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A good roof keeps the elements from damaging a home and is an important architectural consideration. Each locality has favourite roofing types. Check with more experienced co-workers to find out what is popular in your area. Remember as you read about roofing, that patterns, weights and availabilities will vary with your supplier and location. As you go through this chapter have your supplier's roofing catalogue right beside you. When the text describes a general shingle style, check in the catalogue to see exactly what weights and sizes are available. You may have exactly what is described or you may have a variation. The information in this chapter will probably apply at least 80% to your situation so proceed with an open mind, and check with other store personnel. Roofing is an important inventory item and can be profitable. Product knowledge will help. Using selling tools will help. Many shingles now have a fibreglass mat. They are much the same except the organic mat is replaced by a fibreglass mat. This fibreglass mat weighs less and can hold more asphalt. A fibreglass shingle can weigh less, but contain more asphalt, than the organic mat shingle. Both shingle types are usually available though some suppliers are making either one or the other. Standard weight fibreglass shingles usually have a 20-year warranty compared to the original 15year warranty on organic shingles. Most organic shingles offer the 20-year warranty now. The organic shingle is the same but the warranty was lengthened to be competitive with fibreglass. Which is better? Each has its followers. Fibreglass seems to have more advantages. More asphalt makes for a longer lasting shingle. But there have been some problems. Some builders report fibreglass shingles do not "stick down" well. Others have reported the tabs break off more easily. Fibreglass manufacturers reply that with proper installation there is no problem. Research and improvements continue to be made in all roofing products. Still, the marketplace rules. If your customers insist on one kind over the other, then a retailer would be wise to accomodate. Asphalt shingles can be applied on roof slopes as low as 2:12. Below 4:12 special conditions apply. Basically the underlayment (usually 15# felt) has to be double lapped and applied shingle fashion with a 19" top lap and 12" end lap. Asphalt shingles cannot be used on slopes less than 2:12. For slopes less than 2:12, and often for 3:12 slopes, selvage edge roll roofing is a common choice.


FIBREGLASS AND ORGANIC Originally asphalt shingles were made with an "organic" mat. This is a heavy paper-like product made from wood pulp, old newspapers, etc. To make shingles this mat is saturated with asphalt, coated with ceramic granules, and cut to size. The ceramic granules on roofing do two important things. They give the roof colour. But more importantly, they protect the asphalt material from the sun's ultraviolet rays. These rays break down asphalt components quickly and severely shorten the life of asphalt products.

They are installed with a 5" to 55/8" exposure and have a certification agency's (such as Factory Mutual Research Agency, Underwriters Laboratories of Canada, Inc., Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., etc.) label fire rating of A (fibreglass) or C (organic). This shingle is the "bread and butter" shingle and is the standard shingle on most buildings. Slope is a ratio of the length of the rise (vertical distance) as compared to the run (horizontal distance). It can be expressed as rise in run or rise:run By using a run of 12 as a constant, we consider the run to be 12" or one foot and the rise to be in inches. The rise and run can be in any units as long as the units are the same, but thinking of them in inches is most convenient for our industry. The lower slopes are illustrated above. SHINGLE RATINGS Certification Agencies test many products for performance. Shingles are evaluated for fire and wind resistance. FIRE A "burning brand" is placed on the roofing and its performance is scientifically measured. CLASS A is the highest rating. It means the product is effective against severe exposure to fire. All fibreglass mat roofing products have this rating. Concrete, slate, and clay tile also generally rate an "A". CLASS C is the other common rating given to roofing materials. While it is the lowest rating, class C products do offer some protection. They are effective against light exposure to fire. Organic based shingles fall into this classification as do untreated wood shingles. CLASS B is not common, though wood shingles and shakes treated with a fire retardant material may be rated "B". 3-TAB SEAL DOWN Metal roofing may be rated from A to C depending on the underlayment used. The building codes, zoning ordinances, specifications, or area convention, may specify what fire rating is required. Refer to manufacturer's literature or the wrapping on the product for the shingle's rating. The most common shingle is the 3-tab selfsealing strip shingle. It also is available in 2 tab or 4 tab. They weigh 215 lbs. to 300 lbs. per square--a "square" is 100 square feet--with 215 lb. being the most common. There are three or four bundles per square, depending on weight. These shingles are 12" to 13_" wide and 36" to 40" long. WIND RESISTANT To qualify for the wind-resistant label, shingles must withstand a constant 96kph (60mph) wind for 2 hours without a single tab lifting. All the shingles you stock probably qualify. Check the labels.


Their main attraction is they lock together to resist high winds. The self-sealing shingles, when they seal properly, provide just as much wind resistance, if not more. The weight ranges from 180 lbs. to 250 lbs., width from 18" to 221/4", and length from 20" to 221/2".

Self-sealing random-tab, single thickness, strip shingles come in various edge patterns, and surface texture treatments. They are available in weights of 230 to 350 lbs. and have 4 to 5 bundles per square. A width of 111/2" to 14" and a length of 36" to 40" is common, with an exposure of 4" to 6" depending on manufacturer and style. They may have a 30-year limited warranty and a fire rating of A or C. You should recommend these shingles for customers who want something better than standard weight shingles but don't want the look or expense of laminated. NO CUT-OUT SHINGLES

A SEAL-DOWN PROBLEM Here is a problem to discuss with your customers. When the self-sealing shingle is laid in the fall and the weather never warms up enough to activate the seal, dust can blow under the shingle before hot weather returns, coating the sealing patches and preventing them from ever sealing properly. This doesn't always happen, but it can. It also might answer some customer questions as to why some of their "new" shingles are blowing off. The solution for a roof that hasn't sealed properly is to put an asphalt adhesive cartridge in the caulking gun and "tack" the tabs down by hand, one by one.

LAMINATED Laminated asphalt shingles are top-of-the-line shingles.

No cut-out shingles are a favourite in some parts of the country. Except for appearance, they are identical to 3-tab shingles. Note that availability is limited. LOCK-TAB SHINGLES Lock-tab shingles are a style that are also available in some regions. They have a distinctive pattern when installed which some customers prefer.

