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REPORT

TASMAN CATCHMENT: Natural Values and Threats

RELEASED: OCTOBER 2011

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Executive summary

The Tasman Catchment is incredibly rich in natural values. In order to enhance management of these values into the future it is important that the Catchment is viewed as a whole interconnected system rather than in a piecemeal way. This report brings together available information, from various sources, about the natural resources and threatening processes that occur in the Tasman Catchment. Previously this information has only been described in separate plans and reports. By incorporating this information in one place, this report aims to support key stakeholders to make more informed decisions about efforts to protect and manage natural resources in a more integrated manner. This report is not comprehensive as it gaps and sometimes relies on older information, however it provides a more comprehensive picture than we have previously had for this area, and identifies information gaps for future research.

About the Tasman Catchment The Tasman Catchment is a group of sub-catchments located in south-east Tasmania. The area covers the Tasman municipality (including the Tasman Peninsula and Forestier Peninsulas), and the areas north of Dunalley between Cape Bernier and Carlton in the Sorell municipality. The Catchment has a total area of 92,324 ha and includes significant natural and cultural richness and diversity. It is this diversity of natural resources that underpins much of its character and is a critical element in its natural resource base. The natural resources of the Catchment have a range of values including ecological (including ecosystem processes), intrinsic, scientific, educational, cultural, amenity, agricultural, commercial and recreational values. The Catchment contains many significant parks and reserves, including those on private land, and forms part of one of NRM South's priority areas for natural resource management (which includes key natural assets such as the Pitt WaterOrielton Lagoon, Marion Bay, and the Forestier and Tasman Peninsulas). The development of this priority area was based on extensive community consultation, analysis of available data and technical workshops in 2007.

The landscape (geodiversity and geoconservation) The Tasman Catchment contains a wide range of geodiversity (rock types, landforms and soil) that underpins a diverse suite of ecosystems. There are many landforms, particularly coastal landforms, of very high geoconservation value, including some of international significance. The tall sea cliffs that run along almost the entire eastern and southern coastline of the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas are of significant geoconservation value. Examples of other well known geoconservation features include the Devils Kitchen, the Blowhole and the Tessellated Pavement. Other key geoconservation sites include the Blackman Bay coastal landforms, Deep Glen Bay Lower Parmeener Supergroup Section, Fortescue Plains Erosion Surface, Frederick Henry Bay Beach Alignment, Sloping Island Chert Boulders, Lime Bay Volcanic Centre and the Wedge Island Cross-Profile. Threats to geodiversity come from a wide variety of natural processes and human activities. Development, construction of infrastructure, recreational activities, agricultural and land management activities, quarrying, land fill, collection of 2

materials such as fossils, removing vegetation or planting unsuitable vegetation which changes geomorphic processes, are all threats to geodiversity. Climate change also has the potential to affect geomorphic processes, landforms and soils both directly and indirectly. Key geomorphic systems most likely to be affected by climate change are fluvial (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and coastal/estuarine systems (particularly soft, sandy coasts), including those at Carlton Beach, Marion Bay, Blackman Bay, Eagle Hawk Neck, and smaller beaches on the Tasman Peninsula.

Flora and fauna The Tasman Catchment has a complex mosaic of 54 vegetation communities. This diversity arises from the changing geology, soil, weather (temperature and rainfall), exposure and aspect. Approximately 73% of the Catchment is covered by native vegetation. Vegetation associations include wet and dry forests, dry woodland and grasslands, coastal scrub and heathland, small areas of sub-alpine scrub and rainforest, and wetlands and saltmarsh communities. Fourteen communities are listed for protection under the Nature Conservation Act 2002. The Tasman Peninsula alone, at less than 1% of the state, contains over one-third (some 536 plant species) of the total plant species found in the state (PWS, 2003). There are several plants that are endemic to the Catchment, including the sheoak (Allocasuarina crassa) around Cape Pillar, as well as shiny cliff-eyebright (Euphrasia amphisysepala), peninsula eyebright (Euphrasia semipicta), masked cliff-eyebright (Euphrasia sp. Bivouac Bay) and sea watermat (Lepilaena marina)(NVA,2011). 62 plant species are listed for protection under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1999. The diverse vegetation communities which are found in the Tasman Catchment provide key habitats which support a great diversity of wildlife. This includes many terrestrial mammals, reptiles, birds, and crustaceans but also marine mammals, migratory seabirds and fish. Native fish are found in the streams, because unlike in other Tasmania rivers, trout have not been introduced. Some of the important habitats for threatened and priority fauna species include: · all grassy E. globulus forest and shrubby E. ovata forest as high quality foraging habitat for the swift parrot · the intertidal rocky sites which as known localities of the live-bearing seastar · permanent freshwater lagoons with complex vegetation structure as green and gold frog habitat · sandy beach coastlines for resident and migratory beach nesting birds, including Carlton River, Marion Bay Porpoise holes, Lagoon Beach, Sloping Main North, Fortescue Bay and Pirates Bay · saltmarsh communities as important feeding and roosting habitat for migratory wading birds, including Long Spit, the Porpoise Hole and the northern coastline of Blackman Bay · E. obliqua wet forest and E. regnans forest as potential habitat for Mt Mangana stag beetle · grassy white gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) forests as forty-spotted pardalote habitat · all grassy E. viminalis forest and coastal E. viminalis forest as potential habitat for the hairstreak butterfly. · all E. regnans forest and wet E. obliqua forest on the Tasman Peninsula as the only known habitat for the burgundy snail · the Tasman Peninsula and surrounding islands as recognized habitat for white-bellied sea eagle, particularly nesting habitat in eucalypt forests on coastal rocky outcrops and sea cliffs · blackwood swamps and riparian blackwood forest south of Eaglehawk Neck and throughout approximately half of the Forestier Peninsula as core breeding area for the grey goshawk · cliff and rocky coasts and islands around the Tasman Peninsula as seal haul-out sites and 3

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important penguin rookeries Marion Bay and on coastal islands off the Tasman Peninsula.

Key threats to both flora and fauna in the Tasman Catchment include: clearance for agriculture, subdivisions and new dwellings removal of vegetation for aesthetic reasons inappropriate fire management regimes and fire wood collection infill, changes in hydrology and eutrophication (particularly for wetlands and saltmarshes) inappropriate grazing management recreational activities and in some instances tourism activities introduced animals such as cats, dogs, foxes phytophthora (in heathlands) weed spread climate change and sea level rise.

Freshwater systems Freshwater systems of the Tasman Catchment include streams, estuaries, wetlands, water bodies and groundwater systems. Some of the more significant freshwater systems in the Catchment include: two key estuaries, one at Blackman Bay and a smaller one at Carlton six larger wetland areas all with high `integrated conservation values' (CFEV, v1.0, 2005) two major water bodies at Swan Lagoon and Sloping Lagoon, which also have high integrated conservation values (CFEV, v1.0, 2005) three groundwater dependent ecosystems on the Forestier Peninsula. The health of freshwater systems is important to provide potable drinking water, support irrigation and industrial uses, as well as to support the health of freshwater species and habitats. Threats to freshwater systems include inappropriate land management practices, salinity, pollution such as pesticides and fertilisers, over-pumping of groundwater reserves and the effects of climate change.

Coastal and marine areas The diverse coastal and marine environments within the Catchment support a wide variety of flora and fauna and underpins many of the visual, recreational, and economic (particularly tourism, fishing and aquaculture) values of the area. The coastal land forms are particularly notable, especially in the Forestier and Tasman Peninsulas. A large proportion of the coastal foreshores in the Catchment have high biological value with the exception of the more developed areas around the townships. The foreshore areas of highest biological value in the Tasman Catchment include: Marion Beach, Long Spit and the north-western foreshore of Blackman Bay 4

Eaglehawk Neck North Bay Carlton River and mouth Sloping Main The coastline around Koonya and Premaydena Safety Cove and Crescent Bay all of the islands around the Catchment (Foreshore Values data, DPIPWE, 2008)

Coastal and estuarine areas also support important resident and migratory beach nesting and shore birds. Marine areas also have high biological values and support may species including commercially fished species. Key marine habitats include extensive sea grass areas, kelp forests, reefs, soft sediment areas and sea caves. Key fauna species include the live-bearing sea star, three endemic handfish species, seahorses, sea dragons and pipefish, little penguins, as well as larger marine mammals including the southern right whale, humpback whale, Australian and new Zealand fur seals and dolphins. Threats to coastal areas are varied and include many human induced pressures such as access ways, residential and industrial development (including clearing for such developments), foreshore structures, recreational and tourism activities and the introduction of non-native plant species. Areas with high degrees of `foreshore pressure' occur around White Beach, Nubeena, the Southern end of Pirates Bay, Dunalley and Carlton Beach. Other threats to coastal and marine values include: over fishing point and diffuse sources of coastal water pollution dumping of waste, including garden wastes acid sulfate soils introduced species including weeds and marine pests climate change.

Aboriginal heritage Aboriginal people have lived in Tasmania continuously from at least 40, 000 years ago and have been in the Tasman Catchment region since then. The Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas are thought to have been inhabited more so since sea levels stabilised approximately 6000 years ago. The Tasman Catchment contains many sites of Aboriginal heritage significance including shell middens, rock markings, stone quarries, stone arrangements, rock shelters and fish traps in coastal areas. A number of these have been listed on the Register of the National Estate because of their cultural significance. The park and reserves on the Peninsulas are also considered to be of high archaeological sensitivity and significance because they contain a diversity of Aboriginal sites. These sites continue to have contemporary significance for the Aboriginal community, who maintain strong and ongoing connections to landscapes and heritage sites.

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Threats to Aboriginal sites include human activity such as building and development, vandalism, recreation and tourism. Natural threats will increasingly include the effects of climate change.

Climate change Climate change information has been incorporated into each chapter of this report, as its effects will influence different natural values in different ways. In general, over the coming decades Tasmania is expected to experience a range of climate change impacts including: increased land temperatures increased sea temperatures, ocean acidification and changes to current changes to annual and seasonal rainfall patterns and evaporation changes to levels of snow and frost wind speed changes increased frequency of extreme events, including drought, storm events and fire regimes increased sea levels, erosion and recession (Grose et al, 2010). More information on climate change data for the Tasman Catchment can be found in Appendix 7. The effects of climate change on the natural values of Tasmania's terrestrial, freshwater and marine systems, including physical and biological processes, is likely to be significant and will variably impact on biodiversity. These impacts will be on top of the range of threats and disturbance that already exists and may lead to more complex and cumulative interactions and in some instances local species extinctions. Information on the climate change impacts on natural systems and processes within this report have been taken from the report `Vulnerability of Tasmania's Natural Environment to Climate Change: An Overview' (DPIPWE, 2010). Climate change is already leading to an intensification of natural disturbances which favour weeds and invasive pests. Worsening of the invasive species problems, including introduced pathogens, parasites, predators and competitors, is predicted to continue with climate change.

Putting it all together ­ integrated conservation values and refugia In 2010 the Focal Landscapes Project undertook a process to identify sites in Tasmania where multiple values of high conservation significance occur (Carter et al, 2010). Within the Tasman Catchment the areas identified as having high concentrations of natural values were: Hellfire Bluff Franks Marsh Long Spit, Marion Bay Swan Lagoon system Lagoon Bay area immediately south of Eaglehawk Spur 6

eastern side of Fortescue Bay Cape Hauy Central region Munro Bight Cape Pillar region Cape Raoul Tumbledown point to White Beach Turners Lagoon Southern end of Sloping Island Sloping Lagoon Taranna Creek southern end of Dart Island Gilpins Point, Blackman Bay Denison Canal lower Carlton River small section of the upper Carlton River.

Refugia, in the biological context, comprise areas providing refuge from threats including climate change, fire, drought, floods, disease, weeds and invasive fauna, geomorphic and land use changes. While there have been no comprehensive studies identifying refugia in the Catchment area there are many islands, wetlands, caves, and areas protected from land clearing that could be important future refugia in the face of climate change and other threats.

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Contents Executive summary ....................................................................................................... 2 Figures ............................................................................................................................10 Tables ..............................................................................................................................11 Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................12 Partners ..........................................................................................................................12 Disclaimer ......................................................................................................................13 Glossary ..........................................................................................................................14

1 2 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 15

1.1 The Tasman Catchment .................................................................................................................................... 15

Geodiversity ............................................................................................................................. 19

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Geology ............................................................................................................................................................. 19 Geomorphology ................................................................................................................................................ 21 Land systems ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 Geoconservation ............................................................................................................................................... 22 Threats to geodiversity and landforms ............................................................................................................. 24

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Flora and fauna ....................................................................................................................... 25

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Flora .................................................................................................................................................................. 25 Plants and communities of conservation significance ...................................................................................... 27 Fauna ................................................................................................................................................................ 34 Fauna of conservation significance ................................................................................................................... 34 Threats to flora and fauna ................................................................................................................................ 38 Weeds ............................................................................................................................................................... 42

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Fresh water values and systems ........................................................................................ 46

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Water quantity and quality ............................................................................................................................... 46 Estuaries, wetlands and water bodies .............................................................................................................. 47 Groundwater and groundwater dependent ecosystems .................................................................................. 50 Threats to freshwater values ............................................................................................................................ 50 8

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Coasts and marine values .................................................................................................... 53

5.1 5.2 5.3 Coastal values ................................................................................................................................................... 53 Marine values ................................................................................................................................................... 57 Coastal and marine threats............................................................................................................................... 64

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Aboriginal heritage................................................................................................................ 70

6.1 6.2 Aboriginal heritage values ................................................................................................................................ 70 Threats to Aboriginal heritage .......................................................................................................................... 71

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Integrated conservation values and refugia ................................................................. 73

7.1 7.2 Integrated conservation values......................................................................................................................... 73 Refugia .............................................................................................................................................................. 77

Reference list ................................................................................................................78 Appendices

Appendix 1: Geology........................................................................................................................................................... 91 Appendix 2: Land systems....................................................................................................................................................... 92 Appendix 4: Saltmarsh communities................................................................................................................................. 112 Appendix 5: Grasslands and grassy woodlands sites............................................................................................................ 115 Appendix 6: Priority weeds................................................................................................................................................... 119 Appendix 7: Climate change data...................................................................................................................................... 132

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Figures

Figure 1-1: Land use in the Tasman Catchment ................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 1-2: Reserve classifications in the Tasman Catchment ............................................................................................. 18 Figure 2-1: Geology in the Tasman Catchment .................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 2-2: Geoconservation sites in the Tasman Catchment .............................................................................................. 23 Figure 3-1: Priority and threatened flora species in the Tasman Catchment ...................................................................... 28 Figure 3-2: Threatened vegetation communities in the Tasman Catchment ...................................................................... 33 Figure 3-3: Threatened and priority fauna in the Tasman Catchment Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and NVA 2011. ................................................................ 37 Figure 4-1: Freshwater and estuarine values in the Tasman Catchment. ............................................................................ 49 Figure 5-1: Foreshore biological value in the Tasman Catchment ....................................................................................... 55 Figure 5-2: Foreshore ecological disturbance in the Tasman Catchment ............................................................................ 56 Figure 5-3: Marine habitat mapping in the upper part of the Tasman Catchment.............................................................. 58 Figure 5-4: Marine habitat mapping in the lower part of the Tasman Catchment .............................................................. 58 Figure 5-5: General recorded distribution of benthic threatened species in the Bruny Bioregion ..................................... 59 Figure 5-6: Fur seal haul-out sites within the Bruny Bioregion ............................................................................................ 60 Figure 5-7: Major little Penguin and short-tailed shearwater colonies & priority sites for beach nesting and migratory shorebirds in the Bruny Bioregion ............................................................................................................................... 61 Figure 5-8: Marine farming zones and leases in the Tasman Catchment ............................................................................ 63 Figure 5-9: Predictive mapping of coastal, intertidal & subtidal marine acid sulfate soil in the northern section of the Tasman Catchment. ..................................................................................................................................................... 65 Figure 5-10: Predictive mapping of coastal, intertidal & subtidal marine acid sulfate soil in the southern section of the Tasman Catchment ...................................................................................................................................................... 65 Figure 5-11: Coastal vulnerability to hazards related to sea level rise in the Tasman Catchment ...................................... 67 Figure 7-1: Metric values for the Tasman Catchment .......................................................................................................... 76

