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Simulating Urinalysis Pre-Lab All organisms produce waste. These waste materials much be removed so that the organism is not poisoned by its own metabolism. In humans, urine is the fluid produced by the kidneys as they remove waste chemicals from the blood. Urine is made up primarily of water, with some salts and organic materials dissolved in it. The concentration of each of these substances varies with a person's health, diet, and degree of activity. A urinalysis is an important diagnostic tool doctors can used to determine the general health of an individual. The pH of normal urine falls within 4.8 to 7.5; with an average of 6.6. Acidic urine may indicate conditions such as metabolic or respiratory acidosis, uncontrolled diabetes, starvation, and dehydration. Consistently alkaline urine many indicate conditions such as metabolic or respiratory alkalosis, urinary tract infections, or renal failure. Albumin in the urine indicates possible kidney disease. Glucose in the urine may be caused by temporary high consumption of sugar or simple starches, or by diabetes mellitus. A urine sample with a "sweetish" odor suggests the presence of ketones. This can suggest diabetes or insufficient intake of carbohydrates leading to metabolic abnormalities. Yeast in urine indicates a yeast infection of the urinary tract. In this investigation, you will perform several tests to detect substances in a sample of urine. You will also determine the contents of an unknown composition. You must wear safely goggles to participate in this activity. Glucose Test 1. Place two test tubes in a test tube rack. 2. Mark one test tube A and the other B 3. Add 3 mL of Benedict's solution to both test tubes. 4. Add 3 mL of the normal urine to test tube A. 5. Add 3 mL of the diseased urine to test tube B. 6. Place both test tubes in the hot water bath for 2 minutes. 7. Note the color change below. Sample Normal Urine (A) Diseased Urine (B) Ketone Test 1. Place two test tubes in a test tube rack. 2. Mark one test tube A and the other B. 3. Add 3 mL of normal urine to test tube A. 4. Add 3 mL of diseased urine to test tube B. 5. Using your hand, make a sweeping motion over the top of each test tube to direct the odor of each sample toward your nose. Note the odor of the urine sample in Color before boiling Color after boiling

each test tube, and record your observations in the appropriate spaces in the data table. Sample Normal Urine (A) Diseased Urine (B) Odor

pH Test 1. Place three test tubes in a test tube rack. 2. Mark one test tube A and the other B. 3. Add 3 mL of normal urine to test tube A. 4. Add 3 mL of diseased urine, sample b, to test tube B. 5. Add 3 mL of diseased urine, sample c, to test tube C. 6. Dip one pH test strip into each test tube. Wait 30 seconds and compare the color of the test strip with a pH chart provided on the pH strip container. Record your pH reading in the table below. Sample PH Reading Normal Urine (A) Diseased Urine (B) Diseased Urine (C)

Yeast Test 1. Place two test tubes in a test tube rack. 2. Mark one test tube A and the other B. 3. Add 3 mL of normal urine to test tube A. 4. Add 3 mL of diseased urine to test tube B. 5. Carefully add 1 mL hydrogen peroxide solution to each test tube and watch for bubble. Bubbles indicates a positive test for yeast. Sample Appearance before adding Appearance after adding hydrogen peroxide hydrogen peroxide Normal Urine (A) Diseased Urine (B)

Albumin Test 1. Place two test tubes in a test tube rack. 2. Mark one test tube A and the other B. 3. Add 3 mL of normal urine to test tube A.

4. Add 3 mL of diseased urine to test tube B. 5. Add 20 drops of buiret solution to both test tubs and agitate or mix the solution. 6. Note the color. A deep violet color indicates a positive test for albumin. Sample Appearance before Appearance after adding adding buiret solution buiret solution Normal Urine (A) Diseased Urine (B)

Unknown Sample Using your data from the tests above, work to identify what is wrong with this patient. Test Glucose Ketone pH Yeast Albumin Test Result

Conclusion Questions. Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.

1. Which sample belongs to the diabetic (high blood sugar) patient? a. Sample A b. Sample B c. Sample C d. Sample D

2. Which sample belonged to the hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) patient? a. Sample A b. Sample B c. Sample C d. Sample D 3. The tube with the highest concentration of hydrogen ions is? A. Sample A b. Sample B c. Sample C d. Sample D 4. Tube D must contain the distilled water because? A. By definition, the specific gravity of distilled water = 1.000 b. Answer cannot be determined c. Process of elimination leaves only Tube D for water d. Specific gravity is the water volume weight divided by the substance volume weight. E. The volume is 100 mL. 5. The effect of a diuretic drug would most directly affect which variable? A. pH B. Specific gravity C. Volume D. Glucose E. Odor 6. Why is urine important to study? 7. How does urine form? 8. Why does the chemical content of urine change throughout the day? 9. Indicate what test was found positive for the following diseases. a. Kidney disease ________________________________ b. Diabetes mellitus ______________________________ c. Urinary tract infection _________________________ d. Metabolic abnormalities ________________________ e. Metabolic or respiratory acidosis ________________ f. Renal kidney failure ___________________________

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