straw based diets on rumen degradation kinetics (in sacco), fermentation pattern and nutrient utilization in sheep. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal sciences. 17(3): 355-365.

26. Sen, A.R., Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2006). Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on carcass and meat quality of high concentrate fed lambs. Small Ruminant Research. 65(1-2): 122-127.

27. Santra, A., Karim, S.A., and Chaturvedi, O.H. (2007). Rumen enzyme profile and fermentation characteristics in sheep as affected by treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate as defaunating agent and presence of ciliate protozoa. Small Ruminant research. 67(2-3): 126-137.

28. Santra, A., Parthasarathy, S. and Karim, S.A. (2007). Effect of defaunation on body confirmation changes, wool yield and fibre characteristics of growing lambs in a hot semi arid environment. Australian Journal of experimental Agriculture. 47: 789-795.

National Journal

1. Santra, A., Kamra, D.N. and Pathak, N.N. (1994). Effect of defaunation on nutrient digestibility and growth of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. International Journal of Animal Sciences. 9(2): 185 - 187.

2. Mandal, A.B., Sil, B., Santra, A., Kamra, D.N. and Pathak, N.N. (1997). An alternate technique of ammoniation by ensiling straw with urea to minimize loss of added nitrogen. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 11( ): 195-200.

3. Santra, A., Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H., Prasad, R. and Karim, S.A. (1997). Comparative rumen fermentation characteristics in sheep and goats at maintenance level of feeding. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 67(7): 625-627.

4. Mishra, A.S.; Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H., Prasad, R. and Karim, S.A. (1997). Comparative nutrient utilisation in sheep and goats on cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) based diet. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 14(4): 250-253.

5. Chaturvedi, O.H., Prasad, R., Mishra, A.S., Santra, A., Khali, A., Parthasarthy, S. and Jakhmola, R.C. (1998). Effect of different treatments on tenacity and IVDMD of mustard straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 68(6): 585-586.

6. Santra, A., Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (1998). Comparative utilization of complete feed containing siris (Albezia lebbeck) pods by sheep and goats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 68(10): 1075-1077.

7. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (1999). Growth performance of weaner lambs maintained on varying levels of dietary protein in pre-weaning phase. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 69(9): 722726.

8. Chaturvedi, O.H., Santra, A., Mishra, A.S., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (1999). Effect of soaking medium and hours of soaking on nutritional value of mustard (Brassica campestris) straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 69(9): 739-741.

9. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (1999). Efficacy of sodium lauryl sulfate as defaunating agent in sheep and goats. International Journal of Animal Sciences. 14(2): 167-171.

10. Mishra, A.S., Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2000). Comparative nutrient utilization in sheep and goats on grainless complete diet. Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 15(2): 64-66.

11. Chaturvedi, O.H., Santra, A., Mishra, A.S., Misra, A.K., Prasad, R. and Karim, S.A. (2000). Effect of Coprinus fimetarius on nutritional valuE of`urea treated mustard straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70(8): 874-876.

12. Sen, A.R., Karim, S.A. and Santra, A. (2000). Eæfect of defaunation on carcass and meat characteristics of finisher lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70(6): 659-661.

13. Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H., Santra, A., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2000). Effect of different urea treatment methods on urea degradation and nutritive value of cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) straw. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 6(1): 14-18.

14. Sen, A.R., Karim, S.A., Santra, A. (2000). Carcass characteristics of finisher lambs maintained on grazing with concentrate supplementation. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70(9): 988-990.

15. Mishra, A.S., Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H., Misra, A.K., Prasad, R. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2000). Rumen fermentation characteristic ciliate protozoa and utilization of nutrients in sheep fed sodium hydroxide treated mustard straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 70(8): 850-853.

16. Mishra, A.S., Chaturvedi, O.H., Mishra, A.K., Prasad, R., Tripathi, M.K., Santra, A., Man, J.S. and Jakhmola, R.C. (2001). Nutritional evaluation of diffezent fractions of mustard (Brassica campestris) plant at maturity. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 7(1): 51-52.

17. Karim, S.A., Santra, A. and Sharma, V.K. (2001). Milk yield, its composition and performance of Malpura ewes under protocol of grazing and supplementation. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 71(3): 258-260.

18. Santra, A. and Karim. S.A. (2001). Nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in sheep and goats under stall feeding. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 71(9): 852-856.