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Tables

Table 3-1: Priority and threatened flora species in the Tasman Catchment........................................................................ 29 Table 3-2: Threatened vegetation communities in the Tasman Catchment ........................................................................ 31 Table 3-3: Threatened fauna in the Tasman Catchment ...................................................................................................... 35 Table 3-4: Physical processes in major terrestrial ecosystems likely to be impacted by climate change............................ 41 Table 3-5: Examples of the potential impact of climate change on various elements of biodiversity ................................ 42 Table 3-6: Weed priorities in the Tasman Catchment.......................................................................................................... 44 Table 3-7: Introduced flora species in the Tasman Catchment ............................................................................................ 45 Table 4-1: Major wetlands in the Tasman Catchment ......................................................................................................... 48 Table 4-2: Biophysical processes in freshwater ecosystems that are likely to be impacted by climate change. ................ 51 Table 5-1: Potential climate change impacts on coastal vegetation .................................................................................... 68 Table 5-2: Potential climate change impacts on coastal landforms ..................................................................................... 68 Table 5-3: Potential climate change impacts on the marine environment .......................................................................... 69 Table 7-1: Input spatial layers for the PAPL metric spatial layer .......................................................................................... 73

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Acknowledgements

This report has been written by Jill Pearson of NRM South, with technical support from Kaylene Allen and editorial support from Aniela Grun and Bruce Ransley. NRM South gratefully acknowledges others those who assisted with preparation and review of this report: Sandy Leighton (Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy, STCA) Michael Grose (Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre) Nikki den Exter (Consultant) Mike Comfort (Geodiversity Conservation Branch, DPIPWE) Dean Vincent (Private Land Conservation Program, DPIPWE) Felicity Hargraves (Biodiversity Conservation Branch, DPIPWE) Pitt Water to Peninsula NRM Group

Partners

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Disclaimer

NRM South uses reasonable means to verify the validity and accuracy of the data contained herein at the date of this report, however to the extent allowed by law, it does not warrant or represent that the data will be correct, current, fit/suitable for a particular purpose or not-misleading. NRM South, and all persons acting on their behalf preparing data that has been used in this report, accept no liability for the accuracy of or inferences from material contained in this publication, or for action as a result of any person's or group's interpretation, deductions, conclusions or actions in relying on this material.

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Glossary

ABS CFEV BOM DEH DPIW DPIPWE EPBC NCA NRM South NVA PAPL PWS RD & M RPDC STCA TAFI Tasman Catchment Australian Bureau of Statistics Conservation of Fresh Water Ecosystems Bureau of Meteorology Department of Environment and Heritage Department of Primary Industries and Water Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Nature Conservation Act 2002 Natural Resource Management South Natural Values Atlas Protected Area on Private Land Parks and Wildlife Service (Tasmania) Reserve Design and Management Resource Planning and Development Commission Southern Tasmanian Councils Authority Tasmania Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute The Tasman Catchment is a group of sub-Catchments located in south-east Tasmania. The area covers the Tasman municipal area (including the Tasman Peninsula and Forestier Peninsulas), and the areas north of Dunalley between Cape Bernier and Carlton in the Sorell municipality. Tasmania Threatened Species Act 1995

TTSA

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1.1

INTRODUCTION

The Tasman Catchment

The Tasman Catchment is located in south-east Tasmania and covers the Tasman municipal area (including the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas), and the area north of Dunalley between Cape Bernier and Carlton in the Sorell municipality. The Tasman Catchment is essentially coastal with no land within the Catchment lying more than 15 kilometres from the sea. Numerous small islands are scattered off the coastline, the largest among these being Tasman, Sloping and Wedge Islands. The rainfall across the Catchment is varied but is generally higher in the lower Catchment (on the Tasman Peninsula) and lower in the upper Catchment (north of Dunalley). Bureau of Meteorology data for weather stations across the Tasman show rainfall means of 762 mm at Bream Creek (since 1918), 697 mm at Dunalley (since 1974) and 916 mm at Tasman Island (1961 to 1977) (BOM, 2011). The strength of the maritime and continental influences accounts for many of the differences in the natural attributes between the land areas within the Tasman municipality compared with the Sorell municipality. The Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas are influenced by exposure to easterly and south-westerly weather systems and have relatively moist climates. These land masses have moderate elevation and landforms which are often steep, particularly on the coast. As a result, vegetation on the coast is unique and further inland is dominated by wet forests. The areas of the Catchment in the Sorell municipality are more similar to the Tasmanian Midlands, with low elevation and low rainfall due to the rain shadow effect. Vegetation is dominated by dry forests and woodlands and grassy understorey (Inspiring Place, 1999). That being said, the variation in localised climates, topography and geology that exists in both parts of the Catchment gives way to a wide range of vegetation types within a relatively small area in both municipal parts of the Catchment (Inspiring Place, 1999). The largest river in the Catchment is the Carlton River, which drains most of the area north of the Dunalley Canal and discharges into Frederick Henry Bay. South of Dunalley the streams on the Peninsulas are usually less than 10 kilometres long and include Allens Rivulet (Taranna), Sounds Rivulet (Murdunna) and Cascades Rivulet (Koonya) (DPIW, 2009). Figure 1-1 shows that land use (as mapped for 2000-2001) comprises mainly production forestry, including plantations (26%) and agriculture (mostly grazing and some poultry, viticulture, horticulture)(23%). Land use generally varies between the areas of the Catchment north and south of Dunalley. South of Dunalley, on the Peninsulas, cattle grazing, poultry farming, agroforestry and horticulture is much more common. However, for the areas north of Dunalley (in the Sorell municipality), sheep grazing, cash crops and wine grapes (particularly around Bream Creek) are more evident (Inspiring Place, 1999 & DPIW, 2009). Marine-based activities include fishing for scalefish, abalone, rock lobster and aquaculture farming for salmon and shellfish. Recreation, environmental and cultural conservation land uses comprises 21% of the land area of the Catchment (Bureau of Rural Sciences, 2004). Reserve classification is varied across the Catchment, particularly on the Forestier and Tasman Peninsulas. Conservation covenants, private nature reserves and other private reserves are shown in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. There are also noticeable differences in land ownership between the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas and the areas north of Dunalley. Private land ownership is much higher north of Dunalley and public land ownership is higher on the Peninsulas. 15

There are a number of places listed on the register of National Estate in the Tasman Catchment including Lime Bay Nature Reserve, Cape Pillar Nature Reserve, Cape Raoul, Cape Hauy and the Forestier Peninsula Fern Gullies.

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Figure 1-1: Land use in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and the Bureau of Rural Sciences (ALUM Classification v.5)

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Figure 1-2: Reserve classifications in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and DPIPWE (Tasmanian Reserve Estate Layer, April 2011)

As in many rural areas, the population is quite dispersed. The population density within the Tasman Statistical Local Area (SLA) is 3.6 persons per km2, similar to that of Sorell (Part B) SLA, which has a density of 3.4 persons per km2 (ABS, 2009). 18

On the Tasman Peninsula, most of the population lives within the township of Nubeena and the smaller localities of White Beach, Port Arthur, Koonya, Taranna, Eaglehawk Neck and Murdunna. The number of inhabitants is relatively stable at approximately 2370 (ABS, 2009), but swells to around 8000 during the summer months with the influx of tourists and other visitors (Tasman Council, 2009). Primrose Sands is the largest township in the Sorell municipal part of the Catchment, followed by smaller settlements in Bream Creek and Copping. The Tasman Peninsula is a particularly popular destination for tourists as well as Tasmanians; the Tasman National Park is one of the most visited parks in the state. Each year visitor numbers reach in excess of 155,000 for places like Tasman Arch and over 250,000 for the Port Arthur Historic site (RPDC, 2006). The landforms and landscape features are a significant attraction to the area and form the basis of much commercial tourism. Sites such as the Tessellated Pavement, Tasman Arch, Waterfall Bay, and Capes Raoul, Pillar and Hauy are all significant sites that boast spectacular coastal scenery. Recreational activities, including commercial recreation, include boating, diving, kayaking, surfing and bushwalking. The diverse coastal and marine environments support all of these activities and underpin many of the area's attractions.

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2.1

Geodiversity

Geology

The geology of the Tasman Catchment is dominated by Permian (marine) sediments and Triassic (non-marine) sediments (Permian Triassic period approx. 300­210 million years ago) intruded by Jurassic dolerite (approx. 210­145 million years ago). The oldest rock types known in the area are quartzites and metapetiles, often intruded with granite. Such granites occur as isolated outcrops at places such as Cheverton, Deep Glen Bluff and Hippolyte Rocks and are the most south-easterly extension of granite found in Tasmania. The granite rocks are thought to be from the Devonian era, similar to those found further north around Maria Island. The bedrock structures in the area have been extensively disrupted by faulting during Jurassic and Tertiary times. These complex fault structures, which largely run north­south, partially explain why the coastline in this area is so complex and indented (Sharples, 2002). Appendix 1 provides a more detailed description of the geology of the Catchment as described by Banks et al in Smith (1989) (for the Tasman Peninsula) and Mineral Resources of Tasmania Geology mapping (LIST) (for the Forestier Peninsula and areas north of Dunalley). Figure 2-1 shows mapping of the geology of the Catchment.

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Figure 2-1: Geology in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and DPIPWE (Geology 1:250k)

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2.2

Geomorphology

The three key factors have contributed to the formation of the unique and magnificent land formations in this region; geology, configuration of the rock and the zones of weakness, and fluctuating sea levels. Sea levels have risen over 100 metres several times over the last 2 million years. The main geomorphic processes are stream and coastal erosion, deposition and wind transport. Changing sea levels have also had a significant influence on coastline areas. Around the Catchment there is evidence of both higher and lower sea levels. The lower energy, soft sediment coastlines have also been primarily shaped by rising and falling sea levels, with wind transport and deposition having been more important in the past and only locally significant now. During glacial times (of lower sea levels) large amounts of glacially eroded sands were transported by melt waters and deposited in coastal areas, from where they were worked shoreward by waves and blown inland. With rising sea levels these sand deposits have been further reworked shoreward by waves and wind, forming spits, dunes and beaches, such as at Marion Bay (Sharples, 2002). Physical marine processes (waves and swell) have also shaped coastal areas. The high energy and more exposed areas occur around the southern and south-western coastline of the Tasman Peninsula. These areas feature dolerite geomorphology with spectacular 300-metre-high sea cliffs, sea caves, stacks, arches, collapse features and offshore islands. Areas with medium exposure are found primarily along the eastern coastline of the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas, as well as on the western coastline of the Tasman Peninsula north of Wedge Bay. From Sloping Main into Norfolk Bay wave energy further dissipates into the sheltered area of Norfolk Bay (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006). Other forms of geomorphic process at work in the Catchment include mass movements, such as scree fans at the base of dolerite slopes along the coastline. Landslip scars and slump masses also occur where steep sea cliffs fail. Such landslips are less common in dolerite and Triassic sandstone and siltstone inland. River and streams have played less of a role in the development of the landscape due to the small size of many rivers and streams and low rainfall, particularly in more recent times. The Carlton River and estuary shows more development of a widened river flat due to river deposits over time and to a lesser degree some river valleys adjacent to Norfolk Bay and Marion Bay. Inland cliffs are rare and low in height on the Tasman Peninsula. They are mostly on Triassic sandstone and commonly have low caves at their base probably due to seepage along interfaces in the rock beds (Banks et al, in Smith 1989). There are a few examples of upland flats on the Tasman Peninsula, the largest of which is the Fortescue Plains.

2.3

Land systems

The land systems mapping classifies land areas based on similarities in geology, topography, rainfall and altitude.1 More general information on soils, native vegetation, land use and threats can be derived from these groupings. Similar land systems are grouped into land zones.

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Land systems mapping was carried out (at a scale of 1:250, 000) for the south, east and midlands of Tasmania by the Department of Agriculture in 1988 (Davies, 1998). Davies (1999) notes that use of the land systems information should be used as a guide only as the mapping information is not a precise statement about every area of land.

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The dominant land zone in the Tasman Catchment is High rainfall, Dolerite Hilly Country (Land Zone D2 in Appendix 2), which includes coastal dolerite headlands such as West Arthur Head and associated flats dominated by coastal health and scrub. The second-most expansive land zone in the Tasman Catchment is High rainfall, Hilly Country formed from complex interbedded sequences of Mudstone and Sandstone (Land Zone I2 in Appendix 2). This land system consists of rolling hills and associated flats formed on sediments of the Parmeener Supergroup. More detailed maps and descriptions for each of the land zones found in the Tasman Catchment can be found in Appendix 2.

2.4

Geoconservation

Geoconservation aims to protect and manage geodiversity and natural processes. Many geological features have formed under different conditions, climatic or geological, that are now inactive. Once disturbed, such landforms can be lost forever (Pemberton, date unknown). The Tasmanian Geoconservation Database holds information on sites of geoconservation significance and provides information on threats and appropriate management of these values. There are many landforms and processes, particularly coastal landforms on the Tasman Peninsula, of very high geoconservation value, including some of international significance. As seen in Figure 2-2, the tall sea cliffs that run along almost the entire eastern and southern coastline of the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas are of geoconservation value. Examples of other notable features include Devils Kitchen, the Blowhole, and the Tessellated Pavement at Pirates Bay (PWS, 2003 & RPDC, 2006). A number of sea caves also occur on the eastern coast of the Tasman Peninsula. Other key geoconservation sites include the Blackman Bay coastal landforms, Deep Glen Bay Lower Parmeener Supergroup Section, Fortescue Plains Erosion Surface, Frederick Henry Bay Beach Alignment, Sloping Island Chert Boulders, Lime Bay Volcanic Centre and Wedge Island Cross-Profile.

The mapping has involved some subjectivity in land system identification and descriptions, for example around rainfall gradients. Extrapolation has also been used from air photo interpretation, geological and topographic maps and extrapolation of trends. Map resolution is generally 0.5 km.

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Figure 2-2: Geoconservation sites in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and DPIPWE (Tasmanian Geoconservation Database)

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2.5

Threats to geodiversity and landforms

Threats to geodiversity come from human activities and a wide variety of natural processes (including erosion and climate change). Development and urban expansion, construction of infrastructure such as roads and coastal protection works, recreational activities, agricultural and land management activities, quarrying, land fill, collection of materials such as fossils, and removing vegetation or planting unsuitable vegetation which changes geomorphic processes are all threats to geodiversity in the Tasman Catchment. Soft sediment coastal systems are particularly vulnerable to the removal or introduction of inappropriate vegetation. Removal of vegetation can cause accelerated erosion which changes beach and dune forms. In contrast, the introduction of species like marram grass has dramatically altered the dynamics of sand movement and deposition in many coastal areas in Tasmania, producing unnaturally steep dunes and lowered beach profiles. Both of these processes are causing impacts to beaches and dunes in the Tasman Catchment. Remaining beaches and dunes that have not been affected by marram grass are of geoconservation significance as examples of natural dune forms (Sharples, 2002). The Tasmanian Geoconservation Database aims to make information on sites of geoconservation significance available in order to assist management of these values. Planning to avoid, minimise or mitigate impacts on geoconservation values should be part of activities that may cause an impact. High rainfall, Dolerite Hilly Country (Land Zone D2) is the dominant land zone in the Tasman Catchment. According to Davies (1999) this land system is particularly prone to sheet erosion due to wind exposure, and waterlogging along drainage lines and flats. Areas of tunnel erosion and high land slip potential also occur on the basaltic soils around Bream Creek (Inspiring Place, 1999). The second-most prominent land zone ­ High rainfall, Hilly Country ­ contains soils which are particularly prone to sheet and rill erosion, on the crests and slopes. Gully erosion, waterlogging and flooding are potential hazards on the flats and drainage lines (Davies, 1999). Climate change will impact on geomorphic processes, landforms and soils directly and indirectly, particularly active land and soil forming processes. Soils form a critical link between landforms and vegetation, providing valuable ecosystem services, influencing vegetation type and health and moderating infiltration and runoff. Climate-induced changes to rainfall, vegetation cover, fire frequency and intensity and windstorm intensity all have the potential to affect soils leading to changes in soil hydrology, organic carbon, salinity, erosion and sedimentation. Key geomorphic systems most likely to be affected by climate change are fluvial (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and coastal/estuarine systems (particularly soft, sandy coasts). Geoconservation values including sensitive, rare or outstanding examples of landforms, such as those found in the Tasman Peninsula, will also be variably threatened. More information about the potential impacts of climate change on coastal landforms can be found in the Coastal and Marine Threats section (8.3).