Many are designed to give the look of a wood shake roof. This is done by laminating two or more layers of shingles together. They have various edge and surface texture treatments. The weight per square is about 250 lbs. to 340 lbs. They come in 3 to 4 bundles per square. The width of the shingle varies from 12" to 131/4", the length from 36" to 40", and the exposure from 5" to 51/4".

Some have a self-sealing adhesive strip, but some do not. With the added weight and thickness of a laminated shingle, the adhesive strip is not as critical. The warranty period is 30 or 35 years. Considering that, the per year "amortized" cost of materials and labour may be as reasonable as low cost shingles. The long term savings may appeal to some customers. However, it is the expensive look that appeals to many, but for some, the look is only a bonus. NEW ROOF INSTALLATION Roof sheathing should be solid, smooth, and well-nailed. Spaced sheathing boards cannot be used under asphalt roofing. (Spaced boards are used under some wood shingles or shakes). Most types of 4'x8' sheathing need to be spaced to prevent ridges that would show through the shingle if the sheathing swells. This spacing is accomplished when using "H" clips to help stiffen sheathing. Roof underlay material is usually 15 lb. or 30 lb. asphalt-saturated felt and should be used on all house roofs. A minimum 2" head lap and 4" end lap is required. The attic space must be properly ventilated to minimize moisture problems. Use a metal drip edge along the eaves and rake. To fasten asphalt shingles use 12 gauge galvanized steel roofing nails, or corrosion resistant staples driven by a pneumatic powered stapler.

The nails or staples must be at least 11/4" long and penetrate into the roof sheathing at least 3 3 /4", or through sheathing less than /4" thick. 15 Staples with at least a /16" crown must be used. To get the best performance from any roofing material, always follow the manufacturer's directions.


Proper ventilation of attic areas is a little understood but very helpful method of not only controlling heating and cooling costs, but also getting the maximum service life out of the building materials used in the roof assembly. Possible problems include: 1. Premature failure of the roofing including blistering. 2. Buckling of the roofing due to deck movement. 3. Rotting of wood members. 4. Moisture accumulation in insulation. During the summer months, radiant heat from the sun can cause very high roof deck temperatures. Gradually, the entire attic space is heated, and in turn the entire dwelling is feeling the effect of a hot roof. This heat build-up can be prevented by ventilating the underside of the roof deck. Recent research has reinforced the idea that prolonged exposure to high heat levels will accelerate ageing and shorten the service life of asphalt roofing products. Having a properly ventilated flow-through air space between the roof deck and any layer of insulation present, will offer protection against this. Cold weather problems are somewhat different. Heavier insulation and tighter construction techniques help seal the side walls more effectively against air migration. At the same time, large volumes of occupancy-generated water vapour are being created and are being pushed toward the much drier outside air. Vapour retarders will reduce the flow, but not stop it. Condensation results when this vapour comes in contact with a cold surface such as the underside of a roof deck. This liquid water can soak insulation, rendering it useless, and can also cause wood to rot, plaster to crack, and paint to peel. Proper attic ventilation can guide this vapour into the attic space where it can be carried away before condensation can cause trouble. Ventilation during cold weather may prevent condensation and potential freeze-thaw cycles and their associated problems.

Some confusion can exist between a "roofing" nail and a "shingle" nail. The roofing nail has a large head because roofing, here, is meant as asphalt roofing. Of course, the large head helps reduce "tear through." The shingle nail is really just a 1 /4" galvanized box nail, used to nail wood shingles.


REROOFING Special considerations are made when reroofing. A choice must be made about removing the old roofing. If there is only one layer it is usually not necessary to remove it. Check the roof deck to see if it is sound. Remove all loose or protruding nails. Replace missing shingles and renail loose, warped, and split shingles. The Canadian Asphalt Shingle Manufacturers' Association and most manufacturers have excellent directions for reroofing. There are application methods specifically for reroofing over old roofing that makes the job easier and better than the standard methods for new roofing. Be sure to explain the correct method of roofing, but consider encouraging your customers to get help roofing their homes if they have no experience. The best products will perform poorly if they are installed poorly. ACCESSORIES Most manufacturers have accessories for asphalt shingles. Hip and ridge shingles to match the roofing are available. Also available are: ice and water barriers, roof coatings, roof cement, aluminum or steel roof edging, flashing, nails, membrane water proofing, complete lines of rain-carrying equipment, special underlayments, and more. Check with your roofing suppliers to find out which accessories they can supply. The accessories can be a big source of extra profit.

Four bundles contain enough shingles to cover one square (100 sq.ft.) at the standard exposure. The exposure depends on the roof slope. When the slope is 4:12 or greater, the standard exposure of 16" shingles is 5", an 18" shingle is 51/2", and for a 24" it is 71/2". For other exposures see the estimating information at the end of this chapter.


NUMBER 1 GRADE, BLUE LABEL Description - Lengths 16", 18", 24"; width 4" minimum, 14" maximum on 24" and 3" on 16" and 18"; thickness of 16" is 5/2" (5 butts together 1 is 2" thick), 18" is 5/2 /4" thick, 24-inch is 4/2" thick. Clear heartwood; 100% edge grain; no defects. Recommended Use - For walls and roofs on 3:12 pitch and steeper where a premium quality product is desired. NUMBER 2 GRADE, RED LABEL Description - Lengths 16", 18", 24"; thickness of 1 16" is 5/2", 18" is 5/2 /4", 24" is a 4/2"; width 4" minimum, 14" maximum. Face must be 10", 11" and 16" clear or better on 16", 18" and 24" shingles, respectively. Limited sapwood and flat grain are allowed. Limited knots and defects are allowed above the clear portion. Recommended Use - For walls and roofs on 3:12 pitch and steeper where a good quality product is desired. NUMBER 3 GRADE, BLACK LABEL Description - Lengths 16", 18", 24"; thickness of 1 16" is 5/2", 18" is 5/2 /4" and 24" is 4/2". Width 3" 1 minimum, 14" maximum on 18" and 24", 2 /2" minimum on 16". Face must be 6" clear on 16" and 18", 10" clear on 24". Unlimited sapwood and flat grain allowed. Limited knots and defects above clear portion. Recommended Use - For walls and roofs on 3:12 pitch and steeper where an economy product is acceptable. UNDERCOURSING GRADE Description - Lengths 16" and 18", thickness 1 1 5/2" and 5/2 /4" respectively; width 2 /2" minimum, 17" maximum. Unlimited defects, flat grain and sapwood. Recommended Use - For the underlying starter course at eaves and undercoursing for double course wall construction. SPECIAL UNDERCOURSING Same grade requirements as undercoursing grade, except each bundle also contains the machine production of No. 3 grade shingles.

Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau




SHINGLES Wood shingles have been used for roofing, for many years. Western red cedar is the main shingle wood. Some other woods are available in limited regions. The soft mellow colour of wood provides an appearance that is highly desired. Wood shingles are graded No. 1 - Blue label, No. 2 - Red label, No. 3 - Black label, and No. 4Undercoursing. They are taper-sawn with butt ends varying in thickness from 0.40" to 0.50". They are manufactured in random widths and in lengths of 16", 18" and 24".

SHINGLE INSTALLATION Installation methods include the choice of using spaced or solid sheathing. The use of open or spaced sheathing saves money and allows shingles to dry out quickly. Solid sheathing, such as plywood, is also used for added insulation and reduced air infiltration. Felt paper over the sheathing is not usually recommended because of possible moisture problems. Proper flashing at eaves, valleys, chimneys, and other roof penetrations is important. Two rust resistant nails, such as hot-dipped zinc coated, are required per shingle. A good step-by-step installation guide is available from the Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau and it should be used. WOOD SHAKES The rustic surface texture of wood shakes has made them a popular choice. The cost is higher than other roofing so shakes are often used on more expensive homes. There are two types of handsplit and resawn shakes available in a number of thicknesses and lengths. CERTI-SPLIT HANDSPLIT AND RESAWN SHAKES

NUMBER 1 GRADE 1 Description - lengths 18", thickness /2" (medium) 3 and /4" (heavy) minimums; length 24", thickness 3 1 3 /8", /2" (medium) and /4" (heavy) minimums. Width 4" minimum and 14" maximum. Clear heart-wood; 20% maximum flat grain. 1 Roof Exposure - 18" shakes - 7 /2" maximum; 24" 3 medium and heavy shakes - 10" maximum; 24" ( /8") 1 shakes ­ 7 /2" maximum. 1 Wall Exposure - Single course: 8 /2" for 18" shake; 1 11 /2" for 24" shake. Double course: 14" for 18" shake; 18" for 24"shake. Recommended Use - For walls and roofs on 4:12 pitch and steeper where high quality appearance and performance are desired. PREMIUM GRADE D e s c r I p t i o n - Lengths 18" and 24"; width 4" 1 minimum, 14" maximum; thickness /2" (medium) 3 and /4" (heavy). Clear heartwood; 100% edge grain; no defects. 1 Roof Exposure - 7 /2" for 18" shakes; 10" for 24" shakes. 1 Wall Exposure - Single course: 8 /2" for 18" shake; 1 11 /2" for 24" shake. Double course: 14" for 18" shake; 18" for 24". Recommended Use - For walls and roofs 4:12 pitch and steeper and where a premium quality product is needed or desired. The 100% edge grain requirement exceeds the national industry standard.

Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau


When bidding for a shake job, make sure the customer compares prices of the same grade, length, and thickness. You may be bidding "heavy shakes" and the competition "medium shakes".


NUMBER 1 GRADE Description - Lengths 18", 524"; width 4" 5 minimum, 14" maximum; thickness /8" nominal ( /8" to 1", yet uniform in each bundle or pallet). Face 100% clear. Flat grain 10% maximum, cross grain minimum allowed. 1 Roof Exposure - 10" for 24' shake; 7 /2" for 18" shake. 1 Wall Exposure - Single course: 11 /2" for 24" 1 shake; 8 /2" for 18" shake. Double course: 18" for 24" shake; 14" for 18" shake. Recommended Use - For walls or roofs on 4:12 pitch and steeper where a high quality, durable and uniform appearance is desired. Starter-finish Course - Length 15". For use on the underlying starter course at eave lines and for the final course at ridges where trimming would otherwise be necessary and full-length shakes are not needed. PREMIUM GRADE Description - Same as Number 1 Grade, 100% edge grain. All other descriptions from Number 1 Grade apply. NUMBER 2 GRADE D e s c r i p t i o n - Lengths 18", 24"; width 3" 1 minimum, 14" maximum; 2 thicknesses - /2" to 3 3 1 /4", /4" to 1 /4" (yet uniform in each bundle or pallet). Lower half of face is clear. Flat and cross grains allowed. Tight knots and other limited defects allowed in top half of shake. 1 1 Roof Exposure - 7 /2" for 24" shake; 5 /2" for 18" shake. Wall Exposure - Single course: 10" for 24" 1 1 shake; 7 /2" for 118" shake. Double course: 11 /2" for 24" shake; 8 /2" for 18" shake. Recommended Use - For walls or roofs 4:12 pitch and steeper and where a good quality appearance is desired. NUMBER 3 GRADE Description - Lengths 18", 24"; width 3" 1 minimum, 14" maximum; thickness /2" nominal 1 1 ( /2" to 1 /4" yet uniform in each bundle or pallet). Face sound and serviceable. Flat and cross grains allowed. Limited knots and defects allowed on the entire face. Roof Exposure - Not recommended for roofs of 1 human occupied buildings. 7 /2" for 24" shake; 5_" for 18" shake. 12:12 pitch minimum. Wall Exposure - Single course: 10" for 24" 1 1 shake; 7 /2" for 118" shake. Double course: 11 /2" for 24" shake; 8 /2" for 18" shake. Recommended Use - For walls where a rustic, knotted appearance is acceptable.

Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau


It's generally assumed that five bundles of shakes will cover one square. This is true for most shakes if the exposure is 10". But various exposures are recommended depending on roof slope and construction. Check with your supplier or this chapter's estimating page. INSTALLATION Shakes are applied like wood shingles. Though the butts are often laid unevenly to look rustic. Since shakes are longer than shingles they have greater exposures. Usually 71/2" for 18" shakes, 10" for 24" shakes, and 13" for 32" shakes. Because shakes are also thicker than shingles, longer nails are used. In areas with wind-driven snow, solid sheathing is used with a felt underlay between each course. Wood shakes have many applications. They are used for wall coverings and on store fronts for special effects. Your store should be a source of ideas for unique uses of wood shakes and wood shingles. ACCESSORIES Prefabricated hip and ridge units are available. They save time and look very uniform. Shakes are available in prefabricated 8' panels. Shingles can be bonded to a backing of exterior plywood. Fancy butt wood shingles are available for areas such as the gables of Victorian style homes, and more.


The flashing should extend up at least 8" from the valley centre (11" for a wood shake roof). To construct a closed valley, 90 lb. mineralsurfaced roll roofing is often used. It is placed on the roof sheathing and centred in the valley from top to bottom. Then the shingles are "woven" through, over the top of it. Where a roof joins a vertical wall, install metal flashing shingles, called step flashing. Chimney flashings and flashings around roof penetrations should receive careful attention. These areas are a possible sources of leaks. Metal roof edging is a common product used when roofing. Shingles should extend out over the roof. Metal roof edging gives the shingle edge support, and it makes a neat roof edge. Several shapes are available, the most common being style "D". It is common to put roof edge along the eave (horizontal), and the rake (gable end) overhangs. In cold climates, a rubberized moisture membrane should be installed over the roof sheathing and metal drip edge. This should extend from the roof edge to a point directly above a minimum of 24" inside the wall line. This helps prevent leaks from water backed up by ice dams on the roof.


Valleys are a major roof area that need flashing. Builders may prefer the "open" valley, where the shingles are cut back and flashing material is visible. Other builders prefer a "closed" valley, in which the shingles weave or thatch through and no valley flashing is visible. Sometimes called a "woven" valley. Open valley flashing comes from 16" to 24" wide rolls of 28 gauge galvanized steel, painted steel, or aluminum. A preformed metal valley also is available and is the choice of some builders.


Roof underlay material usually is 15 lb.(#) or 30 lb.(#) asphalt-saturated felt. It should be used on the roofs of all homes covered with asphalt, slate shingles, or tile roofing. A common size 15# felt roll is 36"x144' containing 432 sq.ft. When applied with the recommended head lap of 2" and end (side) lap of 4" it covers 400 sq.ft. 3-square rolls are available in some locations. 30# felt (and in some areas, 15# felt) is available in rolls 36"x72' equalling 216 sq.ft. Using the recommended laps it covers 200 sq.ft. Ask your local roofers, builders and building code officials for code requirements and preferred methods of using felt. ROLLED ROOFING SMOOTH SURFACED Available in 40 lb. to 65 lb., the rolls are 36' long, 36" wide. With a normal end lap of 6" and top lap of 2", it covers 1 square. It is used where a heavy asphalt sheet is required to make a temporary roof. Its most common use is as layers of a commercial "built-up" roof system. This roofing does not have granules covering it, but is dusted with mica flakes to give it some protection. SELVAGE EDGE Selvage edge is a roll roofing meant to be applied in double coverage. It weighs 55 lbs. to 70 Ibs. per roll and takes 2 rolls to cover 1 square. The rolls are 36' long, 36" wide with a recommended 6" end lap. It is available in several colours, including white and black. The double coverage allows a 19" top lap with an exposure of 17". Only the lower part of the roll is covered with granules. This allows a better adhesive action on the top "double covered" part.

This is the product to recommend for roofs with a 3:12 or lower slope. The double coverage part of the roll is completely covered with lap cement during application. This gives a good solid joint preventing leaks on low slope roofs. It requires asphalt lap cement and roofing nails for installation. MINERAL-SURFACED ROLL ROOFING Mineral-surfaced roll roofing is a single coverage roof for utility buildings or a temporary roof. The other choice in this situation would be smooth surfaced rolled roofing. Neither should be used on roofs with less than a 3:12 slope because the recommended head lap is only 2" (use selvage edge). Mineral-surfaced roll roofing has coloured granules on it like shingles, so it looks better. Due to the granules and its heavier weight, it lasts longer than smooth roll roofing. Of course, being a "utility" type roofing, people use it for about anything they want. It comes in 36' to 38' long rolls, is 36" wide, and weighs 75 lbs. to 90 lbs. The side lap is 6" and head lap is 2" to 4". The exposure is 32" to 34" and the coverage is about 1 square. It requires lap cement and roofing nails for installation. STARTER ROLL A common method of starting shingles is to cut the tabs off shingles and put the remaining shingle along the eaves. (Some builders turn shingles upside down for a starter course. This is not recommended as it leaves the first shingle row without seal down patches at the eave line.) Some builders prefer to use a "starter roll" along the eave. This is a 9" or 18" wide roll of mineralsurfaced roofing, 36' long.


Several manufacturers have products to prevent water leakage caused by ice damming. In cold climates, a waterproofing shingle underlayment is required as shown in the figure entitled "Ice Dams".


The most popular shapes are 21/2" corrugated, which is 26" wide, so when lapped 2", it falls on 24" o/c spacings. A 4"x 5/8" rib panel 26" wide is also popular. Standard lengths are 8',10' and 12'. Transmitted solar energy depends on colour: 35% or less transmittance is recommended for coolness. Manufacturers' literature has these ratings.

The "ice dam" problem can be expensive. It is caused by weather conditions where the temperature is just below freezing and snow has fallen on the roof. The combination of heat from the sun and escaping building heat cause the snow above the heated area to melt. The water runs off the roof until it hits the unheated eave overhang. If the weather is cold enough, the runoff freezes forming a small ridge. As this process continues a larger ridge is formed. Soon water is backed up over the ridge and flows up under the shingles, leaking into the home.

