Read nswhealth_application_guide.pdf text version

Introduction The recruitment and selection process commences with the Health Service identifying a vacancy. The recruitment process includes; advertising the vacancy, short listing applicants, calling suitable applicants for interview, conducting structured referee checks, undertaking employment screening (criminal record background check and NSW Health Service Check Register and employment health assessment) and offering appointment to the preferred applicant(s). This document is provided to assist you in preparing your application. You should read this document before submitting your application to ensure you are aware of the requirements. Online application is the preferred method by which NSW Health receives applications for positions. To access and apply for positions within NSW Health via the internet go to nswhealth.erecruit.com.au. Applying on-line will require you to register for on-line recruitment, if you have not already done so. To obtain further information about the Health Service for which you are interested in working for, click on the link below. www.health.nsw.gov.au/mlhn www.health.nsw.gov.au/snswlhn www.wnswlhn.health.nsw.gov.au www.fwlhn.health.nsw.gov.au http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/hnelhd www.health.nsw.gov.au/mnclhn www.health.nsw.gov.au/nnswlhn www.health.nsw.gov.au/nslhd www.health.nsw.gov.au/cclhd http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/sydlhd http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/swslhd http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/nbmlhd http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/wslhd www.health.nsw.gov.au/seslhd http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/islhd Murrumbidgee Local Health District Southern NSW Local Health District Western NSW Local Health District Far West Local Health District Hunter New England Local Health District Mid North Coast Local Health District Northern NSW Local Health District Northern Sydney Local Health District Central Coast Local Health District Sydney Local Health District South Western Sydney Local Health District Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health District Western Sydney Local Health District South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District

By applying for positions on-line you ensure that your application is received promptly and you are notified of its receipt. You may also track the progress of your application throughout the recruitment process and may be notified when certain types of positions become available. If you do not have internet access, you may complete a hard copy Application for Employment and forward this, together with your written claims for the position in relation to the selection criteria, completed NSW Health employment screening forms and including your resume to the Recruitment Unit associated with the Local Health District. (Full mailing addresses of the Recruitment Units are listed at the end of this document). Merit Selection All appointments within NSW Health are based on merit. Merit selection ensures the selection of the best available person for the position through open competition. Selection is based on the abilities, qualifications, experience, standard of work, performance and personal qualities of a person, as is relevant to the nature and inherent job requirements of the position. Selection committees will be structured to ensure equity, independence and diversity of backgrounds and opinions. Equal Employment Opportunity principles will be followed. Confidentiality will be maintained and the privacy of all applicants respected.

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Applying for the Position Your application It is most important to prepare a comprehensive application as it will be used by the selection committee to determine whether you are invited to attend an interview for the advertised position. A thorough application outlining your claims for the position in relation to the selection criteria will provide you with the best opportunity to showcase your skills, knowledge, qualifications and experience. Before preparing your application, you should take the following steps. Read the advertisement and position description carefully. Make a note of anything you don't understand and need to ask about Telephone the contact person, who will be able to provide you with more information about the position Other preparation may include meeting with the contact person to gain an overview of the work environment talking to people in similar positions reading any available relevant information such as annual reports, strategic plans etc visiting the Health Services website A separate application must be submitted for each position you wish to apply for Completing the application This is an important step. You will either complete your application on-line or submit a hard copy. This will include an application for employment and a statement setting out how you meet the criteria in addition to the documents outlined in the attached checklist. Whether you will be applying on line or submitting a hard copy application, your preparation will involve:

completing the Application form addressing the selection criteria complete all relevant consent forms attach your resume / CV When applying on-line ensure you print the Application and NSW Health consent forms, as these forms will be required if you are called for an interview Understanding the selection criteria You need to outline your claims against the selection criteria to demonstrate to the selection committee that you have the right mix of skills, knowledge and experience to do the job. Make a separate heading for each selection criterion. For each one, describe your skills, knowledge and experience that pertain to that criterion and show how they could be used in the job. Emphasise your major achievements. Use positive language in talking about yourself, for example "my success in my current role demonstrates my ability to do every aspect of this work, especially ...."