24

3

3.1

Flora and fauna

Flora

The Tasman Catchment has significant vegetation and habitat values. Approximately 73% of the Catchment is covered by native vegetation, totaling 67,353 hectares (TasVeg v2.0). Despite the early settlement, particularly on the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas, large areas of the Catchment still remain largely unmodified. Areas which have been cleared for agriculture have developed in a mosaic among the natural vegetation. The Tasman Peninsula alone, at less than 1% of the state, contains over one-third (some 536 plant species) of the total plant species found in the state (PWS, 2003). There are also several plants which are endemic to the Catchment, including the sheoak (Allocasuarina crassa) around Cape Pillar, as well as shiny cliff-eyebright (Euphrasia amphisysepala), peninsula eyebright (Euphrasia semipicta), masked cliff-eyebright (Euphrasia sp. Bivouac Bay) and sea watermat (Lepilaena marina)(NVA,2011). The Catchment contains 54 vegetation communities. This diversity arises from the changing geology, soil, weather (temperature and rainfall), exposure and aspect. Vegetation associations include wet and dry forests, dry woodland and grasslands, coastal scrub and heathland, small areas of sub-alpine scrub and rainforest, and wetlands and saltmarsh communities. The most prominent vegetation communities within the Tasman Catchment are Eucalyptus obliqua wet forest (undifferentiated), Eucalyptus obliqua dry forest and woodland, and Eucalyptus pulchella forest and woodland. Appendix 3 contains further information about the distribution and extent of vegetation communities in the Catchment. The mosaic of vegetation communities across the Catchment is complex and varied. Some of the features of the mosaic are outlined below. The areas north of Dunalley have noticeably more clearance and conversion to agricultural and urban land (FAG ­ Agricultural, Urban and Exotic Vegetation) and Plantations for silviculture (FPL). Dominant vegetation communities in this area include Eucalyptus obliqua dry forest and woodland (DOB), Eucalyptus pulchella forest and woodland (DPU), and Eucalyptus amygdalina forest and woodland on sandstone (DAS). Notable small patches of vegetation communities include Leptospermum with rainforest scrub (RLS) around Copping, Broadleaf scrub (SBR) in small isolated patches near Gordon Sugarloaf, Mother Browns Bonnet and Big Blue Hill. Lowland grassland complex (GCL) occurs in areas around Mother Browns Bonnet and near Copping (more information under Threatened Vegetation Communities section). Along Marion Bay spit Melaleuca squarrosa scrub (SMR), Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (SAC) and Lowland Poa labillardierei grassland (GPL) all occur adjacent to each other in probably the largest cluster of coastal complexes north or Dunalley. Saltmarsh complex occurs around both sides of Blackman Bay. More information on saltmarshes is provided later in this section and in Appendix 3. At Carlton Bluff (northern side) Allocasuarina verticillata forest (NAV) also occurs as a distinct stand. On the Forestier Peninsula there is a lower proportion of Agricultural, urban and exotic vegetation (FAG) and Plantations for silviculture (FPL). Eucalyptus obliqua dry forest and woodland and Eucalyptus obliqua dry forest and woodland are still very dominant on the Forestier Peninsula; however, Eucalyptus obliqua wet forest (undifferentiated - WOU) and to a lesser extent Eucalyptus regnans forest (WRE) are still prominent. Smaller scattered patches of vegetation communities include; Eucalyptus regnans forest (DTO) running northward between Green Point and the northern end of North Bay, Lowland Themeda grassland (GTL) behind Gilpins Point Blackman Bay (more information on this community in the Plants 25

and communities of conservation significance section), Leptospermum with rainforest scrub (RLS) in the areas behind High Yellow Bluff, Wet heathland (SHW) off Richardsons Road, Nothofagus rainforest undifferentiated (RMU) through the Fazackerleys Range area, with Coastal Scrub (SSC) also through the range and on the seaward coastal margins to the east. Broadleaf scrub (SBR) also occurs around the Eucalyptus obliqua wet forest around the Hawks Hill area. Information on the distribution of vegetation communities is well documented for the Tasman Peninsula, mainly due to the high occurrence of Parks and Reserves (PWS, 2003). In poorly drained areas on the Tasman Peninsula wet heaths (SHW) commonly occur and are characterised by manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), scented paperbark (Melaleuca squarrosa), swamp melaleuca (M. squamea), swamp heath (Sprengelia incarnata), dogrose (Bauera rubioides) and sword sedge (Lepidosperma filiforme). Dry heaths occur on shallow dolerite soils and sand sheets overlying dolerite (SCH). Around Cape Pillar, Mount Brown and Cape Raoul extensive heathland and coastal scrub communities can be seen, as well as to a lesser extent at Cape Hauy (SSC). In exposed sub coastal and cliff top areas silver peppermint (E.tenuiramis) woodland (DTD) is the major community, with wet (SHW) and dry heaths (SCH) comprising the understory, depending on drainage. From Pirates Bay to Cape Pillar dry open eucalypt forests prevail, with stringy bark (Eucalyptus obliqua) (DOB) and bluegum (E. globulus) (DGL) the most common. In higher altitudes the wet eucalypt species such as mountain gum (E. delegatensis) (WDU) and blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) grow as a secondary species along with a dogwood (Pomaderris sp.) and blanketleaf (Bedfordia sp.) shrub layer (PWS, 2003). On wetter sites such as gullies and more shaded slopes rainforest or mixed forest are dominated by mountain ash (E. regnans) (WRE). On slightly drier, rockier sites stringybark (E.obliqua) (DOB) and silver peppermint (E. tenuiramis) (DTD) open forest occurs and other wet sclerophyll and short prickly shrubs with saggs (Lomandra longifolia) or bracken dominate the ground and replace the dogwood (Pomaderris sp.) shrub layer. Important areas of native vegetation of regional or local significance within the Catchment include: relict rainforest at MacGregory Peak, Mt Walter, Tatnells Hill and the Wielangta Forest relic rainforest (Tatnells Hill area on the Tasman Peninsula, plus the northern end of the Forestier Peninsula are two areas with a very high diversity of eucalypt species, both with 12­14 eucalyptus species within a 10 km by 10 km grid square (Inspiring Place, 1999) fern gullies on the Forestier Peninsula dolerite-based coastal scrub and associated vegetation on the Tasman Peninsula wet heaths and button grass moorlands on the Tasman Peninsula Eucalyptus rodwayi forest at Benjafield on the Tasman Peninsula Eucalyptus coccifera in Middle Park (on the Catchment boundary near Nugent) and other sub-alpine vegetation communities foredune and backdune vegetation around the Catchment saltmarsh communities at Blackman Bay (State-wide importance), Saltwater River, Primrose Sands and Carlton (Inspiring Place, 1999). In 2002, 24 coastal sites were assessed as part of the `Vegetation and Condition of Coastal Sites on the Tasman & Forestier Peninsulas & Blackman Bay, South-East Tasmania' Report (Fazackerley, 2002). The results of this assessment are summarised in Appendix 4. According to this report, the largest saltmarsh habitats are found at Burdens Marsh (Sloping Main) (91.4 ha and 34.9 ha), Bream Creek (Blackman Bay) (31.9 ha) and Long Spit (Blackman Bay) (18.6 ha). 26

The only saltmarsh community recorded as having `very good' condition was at Saltwater River. Eighteen sites were in `fair' to `good' condition and the remaining sites were all recorded as having `poor `condition (5). Six sites were recorded as protected, with a further 10 either being fenced or not grazed. More detailed survey information, such as that included in the Fazackerley report (Appendix 2), is currently not available for the saltmarsh communities along the Carlton River and estuary. The CFEV project also mapped key saltmarsh communities around the State, including within the Tasman Catchment. Six saltmarsh communities were recorded around Blackman Bay, all having `naturalness' scores of medium (0.70) or higher and `integrated conservation value' scores of medium or above. One saltmarsh site on the southern side of the Carlton River (north of Carlton Bluff Road) was mapped as part of the CFEV project and recorded a high `naturalness' score (1.0) and a `medium integrated conservation value' (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). A number of wetlands also occur in the Tasman Catchment. According to Tasveg v2.0 these broadly fall into the wetland (undifferentiated ­ AWA) community, however vegetation in these wetlands varies; for example from Restionaceae flatlands to short paperbark swamp (CFEV database,V1.0, 2005). See Table 4-1 in the Estuarine and Wetland section for more information.

3.2

Plants and communities of conservation significance

Approximately 11.7% (7,787 hectares) of the Catchment's native vegetation is currently threatened (TasVeg 2.0). There are currently 13 flora species listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), 62 species listed under the Tasmania Threatened Species Act 1995 (TTS Act) and 5 endemic species in the Tasman Catchment, as seen in Table 3-1. Figure 3-1 below highlights all species listed at a national level, state listed `endangered species' and species endemic to the Tasman Catchment. It should be noted that mapping in Figure 3-1 reflects survey effort which has been recorded in the Natural Values Atlas of Tasmania. Systematic surveys of priority and threatened flora have not been undertaken within the Tasman Catchment and as a result Figure 3-1 does not show a complete picture of threatened and priority flora. Consideration of potential or actual habitat would be the best way to determine likely occurrence of priority and threatened flora in other areas of the Catchment. Cyathodes platystoma and Euphrasia phragmostoma are two additional species that have a high percentage of their total statewide distribution in the Tasman Catchment at 94% and 90%, respectively. Euphrasia species, namely Euphrasia semipicta, E.amphisysepala and Euphrasia sp. Bivouac Bay are of particular significance in the Tasman Catchment due to their conservation rating and endemic status within the Catchment.

27

Figure 3-1: Priority and threatened flora species in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and NVA 2011.

28

Table 3-1: Priority and threatened flora species in the Tasman Catchment

Species Name TREES Allocasuarina crassa Cyathea cunninghamii Cyathea Xmarcescens SHRUBS Epacris virgata (Kettering) Acacia siculiformis Acacia ulicifolia Euphrasia semipicta Euphrasia sp. Bivouac Bay Euphrasia amphisysepala Euphrasia phragmostoma Eutaxia microphylla var. microphylla Pimelea flava subsp. flava Cyathodes platystoma GRASSES, LILLIES & ORCHIDS Thelymitra jonesii Prasophyllum castaneum Prasophyllum pulchellum Prasophyllum apoxychilum Corunastylis nuda Cyrtostylis robusta Thelymitra holmesii Caladenia caudata Pterostylis atriola Diuris palustris Caladenia filamentosa Orthoceras strictum Lachnagrostis scabra subsp. scabra Austrodanthonia induta Lachnagrostis robusta Austrostipa bigeniculata Deyeuxia minor Australopyrum velutinum Deyeuxia densa Carex gunniana skyblue sun-orchid chestnut leek-orchid pretty leek-orchid tapered leek-orchid tiny midge-orchid large gnat-orchid bluestar sun-orchid tailed spider-orchid snug greenhood swamp doubletail daddy longlegs horned orchid rough blowngrass tall wallabygrass tall blowngrass Double jointed speargrass small bentgrass velvet wheatgrass heath bentgrass mountain sedge VU EN CR CR CR EN e e e e r r r v e e r r r r r r r r r r dagger wattle juniper wattle peninsula eyebright masked cliff-eyebright shiny cliff-eyebright hairy cliff-eyebright spiny bushpea yellow riceflower tall cheeseberry EN EN VU VU PEN pv r r e e r v r r r Yes Yes Yes cape pillar sheoak slender treefern skirted treefern r e e Yes Common Name National Conservation Rating ­ EPBC Act State Conservation Rating ­ TTSA Act Endemic to Tasman Catchment

29

HERBS Lepidium hyssopifolium Xerochrysum palustre Siloxerus multiflorus Ranunculus sessiliflorus var. sessiliflorus Vittadinia cuneata var. cuneata Senecio velleioides Cynoglossum australe Lepidium pseudotasmanicum Stellaria multiflora Scutellaria humilis Limonium australe Euphrasia collina subsp. deflexifolia Viola cunninghamii Triglochin minutissimum Hypoxis vaginata Eryngium ovinum Persicaria decipiens Phyllangium divergens GROUND COVERS or OTHER GROUND DWELLING PLANTS Hyalosperma demissum Wilsonia humilis Cuscuta tasmanica Scleranthus fasciculatus WATERPLANTS Stuckenia pectinata Cystoseira trinodis Juncus amabilis Juncus vaginatus Lepilaena marina Lepilaena preissii Ruppia megacarpa Ruppia tuberosa

Data source: NVA, 2011

soft peppercress swamp everlasting small wrinklewort rockplate buttercup fuzzy new-holland-daisy forest groundsel coast houndstongue shade peppercress rayless starwort dwarf skullcap yellow sea-lavender eastern eyebright alpine violet tiny arrow grass sheathing yellowstar blue devil slender water pepper wiry mitrewort

EN VU

e r r r r r r r r r r r r r v v v

moss sunray silky wilsonia golden dodder spreading knawel

e r r v

fennel pondweed brown alga gentle rush clustered rush sea watermat slender watermat largefruit seatassel tuberous seatassel

r r r r r r r r Yes

Species highlighted in blue in the above table are prioritised threatened flora and fauna as part of the project titled `Prioritisation of Threatened Flora and Fauna Recovery Actions for the Tasmanian NRM Regions'. This project aimed to identify species that could be secured in the wild, in Tasmania, within 50 years, based on their cost efficiency. A taxon is defined as secure when its numbers and distribution are stable or increasing and are sufficient that there is a 95 % probability that it will survive the stochastic events anticipated in the wild over a 50-year time frame, given that all known and predicted threats are adequately managed. 30

Of the flora identified for prioritisation the skyblue sun-orchid (27), soft pepper cress (32) and blue devil (61) were ranked the highest in the Tasman Catchment of the 171 species ranked according to their benefit to success cost ratio. Threatened vegetation communities in the Tasman Catchment are outlined in Table 3-2 below.

