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Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

Getting value for money on investments in rural roads infrastructure

2009

Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

Getting value for money on investments in rural roads infrastructure

© National Taxpayers Association (NTA) December 2009 This publication was made possible through support provided by the Department for International Development (DFID) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The findings expressed herein are those of the NTA and they do not necessarily reflect the views of our partners.

Table of Contents

Page

Executive Summary 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Study Methodology 2.0 Kisumu District Roads 2.1 MAMBOLEO­GITA ROAD PROJECT (E 232) 2.2 MAMBOLEO - Got NYABONDO ROAD (RAR 65) 2.3 KAKOMO ­ ANGIRA ROAD 2.4 MAMBOLEO ­ ANGIRA ROAD 2.5 KOMBEWA ­ ASAT BEACH ROAD (RAR 20) 2.6 YAGO ­ OBOLA ROAD (URA 7) 2.7 KOLENYO ­ AKADO ROAD (E 129) 2.8. KOLENYO ­ KORWENJE ROAD (E 255) 2.9 KALOKA BEACH ­ OGAL CENTRE - OBAMBO ROAD (RAR 3) 2.10 LODWAR STREET (UC 14) 2.11 GOT HUMA ROAD (UC 7) 2.12 KAMPALA STREET (UC 41) 2.13 MAKASEMBO ROAD (UC 1) 2.14 SABUNI ROAD (UC 28) 2.15 ACCRA STREET (UUF) 2.16 ANGAWA STREET (UC 9) 2.17 BONYO ROAD (UC 8) 2.18 NZOIA ROAD (UC 13) 2.19 BELYON ROAD 2.20 PEFA-ARINA-MANYATTA RING ROAD 3.0 Mombasa District Roads 3.1 MIRITINI-MAJI YA CHUMVI ROAD ­ A109 3.2 KISAUNI ­ SHANZU E949 3.3 CORNER MBAYA ­ DONGO KUNDU ROAD - UUA1 ­ 01 3.4 LIKONI POLICE ­ JAMVI LA WAGENI ­ UUA5-01 3.5 KIEMBENI ­ MWAKIRUNGE DUMPING SITE - E930 3.6 MAGONGO ­ OLD MOMBASA ROAD -UUA01 3.7 SERENA BEACH ROAD - UUF 73 4.0 Machakos District Roads 4.1 MACHAKOS TURN OFF - EMBAKASI 4.2 MACHAKOS TURN OFF ­ MASII 4.3 SYOKIMAU ­ KATANI - E1890 4.4 ATHI RIVER ­ KINANIE ROAD - E484 4.5 LUKENYA ­ DAYSTAR 4.6 LUKENYA - KENOL - D519 4.7 MIWANI / MACHAKOS TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGE ROAD 4.8 KITHINI ­ VOTHA ROAD - E1820 5.0 Nyeri District Roads 5.1 MUKURWEINI ­ GAKONYA AND RUTUNE ­ MAHUAINI ROADS 5.2 SAGANA STATE LODGE ACCESS ROADS 5.3 RAGATI ­ UNJIIRU ROAD 5.4 ASIAN QUARTERS ROAD 5.5 THANGATHI ­ KANGURWE ROAD 5.6 MUHOYA ­ NYAYO ROAD 5.7 KARATINA ­ KAGOCHI ROADS 6.0 Overall Recommendation 1 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 40 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 49

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

ExECuTivE SummaRy

In 2008/09 the National Taxpayers Association (NTA) undertook an assessment of roads infrastructure across Kenya to gain an in-depth understanding of the extent to which the Government of Kenya and citizens (who pay for roads infrastructure through taxes) were getting value for money. The key questions that the study sought to address were: Is the government procuring contractors at a competitive rate in terms of the overall contract value? Are contractors building quality infrastructure commensurate with the money they were paid? Is Kenya getting a good return on its investment? To undertake this study the NTA contracted qualified and experienced Kenyan engineers to undertake a detailed physical inspection and assessment of a selected number of roads in Kisumu, Mombasa, Machakos and Nyeri districts. The objectives of the road inspections were: 1. 2. 3. To undertake a physical assessment of selected roads infrastructure in four districts to get a snap-shot of the overall quality of investments made ; To demonstrate the viability of rapid roads assessments to inform decision-making and planning; To provide practical recommendations that will address the study findings.