19. Karim, S.A., Parthasarathy, S., Santra, A. and Sharma, V.K. (2001). Wool Yield and fibre characteristics of intensively fed lambs. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. 7(1): 25-27.

20. Chaturvedi, O.H., Mishra, A.S., Santra, A. Karim, S.A. and Jaohmola, R.C. (2001). Effect of supplementary feeding during late gestation on production performance of ewes grazing on community range land. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 71(7): 714-717.

21. Karim, S.A., Santra, A., Sen, A.R. and Sharma, V.K. (2001). Carcass characteristics of intensive fed finisher lambs maintained on varying plane of nutrition in pre-weaning phase. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 71(10): 955-958.

22. Chaturvedi, O.H., Santra, A., Mishra, A.S., Prasad, R., Misra, A.K., Vaithiyanathan, S. and Jakhmola, R. C. (2002). Titrable groups and soluble phenolic compounds in untreated and treated mustard (Brasica campestris) straws and their relation with cell wall constituents and dry matter disappearance in situ. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 72(1): 75-79.

23. Santra, A. and Karim, S. A. (2002). Rumen cannulation in sheep and goats: Fabrication of cannulae and surgical procedure for its implantation. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 72(11): 978980.

24. Chaturvedi, O.H., Santra, A., Tripathi, M.K., Jayshankar, J. and Karim, S.A. (2003). Weight gain and body conformational changes in weaner lambs fed high concentrate diets containing graded levels of sodium bicarbonate. Indian journal of Animal Sciences. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 73(6): 668-673.

25. Das, S.K. and Santra, A. (2008). Comparative efficiency of different oocyte recovery methods for cattle ovaries. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 78 (3): 277-278.

26. Santra, A. and Pathak, N.N. (2009). Effect of restricted concentrate feeding on nutrient utilization and growth performance of crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos Taurus) calves maintained on wheat straw based diet. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 79(9): 906-911

27. Das, S.K. and Santra, A. (2010). In vitro development of cattle embryos in modular incubator chamber. Indian Veterinary Journal. 87: 748-750.

B. Scientific Review Papers

1. Santra, A. and Jakhmola, R.C. (1998). Effect of defaunation on animal productivity. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 14: 103-116.

2. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2003). Rumen manipulation to improve animal productivity. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 16(5): 748-763. 3. Santra, A. and Karim, S.A. (2009). Effect of dietary roughage and concentrate ratio on nutrient utilization and performances of ruminant animals. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology. 9: 113-135.

C. Article published in Conference Compendium / Technical Bulletin

1. Jakhmola, R.C. and Santra, A. (1998). Scope of complete feed in sheep and goat production. Lead paper in : National Seminar on "Advances in health and production of sheep and goats." 13th to 14th November, Nagpur, India, pp. 15. 2. Karim, S.A. and Santra, A. (2000). Nutrition of range managed sheep and goats. Lead paper in : III Biennial Conference of Animal nutrition Association on "Livestock feeding strategies in the new millenium." 7th to 9th November, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India, pp. 19-35. 3. Santra, A., Das, S.K., Roy, P.K. and Chatterjee, A. (2006). Rumen manipulation for improving animal productivity. Published in Compendium, "National seminar on prospects and challenges of manufacturing organic indigenous milk products for Export market", 26th to 27th November, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 39-41. 4. Das, S.K. and Santra, A. (2006). Preservation of indigenous bovine germplasm for prospective of organic dairy farming. Published in Compendium, "National seminar on prospects and challenges of manufacturing organic indigenous milk products for export market", 26 th to 27th November, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 32-35. 5. Roy, P.K., Pal, P.K., Santra, A. and Chatterjee, A. (2006). Organic dairy cattle farming and its impact on milk yiels, milk quality and animal health. Published in Compendium, "National Seminar on prospects and challenges of manufacturing organic indigenous milk products for export market", 26th to 27th November, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 96-99.