Table 3-2: Threatened vegetation communities in the Tasman Catchment

Vegetation Community VegCode State Threatened ­ NC Act National Threatened ­ EPBC Act Area in Tasman catchment (ha) Area in Southern Region (ha) Area in Tasmania (ha) Proportion in the Tasman Catchment Proportion of Southern Region Proportion of State

Allocasuarina littoralis forest Callitris rhomboidea forest Eucalyptus amygdalina forest and woodland on sandstone Eucalyptus brookeriana wet forest Eucalyptus globulus dry forest and woodland Eucalyptus ovata forest and woodland Eucalyptus tenuiramis forest and woodland on sediments Eucalyptus viminalis Eucalyptus globulus coastal forest and woodland Eucalyptus viminalis wet forest lacustrine herbland Lowland Poa labillardierei grassland Lowland Themeda grassland

NAL NCR

R R

39 43

454 688

1520 864

2.6 4.9

9 6

3 5

DAS

V

3261

27720

44098

7.4

12

7

WBR

R

5

350

6430

0.1

1

0

DGL

V

2074

16115

16749

12.4

13

12

DOV

E

915

3203

13826

6.6

29

7

DTO

V

692

47728

48025

1.4

1

1

DVC

R, V

49

1012

2948

1.7

5

2

WVI AHL

E V

18 38

271 156

7507 957

0.2 4.0

7 24

0 4

GPL

CE

285

9547

18686

1.5

3

2

GTL

CE

136

2545

7991

1.7

5

2

31

Seabird rookery complex wetland (undifferentiated)

SRC AWU

R V

22 210

224 1883

713 5772

3.1 3.6

10 11

3 4

Data source: TasVeg v2.0 Note: Tasman Catchment is 1.4% of the total area of Tasmania

At present not all wetland and salt marsh communities are listed under the Nature Conservation Act 2002, only `wetland undifferentiated' (AWU), and Lacustrine Herbland (AHL). Other wetland and saltmarsh communities which occur in the Tasman Catchment include Saline sedgeland/rushland (ARS) and Succulent saline herbland (ASS) are not currently listed. However, these communities are increasingly at risk and are of conservation concern. Lowland Grasslands of Tasmania have recently been listed as `critically endangered' under the EPBC Act. This community includes the Lowland Poa labillardierei grassland sub-type and Lowland Themeda triandra grassland subtype. The P. labillardierei sub-type is relatively species-poor and consists of grasslands typically dominated by tussocks of P. labillardierei with smaller grasses, lichens and other herbs such as lilies, daisies and orchids in the inter-tussock spaces. The T. triandra sub-type is typically dominated by T. triandra and is more floristically diverse. Other common grasses in this grassland include species of the Austrodanthonia, Austrostipa and Poa genera. It is often characterised by a rich variety of lilies, orchids, daisies and other herbs in patches between grass tussocks although it can occur where T. triandra dominates almost to the exclusion of other species. Lowland grassland communities are highly fragmented across the state. Remnants usually range in size, however statewide most patches (approximately 76%) are under 10 ha in size and almost all (approximately 98%) are under 100 ha (Lowland Grassland Review Expert Group, 2008). As seen in Table 3-2, the Tasman Catchment has 1.5% of the P. labillardierei sub-type and 1.7% of T. triandra sub-type. In the Tasman Catchment, Poa labillardierei grassland occurs around Mother Browns Bonnet, Copping, Marion Bay Spit, Dunalley, Cape Frederick Hendrick, behind Lagoon Bay, Sloping Island, Dart Island and between Two Island Bay almost through to White Beach. Themeda triandra grassland occurs on Blackman Bay in a patch from Gilpins Point inland over Blackman Bay Road. In 2002 a broader survey of native grassland and grassy woodland sites in the Sorell and Tasman municipalities was undertaken by Leonard for the Bangor Landcare Group. During site surveys all plant species were recorded and land management and threatening processes were noted. The condition of the vegetation at each site was assessed. While the information in this report is now somewhat dated, it still provides an additional level of information which can be used to review changes in extent and condition of priority lowland grasslands and grassy woodland communities in the Catchment. Appendix 5 summarises the result of the survey work by Leonard within the Tasman Catchment. At the time of the 2002 Leonard report, the grassland and grassy woodland sites at Marchwiel Hill, Black Jack Hills, Cape Frederick Hendrick and Monument Point were in the best condition. For more information on individual sites, including management recommendations, see Appendix A of Leonard's report (2002).

32

Figure 3-2: Threatened vegetation communities in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and NVA 2011.

33

3.3

Fauna

The diverse vegetation communities found in the Tasman Catchment provide key habitats which support a great diversity of wildlife. The Tasman Peninsula alone is home to 28 species of terrestrial native mammals, which represents 82% of those known from Tasmania (Taylor, 1986 in Inspiring Place, 1999). The narrow isthmuses at Dunalley and Eaglehawk Neck isolate the Peninsulas from the rest of the Tasmanian mainland, thus reducing opportunities for the movement of animals into and out of the region. The larger herbivores found in the Catchment include the Tasmanian pademelon, Bennett's wallaby and common wombat. Larger species such as these have increased in numbers in and around the major parks and reserves in response to the development of pastures throughout the Catchment. Tasmanian devils and eastern quolls occur most frequently in the parks and reserves, but in small populations with a limited distribution. The Tasmanian bettong and southern potoroo are found in the drier regions, again in higher numbers in and around the major reserves. Bird life in the Catchment is rich and varied. Field surveys of bird populations have been conducted in many of the major parks and reserves. Approximately 120 bird species have been recorded, including 12 species listed under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (see the Coast and Marine Section for coastal and sea bird information). Seven species of bats have also been recorded in the Catchment. All three species of Tasmanian land snake, the tiger snake, copperhead, and white-lipped whip snake have been recorded in the Tasman National Park and occur elsewhere in the Catchment. Nine species of lizards have been recorded as well as six of the 10 frog species occurring in Tasmania (PWS, 2003). The broad toothed stag beetle and Mt. Mangana stag beetle have been recorded on the Forestier Peninsula. The spotted microcaddisfly and burgundy snail have also been recorded. The burgundy snail is the only species which is completely endemic to the Tasman Catchment. Native fish populations occur in several permanent streams within the Catchment. Nine species of fish have been recorded in the parks and reserves including two species endemic to Tasmania: the Tasmanian smelt and Tasmanian white-bait (PWS, 2003). Hildyards Point at Dunalley has the highest known diversity of crustaceans and mollusc species of any saltmarsh in the state (18 species from four major groups) indicating the importance of these and other saltmarsh communities (Inspiring Place, 1999). In a statewide survey of strandline fauna, the sandy beach at Fortescue Bay was identified as having the richest faunal diversity of all beaches surveyed and provides a habitat for two crustaceans: a rare endemic undescribed sandhopper and an as yet undescribed landhopper (PWS, 2003).

3.4

Fauna of conservation significance

There are 24 species of threatened fauna recorded in the Tasman Catchment under the TTS Act and 14 recorded under the EPBC Act (NVA, 2011) as listed in Table 3-3. 34

Table 3-3: Threatened fauna in the Tasman Catchment

Species Name MAMMALS Sarcophilus harrisii Dasyurus maculatus subsp. maculatus Perameles gunnii BIRDS Pardalotus quadragintus Acanthornis magna subsp. greeniana Lathamus discolor Aquila audax subsp. fleayi Tyto novaehollandiae Thalassarche cauta Thalassarche melanophrys Parvulastra vivipara Sternula albifrons Sternula nereis Numenius madagascariensis Accipiter novaehollandiae Haliaeetus leucogaster REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS & INSECTS Litoria raniformis Lissotes menalcas Lissotes latidens Pseudalmenus chlorinda tax. myrsilus Orphninotrichia maculata GASTROPODS Helicarion rubicundus MARINE ANIMALS Mirounga leonina Arctocephalus forsteri Smilasterias tasmaniae

Data source: NVA, 2011.

Common Names

National Conservation Rating ­ EPBC Act EN VU VU

State Conservation Rating ­ TTSA Act E R

Tasmanian devil spotted-tailed quoll eastern barred bandicoot

forty-spotted pardalote scrubtit (king island) swift parrot wedge-tailed eagle masked owl shy albatross black-browed albatross live-bearing seastar little tern fairy tern eastern curlew grey goshawk white-bellied sea-eagle

EN CR EN EN PVU VU VU VU

E E E E pe V E V pe pv E E V

green and golden frog Mt. Mangana stag beetle broad-toothed stag beetle Tasmanian hairstreak(butterfly) caddis fly (wedge river)

VU EN

V V E R R

burgundy snail

R

southern elephant seal new zealand fur seal seastar

VU

E R R

Species highlighted in blue in the above table are prioritised threatened flora and fauna as part of the project titled `Prioritisation of Threatened Flora and Fauna Recovery Actions for the Tasmanian NRM Regions' (see page 30 for further 35

information on this project). In terms of fauna rankings, the live-bearing seastar ranked the highest (92), followed by the Mt Mangana stag beetle (109), eastern-barred bandicoot (139), green and gold frog (161), white-bellied sea-eagle (165), Tasmanian devil (167) and spotted-tailed quoll (171). Figure 3-3 shows species listed under the EPBC Act, `endangered' species under the TTS Act, endemic species or those listed for prioritisation through the `Prioritisation of Threatened Flora and fauna Recovery Actions for the Tasmanian NRM Regions' project. As with the priority and threatened flora mapping, the priority and threatened fauna mapping in Figure 3-3 has used data available through the Natural Values Atlas. While this is the best available data, it does not reflect effort through systematic surveys across the entire Catchment and therefore should be interpreted with this in mind. Distribution of species in Figure 3-3 shows clear relationships to road networks, suggesting that more survey effort has been undertaken in these areas. Again consideration of potential or actual habitat would be a useful way to determine where priority or threatened species may occur within the Catchment.

36

Figure 3-3: Threatened and priority fauna in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image by TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and NVA 2011.

37

Some of the important habitat for threatened and priority fauna species includes (NRM South 2008): · all grassy E. globulus forest and shrubby E. ovata forest as high quality foraging habitat for the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor) · the coastline around all known localities of the live-bearing seastar (Patiriella vivipara); preferred habitat is sheltered waters in the upper intertidal zone of rocky areas · permanent freshwater lagoons with complex vegetation structure dominated by emergent plants such as water ribbons (Triglochin) and spikerush (Eleocharis), and submerged plants such as watermilfoil (Myriophyllum), marsh-flower (Villarsia), and pondweed (Potamogeton) as green and gold frog habitat (however other plant communities can form equally suitable habitat) · sandy beach coastlines for resident and migratory beach nesting birds; Carlton River, Marion Bay Porpoise holes, Lagoon Beach, Sloping Main North, Fortescue Bay and Pirates Bay are high priority sites for resident and migratory shorebirds · saltmarsh communities for migratory birds, including Long Spit, the Porpoise Hole and the northern coastline of Blackman Bay ­ all important feeding and roosting habitat for migratory wading birds · E. obliqua wet forest and E. regnans forest as potential habitat for Mt Mangana stag beetle (Lissotes menalcas) · grassy white gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) forests as forty-spotted pardalote (Pardalotus quadragintus) habitat · all grassy E. viminalis forest and coastal E. viminalis forest as potential habitat for the hairstreak butterfly (Pseudomenus chlorinda mysilus) · all E. regnans forest and wet E. obliqua forest as habitat for the burgundy snail (Helicarion rubicund); the whole range of the burgundy snail is on the Tasman Peninsula · the Tasman Peninsula and islands surrounding as habitat for the white-bellied sea eagle, particularly for nesting habitat in eucalypt forests on coastal rocky outcrops and sea cliffs · a core breeding area for the grey goshawk south of Eaglehawk Neck and throughout about half of the Forestier Peninsula; preferred breeding habitat is in blackwood swamps and riparian blackwood forest (Forestry Practices Authority, 2002) · cliff and rocky coasts and islands around the Tasman Peninsula and · important penguin rookeries Marion Bay and on coastal islands off the Tasman Peninsula (this is outlined further in the Coastal and Marine section of this report).

3.5

Threats to flora and fauna

Key threats to flora species and communities in the Tasman Catchment include: clearance for agriculture, subdivisions, new dwellings and other infrastructure removal for aesthetic reasons degradation and loss through inappropriate fire management regimes and fire wood collection degradation and loss of wetlands and saltmarshes due to infill, changes in hydrology and eutrophication inappropriate grazing management recreational activities and in some instances tourism activities phytophthora (in heathlands) weed spread climate change and sea level rise. 38

Threats have flow-on implications for fauna in the Catchment as degradation and loss of vegetation results in reduced or degraded fauna habitat. Between 1994 and 2001 the Tasman Catchment had the highest percentage of its area subject to woody vegetation decrease (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2003). Ongoing incremental clearing is having an impact on the fauna on the peninsula, particularly small birds with the loss of understorey habitat (NRM South, 2007). Many human related activities which continue to occur such as land clearance, infill, farming and forestry also increase habitat fragmentation and reduce structural diversity of vegetation, which further degrades the quality of habitat for fauna (RD & M, 2002). Specific threats to fauna include introduced animals (such as cats, dogs, and foxes), diseases such as the Devil Facial Tumor Disease, recreational activities and vehicle traffic. In the marine environment unsustainable fishing practices also threaten fish populations and other marine species. Land clearing for development, farming and forestry, and service provision has had a significant effect on vegetation and fauna in the Catchment. Development pressure, lack of planning controls and inappropriate land management practices have all contributed to loss, fragmentation and degradation of vegetation over time. Lowland and coastal vegetation types have been lost largely to increasing settlement in these areas (Inspiring Place, 1999). Continued subdivision of rural and coastal lands in the Catchment continues to put pressure on remaining vegetation values and fauna habitat. Particularly in coastal areas, removal of vegetation to improve views and property values is an ongoing and widespread problem, as is infill of coastal saltmarsh and wetland habitats to increase holdings or improve land use opportunities. Fire is a natural part of ecosystem processes particularly in dry sclerophyll forests. Since European settlement fire regimes have changed dramatically, both in frequency and intensity. These changes to fire regimes have affected native vegetation by reducing the integrity of flora as a result of over-burning, promoting fire tolerant species, promoting an increase in exotic species, erosion and/or land slips on susceptible sites. Grazing of vegetation by both native animals and introduced animals also affects native vegetation values and fauna habitat in the Catchment. Inappropriate livestock grazing has had a negative impact on vegetation values in farming areas by reducing the structure and composition of vegetation/habitat through trampling, grazing, changes in nutrient levels in soils, altered or loss of recruitment and increased weed invasion as a result of reduced vegetation cover and soil degradation. More recently, in some areas of the Catchment, numbers of native animals (particularly medium sized mammals) have increased as a result of a reduction in controls on wildlife hunting and trapping, and increased resource availability, e.g. open grassy areas suitable for grazing (RD & M, 2002). All of the threats listed above, as well as weeds, are relevant to lowland grasslands communities, which are the most threatened vegetation community in the Catchment. Grasslands and grassy woodlands have suffered greatly from clearing as a result of their potential agricultural value (Inspiring Place, 1999). Management and grazing practices in grasslands that cause exclusion of disturbance or too frequent and intense disturbance can lead to a change in the ecology of grassland communities and in turn lead to degradation of grassland values (Baker, 1999 in Leonard, 2002). According to Leonard (2002), in the Tasman Catchment the most common threat to the grassland or grassy woodland communities is woody weeds, however it was noted that in most cases the densities were not high and so eradication was possible. The Tasman Catchment contains diverse environmental, agricultural (declared) and high priority (WONS) weeds as a result of the historical and recent land settlement and disturbance. Weeds can lead to a decline in biodiversity by outcompeting and displacing native flora. Change to the floristic and structural components of native vegetation reduces the habitat values of native vegetation which in turn affects native fauna. In some cases native vegetation can be 39

completely replaced with a monoculture of weeds. Threatened species and communities are particularly vulnerable to the threat of weed invasion. Weeds can also change fire regimes, hydrology, land forms and in some instances impact human health through poisoning, hay fever, asthma and other conditions. Primary production is also affected by weed invasion, reducing product quality and quantity, and having an economic impact for primary producers. Despite the risks weeds pose and the negative impacts that result, they can also have positive attributes such as providing a source of pollen, habitat for some wildlife and erosion control where native plants are absent (DPIWE, 2000 & NRM South, 2005). More detailed information about weed populations and management in the Tasman Catchment can be found in Appendix 6. Phytophthora (root rot fungus) has been recorded at numerous sites within the Catchment. Many prominent species including banksias, heaths and legumes are susceptible to the pathogen. Reducing the spread of phytophthora through improved hygiene practices is essential to reducing the threat of spread. Tourism and recreational activities in the Catchment are popular and also cause impacts on local flora and fauna. Within the reserves recreational impacts are generally managed well through management of access and tracks, weed control, restoration and rehabilitation activities etc. This being said, recreational and tourism activities do have an impact on flora and fauna via vegetation clearance for facilities and services, damage to vegetation such as trampling, disturbance to fauna species including to breeding areas, litter, and feeding of animals. With the increase in development and settlement in the area, there is also an increase threat to native fauna from domestic cats and dogs. Domestic (and wild) cats have a significant impact on native mammals and birds if not contained and managed appropriately. Domestic dogs can cause additional problems such as disturbance and attacks on birds and small mammals. Many of the local or sub-regional level management plans available for the Catchment recommend vegetation and fauna management strategies and actions. Increasingly in the future, climate change and sea level rise will also be a threat to flora and fauna values. For example, salt marsh communities may face inundation where natural or man-made barriers prevent landward movement. Coastal erosion and recession is increasingly having an impact on coastal areas and in many cases leading to the loss of vegetation and habitat at the coastal interface. Alpine vegetation and other communities with specific climatic niches may also be increasingly vulnerable as the climate changes. Climate change impacts will be at the top of a range of threats and disturbances that already affect flora and fauna. Table 3-4 and Table 3-5 below further outline some of the key impacts anticipated for terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity.