Key words in selection criteria Demonstrated knowledge: This requires you to provide examples that show you possess this area of knowledge. Demonstrated ability to: This requires you to provide examples of how you meet this criterion through your previous experience, skills development and knowledge. Previous experience in: You are required to provide examples relevant to the specific experience indicated in the position description.

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Effective, Proven, Highly Developed, Superior: These are all asking you to show your level of achievement. Provide as much detail as you can, using examples of your achievements to illustrate your skills, knowledge and experience. As of 30 January 2008 the requirement that all job applicants address common selection criteria was removed. This change was a recommendation endorsed by Cabinet, following the Council on the Cost of Quality of Government's Review into Recruitment Practices in NSW Government. The NSW Government is committed to cultural diversity, equal employment opportunity (EEO), ethical practice and occupational health and safety (OH&S). These principles will continue to be promoted to both prospective job applicants and to staff responsible for recruitment and induction.

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Making sure that workplaces are free from all forms of unlawful discrimination and harassment Providing programs to assist members of EEO groups. EEO groups are people affected by past or continuing disadvantage or discrimination in employment. These groups are: Women Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders Members of racial, ethnic, and ethno-religious minority groups People with a disability. Discrimination is treating someone unfairly or harassing them because they belong to a particular group. Under the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977, it is against the law in NSW for any employer, including the Government, to discriminate against an employee or job applicant because of their: age; sex; pregnancy; disability (includes past, present or possible future disability); race, colour, ethnic or ethno-religious background, descent or nationality; marital status; carer's responsibilities; homosexuality; transgender. Both direct and indirect discrimination is against the law. Direct discrimination means treatment that is obviously unfair or unequal. Indirect discrimination means having a requirement that is the same for everyone but which has an effect or result that is unfair to particular groups. Employees have the right to: A workplace that is free from unlawful discrimination and harassment Equal access to benefits and conditions Fair processes to deal with work-related complaints and grievances. Employees have the responsibility to: Act to prevent harassment and discrimination against others in the workplace Respect differences among colleagues and customers such as cultural and social diversity Treat people fairly (don't discriminate against or harass them). Managers and supervisors have the responsibility to: Take steps to ensure that all work practices and behaviours are fair and free from all forms of unlawful discrimination and harassment Provide employees with equal opportunity to apply for available jobs, training and development, higher duties and flexible working hours Ensure selection processes are based on merit, transparent and the methods used are consistent. This extract is from Office of the Director of Equal Opportunity in Public Employment, (02) 9248 3555, www.eeo.nsw.gov.au

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Ethical Practice People who work for the NSW Government must always work ethically and act in good faith in the public interest. This is their public duty. The Independent Commission Against Corruption has developed these principles to help Government employees make better decisions and resolve ethical dilemmas that they face at work: Serving public above private interests: Government employees must make decisions and take actions which best serve the public interest. When making decisions, employees should not consider their private or personal interests. Employees should ensure that any decision made, or action taken, has these qualities: Openness Giving reasons for decisions and communicating clearly. Revealing all avenues available to the client or business. When authorised, offering all information. Honesty Obeying the law. Following the letter and spirit of policies and procedures, observing codes of conduct and fully disclosing any possible conflicts between the public interest and personal interest. Accountability Recording reasons for decisions and submitting to scrutiny. Keeping proper accessible records and establishing audit trails. Objectivity Impartial assessment and fairness to all. Merit selection in recruitment and in purchase and sale of government resources, considering only relevant matters. Courage Giving advice fearlessly and frankly where required. Doing the right thing even in the face of adversity. Reporting and dealing with suspected wrongdoing, and acting in the public interest above loyalty to colleagues or supervisors. Leadership Demonstrating, by your own ethical behaviour, the value of these principles in serving the public interest. Promoting public duty to colleagues and others in an agency and outside. For more information ask for a copy of NSW Health Code of Conduct for employees. This extract is taken from Independent Commission Against Corruption, www.icac.nsw.gov.au

