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Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales

Table of Contents Figures Permissions Preface Acknowledgements Introduction: A brief introduction to the scope and content of the book and the reasons for creating it. Michael J. Hill Earth System Science and Policy, University of North Dakota, Clifford Hall, 4149 Campus Drive, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA [email protected] Niall P. Hanan Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected] Editors Contributors Section 1. Savannas: Ecological and Human Perspectives This section introduces the reader to the global savanna biomes. It will examine the broad similarities and contrasts between the major regions, their ecological and socioeconomic characteristics, and provide an up-to-date and interdisciplinary synopsis of current conceptual models and understanding of the function of tree-grass systems. Chapter 1. Biogeography, Ecology and Dynamics of Global Savannas: A Spatio-Temporal View Michael J. Hill Earth System Science and Policy, University of North Dakota, Clifford Hall, 4149 Campus Drive, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA [email protected] Miguel O. Roman and Crystal B. Schaaf Department of Geography, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA Chapter 2. An Integrated Review of Tree-Grass Interactions in Savannas Niall P. Hanan Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected] Chapter 3. People in Savanna Ecosystems: Land Use, Change and Sustainability Kathleen Galvin and Robin Reid Natural Resource Ecology Lab B 207 Clark Building, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499, United States [email protected]

Section 2. Carbon, Water and Trace Gas Fluxes in Global Savannas This section will present the latest results from eddy covariance flux sites for selected regional savanna systems. Following discussion among authors, they will be asked to present common analyses based upon basic flux behavior that might include LUE, phenology, amplitude, flux partitioning between trees and grasses, and effects of fire and climate variability. Chapter 4. Flux dynamics in a Northern Australian Tropical Savanna Lindsay B. Hutley School of Science and Primary Industries, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, 0909, Australia. [email protected] Jason Beringer

School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, 3800

Chapter 5. Flux dynamics in a Southern African Savanna Niall P. Hanan Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected] Chapter 6. Flux dynamics in the Cerrado and Cerrado-Forest Transition of Brazil George Vourlitis California State University, Department of Biology, San Marcos CA 92096, USA. [email protected] Humberto Ribeiro da Rocha


de Ciências Atmosféricas/IAG/Universidade de São Paulo Rua do Matão, 1226 -Cidade Universitária - São Paulo, SP - Brasil Cep 05508-090. Chapter 7. Woody plant rooting depth and ecosystem function of savannas: a case study from the Edwards Plateau karst, Texas, USA. Marci Litvak Biology Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131, USA. [email protected] S. Schwinning Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 J.L. Heilman Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2472 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2474 Chapter 8. The Dynamics of Energy, Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) Savanna in California, USA Dennis Baldocchi, Qi Chen1, Xingyuan Chen, Siyan Ma, Gretchen Miller, Youngryel Ryu, Jingfeng Xiao2, Rebecca Wenk and John Battles

University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley Atmospheric Science Center, 151 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. [email protected]

Section 3. Remote Sensing of Biophysical and Biochemical Characteristics in Savannas How different remote sensing technologies contribute to measurement and understanding of savannas. Chapter 9. Quantifying Carbon in Savannas: The Role of Active Sensors in Measurement of Structure and Biomass Richard M. Lucas, Peter Bunting, Daniel Clewley Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, The University of Wales Aberystwyth, Llandinam Tower, Penglais Campus, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, United Kingdom. [email protected]

John Armston Natural Resource Sciences, Department of Natural Resources and Water, Climate Building, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland, 4068, Australia. Alex. C. Lee Geomatic and Spatial Systems, Defence Imagery and Geospatial Organisation, Canberra, ACT, Australia. Joao Carreiras, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Unidade Desenvolvimento Global, Rua João de Barros, 27, 1300-319 Lisboa, Portugal. Karin Viergever, Iain Woodhouse5 School of GeoSciences (Geography), Edimburgh Earth Observatory, The University of Edinburgh, EH8 9XP, and Ecometrica, Top Floor, Unit 3B, Kittle Yards, Edinburgh, EH9 1PJ, Scotland, UK. Mahta Moghaddam Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, College of Engineering, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2122, US. Paul Siqueira Electrical and Computer Engineering, 113D Knowles Engineering Building, University of Massachusetts, 151 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA, 01003-9284, US.

Chapter 10. Remote Sensing of Tree-Grass Systems ­ the Eastern Australian


Tim Danaher

Information Sciences Branch, Department of Environment and Climate Change PO Box 856, Alstonville NSW, Australia, 2477 Email: [email protected]

Peter Scarth

Department of Environment and Resource Management, 80 Meiers Road,

Indooroopilly, Queensland, 4068, Australia. [email protected] Chapter 11. Remote Sensing of Fractional Cover and Biochemistry in Savannas Greg P. Asner Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305 USA. Phone: +1 650 380-2828 . Email: [email protected]

Shaun R. Levick Izak P. J. Smit South African National Parks, Scientific Services, ZA-1350 Skukuza, South Africa.

Chapter 12. Woody fractional cover in Kruger National Park, South Africa: remote-

sensing-based maps and ecological insights

Gabriela Bucini, Niall P. Hanan, Randall B. Boone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523. [email protected]

Sassan S. Saatchi Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 300-319 Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A. Izak P. J. Smit South African National Parks, Scientific Services, ZA-1350 Skukuza, South Africa. Michael A. Lefsky Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Forestry Building, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, U.S.A.