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Table 3-4: Physical processes in major terrestrial ecosystems likely to be impacted by climate change.

Physical climate change indicator Potential impact

Increases in minimum and maximum temperatures will affect physiology of some plant species. Increase in altitudinal range of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Increased temperature Many of the dominant Eucalyptus species in Tasmania's forests have a restricted climatic and geographic range and may be susceptible to increased temperatures. May lead to an advance in the onset of spring, delay in autumn, and increased out of season events such as winter flowering. May lead to increase in treeline. Changed flow in rivers, localised shrinking (more likely north of Dunalley) or expansion of wetlands (more likely south of Dunalley). Changed precipitation Increased stress of species currently at the limits of climate tolerance. Varied regeneration rates in dry eucalypt forests, dependent on rainfall variation. Reduced incidence of frosts Increase in woody species in frost hollows. Widespread dieback of eucalypt species. Changed seasonality of rainfall Breeding seasons of some mammals that are related to spring rainfall may change if rainfall patterns change. Changes in the ratio of C3 to C4 plant species. Changes in the secondary metabolites such as tannins and phenolics will affect palatability and nutrient value of plants to browsers. Increased productivity in forests. Increased CO2 Changes in phenology of plant species. Woody "thickening" of vegetation. Expansion of rainforest into montane grasslands and eucalypt communities. Sea level rise and storm surges Impact on dry coastal ecosystems and coastal wetlands, particularly where there is no potential for upslope expansion and movement. Possible increase in myrtle wilt. Changes to flowering season with consequent impacts for pollinators and successful pollination. Interactive effects Increased temperature and increased CO may lead to increased growth rates and resultant higher fuel loads. Increased fire frequency will affect age structure of forests and habitat availability. Loss of fire-sensitive species from increased number and intensity of bushfires. Extreme events

DPIPWE, 2010

2

Increased frequency and severity of bushfires may lead to the loss of major ecosystem types.

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Table 3-5: Examples of the potential impact of climate change on various elements of biodiversity

Element of biodiversity Potential impact

Changes in phenology and breeding is predicted for terrestrial birds (Chambers et al. 2005). Wetland birds impacted by drying of wetlands, saltwater intrusion into freshwater coastal systems, loss of habitat for coastal birds. All species within the albatross, penguin, petrel and shearwater families considered at risk (Foden et al. 2008). In Australia, it is anticipated that nearly 20% of migratory bird species are potentially affected through the loss of coastal habitat due to sea level rise. Marine and coastal birds will also be affected in combination with coastal development. Reptiles Some Tasmanian skinks may be at risk from climate change, including three mountain species with specific temperature requirements. Frogs are considered the most at risk taxa (Steffen et al. 2009), particularly from the increased incidence of chytrid fungus (Laurance 2008). All of Tasmania's 11 species occur in families identified as vulnerable to the impacts of climate (Foden et al. 2008) Native freshwater fish are likely to be sensitive to increased water temperature and its interactive effects with changed rainfall on water quality. Pollinators may experience disruption to their food supply, because their timing is dependent on cumulative temperature, whereas flowering is synchronised by photoperiod. Species with nowhere to go, such as those on low-lying islands, high latitudes and edges of continents, and those with restricted ranges such as rare and endemic species, are considered vulnerable to climate change. Plants Plant species with extreme habitat/niche specialisations, such as narrow tolerance to climate-sensitive variables, are considered vulnerable. Plant species that are fire-killed are also considered to be vulnerable to the effects of changed fire frequencies and intensities due to climate change.

DPIPWE, 2010

Birds

Amphibians

Fish

Invertebrates

3.6

Weeds

Weeds are a significant threat to native flora and fauna. In the Tasman Catchment a large amount of work has been undertaken in recent years to control and eradicate weeds. Because of the significance of weeds and the data available on weed management, weed information has been presented separately to the other threat information listed above. Some mapping of priority weeds was undertaken in 2002 across coastal areas of the Tasman Catchment (excluding the northern end of Marion Bay) as part of the Integrated South East Coastal Management Strategy. Tasman Council employed a part time NRM Officer in 2005 and weed management activities were progressed, including the acquisition of additional funding through the Australian Government's Caring for our Country to support the Tasman Landcare 42

Group's weed activities. From 2007 to 2009 the Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy (STWS) received Defeating the Weed Menace and then Caring for our Country funding to survey, map and progress eradication of outlying boneseed infestations as well as bridal creeper eradication. In 2008, Tasman Council engaged North Barker Ecosystem Services to undertake comprehensive weed mapping within roadside areas, and some Council land, with funds provided by the STWS infrastructure fund. This mapping and the associated prioritisation is available in the `Tasman Council Weed Mapping Project' report (North Barker Ecosystem Services, 2008). Following this work, a draft weed strategy (The Tasman Weed Strategy, 2009) was developed for the Tasman municipality and has been progressively rolled out since January 2009. The Southern Tasman Weed Strategy 2005­10 is the overarching weed strategy in the Southern NRM Region of Tasmania. Implementation of this strategy is coordinated by the Project Manager, Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy. In 2008, priority weed mapping was undertaken in the southern region to progress strategic weed management activities and facilitate monitoring and evaluation (See maps in Appendix 6). These maps have been used to describe weed management activities for the purpose of this report, particularly for the parts of the Catchment in the Sorell municipality (north of Dunalley) where municipal level mapping and management plans are not currently available. According to the 2009 draft Tasman Weed Strategy, the 2010 Tasman Weed Report and the Southern NRM Region Priority Weed Maps, priority weeds on the Tasman Catchment are as follows:

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Table 3-6: Weed priorities in the Tasman Catchment

Highest Priority Weeds

asparagus fern (Asparagus scandens) - WoNS & Declared bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) WoNS & Declared

Weeds of High Importance

paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum) Declared ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) - Declared

Weeds of Lower Importance

blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) ­ WoNS & Declared english broom (Cytisus scoparius) - Declared fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) - Declared willow (Salix species) - WONS & Declared horehound (Marrubium vulgare) - Declared californian thistle (Cirsium arvense) - Declared spanish heath (Erica lusitanica) - Declared canary broom (Genista monspessulana) Declared sweet briar (Rosa rubiginosa) radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sweet pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum) tree lucerne (Chamaecytisus palmensis) tree lupin (Lupinus arboreus) capeweed (Arctotheca calendula) cotoneaster (Cotoneaster species) montbretia (Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora) blue periwinkle (Vinca major) mirror bush (Coprosma repens) blue butterfly bush (Psoralea pinnata)

boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)-WoNS & Declared sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias) gorse (Ulex europaeus) ­WoNS & Declared serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma) - WoNS & Declared african boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum) - Declared pampas grass (Cortaderia species) - Declared

Data source: Meiss, A, 2010 and S Leighton pers. comm. 2011.

Further information on the distribution and control of priority weeds in the Tasman Catchment can be found in Appendix 6. Weeds of lower priority have received limited attention in the Catchment in recent years. They generally either have a widespread distribution or little information is currently available on their distribution. Future funding should consider the importance of eradicating strategically important populations of these weeds to protect priority NRM assets including threatened species and priority vegetation communities. A full list of introduced species in the Tasman Catchment can be found in Table 3-7.

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Table 3-7: Introduced flora species in the Tasman Catchment

Common Name

african boxthorn arum lily asparagus fern sweet pittosporum, Australian daphne, victorian box, mock orange or victorian laurel blackberry blue butterflybush blue periwinkle boneseed bridal creeper broad-leaved dock, dock or sorrel bulbil watsonia californian thistle canary broom cape ivy cape Lewin wattle capeweed curled dock english broom english couch false dandelion fennel foxglove gorse great mullein great reedmace grey cotoneaster hawthorn hybrid pittosporum japanese honeysuckle marram grass mirrorbush montbretia new zealand flax pampas grass paspalum paterson's curse pink pampas grass purple groundsel radiata pine

Species Name

Lycium ferocissimum Zantedeschia aethiopica Asparagus scandens Pittosporum undulatum Rubus fruticosus Psoralea pinnata Vinca major Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera Asparagus asparagoides Rumex obtusifolius Watsonia meriana var. bulbillifera Cirsium arvense Genista monspessulana Delairea odorata Paraserianthes lophantha subsp. lophantha Arctotheca calendula Rumex crispus Cytisus scoparius Elytrigia repens Urospermum dalechampii Foeniculum vulgare Digitalis purpurea Ulex europaeus Verbascum thapsus Typha latifolia Cotoneaster franchetii Crataegus monogyna Pittosporum undulatum subsp. Xemmettii Lonicera japonica Ammophila arenaria Coprosma repens Crocosmia Xcrocosmiiflora Phormium tenax Cortaderia sp. Paspalum dilatatum Echium plantagineum Cortaderia jubata Senecio elegans Pinus radiata

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ragwort rice grass or common cordgrass scrambling groundsel sea spurge serrated tussock sorrel, dock or fiddle dock spanish heath spear thistle sweet briar toe-toe pampas grass treasure flower tree lucerne tree lupin variegated thistle weld white horehound white pampas grass white-edged nightshade winged thistle yarrow

Data Source: NVA, 2011

Senecio jacobaea Spartina anglica Senecio angulatus Euphorbia paralias Nassella trichotoma Rumex pulcher Erica lusitanica Cirsium vulgare Rosa rubiginosa Cortaderia richardii Gazania linearis Chamaecytisus palmensis Lupinus arboreus Silybum marianum Reseda luteola Marrubium vulgare Cortaderia selloana Solanum marginatum Carduus tenuiflorus Achillea millefolium

4

4.1

Fresh water values and systems

Water quantity and quality

The fresh water systems of the Tasman Catchment include numerous small permanent and ephemeral streams (DPIW, 2009) ranging in size from the Carlton River to smaller ones including Allens Rivulet (Taranna), Sounds Rivulet (Murdunna) and Cascades Rivulet (Koonya) (DPIW, 2009). Stream flow is monitored at two DPIPWE monitoring stations on the Tasman Peninsula (Carlton River and Allens Rivulet at Taranna (DPIW, 2009). Historical stream flow averages for Carlton River (for the periods 1970­85 and 2002­07) was approximately 60 ML/day, and for Allans Rivulet (for the period 1984­2007) approximately 7 ML/day. For the period 2004­08, total monthly recorded stream flows and yearly averages at Carlton River and Allens Rivulet were well below historical averages for at least nine months of the year. Extremely low flows were recorded in 2006 and 2008. In addition, several extended periods in recent history have received below average rainfall, particularly 1984­94, and 1997­2001, reflected in belowaverage flows recorded at these sites (WIST, DPIPWE). In 2008, the Tasman Catchment had a total of 4079 ML in licence allocations. The largest allocation was for irrigation (3321 ML), followed by stock and domestic (211 ML) and fish farming (169 ML for non-consumptive use). Of the total licensed water allocation within the Catchment 3820 ML is held in constructed storages and 259 ML is taken from rivers and streams (DPIW, 2009). 46

Supply of drinking water in the Catchment is limited; most areas rely on rainwater tanks or carted water. Nubeena, Dunalley and Port Arthur are the only towns that have potable water supplies (NRM South, 2007). Water quality is particularly important in the Koonya area where many residents obtain drinking water from local streams (Inspiring Place, 1999). Monthly water quality monitoring data is collected by DPIPWE at their two monitoring sites (Carlton River at tidal limit and Allens Rivulet at Taranna). DPIPWE has developed `current status' site-specific trigger values for each site based on 2003­06 monthly end-of-Catchment monitoring data as part of their Baseline Water Quality Monitoring Program (BWQMP). These trigger values reflect base flow conditions and are used to assess data collected after 2007 for potential change (stable, improving or deteriorating water quality) from the 2003­06 condition. The trigger values are derived from monthly data and do not reflect all flow conditions, particularly very low and very high flows. As Tasmanian specific reference data (representing minimal or no impact) is not available, the ANZECC 2000 guidelines for south-east Australia (including Tasmania) are used as the default low-risk trigger values. These reference values are applicable provide a very crude limit for Tasmanian waterways, below, or within which there is a low risk of adverse ecological effects. It has been suggested that the Upland river trigger is more appropriate than the lowland river trigger because, in the context of a national guideline written for Australian river systems, Tasmanian rivers are more similar to upland or alpine rivers in other states (DPIPWE 2008). The water quality between 2006 and 2010 at Allens Rivulet at Taranna is very good. The median and maximum levels of turbidity, nutrients and conductivity are very low, consistently below the ANZECC guidelines values. Median values for total nitrogen are 118 µg/L, total phosphorus 2 µg/L, turbidity 0.8 NTU and conductivity 186 µs/cm. Median nitrate, nitrite and ammonia levels are within the ANZECC guideline and trigger levels. No pesticides were detected during quarterly monitoring from 2005 ­ 2010. Water quality has remained stable because the median values between 2007 and 2010 are also within the site specific triggers values set using the 2003 - 2006. The water quality at Carlton River (tidal limit) has high levels of total nitrogen and conductivity. The median conductivity was 839 µs/cm between 2006 and 2010. This is substantially higher than the ANZECC guidelines for upland rivers (30350 µs/cm). The maximum level was 3500 µs/cm. This may be a natural phenomenon due to the geology of the area. The water is of marginal quality for irrigation, which should be below 7-800 µs/cm. The median total nitrogen was 762 µg/L between 2006 and 2009. This is substantially higher than the ANZECC guidelines for upland rivers (480 µg/L). The maximum level of total nitrogen is 1600 µg/L. Median nitrate, nitrite and ammonia levels are within the ANZECC guideline and trigger levels. The median and maximum levels for turbidity (6.7 NTU) and phosphorous (4 µg/L) are within the ANZECC guidelines. Median levels between 2007 ­ 2010 are within the site specific trigger levels set in 2003 ­ 2006 indicating that water quality is relatively stable.

4.2

Estuaries, wetlands and water bodies

There are two key estuaries in the Tasman Catchment, one at Blackman Bay and a smaller one at Carlton (see Figure 4-1).

47

The Blackman Bay estuary is classified as a `marine inlet and bay' by Edgar, Barrett and Graddon (1999). According to CFEV categorisation, Blackman Bay estuary is ranked medium in terms of `naturalness' (0.6), a measure of condition, but has a very high `integrated conservation value' (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). Special values for Blackman Bay estuary include platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) which is a hylogenetically distinct fauna species, important bird sites, sea water mat (Lepilaena marina) which is a threatened flora species, and white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) which is a threatened fauna species (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). Carlton estuary is also classified as a `marine inlet and bay' (Edgar, Barrett and Graddon 1999) according to the CEFV project and has a `naturalness' score of low (0.4) (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). The `integrated conservation value' of Carlton estuary is high, with special values including the platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) due to its phylogenetic distinctiveness and whitebait (Derwent stock) (Lovettia sealli sp. nov. C) as a priority fauna species (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). Major wetlands in the Tasman Catchment are dispersed (Figure 4-1). Conservation information for the major wetlands as documented in the CFEV database is highlighted in Table 4-1 below.