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Ethnic Affairs Priorities Statements (EAPS) The NSW Government recognises and values the different linguistic, religious, racial and ethnic backgrounds of all the people of NSW. The Community Relations Commission and Principles of Multiculturalism Act 2000 sets out four principles of multiculturalism. These are: All individuals in NSW should have the greatest possible opportunity to contribute to, and participate in, all aspects of public life in which they may legally participate All individuals and institutions should respect and make provision for the culture, language and religion of others within an Australian legal and institutional framework where English is the common language All individuals should have the greatest possible opportunity to make use of and participate in relevant activities and programs provided or administered by the Government of NSW All institutions of NSW should recognise the linguistic and cultural assets in the population of NSW as a valuable resource and promote this resource to maximise the development of the State. All NSW Government agencies must include an Ethnic Affairs Priorities Statement (EAPS) in their annual report to Parliament. These contain the agency's strategies and plans for future action to meet the principles of multiculturalism. Strategies include: Offering programs and services which reflect the needs of the entire community Developing and implementing policies which are sensitive to the needs of all staff and clients Providing information in ways that will reach all staff and clients Providing language services for all clients Ensuring that boards and committees reflect the multiculturalism of the community Training staff on multiculturalism issues and how these apply in their jobs Using flexible, inclusive consultation processes. A number of NSW agencies have been identified as key agencies on the basis of: A high degree of client contact, especially in the areas of welfare, justice, education and employment, and/or Responsibility for developing and implementing Government policy in these areas These key agencies are also required to work closely with the Community Relations Commission in the preparation of their EAPS and to lodge their EAPS with the Commission. This extract has been taken from Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, (02) 9716 2232, www.crc.nsw.gov.au Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) What everyone needs to know The NSW Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 aims to protect the health, safety and welfare of people at work by laying down general requirements which must be met at every place of work in NSW. The Act covers employees as well as employers and self-employed people. Employees must: Take reasonable care of the health and safety of others Co-operate with employers in their efforts to comply with occupational health and safety requirements. Employers must: Act to ensure the health, safety and welfare at work of their employees. All persons must not: Interfere with or misuse things provided for the health, safety or welfare of persons at work

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Obstruct attempts to give aid or attempts to prevent a serious risk to the health and safety of a person at work Refuse a reasonable request to assist in giving aid or preventing a risk to health and safety Disrupt a workplace by creating health and safety fears. What managers need to know Employers must act to ensure the health, safety and welfare at work of their employees. They must: Maintain places of work under their control in a safe condition and provide and maintain safe entrances and exits Make arrangements for ensuring the safe use, handling, storage and transport of equipment and substances Provide and maintain systems of work and working environments that are safe and without risks to health Provide the information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure the health and safety at work of employees Maintain adequate facilities for the welfare of employees Consult with employees to enable them to contribute to decisions affecting their health, safety and welfare Adopt a risk management approach to managing workplace health and safety. Note: This page is intended solely for the use of job applicants. Managers and employees should seek more information once they enter the workplace. Nothing in this page shall be construed to waive or modify any obligations imposed by the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 or the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation 2001. Writing your resume / CV You are required to submit a resume / CV with your application outlining details of your education and employment history. Ensure you include the type of work you have performed and details of your responsibilities. Detail roles you have been employed in and organisations you have worked for and the period of your employment. Personal information such as your marital status, number of dependents, etc are not relevant to the requirements of the position and should not be included in your resume / CV. Referee information Your application must include the names and contact numbers of at least two current referees. At least one of your referees should be a recent work manager / supervisor. It is important that your referees know that you are applying for the job as the selection committee will contact your referees to obtain details of your performance and will seek information related to the selection criteria. Comments related to your demonstrated ability or potential to fulfil the selection criteria may also be sought from your nominated referees. Referees will be required to confine their comments to their direct knowledge of you. It is therefore important that you nominate referees who are able to discuss your suitability in relation to the selection criteria. Consider providing your referees with a copy of the position description so that they are prepared to provide relevant information to the selection committee. Written referee reports are not required. Late Applications A grace period of 24 hours is allowed for applications to come in after the closing date to allow for any unforeseen delays in mail, fax or email eg. server down. In certain circumstances, late applications beyond this time may be accepted ­ please discuss with the contact person for the position.