Prior to undertaking the study a workshop was held with all contracted engineers to discuss and agree on the methodology to be used in all four districts. At this workshop the reporting format and the sediment processes, such as whom to meet at the district level, and how to go about selected roads, were also agreed. A total of 42 urban and rural roads were assessed across the four districts. The findings from the roads assessed in each district are listed in the tables below. All contracted engineers were required to give an overall score for each road out of 100%. Based on the final scores each road was classified as either Good (60 to 100%), Fair (50 to 59%) or Very Poor (0 to 49%). Out of the 42 roads assessed 45% were rated either fair or very poor in terms of overall quality after three years implementation (see the table below). The remaining 45% were rated good. This finding is of serious concern for taxpayers and the Government of Kenya who are clearly not getting adequate value for money for the investments made in roads infrastructure. Applied nationally these findings represent a enormous loss of money wasted through poor quality construction. A great deal of scarce development funding is being wasted through poor quality construction by contractors. Kenya cannot afford to have such large investments going to waste.

Summary of Overall Findings

assessment areas No. of Roads assessed % of Total Roads

Good Fair Very Poor Total

19 11 12 42

45 26 29 100

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Summary of scores and assessments of 42 roads in four districts

Roads within Kisumu district

Overall Score (%) Overall assessment

Gita ­ Mamboleo road (E 232) Mamboleo ­ Gita - Got Nyabondo road (RAR 65) Kakomo ­ Angira road Mamboleo ­ Angira road Kombewa ­ Asat beach road (RAR 65) Yago ­ Obola road (URA 7) Kolenyo ­ Akado road (E129) Kolenyo ­ Korwenje road (E225) Obambo ­ Ogal-Kaloka Beach road (RAR 3) Urban roads under the Kisumu Municipal Council Lodwar Street (UC 14) Got Huma road (UC 7) Kampala Street (UC 41) Makasembo road (UC 1) Sabuni road (UC 28) Accra road (UUF) Angawa Street (UC 9) Bonyo road (UC 8) Nzoia road (UC 13) Belyon road Pefa ­ Arina ­ Manyatta ring road (UC 4)

74 36 52 33 74 69 69 44 65 47 49 64 42 33 48 70 42 62 62 48

Good Very Poor Fair Very Poor Good Good Good Very Poor Good Very Poor Very Poor Good Very Poor Very Poor Very Poor Good Very Poor Good Good Very Poor

mombasa District Roads

Overall Score (%)

Overall assessment

Miritini ­ Maji Ya Chumvi ­ A109 (35km) Kisauni ­ Shanzu ­ E949 (9.5km) Corner Mbaya ­ Dongo Kundu ­ UUA1-01 (9. 5km) Likoni Police ­ Jamvila Wageni ­ UUA5-01 (4km) KIEMBENI ­ Mwakirunge Dumping Site ­ E930 (9km) MAGONGO ­ Old Mombasa Road ­ UUA01 (2.2km) Serena Beach Road ­ UUF73 (3.3km)

90 65 46 54 58 29 68

Good Good Very Poor Fair Fair Very Poor Good

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

machakos District Roads

Overall Score (%)

Overall assessment

Machakos turn-off - Embakasi (45km) Machakos turn-off - Masii (78km) Syokimau -- Katangi (E1890 ­ 6km) Athi River -- Kinanie (E484 ­ 15km) Lukenya ­ Daystar (6km) Lukenya -- Kenol (D519- 14km) Kithini -- Votha (E1820 ­ 5km) Miwani -- MKs TTC (G5 ­ 2km)

71 69 55 54 66 53 58 64

Good Good Fair Fair Good Fair Fair Good

Nyeri District Roads

Overall Score (%)

Overall assessment

Mukurweini - Gakonya & Rutune - Mahuaini road Sagana state lodge access road Ragati ­ Unjiru road Asian Quarters road Thangathi- Kangurwe road Muhoya ­ Nyayo road Karatina Kagochi road