Table 4-1: Major wetlands in the Tasman Catchment

Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 Behind Arthurs Peak and Mt Cresent southern side of Nubeena Road adjacent Kennedys Creek Sloping Lagoon Collection of wetlands behind Sloping Main Adjacent Swan Lagoon ­ behind North Bay Marchweil Marsh ­ at the northern end of Long Spit Dominant Vegetation Restionaceae flatland, not alpine (also special value) Short paperbark swamp Acacia melanoxylon on flats Short paperbark swamp (two main wetlands) Herbfield and grassland marginal to wetland Short paperbark swamp Naturalness Score 1.0-High 0.81-Medium 1.0-High Two main wetlands - 61 & 62, both Medium 0.22-Low (larger lagoon) 1.0-High (smaller lagoon) High Integrated Conservation Value High High High High both Very High High

Data source: CFEV database,V1.0, 2005

Information on saltmarsh communities in the Tasman Catchment can be found in the Section 3.1 and Appendix 4. Additionally, the CFEV data base also identifies two major water bodies in the Tasman Catchment: Swan Lagoon, behind North Bay, and Sloping Lagoon, behind Lagoon Beach. Sloping Lagoon has a medium `naturalness' score of 0.85 and a high `integrated conservation value'. Swan Lagoon also has a medium `naturalness' score (0.80) and a very high `integrated conservation value'. The freshwater crayfish (Astacopsis franklinii) is recorded as present in both lagoons. Four minor water bodies also occur in the Catchment at: Carlton, near Steeles Island: `naturalness' ­ medium (0.64), `integrated conservation value' ­ high, Primrose Sands, in behind Tamarix Road: `naturalness' ­ low (0.45), `integrated conservation value' ­ low, Fortescue Lagoon, behind Fortescue Bay: `naturalness' ­ medium (0.85), `integrated conservation value' ­ high, White Beach: `naturalness' ­ low (0.50), `integrated conservation value' ­ high. 48

Figure 4-1: Freshwater and estuarine values in the Tasman Catchment.

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and CFEV database,V1.0, 2005.

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4.3

Groundwater and groundwater dependent ecosystems

There are few known groundwater bores across the Tasman Catchment, however extraction for stock and domestic use is known to occur at Nubeena (Koonya springs), Carlton, Primrose Sands and Dodges Ferry. The latter three areas are thought to be of lower quality (more saline) due to the low rainfall in these areas (NRM South, 2008). DPIPWE WIST groundwater data for Tasman Catchment is limited to standing water levels for the bore at Port Arthur only and there is only a very small amount of nitrate data (too little to be of value) and no other water quality data. The water level (in graphs for bore at Port Arthur) seems to indicate fluctuating levels across the year with rainfall influence (as would be expected). Data pre-2005 fluctuates very widely (and some data is missing). With limited and incomplete data, it is difficult to report trends in ground water. 2005­09 data look more reliable and show a reasonably stable pattern over seasons with some influence of the very dry years in 2006­08. Future monitoring is required to assess any possible upward trend. Draw-down of water tables due to the use of bore water by both individual and commercial businesses is particularly an issue in summer when the maximum draw-down occurs in times when water tables are at maximum stress. Although fluctuations in water tables are largely unmapped, anecdotal evidence suggests that draw-down of between 500 mm and one metre occur regularly in places like Primrose Sands and Marion Bay (RD&M, 2002). In 2009, DPIPWE conducted a pilot project that sampled 58 groundwater bores across Tasmania, including one at Port Arthur, for 18 herbicides and pesticides commonly used in agriculture and forestry. Atrazine was detected in the bore water on all three sampling occasions. Levels ranged from 0.05­1.52ug/L, which is below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline health value of 40 µg/L. The Conservation of Fresh Water Ecosystems project (CFEV) identified key ground water dependent ecosystems on the Forestier Peninsula, east of the Fazackerleys Ranges around Deep Glen Bay (two) and one about a couple of kilometres to the south (see Figure 4-1). All three ground water dependent ecosystems are identified as Tufa-depositing springs and sit within a significant karst system that runs between the northern end of Eaglehawk Neck and Cape Surville (CFEV database, V1.0, 2005). Other groundwater systems include springs on the Forestier Peninsula at North Bay, and Lime Bay Lagoons, and deflation basins at Cape Pillar and Lime Bay. Bream Creek Estuary is also potentially groundwater-dependent (NRM South, 2008).

4.4

Threats to freshwater values

Inappropriate grazing practices impact water quality through loss of riparian vegetation cover and erosion of stream banks which leads to higher sediment loads entering water ways and increased turbidity. Unrestricted stock access to waterways along with increased erosion also leads to higher nutrient and pathogen levels, which can cause algal growths, reduced light penetration in the water column and smothering of in-stream habitats by fine sediments. Fish and aquatic invertebrate diversity can be affected by reduced water quality and in stream habitat loss. Other activities that have implications for water quality, both freshwater and coastal waters, include the application of chemical fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides for agricultural activities and domestic use (RD& M, 2002). The two river sites (Carlton River at tidal limit and Allens Rivulet at Taranna) in the Tasman Catchment are monitored quarterly for 18 herbicides and pesticides, commonly used in agriculture and forestry, under DPIPWE's Baseline Monitoring Program 50

(2005­11). Up until December 2010 no pesticides had been detected at the two sites, however the monitoring program is quarterly and does not monitor during high flow events when herbicides and pesticides are more likely to be detected. Thus the results do not give a true indication of chemicals levels in the waterways. Salinity is another threat to freshwater values, including instream fauna. Research indicates that adverse biological effects on aquatic macro-invertebrates (including reduction in growth and reproduction) occur if conductivity (salinity) exceeds 500­1500 µS/cm (Kefford et al, 2003) and changes in macro-invertebrate community structure (replacement of salt-sensitive taxa with salt-tolerant taxa) occur at conductivity levels 800­1000 µS/cm. Water is unsuitable for irrigating most horticultural crops when salinity is above 700 S/cm, and may cause irreversible damage to tree crops when above 800 S/cm (MDBCMC, 1987). Point source pollution from septic tank failure or other domestic waste management systems (due to poor soil capability and aging infrastructure) is a widespread problem across the Catchment, particularly in the White Beach and the Connellys Marsh area (NRM South, 2008). Storm water can be another source of water pollution and have flow-on implications for coastal water quality. The Carlton River has been identified as a hot spot for water quality decline as a result of surrounding agricultural land use, leaks from waste water systems (septic systems) and storm water inputs (NRM South, 2008). Climate change will have a range of impacts on freshwater systems and processes, including the spread of disease, pathogens (including chytrid disease in frogs and the platypus virus) and pest species. Other impact of climate change on fresh water values are outlined below.

Table 4-2: Biophysical processes in freshwater ecosystems that are likely to be impacted by climate change.

Physical climate change indicator Potential impact

Increased water temperatures, reductions in dissolved oxygen levels. Increased growth in freshwater algae. Areas of high water temperature may become a barrier to migration for some aquatic species. Conditions favour aquatic weeds and some introduced fauna. Nuisance plant growth (native/non-native) will be encouraged. Higher temperatures Loss of plant and animal species with narrow temperature ranges (stenothermic); Domination by species with broad temperature ranges (eurythermic). Increased incidence of algal blooms associated with increased water temperatures. Increased temperature combined with reduced rainfall will affect freshwater ecosystems by impacting on habitat for freshwater crayfish and native fish species. Changes in hydrology, species composition and ecological productivity. Changes in precipitation Changes to stream flow, sediment and other channel material transport / inputs and nutrient loadings (most likely increases, particularly south of Dunalley).

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Changes to flows which support particular species, including changes to migration of some aquatic species. Increased summer rain, but increased temperatures could vary the ephemerality of ephemeral streams. Increased summer rains will impact on sedimentation rates and affect freshwater habitat quality. Seasonal patterns of wetland species disrupted. Changes in runoff (most likely increases, particularly south of Dunalley). Increased exposure to predators if aquatic organisms are confined to pools (increased risk north on Dunalley). Increased evaporation, leading to drying out of wetlands, increased salinity, and exposure of acid sulfate soils. Intense, seasonal rainfall events that lead to channel and stream bank erosion and flushing of organic material and woody debris from the stream. Increased CO2 Interactive effects

DPIPWE, 2010

Increased Net Primary Productivity, which may lead to negative impacts such as increased algal blooms. Land use change and water consumption patterns will intensify climate change impacts on wetlands and rivers.

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5

5.1

Coasts and marine values

Coastal values

The Tasman Catchment has unique and varied coastal values, including landforms, flora and fauna. The Tasman Peninsula, in particularly, is well known for its spectacular coastal landforms and dramatic scenery. More information on the coastal landforms and geoconservation values within the Catchment can be found in Section 2 and Appendix 1. Section 4 also outlines flora and fauna values which are found in the coastal areas of the Catchment. The above values combined with the presence of large areas of coastal land set aside in parks and reserves allows the Tasman Catchment to offer great recreational, scenic and amenity value. These are all big attractions to the area. Coastal values around the Tasman Catchment were not mapped as part of the 2005­06 Coastal Values Project (mapping of flora, fauna and geomorphologic values from the high water mark to 100 m inland), however foreshore mapping (between the low and high water mark) was completed in 2008 as part of the Foreshore Values Project undertaken by Aquenal. The foreshore areas of highest biological value in Tasman Catchment are shown in Figure 5-1 and include: Marion Beach, Long Spit and the north-western foreshore of Blackman Bay Eaglehawk Neck North Bay Carlton River and mouth Sloping Main the coastline adjacent Koonya and Premaydena Safety Cove and Crescent Bay all of the islands around the Catchment (Foreshore Values data, DPIPWE, 2008). These areas contain sites of rare or significant biological value including critically endangered or endangered species (under the EPBC Act and /or TSP Act), no introduced marine species or beach weeds, actual habitat for listed species, rare or endangered vegetation, and areas of high conservation significance as identified in the South East Coastal Management Strategy (Aquenal, 2008). A large proportion of the remaining coastal foreshores in the Catchment have high biological value with the exception of a few areas around Dunalley, the top of Kind George Sound, the top of the Salt Water River estuary, Main Beach Nubeena and Mason Cove (Carnarvon Bay) which were all classified as having `moderate biological value'. No areas in the Tasman Catchment have been categorised as having minimal biological value (Figure 5-1). Foreshore mapping of `ecological disturbance' (Figure 5-2) describes the foreshore zone as well as the coastal area up to 500 m inland. Areas of least ecological disturbance (or unmodified, near pristine) have no cleared land within 500 m, no construction within 500 m, highly natural habitat condition (based on the South East Coastal Management Strategy), are part of a marine reserve, national park or World Heritage Area, are zoned conservation or national park, and have no foreshore structures and no pollution sources.

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All of the areas identified in Figure 5-2 with no ecological disturbance fall within National Parks by nature of the criteria. Figure 5-2 also shows that unreserved land outside of townships and more undeveloped areas generally has minimal ecological disturbance, while areas in and around settlements have moderate ecological disturbance.

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Figure 5-1: Foreshore biological value in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and Aquenal, 2008.

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Figure 5-2: Foreshore ecological disturbance in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and Aquenal, 2008.

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5.2

Marine values

Marine habitats The Tasman Catchment is part of the Bruny Marine Bioregion which contains some of the most diverse marine habitats and species in Tasmania. Extensive areas of seagrass, most commonly Heterozostera Tasmania and less commonly Halophila tasmanica, are found in Blackman Bay, Dunalley Bay, Bellettes Bay and Point, the southern side of King George Sound and the smaller bays inside Norfolk Bay. Ruppia megacarpa occurs in very shallow intertidal waters and large areas can be found in Blackman Bay. On the western side of Norfolk Bay, caulerpa triaria (a green algal species) adjoins the seagrass habitat on the soft sediments (TAFI, 2002 & LIST). Norfolk Bay contains the most extensive areas of Caulerpa beds and seagrass areas in the Bruny Bioregion (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006). A diverse range of macro algae occur around the Tasman Peninsula, with distribution and abundance being determined by depth and exposure. On the more exposed rocky shores, bull kelp (Durvilleae potatorum) is the dominant species that occurs around the low tide mark. With increasing depth, the brown algae (Phyllosora comosa) and strap weed (Lessonia corrugata) are most common, however on the eastern side of Storm Bay there is a low occurrence of Phyllosora. At greater depth red algae predominates. As rocky shores become less exposed, a range of other brown algae species occurs. The brown algae (Cystoseira trinodis) is listed as rare under the TTS Act and only occurs at Blackman Bay (Sanderson, in Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006). On moderately exposed coasts, forests of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) are most abundant. Large populations occur in Fortescue Bay, Port Arthur, Lagoon Bay and Wedge Bay (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006) ­ see Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4. Much of the eastern, southern and western coastline of the Tasman Peninsula consists of medium and low profile reef, as well as the eastern coastline of the Forestier Peninsula. High profile reef is predominantly found around Cape Pillar and Tasman Island (TAFI, 2000). Notable sponge communities occur on deeper reefs off the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas. The largest soft sandy substrate/beach environments are found in Blackmans Bay, North Bay, Pirates Bay, Safety Cove, Crescent Bay, White Beach, Roaring Beach, Primrose Sands and Carlton Beach (TAFI, 2002 & LIST)

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Figure 5-3: Marine habitat mapping in the upper part of the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and TAFI, 2003.

Figure 5-4: Marine habitat mapping in the lower part of the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and TAFI, 2003.

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Coastal and marine species Coastal and marine species in the Tasman Catchment are also diverse. The live-bearing seastar (Patiriella vivipara) is endemic to the Bruny Bioregion and is found in two key populations at Eaglehawk Neck and Fortescue Bay (RPDC, 2006). The Tasman Peninsula is home to two of the three endemic handfish species. Red handfish occur around the medium profile reefs at Kelly Islands and the adjacent coastline, Primrose Sands and Briggs Point at the southern end of Safety Cove. Sympterichthys handfish occurs around the stretch of medium profile reef in the vicinity of Devils Kitchen and Tasman Arch. Both species are listed as endangered under the TTS Act and threatened under the EPBC Act. Seahorses, sea dragons and pipefish also occur around the Tasman Peninsula and are listed marine species protected under the EPBC Act (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006). Drowned sea caves around the Tasman Peninsula are also known to contain unique and threatened species (cavern fauna).

Figure 5-5: General recorded distribution of benthic threatened species in the Bruny Bioregion

Map produced by RPDC, 2006. Data sources: DEH; DPIW

A large variety of whales and dolphins are found in Tasmanian waters, including around the Tasman Peninsula. The south-east coast of Tasmania is part of the migration path for Southern Right and Humpback whales. This migration route takes them past the south-eastern coast of Tasman Peninsula. Both of these whale species are listed as threatened species under the TTS Act and the EPBC Act. The areas around Storm Bay and Fredrick Henry Bay are where the highest 59

number of sightings have occurred within the Bruny Bioregion. These areas are also once again becoming important calving grounds following historical whaling industries in the area (Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006). Other common offshore mammals include the common and bottlenose dolphin and the pilot whale (PWS, 2003). The Bruny Bioregion provides an important foraging area for the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). Both species are more abundant during the winter. Tasman Island and the Hippolyte Rocks are major seal haul-out sites (more than 1000 individuals). Smaller haul-out sites occur at Visscher Island, Cape Raoul, Cape Pillar and Cape Hauy. The New Zealand fur seal is listed as rare under the TSS Act (RPDC, 2006). Leopard seals, elephant seals and leatherback turtles have been observed in the waters and rocks off Tasman National Park (PWS, 2003). Blackman Bay is a designated shark nursery area.

Figure 5-6: Fur seal haul-out sites within the Bruny Bioregion

Map produced by RPDC, 2006. Data source: DPIW

The coastline around the Tasman Peninsula is also important breeding and foraging habitat for beach nesting/migratory shore birds and seabirds. Several sea and shore bird species have been observed on sandy beaches including the pied oystercatcher, sooty oystercatcher, crested tern, red-capped plover and hooded plover. Marion Beach, Little Boomer, and Pirates Bay are important beach nesting sites for local and migratory shore birds (RPDC, 2006, PWS, 2003 & Birds Tas, 2011). All of the migratory shore birds that visit the region (except the double-banded plover) migrate along the East Asian Australasian Flyaway. 60

The caspian tern, which is listed on both the Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) and the China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA), along with black-faced cormorant, pacific gull, kelp gull and silver gull all breed on Visscher Island. In order to protect the breeding habitat for these birds, Visscher Island has been identified as a restricted area to which the public does not have a general right of access. Other offshore rocks and islands are also important breeding areas for birds (PWS, 2003). There are several little penguin (Eudyptula minor) rookeries at Pirates Bay, Fortescue Bay, Marion Beach, Hippolyte Rocks, Tasman Island, Wedge Island, Sloping Island and on the Mt Brown walking track (RPDC, 2006 & PWS, 2003) (Figure 5-7). Short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) colonies occur at Wedge Island (10,000­100,000 pairs), Tasman Island and Sloping Island (1,000 ­10,000 pairs) and Carlton Bluff. There are also sooty shearwater (Puffinis griseus) burrows and fairy prion (Pachyptila turtur) nesting areas at Tasman Island and Hippolyte Rocks. Visscher Island north of Cape Fredrick Henry on the Forestier Peninsula is an important breeding area for several bird species (PWS, 2003) (Figure 5-7).