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Late applications will not be accepted once the interview process has commenced. General Responsibilities Redundancy, retrenchment or termination Employees who have accepted a redundancy from a NSW Public Sector employer are required to include information relating to the redundancy / retrenchment in their application. The information will not disqualify an applicant from being selected for interview or offered the position. Should you be selected for a position and accept that position, you may be required to repay a proportion of the severance pay covering the period of re-employment. Verification of qualifications and credentials Random checks for authenticity of qualifications / credentials may occur prior to appointment. If you are called to interview, you will be required to sign a form giving the NSW Health Service permission to contact the relevant educational or other institutions for verification purposes. Misleading information Any statement in your application which is found to be deliberately misleading, including falsely claiming qualifications may lead to dismissal and/or prosecution for any relevant offence. The Recruitment Process The role of the selection committee The selection process will be undertaken by a committee. Each selection committee will be convened with care to ensure that it has the necessary expertise to make a sound decision in a fair and impartial way. Collectively, the committee will have an understanding of the position and will be responsible for the integrity of the final selection decision. The selection committee will usually consist of three members. If you are granted an interview, you will be advised of the selection committee members and their position title. The interview The most suitable applicants (short listed from their written application) will be required to attend an interview where each applicant's strengths and weaknesses in relation to the selection criteria are further assessed. The purpose of the interview is to provide the applicant with the opportunity to expand on information presented in their application and to enable the selection committee to gather further data for the assessment process. The body of the interview will be structured so that each interviewee is asked the same series of questions based upon the selection criteria. It is not an opportunity for the selection committee to ask applicants "tricky" or obscure questions, but rather to assist you in presenting your case in the best manner possible. The selection committee may ask you questions specific to your application if the committee wishes to obtain more information about your skills and experience in relation to the criteria. At the interview, you will be given the opportunity to ask questions about the position. This provides the opportunity for applicants to demonstrate their interest in, and understanding of, the position and its responsibilities. At this stage you may also present information to the committee, which you feel assists your application. If you are offered an interview and you have special needs (for example, wheelchair access to the building, interpreter for hearing impaired persons) you should inform the person who contacts you. You should also note that as well as the interview, other assessment methods may be utilised. These methods will be in keeping with the duties and responsibilities of the position you have applied for. Assessment methods may include: a presentation, typing test, skills test etc. You will

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be advised of the assessment methods to be utilised in the selection process if you are selected for interview. Proof of identity Your appointment will be subject to the provision the following documents: Proof of identification totalling 100 points. This must include a primary document (passport or birth certificate, citizenship certificate) Evidence of work rights in Australia for overseas applicants eg. current working visa Documents stating name change (such a marriage certificate, deed poll) Qualifications (as relevant to the selection criteria) Registration and licence documents (as appropriate) Statement/s of service from another Public Sector employer (if appropriate). All documents, if not in English, must be officially translated to English. The point score of proof of identity documents must total at least 100 points, and for applicants 18 years or over, must include at least one form of photo identification. Do not send original documents with your application. Please bring relevant proof of identity to the interview with you. Applicants interviewed via telephone must be prepared to fax certified copies of all documentation to the convenor of the Selection Committee within 24 hours of interview. Employment Screening A criminal record check is conducted on all employees within NSW Health. For employees working within child-related areas, a working with children background check is conducted. For employees working within aged care facilities, a National Police Check is conducted. These checks are undertaken by the Criminal Records Section of the NSW Police Service on all recommended applicants within NSW Health Services before an offer of employment can be made.