Panel weights are usually 4 oz. or 5 oz. per square foot, although 6 oz. may sell well in cold climates. Lighter panels cost less, but require more support. Weight per ounce is a pretty good indicator of panel quality. In competitive situations make sure your customer understands exactly what weight you are pricing, so if they receive a lower price on a lighter panel they know the difference. Panels that are 5oz, 6oz and 8 oz. are sold for use as skylights in metal buildings. Usually they are made to the same shape as popular metal roof coverings so they can be substituted. Flat fibreglass sheets are used as a glass substitute. They come in 24", 30", 36" and 48" widths. Lengths are 8', 10' and 12', and sometimes 50' rolls. Use care when fastening the panels, and special nails to minimize leakage. Accessory items include: corrugated shaped cedar filler strips, aluminum nails, waterproofing sealant, flashing, and more. METAL SHEETS AND OTHER TYPES OF ROOFING Metal sheets of copper, steel or stainless steel are used for standing seam roofs. A standing seam roof is one where the seam between sheets is raised to be above the sheet, and therefore less likely to leak. Some metal roofs will weather naturally to the desired colour. Copper, for example, will turn to a green colour.


Rosin paper is sometimes used between sub and finished floors to prevent squeaks. Especially under hardwood floors. The rolls are 36" wide and contain 500 sq.ft.


Banking paper is used on older homes to help prevent air infiltration. In colder climates, the fall season finds some people covering the foundation area with banking paper. It is stapled to the house, or held in place with wood lath. It comes in several widths and lengths. Basically it is a heavy "Kraft" paper.


FIBREGLASS PANELS Fibreglass panels in various colours, textures, widths, shapes, and lengths are available. They may be used to create a covered patio area, a garden/greenhouse shed, a carport, a marine boat cover, or many other projects. Their light weight and strength make them popular with DIY customers.

Corrugated galvanized sheet metal and aluminum roofs are popular for many types of utility buildings, farm and commercial applications. Their largest use is on farm or commercial buildings. More information on these roofs will be found in the Agriculture Buildings and Products chapter of this course. Aluminum is another material made into shakes and other patented shapes, in a variety of colours and patterns. Corrosion is a concern with aluminum and special care must be taken to prevent it. Another type is mineral fibre shingles. The styles available generally imitate wood shakes. Slate is another choice, though it is a heavy roofing material. Many types of tiles including concrete and vitrified clay are used in some areas for a very long lasting and attractive roof. The roof framing must be strong enough to support these heavier roofing choices. Wood, vinyl and metal gutters and all the accessories that go with them, are also a part of a complete roofing job. They are a good source of additional profit and should not be forgotten when you sell your customers a new roof.

ROOF COATINGS Applied with a brush, the unfibred products are used to recoat old roofs as part of regular maintenance, or to help protect metal roofs from corrosion. The fibred products are a little heavier and are used in the same places as the unfibred, but where a heavier-duty product is required. It is also used as a foundation coating over concrete or masonry products. Lap cement is similar but has more adhesion. It is used as the adhesive between laps of selvage edge roofing. Cements are typically available in 3.78 L, 4 L, 18.9 L or 20 kg cans. ROOF CEMENTS These are heavy-bodied products applied with a trowel, which are used for filling gaps, openings and penetrations, sealing down shingle tabs, and filling around flashing joints. It is also used on floors and walls. Roof cements are available in cans (similar to roof coatings) and in caulking cartridges.


Roof coatings and cements are used for roof repair, maintenance, and reconditioning. Several types of coatings and cements are sold. Some have a fibred base and some have an aluminum appearance. Coatings are used in low slope roof areas including mobile homes and R.V.s, and to recondition drying or aged asphalt roofs. Cement is used with flashing to seal roof junctures and penetrations. Roof coatings can be an important part of your roofing inventory for customers with leaks in flat or nearly flat roofs. Some subcontractors offer roof coating services and may be potential customers.



Apron Flashing - Flashing that diverts water from a vertical surface to a sloped roof such as around a chimney. Asphalt - A bitumen pitch by-product of the petroleum industry that melts easily, sheds water, and is used for and in many roofing products. Asphalt Felt - A felt impregnated with asphalt and used as roofing paper. Usually in rolls 3' wide, to cover 400 sq.ft., or 200 sq.ft., though 300 sq.ft. rolls are available in some locations. Asphalt Shingles - Heavy felt saturated with asphalt, coated with coloured granules, and cut into the desired shingle shapes. Black Label - A No. 3 grade of wood shingle. Blue Label - A No. 1 grade of wood shingle. Bonded Roof - A type of roofing manufacturers warranty that covers the materials and labour for a specified time. Referring to quality as the better roofs have a longer bonding time. Built-Up Roof - A roofing composed of 3 to 5 layers of asphalt felt laminated with coal tar, pitch or asphalt. Chipboard - See Waferboard. Class A - The top fire rating given to roofing materials. Class C - The lowest fire rating given to roofing materials. Clipped Gable - A gable roof partly resembling a hip roof because the ridge is shortened so the top part of the roof end slopes down to the gable end. Closed Valley - When the shingles are "thatched" or "woven" through a valley so the valley flashing is not visible. Composition Shingles - Asphalt shingles by another name. Cornice - Overhang of a sloped roof at the eave line. Coverage - The amount of surface area actually covered by roofing. D l Y e r - Abbreviation for do-it-yourselfer. Commonly a person not a carpenter, but who will personally install the building products they buy. D o r m e r - A structure that projects out of a sloped roof, often containing a window. Dutch Hip/Gable - See Clipped gable. E a v e s - The margin or lower part of a roof projecting over the wall. Exposure - The distance between the bottom of one shingle course and the bottom of the next. Fancy Butt - A decorative pattern cut into the bottom (butt) end of a wood shingle. Fibreglass Shingles - Asphalt-impregnated shingles that have a fibreglass mat rather than a felt mat. F l a s h i n g - A thin sheet of material, often galvanized or painted steel, aluminum, or copper installed to prevent unwanted water penetration into joints, cracks or other openings. Gable - The end of a building that extends vertically towards the roof peak forming a triangle. Gambrel Roof - The traditional barn roof. Similar to a gable roof except each side has two slopes. The lower slope is very steep and the upper is a lesser slope. Gutter - A trough of metal or wood placed along the roof eaves to collect and divert rain water. Handsplit and Resawn Shakes - Cedar shakes that have been split from cedar logs, first into a rectangular shape, then sawn at an angle through the centre creating two shakes. Head Lap - The distance from the lower edge of an overlapping shingle or sheet, to the top edge of the shingle beneath. The horizontal overlap. Hip - The outside inclining angle created by joining two sloping roofs. Ice Dam - In temperatures near freezing, snow melts over the heated part of the roof but freezes as it gets to the eaves turning to ice, accumulating enough to "dam" water up over the heated part of the roof causing major problems. Laminated Shingles - Shingles made of two layers glued together giving them more thickness for a designer look, longer life. Some styles closely resemble wood shakes. Lap Cement - A semi-liquid asphalt adhesive used between laps of selvage edge roofing. Life-Cycle Costing - When the cost per year of expected use is calculated it may show that a more expensive roof (or any project) may be less expensive over the life of the product. Mansard Roof - A roof that inclines from each of the four sides of a building with each incline divided into two slopes. The lower being very steep and the upper being a very low slope.