Figure 5-7: Major little Penguin and short-tailed shearwater colonies & priority sites for beach nesting and migratory shorebirds in the Bruny Bioregion

Map produced by RPCD, 2006. Data source: DPIW

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The Tasman Nation Park is the principal foraging habitat for at least one pair of the endangered Tasmanian wedge-tailed eagles and walking tracks along the cliff edges often provide spectacular views of white-bellied sea eagles (Haliaeetus leucogaster), which is listed as threatened (vulnerable) under the TSSA (RPDC, 2006 & PWS, 2003). Commercial and recreational fishing The Bruny Bioregion is an important area for commercial fishing. The main commercial fisheries within the region are abalone, rock lobster, scalefish, sea urchins and sharks. These fisheries all occur in the waters around the Tasman Catchment. The Tasmanian wild abalone fishery is the largest in the world and in the south-east of the state comprises a single species, blacklip abalone. The wave-exposed coasts of the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas are some the most important abalone areas in the Bruny Bioregion (RPDC, 2006). Southern rock lobster populations are also important commercial and recreational fisheries in the Bruny Bioregion. Populations are found on rocky reefs and consolidated substrates. Within the Bruny Bioregion approximately half of the catch comes from the areas around the Tasman and Forestier Peninsula and between Pirates and Marion Bays (RPDC, 2006). Scalefish fishery includes bony fishes, sharks, rays, squids and octopus. Between 1999 and 2003­04 a relatively large proportion of the catch within the Bruny Bioregion was reported from the marine environment off the western and southern coast of the Tasman Peninsula. Another area which includes Pirates Bay and Marion Bay is also significant for scale fish catch (15%). On a year-by-year basis, squid, whiting, flathead, and garfish were in the top 10 species caught, comprising 80­90% of the catch (RPDC, 2006). The commercial dive fishery, which comprises mainly sea urchins and periwinkles, also operates in the Bruny Bioregion, including the waters around the Tasman and Forestier Peninsula (RPDC, 2006). Marine Faring (aquaculture) has grown significantly in Tasmania over the last 10 years or so. Port Arthur, Wedge Bay, Norfolk Bay and Blackman Bay are all important aquaculture areas. The Tasman Peninsula and Norfolk Bay Marine Farming Development Plan (2005) identifies 15 zones for marine farming (finfish and shellfish) at Wedge Bay, Port Arthur and Norfolk Bay. Blackman Bay is a growing area for marine farming licences, with the Blackman Bay Marine Farming Development Plan (2000) identifying 23 zones for marine farming (shellfish only). Salmon farming by Tassal predominates in Port Arthur and Wedge Bay, while oyster farming occurs in Blackman Bay and Norfolk Bay (RPDC, 2006 & DPIW, 2001).

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Figure 5-8: Marine farming zones and leases in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by RPDC, 2006: Data Source: DPIW

Recreational fishing is also very popular in the waters around the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas. Abalone and rock lobster are a premium target for recreational fishers, however scalefish is also highly popular (mainly flounder, flathead and salmon). Recreational game fishing for tuna and albacore is centered off the Tasman Peninsula, particular the Pirates Bay area (RPDC, 2006). There are three major slipways in the Tasman Catchment, a commercial repair facility at Dunalley and Nubeena, and a boat club on Mason Point, Eagle Hawk Bay. Similar activities are undertaken at most commercial and boat club slip ways, including hull cleaning and repair, paint removal and painting, engine maintenance and fibreglassing. There are often problems associated with contaminants entering the coastal and marine environment as a result of these activities due to the lack of waste disposal facilities (RPDC, 2006).

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5.3

Coastal and marine threats

Coastal development Coastal development continues to be a threat to coastal values in many areas including Nubeena, Eaglehawk Neck, Primrose Sands and Marion Bay, particularly as shacks are changing to more permanent dwellings and farming land is subdivided. The predominant rocky shoreline areas of the Tasman Catchment are not under the same pressures related to development as the sandy shores, such as vegetation clearance and erosion, and do not have the same level of management issues associated with them (NRM South, 2008). There are no areas of extreme foreshore pressure identified within the Tasman Catchment, however as one might expect the more developed areas around White Beach, Nubeena, Safety Cove, the Southern end of Pirates Bay, Dunalley and Carlton Beach were identified as having `high foreshore pressure' due to their high levels of access (car, bike and horse ), more than 51% of land cleared or developed within 500 m, the presence of industry within 1 km and low vegetation viability with management required, mixture of foreshore structures, proximity to Code 4 or 5 (high) pollution sources, mixed recreational and tourism activities with medium to high use, presence of weed species and vulnerability to climate change. Similarly anthropogenic modification was also mapped highest around the settled areas of Dunalley, Eaglehawk Neck, Nubeena, Taranna, and along parts of the western shore of Port Arthur. The proposed Three Capes Walk raises additional concerns about the increased pressure on coastal values, due to the risk of increased weeds and diseases spread, soil compaction and degradation to surrounding vegetation and habitat in previously inaccessible areas.

Coastal and marine acid sulfate soils Potential coastal and marine acid sulfate soils (ASS) also pose a risk to coastal and marine areas throughout the state, including the Tasman Catchment. Potential ASS tend to be found on low-lying coastal margins such as coastal plains, estuaries and wetlands which were once covered by sea water. In an undisturbed, waterlogged state potential acid sulfate soils are harmless, but when disturbed and exposed to oxygen through drainage or excavation activities or climate change, a process of oxidation can produce sulfuric acid in large quantities. Acid runoff which can flow into waterways, estuaries and coastal areas reduces oxygen levels in the water, significantly decreasing water quality, killing fish and damaging sensitive ecosystems (DPIPWE, 2009). Predictive mapping for coastal ASS in the Tasman Catchment shows areas with high to low risk around Marion Bay, Blackman Bay, North Bay, Sloping Main, Wedge Bay, Safety Cove and around Carlton Estuary (Figure 5-9 and Figure 5-10). Risk areas for marine ASS areas are more widespread than coastal ASS within in the Catchment. Blackman Bay, Norfolk Bay, Parsons Bay and Carnarvon Bay are all higher risk areas for intertidal and sub-tidal marine acid sulfate soils (Figure 5-9 and Figure 5-10).

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Figure 5-9: Predictive mapping of coastal, intertidal & subtidal marine acid sulfate soil in the northern section of the Tasman Catchment.

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and DPIPWE, 2010

Figure 5-10: Predictive mapping of coastal, intertidal & subtidal marine acid sulfate soil in the southern section of the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and DPIPWE, 2010

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Marine pests Marine pests are a significant threat to marine biodiversity around the state, including in the Tasman catchment. The following marine pests occur in the waters around the Catchment: European clam (Corbula gibba), European green crab (Carcinus maenas ­ east coast distribution to Blackmans Bay), north Pacific sea star (Asterias amurensis), wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and extensive beds of the New Zealand screw shell (Maoricolpus roseus). Four marine species that are not yet in Tasmanian but are likely to cause serious impacts if introduced are the Asian paddle crab, aquarium caulerpa, colonial seasquirt, and the Chinese mitten crab. The Pacific oyster was deliberately introduced into Tasmania over 50 years ago in an attempt to establish a fishery and is now widely spread along the north and east coasts. Wild populations of the Pacific oyster can occur in dense aggregations which can limit food and space available for native intertidal species. Dense aggregations can also limit coastal access and recreational opportunities and can pose a risk of injury due to their sharp shells. Control of Pacific oysters has been undertaken through community initiatives at Dunalley, Stewarts Bay, White Beach, Nubeena, Saltwater River, Norfolk Bay, Primrose Sands and Dodges Ferry.

Climate change With climate change and the strengthening of the East Australia Current (bringing warmer sea surface temperatures further south) localised changes to marine biodiversity are already occurring in south-east Tasmania, including water around the Tasman Catchment. The spread of the spiny sea urchin (Centerostephanus rodgersii) and the incipient barrens they create are increasingly a threat to rocky reef systems. Indicative mapping of coastal areas potentially vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise related storm surge flooding, shoreline erosion, rock falls and slumping in Tasmania was undertaken by Sharples in 2006. Because of the elevated coastal landforms that characterise large areas of the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas, a large proportion of the Catchment is categorised as `least, slight or moderate vulnerability to coastal hazards associated with sea level rise'. Much of the moderate category is related to slumping and rock falls rather than inundation as these areas coincide with cliff landforms, particularly around the peninsulas. Areas of most vulnerability to hazards related to sea level rise mostly correlate with soft sandy shorelines or re-entrant sandy shorelines. In the Tasman Catchment the main areas of vulnerability are found throughout Marion Bay, Carlton Beach, the north-western coastline of Blackman Bay, Eagle Hawk Neck, Sloping Main Beach, White Beach, Safety Cove and Carnarvon Bay. There are several other smaller bays and reentrant coastlines which are also categorized as `most vulnerable' (see Figure 5-11).

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Figure 5-11: Coastal vulnerability to hazards related to sea level rise in the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Data sources: Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and Sharples,2006.

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Table 5-1: Potential climate change impacts on coastal vegetation

Physical climate change indicator

Tidal surges / inundation

Potential impact

Loss of saltmarsh or migration inland if suitable habitat is available (Prahalad 2009), and/or increased salinity through saltwater intrusion. Increased seafog events that trap salt-laden air have led to widespread death of coastal eucalypts in a number of regions of Tasmania (Maria Island, north coast) in recent years.

Storm surges / salt spray Species and ecosystems that favour new climate conditions may outcompete other vegetation

Marram grass out-competing native grasses. Reduction in area of beach grasslands and beach sedgelands. Loss of frontline beach foredune shrubland communities. Loss of coastal communities such as sandy beaches and dunes, coastal wetlands and saltmarshes where they are bounded by environments not conducive to landward migration.

Loss of coastal habitat

Coastal tussock grasslands in dune systems are expected to be reduced. This will put threatened species and restricted distribution species found only on coastal dunes at risk.

DPIPWE, 2010

Table 5-2: Potential climate change impacts on coastal landforms

Physical climate change indicator

Cliffs and shore platforms

Potential impacts on coastal landforms

Increase in basal erosion and slumping, leading to cliff retreat. Increase in coastal landslips. Increase in erosion, particularly on the seaward side. Effects of more frequent, higher magnitude storm surges on low-lying coasts. Continued erosion of wide beaches. Complete removal of sand from narrow beaches. Rapid removal of sand in front of artificial sea-walls, as soon as wave reflection becomes common. Undermining and collapse of sea-walls with shallow foundations. Potential accretion if longshore sand supply outstrips seaward transport. Progressive erosion of soft clay-gravel shores. Undercutting and erosion once wave attack reaches the backshore zone.

Beaches, spits and barriers

Coastal dunes Intertidal areas

Increased exposure of sand to prevailing winds likely to initiate dune movement inland. Submergence of the present intertidal zone.

DPIPWE, 2010

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Table 5-3: Potential climate change impacts on the marine environment

Physical climate change indicator

Increased sea surface temperatures

Potential impacts on the marine environment

Southward retreat of endemic habitats, keystone species and faunal assemblages, movement limited by southern coastline and habitats. Increased growth rates and earlier maturity of some fish and squid species. More favourable conditions for the establishment of introduced marine pests. Potential loss of cold water corals and important structural habitats. Directly impact calcification rate of key marine organisms such as coccolithophores and pteropods. More energy required to construct shells. Fish find it more difficult to transport oxygen when their tissues become more acidic and their growth slows. Alterations to the timing and location of wind driven upwelling.

Increased oceanic acidity

Changes in zonal winds

DPIPWE, 2010

Changes to foraging areas for marine predators. Potential changes to larval transport system.

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6

6.1

Aboriginal heritage

Aboriginal heritage values

Aboriginal heritage in the Tasman Catchment has not been systematically investigated. European knowledge of Aboriginal history in the area is restricted to historical records and heritage surveys of sites. Aboriginal people have lived in Tasmania continuously from at least 40, 000 years ago and have been in the Tasman Catchment region since sea levels stabilised to their present level, approximately 6000 years ago (DPIPWE, 2010 & PWS, 2001). The Tasman Catchment is within the territory of the Oyster Bay Tribe (Brown, 1991). The historical records suggest that the Pydairrerme band of the tribe was based around the Tasman Peninsula. The Tasman Catchment offered Aboriginal people a diversity of landscapes within a very small area, each with different potential for occupation and use, including sandstone areas which when eroded frequently provided caves and rock shelters. Archaeological evidence indicates that Aboriginal people occupied the area on a permanent basis, visiting the coast and inland areas of the peninsulas at all times of the year and carrying out a variety of social activities. In 1984 field surveys to identify aboriginal heritage sites were undertaken for parts of the Tasman Peninsula, around Nubeena, between Roaring Bay Beach and Saltwater River and dissecting the north-west tip of the Tasman Peninsula between Sloping Island inland to Norfolk Bay. Transects were designed to take in different landscape types and investigate evidence of Aboriginal use of the land. The following information summarises the findings from these surveys as documented by Gaughwin in Smith (1989). The surveys located and recorded 72 sites, 78% of which were located in the coastal margins. Shell middens were most commonly recorded, followed by shell and lithic scatters. Sites were evenly distributed between low and medium energy shores with a preference for hard shores or those of a mixed type where both a rock platform and a soft shore were available in close proximity. This preference was further reflected in the shell remains found at the sites where mussels, oysters and warrener were most common on both medium and low energy coasts. More sites were associated with sandstone shores as these flat and differentially weathered shore types provide more marine resources than dolerite boulder beaches. Artifacts made from cherty hornfels (a type of rock) were commonly found at medium energy coastal sites. Some sites also had large quantities of chipped stone. Artifacts found at medium energy coastal sites on the Tasman Peninsula showed a much more diverse range of activities was likely to have been be undertaken compared with other coastal sites on the east coast of Tasmania, where evidence suggests that they may have been primarily for camping. At low energy coasts, oyster middens were similar to other sites on the east coast of Tasmania with limited stone artifacts indicating more limited activities. The surveys also included Sloping, Wedge, Dart, Hog and King George Islands. Six lithic scatters were recorded on Sloping Island and two artifacts on Wedge Island. Results indicated that use of the offshore islands was limited with the exception of Sloping Island, possible due to the availability of Mutton birds and cherty hornfels on Sloping. On the coastal plains surveying was more difficult due to lower visibility; however, well-drained sites adjacent to wetlands were recorded, with all eight sites contained sherty hornfel stone artifacts. In the more hilly areas sites were also found most commonly at the base of ridges near fresh water sources. Shellfish remains were also found at inland sites suggesting that when favorable inland camps sites were available, a broad range of foods, including marine food types, were transported inland. 70

The Catchment still contains many sites of Aboriginal heritage significance, including shell middens, rock markings, stone quarries, stone arrangements, rock shelters and fish traps in coastal areas. A number of these have been listed on the Register of the National Estate because of their cultural significance. There is a property at Saltwater River containing important art sites owned by the Aboriginal community and managed by the TALSC for its cultural significance. The park and reserves on the Peninsulas are also considered to be of high archaeological sensitivity and significance because they contain a diversity of Aboriginal sites. These sites continue to have contemporary significance for the Aboriginal community, who maintain strong and ongoing connections to landscapes and heritage sites. Such sites are the primary source of information about their heritage for the Aboriginal community and provide potential for the community to interpret and promote these sites and provide a greater understanding of Aboriginal culture to the wider community (PWS, 2001).