69 75 61 56 62 54 54

Good Good Fair Fair Good Fair Fair

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Overall Recommendation Citizen oversight of roads infrastructure -- Regional Stakeholder Roads infrastructure monitoring Committees

To significantly improve the current poor quality of roads infrastructure provision the NTA recommends establishment of eight Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees responsible for undertaking an annual, professional assessment of all funded roads infrastructure ­ at completion and after three years ­ in each region of Kenya. The scope f each annual assessment would include all new roads, renovated roads and repaired roads tarmac and marum in each region. The overall aim of this initiative is to provide an independent, technicallysound assessment of completed roads infrastructure to government officials managing the sector. An thorough report from each region is expected to provide invaluable insight as to the value for money in roads construction across the country. The Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees would submit their reports on roads infrastructure they assessed to key stakeholders in the sector, such as government officials (Rural Roads Authority, Urban Roads Authority and the Ministry of Transport, Office of Prime Minister) and users, such as citizens and stakeholder groups (roads transport associations and farmer producer groups among others). The Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees would be engaged only for the period that they conducted their annual assessment of roads infrastructure. Each Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committee would be facilitated for the period, not more than two months, that they undertook the study. This would involve transportation and accommodation and food in the field. Each Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committee would comprise no more than seven members, of which five would be nominated stakeholder representatives, and two private sector roads engineers. The proposed Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees will strongly support government efforts to strengthen decentralisation, as well as greater stakeholder involvement in service delivery.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

1.0 iNTRODuCTiON

In 2008/09 the National Taxpayers Association (NTA) undertook research across Kenya to gain an indepth understanding of government provision of roads infrastructure. The focus of the study was to determine whether or not the government, as well as citizens who pay for roads infrastructure through taxes, were getting value for money. The key questions that the study sought to respond to include the following: is the government procuring contractors at a competitive rate in terms of the overall contract value? And, did the contractors build quality infrastructure commensurate with the money they were paid? The NTA is a national, independent and non-partisan organization committed to working in partnership with the Government of Kenya, citizens and stakeholders to promote transparency, effectiveness and accountability in the use of government/taxpayers resources in the delivery of services and the management of devolved funds.

1.1 STuDy mEThODOlOGy

To undertake this study the NTA contracted qualified, Kenyan engineers to undertake a physical inspection and assessment of a selected number of roads in four districts - Kisumu, Mombasa, Machakos and Nyeri. The roads were selected based on the following criteria: · They were at least three years old ­ as this would provide an opportunity to see how long the constructed infrastructure had lasted; and, · The roads should be either refurbished sealed gravel, murram or tarmac roads, as these were the largest group of roads that had undergone repairs, and therefore it was logical to focus attention on the same. The objectives of the road inspections were: 1. 2. 3. To undertake a physical assessment of selected roads infrastructure in four districts to get a snap-shot of the overall quality of investments made ; To demonstrate the viability of rapid roads assessments to inform decision-making and planning; and, To provide practical recommendations that will address the study findings.

The engineers visited each selected road and undertook a detailed inspection. This involved driving slowly across the entire road to get an overall picture of the quality of infrastructure and conducting detailed physical inspection of selected sections of the entire road, at randomly identified intervals. The physical inspection paid close attention to the following aspects: · drainage works ­ the side drains, roads cross fall (camber), drainage structures, cross culverts, culverts, box culverts and bridges; · General condition of the roads, defects (including structural) on the road and the drainage structures; · Road furniture with emphasis on road safety; and, · Road design - cross-section, type of material used (observed visually) for construction. The findings from the investigations in the four districts are discussed below.

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2.0 KiSumu DiSTRiCT ROaDS

A total of 20 roads were inspected in Kisumu district. These comprised of nine (9) roads from within the district and eleven (11) urban roads under the Kisumu Municipal Council. These roads are listed and discussed below:

Roads within the district

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gita ­ Mamboleo road (E 232); Mamboleo ­ Gita - Got Nyabondo road (RAR 65); Kakomo ­ Angira road; Mamboleo ­ Angira road; Kombewa ­ Asat beach road (RAR 65); Yago ­ Obola road (URA 7); Kolenyo ­ Akado road (E129); Kolenyo ­ Korwenje road (E225); and, Obambo ­ Ogal-Kaloka Beach road (RAR 3).

