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Wisconsin Forest Habitat Type Classification System

John Kotar, Joseph Kovach and Timothy Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison

Forest Habitat Classification Workshop, Minneapolis, MN September 28, 1999

Foresters typically classify and map forests by Forest Cover Type

Cover Types do not necessarily reflect site conditions e.g., a jack pine forest is not always "xeric" and a sugar maple-basswood forest is not always "mesic"

Species occurrence on habitat types spanning the moisture-nutrient gradient

Very Dry Poor Dry Poor Poor Dry-Mesic Medium

10 10

Mesic Medium HEMLOCK SUGAR MAPLE IRONWOOD Rich

Wet-Mesic Med./Poor

10

BALSAM FIR

10 9 8

BASSWOOD WHITE ASH 8 Y. BIRCH

7 5 5 2 1 1

RED MAPLE RED OAK WHITE PINE RED PINE QUAKING ASPEN JACK PINE COPTIS OSMORHIZA MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE VIBURNUM ACERIF. VACCINIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM EPIGAEA

H.T.

SERIES

QAE

AQV

PMV

Pinus strob.

AVVb

ATM

Acer saccharum

AViO

TMC

Tsuga

Acer rub.-Quercus rub.

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Habitat Types are identifiable by distinct Assemblages (Associations) of understory plants

Cover Types do not necessarily reflect site conditions e.g., a jack pine forest is not always "xeric" and a sugar maple-basswood forest is not always "mesic"

Species occurrence on habitat types spanning the moisture-nutrient gradient

Very Dry Poor Dry Poor Poor Dry-Mesic Medium

10 10

Mesic Medium HEMLOCK SUGAR MAPLE IRONWOOD Rich

Wet-Mesic Med./Poor

10

BALSAM FIR

10 9 8

BASSWOOD WHITE ASH 8 Y. BIRCH

7 5 5 2 1 1

RED MAPLE RED OAK WHITE PINE RED PINE QUAKING ASPEN JACK PINE COPTIS OSMORHIZA MAIANTHEMUM CANADENSE VIBURNUM ACERIF. VACCINIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM EPIGAEA

H.T.

SERIES

QAE

AQV

PMV

Pinus strob.

AVVb

ATM

Acer saccharum

AViO

TMC

Tsuga

Acer rub.-Quercus rub.

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Habitat Types are identifiable by distinct Assemblages (Associations) of understory plants

Plot number Species

Actaea rub Allium tri Amelanchier sp. Amphicarpa brac Aralia nud Arisaema tri Aster mac Caulophyllum thal Chimaphilla umb Cladina sp. Clintonia bor Comptonia per Corylus corn Desmodium glut Diervilla lon Dryopteris spin Epigaea rep Galium bor Galium tri Gaultheria pro Hamamelis virg Maianthemum can Melampyrum lin Osmorhiza clay Polygala pau Pteridium aqui Rosa sp. Rubus sp. Sanguinaria can Thalictrum dio Vaccinium sp. Viburnum acer Waldstenia frag

1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4 5 1 3 3 2 3 6 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 7 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 3 4 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 4 1 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2

1

1 1 2 4

1 1 1 4

2 1 2 3

1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

4

1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 3

1 1

1 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

2

1 2 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 2 2 2

2 3 1 2 1

2

1

1

1 1 1

2

1

1

4

1 2 2 1 1

2 1 4

1 1 1 4

1

2 2

2

1 1 4

1 1 3

1

1 2

2 1

1

1

2 1 2 1 2 2

1 2 2

1 1

4

2 4 1 4 1

4 2

4

1 2 1

4 1

1 1

2 3 2

4 1 2

4 2 2

2 2 1

3 2

1 2 2

1 1

Plot number Species

Maianthemum can Aster mac Corylus corn Rubus sp. Amelanchier sp. Vaccinium sp. Gaultheria pro Waldstenia frag Pteridium aqui Diervilla lon Aralia nud Dryopteris spin Clintonia bor Galium tri Melampyrum lin Epigaea rep Comptonia per Cladina sp. Chimaphilla umb Galium bor Rosa sp. Viburnum acer Polygala pau Desmodium glut Hamamelis virg Amphicarpa brac Thalictrum dio Osmorhiza clay Caulophyllum thal Arisaema tri Actaea rub Sanguinaria can Allium tri 1 22 11 29 18 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 2 4 1 2 2 1 4 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 4 2 1 4 1 8 25 1 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 1 3 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 23 12 19 14 32 20 2 3 2 2 4 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 1 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 4 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 9 28 15 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 4 2 2 1 4 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 5 30 33 4 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 4 4 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 7 31 13 24 4 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 21 10 34 16 27 17 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 35 26 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1

1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

2 1

1

2 3 1

2 2 1

1 1 1

1

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Ecological Species Groups of Northern Wisconsin's Upland Forests Moisture Nutrients 1 2

Dry Poor

Sweetfern Blueberry

Dry-Mesic Poor Medium

Medium

Mesic Rich

Wet-Mesic

V. Rich

Poor/Med

.