Organic Shingles - Roofing shingles with a felt (organic) mat rather than a fibreglass mat. O S B - Oriented strand board. A waferboard product with the chips roughly lined up in the same direction in each "layer" making the board stronger. Often used for roof sheathing. Pitch - The slope of a roof or the ratio of the total rise to the total house width. Plancier - See Soffit. Processed Shake - A sawn cedar shingle made with a texture on one side to resemble a cedar shake. Rake - The sloped roof overhang that projects over the gable end. A moulding placed along the gable end. Red Label - A No. 2 grade of wood shingle. Ribbon Course - A triple thickness of shingles on alternate (or other spacing) courses used for appearance. Ridge Cap - Finishing a hip or ridge on asphalt shingled roofs with a final row of small - cut from regular shingles - shingles that are bent over the hip or ridge forming a cap. Rise - The vertical height from the top plate to the roof peak. Rise:Run - The ratio of the roof rise to the run (half the span) of a roof. Slope indicator. Rolled Roofing-Mineral Surfaced - Heavy felt rolls with coloured ceramic granules usually 36" wide and a coverage of 100 square feet per roll. Rolled Roofing-Smooth - Heavy felt rolls with a coating of mica flakes, no granules. Roofing Nail - An aluminum threaded nail, or a galvanized nail, with a large head, used to nail most asphalt roofing. R u n - The horizontal distance between the outside wall and the roof ridge. Saddle - A small peaked structure used on a sloping roof where a large horizontal joint would occur, such as behind a chimney as it projects through the roof, to divert water away from that joint. Sometimes called a "cricket".


Selvage Edge Roofing - Rolled roofing that has mineral granules covering about 19" of its 36" width. It is applied in a half-lap fashion with lap cement solid at the head-lap making a good quality roof for covering a low - 3:12 or less sloped roof. Shake - A thick handsplit shingle, resawn to form two shares, usually edge grained. Shingle Butt - The lower exposed edge of shingle. Slope - Ratio or the length of rise (vertical distance) as compared to the run (horizontal distance). Commonly referred to as rise:run or rise in run. Expressed in this book as rise:run. Side Lap - The overlap length for side by side pieces of roofing. Soffit - The finished underside of an overhang. Square - In roofing and siding, 100 sq.ft. Starter Strip - A 9" or 18" wide strip of rolled roofing sometimes put along the eaves before the first row of shingles is applied. Stepped Flashing - Pieces of flashing, often 5"x7", placed at the intersection of a roof and a vertical surface. Each piece is stepped in relation to the adjacent pieces. Straight-Split - A handsplit cedar shake that does not taper. Taper-Split - A tapered cedar shake, handsplit on both faces. Tile - Also known as mission tile, clay tile, or tile roofing. Shaped like one-half of a longitudinal cylinder, made of clay, plastic, concrete, etc. and a popular roof covering in warm climates. Valley - The internal slope caused by two roofs intersecting at inside corners. A "V" shape. Valley Flashing - Flashing put in a roof valley to shed water. Waferboard - An economical flat panel, plywood substitute, made by bonding wood flakes with an adhesive. Used for roof sheathing, etc. Weather - The amount of shingle exposed "to the weather".


ESTIMATING ROOFING QUANTITIES When estimating roofing material quantities determine the area to be covered and then add a factor for waste.


Areas are two dimensional. In simplest form it is length times width. A surface without regard to depth. The answer is a certain amount of square feet, or square inches, etc. NOTE: To square a number, take that number times itself. Circle: Radius x Radius x 3.14 ( R2 ) Cylinder: Circumference x Height + Area of both ends. Ellipse: Multiply short diameter x long diameter x 0.7854 Hexagon (6 Sides): One side squared x 2.598 Octagon (8 Sides): One side squared x 4.828 Parallelogram: Base x Height. Pentagon (5 sides): One side squared x 1.72 Rectangle: Length x Width. Sphere: Diameter x diameter x 3.14 Square: One side squared. Trapezoid: Add two parallel sides, ÷ by 2, x Height. Triangle: Base x Height, divided by 2.

SLOPE MULTIPLIER FACTOR Slope 3:12 4:12 5:12 6:12 7:12 8:12 9:12 10:12 11:12 12:12 Multiplier 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.19 1.16 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.36 1.41

WASTE FACTOR (for asphalt shingle roofs)