Urban roads under the Kisumu Municipal Council

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Lodwar Street (UC 14); Got Huma road (UC 7); Kampala Street (UC 41); Makasembo road (UC 1); Sabuni road (UC 28); Accra road (UUF); Angawa Street (UC 9); Bonyo road (UC 8); Nzoia road (UC 13);

10. Belyon road; and, 11. Pefa ­ Arina ­ Manyatta ring road (UC 4). The findings from these roads are listed below

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.1 mamBOlEO­GiTa ROaD PROJECT (E 232)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Town East Kisumu Town East KRB - RMFL Averagely 6 m wide gravel road Rural road Grading/600 mm culverts installation/gravel patching/ditch excavation/bush clearing KSh. 4,269,410.00 2006/2007 2007/2008 5.5 km

2.2.1 General Description

This is a Class E classified road from Mamboleo road to Gita centre. It is a gravel wearing course, with drainage structures along the road. The road passes along a relatively flat area and wearing course is averagely smooth on the surface and good for traffic flow.

2.1.2 Drainage

Drainage features include a series of seven relatively new cross culverts along the road, with haunching and wing walls. There are standard v-shaped side drains along the road.

2.1.3 Materials and Machinery

The road is composed of gravel wearing course (murram), graded to the required cross-falls with good super elevation at the curves. It is evident that a grader was used to undertake occasional light grading of the road. Bush clearing was done manually (labour based).

2.1.4 Defects

At some critical locations, access culverts were needed to provide accessibility over the side drains. The approaches to the cross culverts have been constructed as sharp humps, which can be hazardous to new users of the road.

2.1.5 General Score

A score of 74% was awarded since the road is done well with new cross culverts, super elevation and cambering ensuring proper drainage.

2.1.6 Recommendations

At the approaches to cross culverts, more fills should be constructed so as to have a smooth hump, which is not sudden and sharp.

2.1.7 Conclusion

The estimated cost for the works was KSh. 3.8 million, but considering the work output, the road is of good standards and value for money is evident.

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2.2 mamBOlEO - GOT NyaBONDO ROaD (RaR 65)

Road Details

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Town East Kisumu Town East KRB ­ RMFL/SIDA Averagely 6 m wide gravel road Rural road Grading/ gabions installation/600 mm culvert installation/ Regravelling/ditch excavation/mitre drains/drift construction KSh. 8,410,300.00 ­ RMFL KSh. 440,000.00 ­ SIDA 2006/2007 2007/2008 11.34 km

2.2.1 General Description

The Mamboleo ­ Nyabondo road is a continuous road from Mamboleo, passing through Gita market centre and Nyabondo. It is classified as one route. The first part of the road is relatively flat (approximately 6 kms, past Gita centre), then it goes uphill towards Nyabondo. The road traverses through a very rocky/mountainous terrain. Sand sanding is rampant along the side drains of the road. In a way, this is advantageous since the side drains are being desiltled. But they also have a disadvantage since the invert levels of the side drains are being interfered with hence causing ponding of water at some sections thus undermining the roads stability. Underground seepage was noted at the all rock parts of the road. At some rocky sections, the road was reduced to 4 m wide and at some sections to 2.5 m wide. Some rocky sections were virtually impassable when using a vehicle.

2.2.2 Drainage

Drainage features include a 6 m wide bridge with pedestrian footpath and hand rails. The bridge is protected from erosion by gabion boxes and V-shaped drains were noted along the first 5 Kms of the road. Six (6) cross culverts were noted at strategic locations along the road. Drifts were constructed to compensate for cross culverts, but most of them were damaged and washed away due to their old age.

2.2.3 Materials and Machinery

The in ­ situ gravel is very conducive for road construction. For the first 5 kms, a grader was used to undertake maintenance works and the road was done well. At the rocky section, manual labour was the only way of making the side drains. The inspection noted minimal work in making the side drains.