6. Chatterjee, A., Singh, R.B., Roy, P.K and Santra, A. (2006). Organic dairy farming: the concept and the Indian Context. Published in Compendium, "National Seminar on prospects and challenges of manufacturing organic indigenous milk products for export market", 26th to 27th November, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 39-41. 7. Das, S.K., Chatterjee, A. and Santra, A. (2008). Improvement of livestock animals through embryo biotechnology and preservation of bovine germplasm. Published in Compendium, "National convention on sustainable and integrated dairy development in eastern and northeastern region: status and strategies", 11th to 12th December, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 109112. 8. Chatterjee, A., Das, S.K., Roy, P.K., Santra, A., Singh, R.B. and Saha, R.C. (2008). Nutritional Status of dairy cattle and scope for possible intervention for sustainable dairy production in eastern and north eastern India. Published in Compendium, "National convention on sustainable and integrated dairy development in eastern and northeastern region: status and strategies", 11th to 12th December, ERS-NDRI, Kalyani, West Bengal, pp. 69-785..

D. Technical Bulletin

1. Karim. S.A., Santra, A. and Singh, V.K. (2004). Feeding of lambs for mutton production. CSWRI Publication, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India, pp. 1-43. 2. Santra, A., Karim, S.A., and Singh, V.K. (2007). Defaunation for improving mutton and wool production in sheep. CSWRI Publication, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India, pp. 1-71.

E. Book Chapter

1. Santra, A. (2008). Rumen manipulation for improving small ruminant production. In: Small Ruminant production in India: Strategies for Enhancing. Edited by S.A. Karim, M.K. Tripathi, O.H. Chaturvedi and A.K. Shinde. Satish Serial Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 123-133.

Patents, Technology, Methodology, Genetic Stock, Variety, etc.: Fattening of lambs: The native breed of lambs under field condition hardly achieved 50 g average daily gain (ADG) in active phase of growth and are marketed for slaughter around 9-12 moths of age weighing 16-18 kg. Sizable improvement in growth performance was achieved by nutritional manipulation and lambs have shown 150 g ADG, archiving 25 kg finishing body weight with 20 % feed conversion efficiency in total age of 125 days. Lamb fattening enterprises may be initiated near metropolitan cities by drawing weaner lambs from rural areas and fattening them under intensive feeding to meet the local meat requirement as well as exporting the meat particularly in gulf countries. The weaner (2-3 months age) lambs weighing about 10-12 kg are to be purchased from the sheep farmers. Such lambs are shifted to the site of fattening and intensively fed on a 50:50 concentrate and roughage based ration till they achieved 25 kg finishing body weight and disposed the animals thereafter. Continuation of feeding (lamb fattening) beyond 25 kg body weight under intensive feeding will be uneconomical because of progressive reduction in feed conversion efficiency and excessive carcass fat deposition.

Advance Training Attended: S.No 1 Name of the training 51st Foundation course on Agricultural Research & Management Duration 21.02.1995 to 21.07.1995 2 Dietary manipulation of rumen fermentation for increased productivity and reduce methane production in ruminant Technique for estimation of incriminating factor in feeds and fodder. Computer Application 03.06.1996 to 22.06.1996 10.09.1996 to 23.09.1996 02.02.1998 to 13.02.1998 5 Recent Technique in nutritional microbiology and their application in livestock production 29.12.1998 to 23.01.1999 04.09. 2002 to 03.09.2003 Place National Academy for Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), Hyderabad, India. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India. Salient feature Project planning, Research and manpower management, Rural orientation Rumen fermentation, Rumen manipulation, Feed additive, Rumen gas analysis by various recent techniques

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Animal Nutrition Division, Estimation methods of Indian Veterinary toxic factor in feeds Research Institute, and fodder's Izatnagar, (U.P.), India Computer Section, Central Sheep & Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India. Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (U.P.), India WS4, Microsoft Word, MSTAT, SPSS, Microsoft Excel

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Rumen microbes, Microbial feed additives, Rumen enzyme estimation, Rumen manipulation Anaerobic culture system, isolation and characterization of rumen fungi

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Isolation and characterization of rumen fungi and its feasibility for interspecies transinoculation to improve feed utilization Summer school on, "Advances in Agricultural Research Project Management"

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Floreat, Perth, Australia

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01.06.2006 to 21.06.2006

National Academy for Scientific Agricultural Research research Management (NAARM), preparation Hyderabad, India

writing, project

Awards: 1. Appointed as a member of Editorial board of an International Journal viz. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2. Awarded BOYSCAST Fellowship 2001-2002, Sponsored by Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and technology, Government of India. 3. Awarded Dr. K. Pradhan young scientist award (1999-2001) in the field of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology by Animal Nutrition Society of India. Any other information (if you want to mention):

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