ASPHALT SHINGLE QUANTITIES Roof Type Multiplier To find the square footage of area to be covered with roofing, first find Gable 1.10 the flat (horizontal) area covered by the roof, including overhangs. We Gable with valley 1.15 could call this the shadow area. Then multiply the shadow area by the Hip 1.20 "Slope Multiplier Factor". This gives you the sloped roof area. Then Hip with valley 1.25 multiply the sloped roof area by the "Waste Factor". The more complex the roof the more waste is needed, plus the factor usually gives you enough shingles for Boston ridge and hip, and to use shingles for starters. Divide by 100 to get the number of "squares" required. EXAMPLE: Assume a 28'x44' gable roofed house with a 2' roof overhang all around and a 4:12 slope. SOLUTION: Find the flat roof area by multiplying 32' (28' + 2' + 2'(overhangs)) times 48' (44'+2'+2') = 1536 sq.ft. From the table of "Slope Multiplier Factor" the multiplier is 1.054 for a 4:12 roof slope. (Same as adding 5.4%). 1.054 x 1536 = 1619 (rounded up). Since it is a gable roof, the multiplier from the table of "Waste Factor", to account for waste, etc., is 1.10. (Same as adding 10%). 1619 x 1.10 = 1781 sq.ft. of shingles needed. Divide by 100 to get the number of "squares". 1781 divided by 100 = 17.81 squares. ROOF FELT - take roof area to be covered and divide by 400 to determine the number of rolls. (432 sq.ft. per roll). NAILS - For shingles that take 4 roofing nails per shingle, and have 3 bundles per square (80 shingles) estimate 2 Ibs per square if using 11/4" or 11/2" nails. Reroofing over wood shingles usually takes 13/4" nails at 2.5 lbs. per square.


(Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau)




LENGTH AND Approximate coverage of one square (4 bundles) of shingles based on following weather exposures 1 1 1 1 1 THICKNESS 4" 5" 6" 7" 3 /2" 4 /2" 5 /2" 6 /2" 7 /2" 16"x5/2" 70 80 90 100* -----1 1 1 1 100* -----18"x5/2 /4" 72 /2 81 /2 90 /2 1 1 24"x4/2" ----80 93 100* 73 /2 86 /2 NOTE: * Maximum exposure recommended for roofs.


PITCH Maximum exposure recommended for roofs Length No. 1 Blue Label No. 2 Red Label No. 3 Black Label 16" 18" 24" 16" 18" 24" 16" 18" 24" 3 1 3 1 1 1 4" 3" 5" 3 /4" 4 /4" 5 /4" 3 /2" 5 /2" 3 /2" 1 1 1 1 1 1 5" 4" 4" 5 /2" 5 /2" 7 /2" 4 /2" 6 /2" 3 /2"

3/12 to 4/12 4/12 and steeper


Approximate coverage (in sq.ft.) of one square, 1 when shakes are applied with an average /2" spacing. at following weather exposures, in inches (d) 1 1 8_ 10 5 7 /2 5 /2 1 -55 (b) 75 (c) --18'x /2" Handsplit-and-Resawn Mediums (a) 3 -55 (b) 75 (c) --18'x /4 Handsplit -and-Resawn Heavies (a) 5 -55 (b) 75 (c) --18'x /8" Tapersawn 3 50 (e) -75 (b) --24"x /8" Handsplit 1 --75 (b) 85 100 (c) 24"x /2" Handsplit -and-Resawn Mediums 3 --75 (b) 85 100 (c) 24"x /4" Handsplit -and-Resawn Heavies 5 --75 (b) 85 100 (c) 24"x /8" Tapersawn 1 --75 (b) 85 100 (c) 24"x /2" Tapersplit 3 -65 (c) 90 (c) --18"x /8" Straight-Split 3 --75 (b) 85 100 (c) 24"x /8" Straight-Split 15 " Starter-Finish course Use supplementary with shakes applied not over 10" weather exposure (a) 5 bundles will cover 100 sq.ft.roof area when used as starter-finish course at 10" weather exposure; 7 bundles will cover 100 1 sq.ft.roof area at 7 /2" weather exposure; see footnote (d). (b) Maximum recommended weather exposure for 3-ply roof construction. (c) Maximum recommended weather exposure for 2-ply roof construction. 1 (d) All coverage based on an average /2" spacing between shakes. (e) Maximum recommended weather exposure. SHAKE TYPE, LENGTH AND THICKNESS


Maximum exposure recommended for roofs PITCH Shingle Length 4/12 and steeper 18" 1 7 /2" 24" 10"

Formula for calculating material at reduced exposures:

(square footage) / (reduced coverage) = total material e.g. You are estimating a roof area that measures 3200 square feet (32 squares). You have decided to put 16" shingles (No. 1 Blue Label or No. 2 Red Label) at 4" exposure. The above coverage table (Table 1) tells you that a 4-bundle square at 4" exposure covers 80 square feet. 3200 / 80 = 40 squares of material


Canadians generally measurement units. use a mixture of measurement systems frequently results in many product manufacturers providing information using both systems. Unfortunately, the approaches used in presenting the "converted" measurements are not consistent. Some information is based on "exact" conversion measurements whereas other information is based on "rounded" measurements. From your perspective and in communicating with your customer it is important to recognize that in some instances the exact conversion is necessary and in other instances a more "rounded" conversion is appropriate.

Liquid volumes are typically based on the metric (SI) system. Temperatures and distances are commonly specified using metric terminology. Weights, depending on the type of product, use either the metric or Canadian Imperial system. Lengths and dimensions of construction products, particularly for residential use, are generally in Canadian Imperial measurements. Canadian building codes are written using metric units. But the construction trades, particularly those in residential construction, typically use the Canadian Imperial system. This mixture of


1 inch (in.) 1 foot (ft.) 1 yard (yd.) 1 fluid ounce - US (oz.) 1 fluid ounce - Canadian (oz.) 1 gallon - US (gal.) 1 gallon - Canadian (gal.) = = = = = = = 25.4 mm 0.3048 m 0.9144 m 0.0296 L 0.0284 L 3.785 L 4.546 L 1 ounce - avoirdupois (oz.) 1 pound - avoirdupois (lb.) 1 pound per square inch (psi) 1 pound per square foot (psf) = = = = 28.35 g 0.454 kg 6.895 kN/m 0.04788 kPa