2.2.4 Defects

Due to the inadequacy of the side drains, storm water runoff eroded the main carriageway causing gulleys and exposing rock boulders. The road is impassable for vehicles and even bicycles at the seriously eroded sections, where the rock boulders are exposed on the road surface. This is also the case in sections with seriously damaged drifts. Vegetative growth was noted on some sections of the road and the side drains.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.2.5 General Score

The road scored 36% due to its poor state at the uphill section where no/minimal work was done in the last 6 Kms. As a result, it is difficult for the road users to access Got Nyabondo with ease. There is definitely need for more work on this section of the road..

2.2.6 Recommendations

Heavy construction machinery (bulldozers) should be used to form a road on the rock section. Additional funding should be availed so as to construct cross culverts instead of drifts which have been washed away. Subsoil drains should be installed in areas where underground seepage causes damages. In the rocky sections, an embankment (raised road) with proper side drains should be made so as to have durable gravel wearing course road.

2.2.7 Conclusion

The estimated cost was KSh. 6 million, mainly due to the construction of the bridge, installation of the gabion boxes and gravelling of the first 5 kms which was done very well. The rest of the road, including the drift construction, had minimal work and at some sections, there was no evidence of work done. The inspection notes that there is no value for taxpayers' money in the construction of the road especially in the last 6 Kms.

2.3 KaKOmO ­ aNGiRa ROaD

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Town East Kisumu Town East CDF 4 m wide gravel road Rural road Labour based contract i.e. gravelling/grading/bush clearing KSh. 368,635.00 2005 2006

2.3.1 General Description

The road is an access road passing through Angira Secondary school. It traverses a flat zone and forms a loop to Angira centre and back to Mamboleo road.

2.3.2 Drainage

There were no drainage structures observed along the road Side drains were however, excavated at some sections.

2.3.3 Materials and Machinery

At the vicinity of the learning institution, gravelling and grading was noted to have been done well. At the other sections, material was excavated from the side drains and used to form the road. This was done manually or through labour based methods in a few sections of the road.

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2.3.4 Defects

There are no drainage structures along the road hence ponding of water was noticed. Ponding of water has the effect of creating potholes.

2.3.5 General Score

The road scored 52% since it was done well especially at the vicinity of the school. there is need to install proper drainage structures. However,

2.3.6 Recommendations

Drainage structures should be installed along the road.

2.3.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 222,500 was made against the allocated KSh. 386,635 as per the work order that was seen. The money should have been used to facilitate installation of drainage structures along the road.

2.4 mamBOlEO ­ aNGiRa ROaD

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of works: Allocated budget: Commencement Date: Completion date: Length of Road: Kisumu Town East Kisumu Town West CDF Rural road Labour based contract i.e. gravelling/grading/bush clearing KSh. 282,465.00 2005 2006 2.5 km

2.4.1 General Description

The road also serves as an access road passing through Angira Secondary School. Although it traverses some rocky sections, it is largely on a flat zone. The road forms a loop to Kakomo centre on the Mamboleo Road. There are some sections where the width of the road was reduced to 3m.

2.4.2 Drainage

An access culvert was noted at the entrance of the road along Mamboleo ­ Miwani road. At some locations of the road shallow side drains were noted.

2.4.3 Materials and Machinery

The in-situ material was used to form the road (from the side drains). This was done manually over a short section of the road.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.4.4 Defects

Rock boulders were protruding from the road at one section. Depressions have formed at sections of the road.

2.4.5 General Score

A general score of 33% was awarded since very minimal work was undertaken. Besides, rock boulders are protruding from the road's surface and in some sections, the road is narrow and rough.

2.4.6 Recommendations

More gravelling should be done to cover the protruding rocks. At some sections, cross culverts should be installed.

2.4.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 193,400 was obtained considering the minimal work done. Little value for money is evident on this road.