Getting the Job

Offer of employment After the interview, the selection committee will assess your claims and suitability for the position in relation to the selection criteria and make a recommendation regarding the most suitable applicant for the position. If you are selected as the most suitable applicant and offered the position, you will usually be advised by phone. We would like to know your decision as quickly as possible. If you accept the position, a formal letter of offer including an employment contract will be sent to you as confirmation of the verbal offer. If we do not offer you the position, but believe that you are suitable for the position, your name may be placed on an eligibility list. Names are placed on this list in order of merit, and may be accessed if: The preferred applicant declines the offer, or The position becomes vacant again within a six-month period or 12 months for base grade positions. A base grade position refers to an entry level position, for that profession, as defined by the Area Health Service, consistent with the award classifications applicable e.g. Registered Nurse. Where an award includes an entry level position that is not utilised by the Area Health Service e.g. Administrative Officer Level 1, Hospital Assistant 1, the next award level is recognised e.g. Administrative Officer Level 2, Hospital Assistant 2.

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Occupational Assessment, Screening & Vaccination Against Specified Infectious Diseases

IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS FOR POTENTIAL EMPLOYMENT WITHIN NSW HEALTH FACILITIES NSW Health is committed to ensuring the health and safety of all clients in health care settings and providing a safe and healthy working environment for all staff and other clinical personnel, including students. This commitment includes adopting an assessment, screening and vaccination policy that minimises the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. Each position within NSW Health has been categorised as either category A or category B according to its potential for transmission of specified infectious diseases and must staff must comply with NSW Health Policy Directive 2011_005 Occupational Assessment, Screening and Vaccination Against Specified Infectious Diseases.

Definitions: Category A ­ denotes direct physical contact with patients/clients, deceased persons, blood, body substances or infectious material or surfaces/equipment that might contain these or contact that would allow acquisition and/or transmission of a specified infectious disease by respiratory means. Category B ­ denotes no direct physical contact with patients/ clients, deceased persons, blood, body substances or infectious material or surfaces/equipment that might contain these and no greater risk of acquisition and/or transmission of a specified infectious disease than for the general community. Refer to Information Sheet 1. ­ Risk categorisation guidelines for further information

If you are the preferred candidate for a Category A position you must provide evidence of protection for specified infectious diseases and evidence of your Tuberculosis (TB) Status. Information Sheet 2 ­ Checklist: Evidence Required from Category A Applicants details the vaccinations required by Category A applicants (or other evidence of protection, where applicable). It is recommended you prepare this documentation prior to interview, however you will only be required to produce it if you are the preferred candidate A NSW Health Vaccination Record Card for Health Care Workers/Students has been designed for recording of vaccinations and other requirements under this policy directive and is available from the NSW Health Better Health Centre Publications Warehouse on Telephone: (02) 9887 5450 or Fax: (02) 9887 5452. As a full course of vaccinations may take several months to complete, you are advised to consult your local doctor/vaccine provider immediately if you do not possess the appropriate documentation (take the information on the following page with you to ensure you receive the correct vaccines/tests). If you require clarification of requirements or documentation standards contact the enquiries person noted in the advertisement. Providing evidence of TB involves demonstrating you have had a recent assessment to exclude active TB and establishing your baseline Tuberculin Skin Test Status (TST) ­ previously referred to as a Mantoux Test. TB Screening must be done by a TB Service or by a delegate nominated by the TB Service. YOUR APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT WILL NOT BE SUCCESSFUL UNLESS YOU COMPLY WITH THE NSW HEALTH POLICY. Link to Policy Directive www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/PD/2011/PD2011_005.html Further information about the NSW Immunisation program is available at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/immunisation/index.asp

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INFORMATION SHEET 1. ­ Risk categorisation guidelines Category A