3

Viburnum

4 5

Partridgeberry Sweet Cicesly

6

Blue cohosh Goldthread

8 9 10 11

Wild lily-of-the-valley

Wild sarsaparilla Shield fern Downey yellow violet

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Habitat Types of Wisconsin's Region 3

5

Very Rich

Soil Nutrient Regime

4

Rich

AViO ATD

Medium

3

AVVb ATM TMC

PMV

Poor 2

ArQV

QArE Very Poor

1

1 Very Dry Dry

2 DryMesic Mesic

3 WetMesic Wet

4 Very Wet

5

Soil Moisture Regime

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Very Rich 5

North

4

Rich

Soil Nutrient Regime

4 3 2 5 6

1 - Very Dry to Dry (VD-D) 2 - Dry to Dry-Mesic (D-DM) 3 - Dry-Mesic (DM) 4 - Mesic (M) 5 - Mesic to Wet-Mesic (M-WM) 6 - Wet-mesic to Wet (WM-W)

Medium 3

Poor

2

1

Very Poor

1 1 2 3 4 5

Very Dry

Dry

DryMesic Mesic

WetMesic

Wet

Very Wet

Soil Moisture Regime

Growing Stock Volume per Acre by Habitat Type Group

1800

NORTH

1800

SOUTH

1600

1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

0

0

VDD

DDM

DM

M

M- WMWM W

Average volume per tree (cubic feet) across habitat type groups

Very Dry Dry to Dryto Dry Mesic Dry-Mesic Mesic Mesic to Wet-Mesic Wet-Mesic to Wet

Jack Pine Red Pine B.T. Aspen Q. Aspen Red Oak White Pine Paper Birch Red Maple Sugar Maple Basswood Yellow Birch Hemlock Balsam Fir White Ash N.W. cedar W. Spruce Black Ash Blk. Spruce Tamarack

5.6 7.8 9.2 5.6 7.3

6.9 12.0 12.4 7.7 10.3 18.3 7.1 5.1 9.4 11.7 8.6 14.6 22.8 6.8 6.0 7.7 9.3 9.3 14.1 9.2 19.6 43.2 8.5 7.9 9.6 12.7 10.5 15.5 5.4 11.2 11.0 8.1 15.9 28.1 7.1 7.0 8.7 12.9 9.7 12.9 4.7 9.8 6.8 10.4 6.6 * * * 3.8 8.8 5.2 5.6 3.6 5.3 19.9 5.7 7.3 7.5

Species Composition of the Northern Habitat Type Groups as a Percent of the Total Group Volume

N o rth Ve ry D ry to D ry

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

N o rth D ry to D ry -Me sic

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

N o rth D ry -Me sic

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %

Species Composition of the Northern Habitat Type Groups as a Percent of the Total Group Volume

N o rth Me sic

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

N o rth Me sic to We t Me sic

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

N o rth We t-Me sic to We t

T JP RP WP WS BS BF NWC H QA BA PB BLA BPO RO WBO E WGA YB RM B SM

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35%

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %

(John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Forest Community Dynamics on Dry Sites

(with or without management)

G White Pine Red Maple White Oak (Red Oak)

No Fire or long fire cycle

F White Oak Red Maple White Pine (Red Oak)

Fire No Fire Moderate fire cycle No Fire or Management

D White Oak

E Red Pine White Pine

Moderate fire cycle or pine regeneration techniques

No Fire or Management

No Fire or Management

No Fire or Management

A Aspen

Fire or Clearcut

B Pin Oak Black Oak White Oak (Bur Oak)

Short fire cycle Short fire cycle

C Jack Pine or Jack Pine with Aspen

Moderate fire cycle or special regeneration techniques

John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Forest Community Dynamics (with and without management) on Mesic and Dry-mesic Sites in Southern Wisconsin

H

Sugar maple dominated mesic hardwoods

No management or high-grading or single tree selection

F

Oak regeneration techniques applied

Mixed oak and Tolerant Hardwoods

Present

No management or No oak regeneration techniques applied

G Mixed Tolerant Hardwoods

Present Special management

Fire

D

Oak regeneration techniques applied

Tolerant mesic species: Sugar maple Basswood White ash Bitternut hickory Absent Absent

Fire

Mixed oak and some invader species

Oak regeneration techniques applied

No management or Partial cutting of Oak only

E Mixed invader species -- No Oak -No management or partial cutting of oaks only

unmanaged or managed

C Mixed oak and invader species

Fire

Invading species:

Fire Suppression

B

Oak regeneration techniques applied

Mixed Oak Forest

Black cherry Slippery elm Shagbark hickory Ironwood Red maple and many shrub species

Fire Suppression

A Oak Savanna or Opening Recurring fire

John Kotar and Timothy Burger; Department of Forestry, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Forest Community Matrix for Baraboo Hills Habitat Type

Successional Stage Size/age class Large/ Old Early (30-50 yrs) Med./ Med. Small/ Young Large/ Old Mid(50-80 yrs) Med./ Med. Small/ Young Large/ Old Late (80+) Med./ Med. Small/ Young ArDe-V Aspen Pin oak Black oak Red oak White oak White pine Pin oak Black oak Aspen White pine Red oak White oak Red maple White oak White pine White pine Red oak White oak Red maple White pine White oak Red maple White oak White pine AArL Aspen Red oak White oak Red maple White pine White oak Red oak White oak Aspen Red maple White pine White oak Red maple Ironwood Sugar maple Red oak White oak White pine Sugar maple Ironwood Red maple Sugar maple Red maple Ironwood ATiDe-Ha Aspen Basswood White ash Red maple Basswood Sugar maple Basswood White ash Aspen Basswood Red maple sugar maple Sugar maple Ironwood Basswood Sugar maple Basswood White ash Sugar maple Basswood Ironwood Sugar maple Ironwood Basswood

(John Kotar, University of Wisconsin-Madison)

ATiCa-Al Aspen White ash Basswood

ATTr Aspen White ash

White ash Sugar maple Basswood Y. birch Sugar maple Hemlock White ash Sugar maple Basswood Y. birch Aspen Aspen Sugar maple Sugar maple Y. birch Hemlock Sugar maple Sugar maple Basswood Y. birch Ironwood Hemlock Sugar maple Sugar maple Basswood Y. birch White ash Hemlock Sugar maple Sugar maple Ironwood Y. birch Basswood Hemlock Sugar maple Sugar maple Hemlock Ironwood Basswood Y. birch

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