2.5 KOmBEWa ­ aSaT BEaCh ROaD (RaR 20)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Rural Kisumu Rural KRB - RMFL Averagely 4 m wide gravel road Rural road Grading/New 600 mm culverts/ditch excavation KSh. 797,900.00 2006/2007 2007/2008 9.6 Km

2.5.1 General Description

The road generally traverses through a flood plain section, approximately 1 km long, and then passes through a black cotton soil area. The rest is on hilly terrain. The wearing course is good at most sections and signs of re- gravelling were noticed at critical sections of the road. It was noted that from Bodi Market centre to Wath Bao centre, the road falls under the jurisdiction of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) due to the vicinity of the Ndere Wildlife Park. At sections where schools are located, bumps were installed for safety.

2.5.2 Drainage

Drainage features include v-shaped side drains. At the flood plain, the road's level was high and hence forming a good embankment. A total of five (5) new cross culverts were installed. The old installed cross culverts were 21.

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2.5.3 Materials and Machinery

Rock fill was installed at the approaches of the cross culverts within the flood plain and at low spots. The in-situ gravel is very conducive for road construction and is readily available from the road reserve. It was noticed that a grader undertook grading operations along the road. Light bush clearing was observed and it was done manually.

2.5.4 Defects

Some cross culverts haunching were exposed indicating very minimal cover on top of the haunches. This implies that traffic is in contact with the concrete. Vegetative growth at the inlets and outlets of some of the cross culverts was noted. This indicates poor invert levels/poor maintenance causing water to stagnate and encourage vegetative growth. In fact it was noted that some cross culverts do not function due to the blockages. Some rock boulders were also noted to be protruding from the road's surface at some sections. The inspection noted erosion of the road especially between Bodi market centre and Ndere market centre due to poor drainage system occasioned by inadequate side drains and drainage facilities (cross culverts).

2.5.5 General Score

A score of 74 % was awarded since a big effort was made to raise the road at the flood plain (embankment layers), use of rock fill and installation of a series of cross culverts

2.5.6 Recommendations

Gravel cover should be put over the haunching of cross culverts for durability. Proper invert levels should be made for the cross culverts at the flood plain to ensure proper drainage. At sections where the rocks were protruding, more marrum should be put to make the road easily passable. Some critical sections of the road should have cross culverts for proper drainage.

2.5.7 Conclusion

A big percentage of the money allocated was used mainly to reinstate the road at the flood plain. An estimate of KSh.800,000 was obtained for this road. Value for money was seen at the flood plain even though some defects were evident on the work.

2.6 yaGO ­ OBOla ROaD (uRa 7)

District: Constituency: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Rural KRB - RMFL Averagely 4 m wide gravel road Rural road Base construction/excavation/box culvert construction (abutment, super structure and deck) Ksh 6,843,300.00 2007 2008 2.9 km

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.6.1 General Description

The road traverses through a slight rocky terrain and formed as an embankment (raised above the ground level). At some sections the road narrowed to 3 m wide.

2.6.2 Drainage

Drainage features include; 0.5 m wide side drains, six (6) 6m cross culverts though they did not have aprons and wingwalls, a box culvert installed 1 km from Yago centre complete with wingwalls and guardrails. Besides these, scour checks were installed to the approaches of the box culvert. Mitre drains with gabion boxes were also installed at the points where water flowed into the river from the side drains.

2.6.3 Materials and Machinery

Minimal bush clearing was noted at some sections of the road. The gravel used for forming the road was obtained from the side drains of the road. Gravelling with a layer of murram was noted, even though proper compaction was not undertaken. A grader was noted to have done the grading.

2.6.4 Defects

Some cross culverts were needed at some critical sections so as to ensure proper drainage. The access culverts with no aprons and wing walls are more prone to erosion of the gravel fill from the road's surface as well as from the sides. Some citizens complained that some cross culverts were draining the water directly into their farms and hence causing damages. Due to inadequate leveling and compaction on the gravel layer, water ponds were developing on the road's surface. Due to gravel loss, the road surface was bumpy and ruts were forming at the time of the study.. At a rocky section, rock boulders were noted to be protruding from the road surface. Over the box culvert, there was minimal gravel cover on top and hence exposing the concrete.

2.6.5 General Score

A score of 69% was awarded for the construction of the box culvert, which was done properly.