Chapter 13. Remote Sensing of Global Savanna Fire Occurrence, Extent and Properties David Roy Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Wecota Hall, Box 506B, Brookings, SD 57007-3510, USA. [email protected]

Luigi Boschetti Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, USA. Louis Giglio Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, USA.

Section 4. Perspectives on Patch to Landscape Scale Savanna Processes and Modeling This section aims to introduce the reader to the range of conceptual and numerical approaches used to understand and model savanna ecosystems. It will include papers describing ecosystem processes and representing simplified, low dimensional, models and more complex process-based models. A synthesis chapter will highlight the benefits and limitations inherent in those contrasting approaches. Chapter 14. Understanding tree-grass co-existence and impacts of disturbance and

environmental variability in savannas Frank van Langevelde, Kyle Tomlinson, Eduardo R.M. Barbosa, Steven de Bie, Herbert H.T. Prins

Resource Ecology Group, Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. [email protected]

Steve Higgins Institut für Physische Geographie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Chapter 15. Population and ecosystem modeling of land use and climate change impacts on savanna dynamics Florian Jeltsch, Britta Tietjen, Niels Blaum, Eva Rossmanith Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, University of Potsdam, Maulbeerallee 2, D-14467 Potsdam, Germany. [email protected] Chapter 16. Spatially explicit modeling of savanna processes Katrin M. Meyer, Kerstin Weigand Institute of Ecology, University of Jena, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743, Jena, Germany

[email protected] David Ward

University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa

Chapter 17 The interaction of fire and rainfall variability on carbon fluxes in

Australian savannas: The FLAMES model

Adam Liedloff and Garry Cook CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, PMB 44, Winnellie, Northern Territory, 0822, Australia. [email protected] Section 5. Regional and Continental Scale Remote Sensing Applications in Savanna Systems. This section will provide a series of studies that use remote sensing to study regional and continental scale savanna dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in different regions of the world. Chapter 18. Integration of remote sensing and modeling to understand carbon fluxes and climate interactions in Africa Chris Williams University of Maryland Baltimore Campus, Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, via Biospheric Sciences Branch, Godard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. [email protected] Chapter 19. Timescales and dynamics of carbon in Australia's savannas Damian J. Barrett

Centre for Water in the Minerals Industry & Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia. [email protected]

Chapter 20. Land use change and the carbon budget in the Brazilian Cerrado. Mercedes Bustamante University of Brasilia, Campus Universitano ­ UNB ICC-Sul, Brasilia, 70919-970, Brazil. [email protected]

L.G. Ferreira Instituto de Estudos Sócio-Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil

Chapter 21. Land use changes (1970-2020) and the carbon emissions in the

Colombian Llanos

Andres Etter, Armando Sarmiento Departimento de Ecologia y Territorio, Universidad Javeriana, Tr 4 Nr 42-00, piso 8, Bogota, DC 2, Colombia. [email protected]

Milton H. Romero Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, UK LE1 7RH

Chapter 22. Modeling Vegetation, Carbon and Nutrient dynamics in the Savanna Woodlands of Northern Australia.

John O. Carter, Dorine Bruget, Beverley Henry, Robert Hassett, Grant Stone, Ken Day, Neil Flood, and Greg McKeon Environmental Protection Agency, Indooroopilly, Queensland, 4068, Australia.

[email protected] Section 6. Continental and Global Scale Models of Savanna Biomes This section will include chapters that use contrasting modeling approaches to provide an analysis of how a) savannas contribute to terrestrial carbon sources and sinks, NPP, nutrient and hydrological cycling,

biological and human carrying capacity, and b) how global savannas contrast with each other in terms of broad patterns of vegetation structure, biogenic and pyrogenic fluxes, disturbance from fire, land use change, grazing. Chapter 23. Carbon Cycles and Vegetation Dynamics of Savannas

Based on Global Satellite Products and the CASA Model

Chris Potter NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 242-4, Moffet Field, California 94035, USA. [email protected] Chapter 24. Long-term carbon dynamics in Africa: tree-grass interactions, climate change, disturbance and land use Niall P. Hanan Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected] Chapter 25. CENTURY-SAVANNA Model for Tree-Grass Ecosystems Bill Parton Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected]

R.J. Scholes CSIR Natural Resources and Environment, Box 395, Pretoria 0001 South Africa [email protected] John O. Carter Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence (QCCCE), Environmental Protection Agency, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia.

Chapter 26. Climate-fire interactions and savanna ecosystems: a dynamic vegetation

modelling study for the African continent with LPJ Almut Arneth, Veiko Lehsten

Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Solvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. [email protected]

Kirsten Thonicke Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg A62, 14469 Potsdam, Germany. Allan Spessa NCAS-Climate & the Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading RG6 6BB, United Kingdom.

Section 7. Understanding Savannas as Coupled Human-Natural Systems This section is intended to point to towards a future unification and integration of biophysical measurement, observation methods and models with land use changes and socio-economics. Chapter 27. Social and environmental change in global savannas:

Linking social variables to biophysical dynamics

Matt Turner

Department of Geography, 330 Science Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706. [email protected]

Chapter 28. Global savannas: A Synthesis from Current Approaches to Measurement, Remote Sensing and Modeling Michael J. Hill Department of Earth System Science and Policy, University of North Dakota, Clifford Hall, Stop 9011, 4149 Campus Drive, Grand Forks, North Dakota, 58202, USA. [email protected] Niall P. Hanan Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Campus Mail 1499, Fort Collins , CO 80523-1499. USA. [email protected]



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