6.2

Threats to Aboriginal heritage

Threats to Aboriginal heritage sites and values include coastal development, coastal erosion, recreational activities and vandalism. Development pressure is very significant, however expanding development and further housing subdivisions are only two development impacts. Other examples are industrial developments, forestry, quarrying, tourism and intensification of agriculture. There is a concern that threats to Aboriginal heritage values will increase as a result of the consequences of climate change. The effects of coastal erosion and inundation on susceptible coastlines (particularly exposed low gradient sandy coasts) are likely to be significant and cultural sites such as middens will be increasingly degraded or lost due to increased coastal erosion and recession from storm events and sea level rise. The implications of changes in traditional recreational activities are also having an impact on Aboriginal heritage values. Increases in four-wheel driving and motor bikes are just two examples. Increases in the popularity of more traditional recreational activities such as bushwalking and mountain biking are also having an impact on cultural sites (TPC, 2009). Currently Aboriginal heritage in Tasmania is protected under both Tasmanian and Commonwealth heritage legislation, whether on private or public land. The Aboriginal Lands Act 1995 (Tasmania) covers management of access to land and waters for mineral and petroleum exploration purposes. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Commonwealth) protects Aboriginal Heritage at a national level. The Aboriginal Relics Act 1975 protects Aboriginal `relics', `protected sites' and `protected objects' in Tasmania. It is an offence under the Aboriginal Relics Act 1975 to: destroy, damage, disfigure, conceal, or otherwise interfere with a protected object or relic carry out an act which is likely to endanger a protected object remove a relic from where it was found or abandoned sell or otherwise dispose of a relic or remove it from the state destroy, damage, deface or otherwise interfere with any fencing or notice erected, or any other work carried out in, or in respect of, a protected site under the Act, other than in accordance with a permit granted by the Director of National Parks and Wildlife remove a protected object from a protected site, other than in accordance with a permit granted by the Tasmanian Minister. (However, the Director of National Parks and Wildlife can direct the removal of protected 71

objects from a protected site to a place of safety if he or she is satisfied that they are likely be damaged, destroyed or lost.) Discovery of Aboriginal heritage relics must be reported. Any person who finds a relic must (with limited exceptions), inform the director or an authorised officer as soon as practicable after the find. Any action that will have an impact on Aboriginal heritage, no matter its size or condition, requires a permit under section 14 of the Aboriginal Relics Act 1975. Aboriginal Heritage Tasmania is the state government agency responsible for administering the Aboriginal Relics Act 1975 and provides land management and expert advice for responsible management of Tasmanian Aboriginal heritage. It also undertakes research and interpretive activities to help protect and promote Tasmanian Aboriginal heritage throughout the state. Aboriginal Heritage Tasmania is the custodian of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Site Index (TASI), which provides the main listing of recorded Aboriginal heritage places. Tasmanian Aboriginal Land and Sea Council (TALSC) plays a role in consulting with and representing the Aboriginal community through providing advice and services to the public and land managers on heritage, land management and land rights issues as well as sea management and sea issues. For more information on Aboriginal Heritage Assessment or working with the Aboriginal Community refer to Chapter 5 of the Coastal Works Manual (DPIPWE, 2010) or contact Aboriginal Heritage Tasmania or TALSC.

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7

7.1

Integrated conservation values and refugia

Integrated conservation values

In 2010 DPIPWE completed the Focal Landscapes Project which aimed to identify sites in Tasmania where multiple values of high conservation significance occur (Carter et al, 2010). This section of the report highlights where natural values co-occur within the Catchment, as a way of bringing together some of the key information that has been presented independently in other parts of this report. Refugia values are also discussed in this section. Information for the `Integrated Conservation Values' summary has been derived from the `Identifying Focal Landscapes in Tasmania for the Protected Area on Private Land Program (PAPL)' project (2010). This work aimed to utilise a strategic approach for achieving conservation outcomes for the program, by incorporating the best available information, science and expert knowledge of natural values across the landscape into spatial data sets that could be interrogated in a Geographical Information System (GIS). One of the spatial layers developed as part of this project was the `metric grid' layer. The purpose of this layer was to provide information on the geographic distribution of co-occurring natural values in Tasmanian, as a planning tool to guide PAPL program efforts. The metric grid spatial layer has been generated from a range of input source datasets (see Table 7-1 below).

Table 7-1: Input spatial layers for the PAPL metric spatial layer

Specific Spatial Layer

Priority Flora and Fauna Species Threatened vegetation listed under the Nature Conservation Act 2002 Threatened vegetation listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Unreserved Vegetation in Tas Reserve Estate Freshwater and associated riparian ecosystems Native vegetation extent within bioregions with less than 10% of their area in the NRS Fire and disease refugia (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Palaeo-climatic refugia (incl. glacial refugia) (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Migratory Bird Habitat Vegetation communities that are a priority for reservation in a bioregion using reservation indicators (comprises 2 sub-layers) Biomes that are a priority for reservation using the Convention on Biological Diversity threshold Centres of endemism ­ flora (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Centres of endemism ­ fauna (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Indicative highly species-rich sites (Flora) (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE)

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Indicative highly species-rich sites (Fauna) (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Relictual Flora (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Relictual Fauna (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Edge of Range - Fauna (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE) Edge of Range - Flora (EXISTING NAT. ESTATE)

Data source: Carter et al, 2010

The metrics themselves were developed and applied by a project Working Group to articulate the relative weighting of natural values within and between spatial layers. Weightings in the metric emphasise international and national targets or priorities. Secondary weightings were generally for State targets. The metric was then applied to each input spatial layer and then combined in a GIS. The data layering approach highlighted areas where multiple important values cooccur (i.e. areas where important natural values are highly concentrated), identified by a higher score. See Figure 7-1for metric scores by colour coding. Note for interpretation of results and map below (Figure 7-1): the metric layer assumes that input data is current and factually correct; as such the quality of the metric grid spatial layer is limited by the limitations of each input spatial layer. Ground work has not been undertaken to validate all of the input data or the results. The process also used expert knowledge through the Working Group and as such the results of the metric layer output are also influenced by this knowledge. The data represents a snapshot in time and will need to be updated as information changes or becomes available in the future. Furthermore, in reading the information below about particular sites and areas, it should be noted that these areas have been generally identified and named for the purpose of describing aggregations of values for this report. This is not a comprehensive list of all of the areas that received high metric values in the Catchment. Very small areas with high value may not have been discussed. Furthermore, as part of the development of the metric grid layer, metric scores have been applied across a 10 m raster grid. As such, metric values change from one grid square to the next, even within the same colour code, as a colour is applied across a value range as seen in the key for Figure 7-1. The discussion below for the higher value areas identified, generally lists the values found in the area. It is not necessarily comprehensive for the whole area identified and does not accurately discuss the variation in value that occurs from one raster square to the next. It does however broadly describe the combinations of values for the different area. Within the Tasman Catchment the key areas that received the higher metric scores, coloured mainly purple or blue, were as follows (see Figure 7-1): Hellfire Bluff Franks Marsh Long Spit, Marion Bay Swan Lagoon system Lagoon Bay area immediately south of Eaglehawk Spur eastern side of Fortescue Bay Cape Hauy Central region Munro Bight Cape Pillar region 74

Cape Raoul Tumbledown point to White Beach Turners Lagoon Southern end of Sloping Island Sloping Lagoon Taranna Creek southern end of Dart Island Gilpins Point, Blackman Bay Denison Canal lower Carlton River small section of the upper Carlton River.

The two areas with the highest metric scores in the Tasman Catchment were the area around the Denison Canal (25) and the area immediately south of Eaglehawk Spur (20). The Denison Canal area recorded a high metric score due to the presence of critically endangered EPBC flora and other flora values, bird habitat and other fauna values, very high riparian zone and conservation of CFEV integrated conservation values, and as a biome with less than 10% in reserves on a statewide basis. The Eaglehawk Spur recorded values including vulnerable flora under the NCA and other flora values, migratory bird habitat and other fauna values, high CFEV integrated conservation values and present refugia value. All of the sites listed above recorded vegetation values under either the EPBC Act or NCA, with the exception of Munro Bight. Migratory bird habitat was recorded at Swan Lagoon, Lagoon Bay, Gilpins Point, Eagle Hawk Spur, Munro Bight, Tumbledown Point to White Beach, Cape Raoul, Turner Lagoon, Sloping Lagoon and Tarana Creek. High or very high CFEV integrated conservation values were recorded at Denison Canal, Swan Lagoon, Eagle Hawk Spur, Turner Lagoon, and Sloping Lagoon, while very high riparian values were recorded at Denison Canal, upper and lower Carlton River and Swan Lagoon, and high values at Turner Lagoon and Tarana Creek. Biomes which are underrepresented within statewide reserves were also identified as part of the analysis. Sites which fell into this category included Hollfire Bluff, Franks Marsh, Denison Canal, Long Spit, Gilpins Point, Lagoon Bay, Tumbledown Point to White Beach, Sloping Island. Values associated with biogeographic distinctiveness were identified at Munro Bight, Hollfire Bluff, Franks Marsh and Cape Raoul (both2/5). Finally locations with present refugia values for fire and disease included Hollfire Bluff,Swan Lagoon, Eagle Hawk Spur, Munro Bight, and Cape Raoul, while Mumro Bight also recorded past refugia values. (See the Refugia section below for more information on this subject).

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Figure 7-1: Metric values for the Tasman Catchment

Map produced by NRM South. Base image from TASMAP. Base data from the LIST and Carter et al, 2010

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7.2

Refugia

The `Identifying Focal Landscapes in Tasmania for the Protected Area on Private Land Program' project went some way to identifying past and contemporary refugia in Tasmania, as highlighted above. In 2010 a separate project titled `Landscape Conservation Planning in Tasmania ­ The Spatial Identification of Contemporary Refugia' (NRM South, 2010) further looked at refugia and ways that contemporary refugia could be identified across the landscape. The report identifies refugia as `a place of shelter, protection or safety from danger, distress or calamity'. In the current biological context, refugia is most likely to be from threats including climate change, fire, drought, floods, disease, weeds and invasive fauna, geomorphic and land use changes (NRM South, 2010). Types of potential refugia are varied, however some relevant in the Tasmanian context include: · · · islands: refuges from introduced predators, diseases and weeds and from changing land use found on adjacent mainland areas mound springs: localised habitats with regional endemics of aquatic invertebrates caves: refugia in evolutionary time for species that were formerly forest dwelling; cave environments in maritime environments harbour a much greater diversity and more troglomorphic species than is found in more intensely glaciated cave systems wetlands: provide habitat for migratory birds and for aquatic flora and fauna gorges: microclimatic refugia for many plants and animals previously more widespread; also may provide refugia from current threats such as wildfire mountain ranges: provide sheltered environments and geographically isolated habitats; they also provide run-off water and nutrients and so may be resource-rich refugia for fauna ecological refugia: some of the above categories may also be ecological refugia by providing habitat requirements such as water and nutrients and fire protection not otherwise available refuges from exotic animals: includes islands but may also include human-induced areas protected by remoteness or other reasons refugia from land clearing: areas where biodiversity survives because they are too dry, too rocky or too infertile to be cleared, or because they are protected by legislation or policy restrictions cryptic refugia: small areas which are locally suitable for the survival/persistence of species and vegetation and from which recovery might ensue after the threat has passed or become ameliorated.

· · · · · · ·

The Spatial Identification of Contemporary Refugia Report outlines the next steps that need to be taken to identify contemporary refugia in the state. As this work has not yet been comprehensively undertaken, results from the PAPL metric layer provide a basic pointer to where some of these areas may be within the Tasman Catchment for fire and disease. It is, however, important to recognise that the Tasman Catchment does contain many inlands, wetlands, caves, and areas protected from land clearing, all of which could be important areas for future refugia in the face of climate change and other threats.

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Reference list

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Edgar, Barratt and Gratton, 1999, A Classification of Tasmanian Estuaries and Assessment of their Conservation Significance using Ecological and Physical Attributes, Population and Land use. Marine Research Laboratories Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Hobart. Fazackerley, 2002, Vegetation and Condition of Coastal Sites on the Tasman & Forestier Peninsulas & Blackman Bay, South-East Tasmania, Tasmania. Grose MR, BarnesKeoghan I, Corney SP, White CJ, Holz GK, Bennett JC, Gaynor SM & Bindoff NL 2010, Climate Futures for Tasmania: General Climate Impacts Technical Report, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania. Inspiring Place Pty Ltd, 1999, Native Vegetation Management Strategy, Sorell and Tasman Municipalities, for the Bangor Landcare Group, Inspiring Place, Hobart. Forestry Practices Authority, 2002, Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forestry in Tasmania, Forestry Practices Authority Lowland Grasslands Review Export group, 2008. A review of the conservation status of lowland Themeda and Poa Grassland Native Vegetation Communities. An unpublished report to the Lowland Grassland Review Steering Committee, Resource Management and Conservation, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart. Available on the internet at: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-77TVB7?open North Barker Ecosystem Services, 2008, `Tasman Council Weed Mapping Project', North Barker Ecosystem Services, Hobart, Tasmania. NRM South, 2005, Southern Tasmanian Weed Strategy ­ 2005-2010. NRM South, Tasmania. NRM South, 2007 Atlas of Tasmanian Wetlands for Potential Inclusion into the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia, Report to the Australian Government. NRM South, 2008, Tasman Catchment Summary, NRM South. NRM South, 2010, Landscape Conservation Planning in Tasmania ­ The Spatial Identification of Contemporary Refugia. NRM South, Tasmania. Parks and Wildlife Service, 2000, South East District Weed Management Plan 2000 ­ 2003. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Parks and Wildlife Service (Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment), 2001, Tasman National Park and; Eaglehawk Neck Historic Site, Mount Arthur State Reserve, Palmers Lookout State Reserve, Pirates Bay State Reserve, Safety Cove State Reserve, Stewarts Bay State Reserve, and Tessellated Pavement State Reserve Management Plan. Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Pemberton, M., date unknown, Conserving Geodiversity, The Importance of Valuing Our Geological Heritage. Available online (http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/SJON-57W4FD?open). Accesses 3 July, 2011.

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Reserve Design & Management, 2002, The Nature Conservation Values of the South East Coast of Tasmania, Reserve Design & Management, Hobart. Reserve Design & Management, 2002, Geomorphology of the South Eastern Region of Tasmania, Reserve Design & Management, Hobart. Resource Planning and Development Commission, 2006. Inquiry into the establishment of marine protected areas within the Bruny Bioregion. Resource Planning and Development Commission, Tasmania Sharples, C., 2002, Geomorphology of the South Eastern Region of Tasmania. Smith, S.J (Ed.), 1989. Is History Enough? Past Present and Future uses of the Resources of the Tasman peninsula. Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. Spanick,S., 1999. Revised Sorell Reconnaissance Soil Map Series of Tasmania. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Tasman Council, 2009, Draft Tasman Weed Strategy. Tasman Council, Tasmania. Tasmanian Planning Commission, 2009, State of the Environment Tasmanian 2009. Tasmanian Planning Commission. Last modified <1 March 2010>, http://soer.justice.tas.gov.au/2009/ppl/5/issue/39/ataglance.php, accessed <5 August, 2011 Temby, N and Crawford, C, 2006. A Discussion Paper for Coastal and Estuarine Monitoring and Assessment in the NRM South Region: Project Directions. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute. Threatened Species Section, 2010, Prioritisation of Flora and Fauna Recovery Actions for the Tasmanian NRM Regions. Nature Conservation Report 10/03. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart. Water Assessment Branch, DPIPWE, 2009. Annual Waterways Report Tasman Catchment Resource Planning and Development Commission 2003, State of the Environment Tasmania 2003, last modified < 14 Dec 2006>, http//www.rpdc.tas.gov.au/soer, accessed <19 Jan 2011>

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