2.6.6 Recommendations

Additional cross culverts at the critical low points are necessary so as to ensure proper drainage. Proper construction of culverts to include the apron and wing walls should be done. Proper leveling and compaction should be undertaken. At the rocky sections, additional layers of gravel should be put, or heavy machinery be used to remove the rock boulders so as to make the road smooth. There is also need for proper gravelling to cover the culverts so as to protect the concrete from traffic and weather elements.

2.6.7 Conclusion

It can be noted that a big percentage of the allocated money was used for the construction of the box culvert. An estimate of KSh. 6,500,000 was obtained and value for money was seen even though some defects were seen on the work.

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2.7 KOlENyO ­ aKaDO ROaD (E 129)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Rural Kisumu Rural KRB - RMFL Averagely 4 m wide gravel road, at some sections 6 m Rural road Grading/ditch excavation/heavy bush clearing/600 mm culvert installation KSh. 2,622,700.00 2007 2008 9.65 km

2.7.1 General Description

The road traverses through a mountainous terrain with a good gravel wearing course, passing through Konam centre and Ngere High School. At the approaches of schools, bumps were installed and hence enhanced road safety.

2.7.2 Drainage

Drainage features include 0.5 m wide side drains, four (4) 6m cross culverts and mitre drains were installed at critical locations. An old drift was noted at a seasonal river crossing.

2.7.3 Materials and Machinery

The in-situ gravel was noted to be very conducive for road construction. Gravelling with a layer of murram was noted. A grader was noted to have done the levelling works.

2.7.4 Defects

No access culverts were provided and hence people were improvising and making ramps (using sand bags and timber planks), which were blocking water from the side drains and channelling it into the road causing erosion. The side drains were noted to have silted and hence enabling vegetative growth. The first two Kms were very rocky and bumpy due to erosion of the gravel layers and some rocks were protruding from the road surface.

2.7.5 General Score

A general score of 64% was awarded since the road is averagely smooth and normal gravel loss was noted. Drainage deficiencies need to be worked on to avoid further damage to the road.

2.7.6 Recommendations

There is need for additional funding to establish more access culverts/ramps/slabs at the critical intersections and access roads so as to ensure proper drainage within the side drains. At the rocky sections, additional layers of gravel should be put, or heavy machinery be used to remove the rock boulders so as to make the road smooth. The drains should be deepened at some points to avoid siltation of side drains.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.7.7 Conclusion

For a 9.6 km road, the budgeted KSh. 2.6 million reflects value for money, as per the work output that was noted except the defects highlighted above. An estimate of KSh. 2.5 million was obtained for the work done.

2.8. KOlENyO ­ KORWENJE ROaD (E 255)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Rural KRB - RMFL Averagely 6 m wide gravel road Rural road Regravelling/grading/bush clearing/600 mm culverts installation/ditch excavation KSh. 2,824,420.00 2006/2007 2007/2008 13.34 km

2.8.1 General Description

The road traverses through a mountainous/rocky terrain with a fair gravel wearing course for the first 5 km but very minimal gravel for the remainder of the road (the original ground only). Rampant sand harvesting was noted from the silted side drains.

2.8.2 Drainage

Drainage features include 0.5 m wide side drains, four (4) 6m new cross culverts and an old bridge was noted 1 km away from Kolenyo.

2.8.3 Materials and Machinery

Gravelling with a layer of murram was noted for approximately 4.5 km long .The remainder had some evidence of minimal spot patching, but the original ground was the most. A grader was noted to have done the grading works.

2.8.4 Defects

No access culverts were provided and hence people were improvising and making ramps, which block water from the side drains and channelling it into the road causing erosion. Some sections of the road were seriously eroded and hence the road had narrowed to approximately 2.5 m, causing hazards to road users. The side drains were noted to have silted thus enabling vegetative growth.

2.8.5 General Score

A general score of 44% was awarded since approximately 5 km of the road was done fairly well and to a fair standard. The rest of the road was left more in its original state and accessibility during the rainy season is questionable.

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2.8.6 Recommendations

Additional funding should be availed for more access culverts/ramps/slabs at the critical intersections and access roads so as to ensure proper drainage within the side drains. At the low points, an embankment should be constructed so as to raise the road. The drains should be deepened at some points to avoid siltation of side drains. Some cross culverts are needed at some critical sections so as to ensure proper drainage. Stone pitching and scour checks are essential at the steep sections so as to control erosion.