Protection against the specified infectious diseases is required

Direct physical contact with: patients/clients deceased persons, body parts blood, body substances, infectious material or surfaces or equipment that might contain these (eg soiled linen, surgical equipment, syringes) Contact that would allow the acquisition or transmission of diseases that are spread by respiratory means. Includes persons: whose work requires frequent/prolonged face-to-face contact with patients or clients eg interviewing or counselling individual clients or small groups; performing reception duties in an emergency/outpatients department; whose normal work location is in a clinical area such as a ward, emergency department, outpatient clinic (including, for example, ward clerks and patient transport officers); or who frequently throughout their working week are required to attend clinical areas, eg food services staff who deliver meals. All persons working with the following high risk client groups or in the following high risk clinical areas are automatically considered to be Category A, regardless of duties. High risk client groups Children less than 2 years of age including neonates and premature infants Pregnant women Immunocompromised clients High risk clinical areas Ante-natal, peri-natal and post-natal areas including labour wards and recovery rooms Neonatal Intensive Care Units and Special Care Units Paediatric wards Transplant and oncology wards Intensive Care Units Emergency Departments Operating theatres, and recovery rooms treating restricted client groups Ambulance and paramedic care services Laboratories

All health care students are Category A.

Category B

Does not require protection against the specified infectious diseases as level of risk is no greater than that of the general community

Does not work with the high risk client groups or in the high risk clinical areas listed above. No direct physical contact with patients/clients, deceased persons, blood, body substances or infectious material or surfaces/equipment that might contain these. Normal work location is not in a clinical area, eg administrative staff not working in a ward environment, food services staff in kitchens. Only attends clinical areas infrequently and for short periods of time eg visits a ward occasionally on administrative duties; is a maintenance contractor undertaking work in a clinical area. Although such persons may come into incidental contact with patients (eg in elevators, cafeteria, etc) this would not normally constitute a greater level of risk than for the general community.

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INFORMATION SHEET 2. ­ Checklist: Evidence required from Category A applicants

Evidence required to demonstrate protection against the specified infectious diseases

1. Acceptable evidence of protection against specified infectious diseases includes: a written record of vaccination signed by the medical practitioner, and/or serological confirmation of protection, and/or other evidence, as specified in the table below. NB: the health facility may require further evidence of protection, eg serology, if the vaccination record does not contain vaccine brand and batch or official certification from vaccination provider (eg clinic/practice stamp)

2. TST screening is required if the person was born in a country with a high incidence of TB, or has resided for a cumulative time of 3 months or longer in a country with a high incidence of TB, as listed at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/Infectious/a-z.asp#T.

3. In certain specialised clinical settings, for example, in transplant, oncology or neonatal wards, the health facility may

require serological evidence of protection (in addition to evidence of vaccination or other evidence) to ensure that the risk to vulnerable patients is minimised. Disease Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough) Hepatitis B Evidence of vaccination Documented serology results Other acceptable evidence Not applicable

One adult dose of diphtheria/ tetanus/ pertussis vaccine (dTpa). Not ADT.

Serology will not be accepted

History of completed ageappropriate course of hepatitis B vaccine. Not "accelerated" course.

and

Anti-HBs greater than or equal to 10mIU/mL or

Documented evidence of antiHBc, indicating past hepatitis B infection Birth date before 1966 History of chickenpox or physiciandiagnosed shingles (serotest if uncertain) Tuberculin skin test (TST)

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) Varicella (chickenpox)

2 doses of MMR vaccine at least one month apart

or

Positive IgG for measles, mumps and rubella Positive IgG for varicella

or

2 doses of varicella vaccine at least one month apart (evidence of one dose is sufficient if the person was or vaccinated before 14 years of age)

or

Tuberculosis (TB) See note 2 above for list of persons requiring TST screening

Not applicable

Not applicable

Note: interferon-gamma release immunoassay (IGRA) is not generally accepted. In the event that an IGRA has been performed, screening by TST will be required if the IGRA result is negative or equivocal. Persons with positive TST/IGRA must be fully assessed by a TB service within 3 months of commencement of clinical duties or clinical placement and must be asymptomatic when commencing clinical duties or clinical placement.