Celsius temperature = (Fahrenheit temperature - 32) / 1.8


("rounded" conversions) Length mm 31.8 50.8 101.6 152.4 203.2 254.0 304.8 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 762.0 914.4 1016.0 1219.2 Length m 2.44 3.05 3.66 10.97 15.24 21.95 43.89 Area sq.ft. 100 200 216 400 432 500 Weight gm 113 142 170 227 Weight kg 2.3 6.8 13.6 18.1 29.5 31.8 40.8 81.6 97.5 104.3 113.4 136.1 154.2 158.8

in. 1 1 /4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 40 48

ft. 8 10 12 36 50 72 144

m 9.3 18.6 20.1 37.2 40.1 46.5


oz. 4 5 6 8

lbs. 5 15 30 40 65 70 90 180 215 230 250 300 340 350


Product knowledge is the first step in selling roofing materials. This chapter on roofing is a good source of product knowledge. By reading as much on roofing as you can find, you will increase your product knowledge. Ask questions about roofing when you talk to roofers and builders. Ask the company reps that supply your roofing what makes their (your) products the best. Use colour photos of past jobs to help sell the customer on special shapes and styles of roofing. Selling roofing can be a tough way for a store to make a profit. The regular 3-tab shingle is very often promoted at a price that makes it almost impossible to turn a profit. This means that using your selling tools is of the utmost importance. The key is not that there is just one magic thing you can do. The key is that you do a lot of little things right. Ask questions of your customer so you know when to "up-sell" to the higher quality products. How long does the customer expect to live in his or her home? The years of service divided into the cost can reveal the true cost of the product. For just a few dollars more per month of use, a customer can have the look and quality they really want. It might be the best investment they can make. You can usually get a satisfactory profit on the higher quality, less price sensitive roofing. And long term, the customer is usually more satisfied too. For those customers and especially for the customer who buys the economical shingle, be B6 ROOFING

sure to send them home with all the accessories they need. The add-on sales for a low profit item like 3-tab shingles will make or break the profit on that sale. Plastic cement, nails, blades for roofing knives, plywood or boards to repair the overhang, roof edging, primer and paint to paint the new boards, paint brushes, caulking, and more, depending on what you found out when asking questions, are the things on which you'll determine the profitability of the sale. Customers are happier when they have everything they need to finish the job without having to interrupt their work to chase after a small item or two. Don't forget tools and the like. A person would be foolish to use an old unsafe ladder to save a few dollars, for example. Yet that's what many people do. They just need some prompting. If you never take them to your ladders to get them thinking about it they'll probably go on home and use the old broken-down ladder they have. On the other hand, if you are aggressive, you'll point out that they are saving a lot of money by doing the work themselves. You'll show them that by spending just a little bit of those savings, they'll have a good, safe ladder for use on this and other projects. An old caulking gun is an irritant when you're trying to complete a project. Mention this, maybe you'll sell them a caulking gun, hammer, putty knife, roofing knife, nail apron, square, tape, chalk get the idea. The main idea is that you have to try very hard to "sell", or you won't make any profit on roofing products. If you do it right, you will sell more roofing material than anyone in the store, while making customers happy and making a profit.

Note: Always consult your provincial and local codes



"In Your Store" is a worksheet where you apply the knowledge you have learned in this chapter to the products you stock in your store. You may be able to find the answers on your own, or you may want to ask some of the people you work with for help. There are no test questions on this information, as the answers vary with location and local custom. Do not send these answers in for correcting. This is a worksheet to help you get more familiar with your store. It becomes a reference tool for you to review when you need a refresher about what your store stocks. DIRECTIONS: Take your copy of this page from your test package. Fill out the blanks as appropriate for your situation. Sometimes more or less information could be entered. The object of the exercise is not to fill in blanks, but to learn more about the products covered in this chapter, as applied to the store you work in. So just use this exercise as a guide. Where are the roofing samples located in your store? _________________________________________ Where is the back up roofing stock? _______________________________________________________ Who is your main roofing supplier?________________________________________________________ Who are other frequently used suppliers/wholesalers?_________________________________________ Who is your store's roofing buyer? ________________________________________________________ What brands do you carry? ______________________________________________________________ What styles do you have in organic shingles? _______________________________________________ What styles do you have in fibreglass shingles? _____________________________________________ What weights of smooth rolled roofing? ____________________________________________________ What colours of selvage edge? __________________________________________________________ What colours of 90# mineral surfaced roll roofing? ___________________________________________


Any starter roll in stock? Yes Any rosin paper? Yes Any banking paper? Yes Ice & water barrier? Yes No No No No Any 30 # felt? Yes No Yes


Size of 15# felt rolls?


Sizes? __________________________

What sizes/grades of wood shakes are in stock? __________________________________________ What grades of wood shingles are in stock? ______________________________________________ What kind and sizes of metal roofing is stocked? __________________________________________ What gauge? _________________ Colours? ___________________________________

What sizes and weights of fibreglass panels? ______________________________________________ Colours? ______________________________________________ Roof edge styles? ___________________________________________________________________ Colours? ______________________________________________ Length? ______________________________________________ Widths of galvanized roll valley tin? __________________ Aluminum? _______________________ No

Painted?__________________________________ Any preformed valley? Yes

Kind and size of step flashing (tin shingles)? ______________________________________________ Other flashing? ______________________________________________ Lengths of roofing nails? ________________________ Neoprene? Yes No No Any aluminum nails? Yes No

Quantities of plastic cement? ________________________________ Quantities of: lap cement? _____________________________ Coverage? ________________________

Any caulking tubes? Yes

Foundation coating? ___________________________ What kind and sizes of roof coating is stocked?


Note: Always consult your provincial and local codes



The course was first developed by the North American Retail Hardware Association (NRHA) and the Home Center Institute (HCI) under the direction of a project coordinator and a number of authors. Several U.S. based companies provided industry specific information. This second Canadian Edition of the ACHR is based on NRHA/HCI's 14th Edition. It has been extensively modified and rewritten with the help of Carl R. Wilson & Associates Ltd. (CRWAL) so as to reflect Canadian products and construction practices. We also acknowledge the many Canadian organizations and companies that provided information for this Canadian edition of the Advanced Course in Hardware Retailing (ACHR) and the Building Material Product Knowledge Course (BMPK). Because local codes and regulations vary greatly, you are reminded to check with local experts and authorities on which codes, regulations and practices apply in your area. Copyright© 2004 by NRHA. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or any system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Though the information in this course is intended to be accurate and useful, the authors, editors, publishers, NRHA and CRWAL and their directors, officers, agents and employees will not be liable for any damage whatsoever that might occur from any use of this material.



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