Influenza

Annual influenza vaccination is not a requirement, but is strongly recommended

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INFORMATION SHEET 3. ­ Specified infectious diseases: risks, consequences of exposure and protective measures

The following table provides a brief description of the infectious diseases specified in this policy directive and links to further information, including risks of infection, consequences of infection and, where relevant, management in the event of exposure. Fact sheets on each of the listed diseases are available in an A-Z list on the NSW Health website at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/infectious/index.asp The Australian Immunisation Handbook (current edition) is available online at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook-home Hepatitis B (HBV) Blood-borne viral disease. Can lead to a range of diseases including chronic hepatitis B infection, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Anyone not immune through vaccination or previous infection is at risk of infection via blood or other body fluids entering through broken skin, mucous membrane, injection/ needlestick, unprotected sex or from HBV positive mother to child during birth. Specific at risk groups include: health care workers, sex partners of infected people, injecting drug users, haemodialysis patients. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/hepb.html. Contagious, potentially life-threatening bacterial infection, now rare in Australia because of immunisation. Spread via respiratory droplets and discharges from the nose, mouth or skin. Infectious for up to 4 weeks from onset of symptoms. Anyone not immune through vaccination or previous infection is at risk. Diphtheria toxin (produced by the bacteria) can cause inflammation of the heart muscle, leading to death. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/diphtheria.html. Infection from a bacterium usually found in soil, dust and animal faeces. Toxin from the bacterium can attack the nervous system. Although the disease is now fairly uncommon, it can be fatal. Not spread from person to person. Generally occurs through injury. Neonatal tetanus can occur in babies of inadequately immunised mothers. Mostly older adults who were never adequately immunised. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/tetanus.html. Highly infectious bacterial infection, spread by respiratory droplets through coughing or sneezing. Cough that persists for more than 3 weeks and, in children, may be accompanied by paroxysms, resulting in a "whoop" sound or vomiting. Anyone not immune through vaccination is at risk of infection and/or transmission. Can be fatal, especially in babies under 12 months of age. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/pertusis.html.

Diphtheria

Tetanus

Pertussis (Whooping cough)

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Measles

Highly infectious viral disease, spread by respiratory droplets - infectious before symptoms appear and for several days afterwards. Serious complications such as ear infection, pneumonia, or encephalitis can occur in up to 1/3 of cases. At risk are persons born during or after 1966 who haven't had 2 doses of MMR vaccine, babies under 12 months of age, before they have had a 1st dose and children over 4 years of age who have not had a 2nd dose. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/measles.html. Viral disease, spread by respiratory droplets. Now relatively uncommon in Australia because of immunisation. Anyone not immune through vaccination or previous infection is at risk. Persons who have the infection after puberty can have serious complications, eg swelling of testes or ovaries; encephalitis or meningitis may occur rarely. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/mumps.html. Viral disease, spread by respiratory droplets and direct contact. Infectious before symptoms appear and for several days afterwards. Anyone not immune through vaccination or previous infection is at risk. In early pregnancy, can cause birth defects or miscarriage. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/rubella.html. Viral disease, relatively minor in children, but can be severe in adults and immunosuppressed persons, leading to pneumonia or inflammation of the brain. In pregnancy, can cause foetal malformations. Early in the infection, varicella can be spread through coughing and respiratory droplets; later in the infection, it is spread through contact with fluid in the blisters. Anyone not immune through vaccination or previous infection is at risk. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handboo k-varicella.

Mumps

Rubella (German Measles)

Varicella (Chicken pox)

Tuberculosis (TB) A bacterial infection that can attack any part of the body, but the lungs are the most common site. Spread via respiratory droplets when an infected person sneezes, coughs or speaks. At risk are those who spend time with a person with TB infection of the lung or respiratory tract or anyone who was born in, or has lived or travelled for more than 3 months in, a high TB incidence country. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/tuberculosis.html. Seasonal influenza (Flu) Viral infection, with the virus regularly changing. Mainly affects the lungs, but can affect the heart or other body systems, particularly in people with other health problems, leading to pneumonia and/or heart failure. Spread via respiratory droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs, or through touch, eg handshake. Spreads most easily in confined and crowded spaces. Anyone not immune through annual vaccination is at risk, but the elderly and small children are at most risk of infection. Management in the event of exposure: see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/influenza.html.

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