2.8.7 Conclusion

Value for money was demonstrated only in the first 5 km of the road. Minimal work was undertaken on the remaining length of the road and barely reflects value for money. An estimate of KSh. 1.7 million was obtained for the work.

2.9 KalOKa BEaCh ­ OGal CENTRE - OBamBO ROaD (RaR 3)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Town West Kisumu KRB ­ RMFL/SIDA Averagely 6 m wide gravel road Rural road 600 mm culverts installation/grading/ditch excavation KSh 3,318,000 ­ SIDA KSh. 517,800 - RMFL 2006/2007 2007/2008 10 Km

2.9.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area with a good gravel wearing course on the last section (from Ogal centre towards Obambo), but rough on the section from Kaloka Beach to Ogal centre. The general terrain is composed of black cotton soils.

2.9.2 Drainage

Drainage features include: 0.5 m wide side drains; nine(9) new cross culverts were noted. An old drift was noted 1 km from Ogal centre towards Obambo.

2.9.3 Materials and Machinery

Gravelling with a layer of murram was noted. A grader was noted to have done the grading works.

2.9.4 Defects

Scouring was noted on the approaches of the drift. Some sections of the road had low spots which needed an embankment and some cross culverts. Potholes are developing on the road.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.9.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 65% due to the fact that the section from Kaloka beach to Ogal centre is rough while the remaining length was done to fair standards.

2.9.6 Recommendations

Some cross culverts are needed at some critical sections so as to ensure proper drainage. Stone pitching and scour checks are essential at the approaches to the drift so as to control erosion.

2.9.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 3.2 million was obtained for the work. Since most of the road is within a terrain which has conducive material for gravelling, it is felt that gravel obtained from the ditch excavation, would be used for gravel patching and hence the project cost would reduce and have some savings which can be converted to additional works. There is fair value for money in the project.

2.10

lODWaR STREET (uC 14)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide, two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 414,000 2007 2008 790 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

2.10.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area with the tarmac still in condition. It is generally passing through an up market residential area.

2.10.2 Drainage

There were no drainage structures along the road. Storm runoff was left to self-drain itself.

2.10.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it was cold paint.

2.10.4 Defects

Disposal of debris from the sides of the road was not done and hence the materials will be washed back to the road. At the cross junctions, provisions for additional warning signs were not seen. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda"). Provision should be made to have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety. The street name sign has started to fade and is rusting away.

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2.10.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 47% due to the fact that the only works that seem to have been done is road marking.

2.10.6 Recommendations

Use of internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the cross junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Replacement of old street name signs should be done.

2.10.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 171,000 was obtained for the road marking activity only. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is some value for money in the project as the road is at least marked. It is however noted that additional work could have been undertaken using the same budget.

2.11

GOT huma ROaD (uC 7)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road. Maintenance, road furniture and road making Ksh 836,000 2007 2008 500 m

Constituency: District: Project type: Road Type: Road classification: Type of works: Allocated budget: Commencement Date: Completion date: Length of Road:

2.11.1 General Description

The road traverses through an uphill area with the tarmac still in condition. It starts at the Kisumu Hotel, generally passing through an up market residential area and towards the Provincial headquarters. The road marking was done only up to the roundabout, 300 m from the start. 200m was left unpainted.

2.11.2 Drainage

There were no drainage structures along the road. Storm runoff was left to self-drain itself.

2.11.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it was cold paint.

2.11.4 Defects

At the roundabout, provision for additional information signs was not seen i.e. `roundabout ahead' sign. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda"). Provision should be made to have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.11.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 49% due to the fact that the only works that seem to have been done was road marking. The paint has started to fade despite the fact that the work is incomplete.

2.11.6 Recommendations

Use of internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead or a roundabout.

2.11.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 59,000 /= was obtained for the road marking and painting of the kerb stones activities only. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is little value for money in the project since the paint is already fading in the areas worked on yet the works is incomplete. The money could have been used to do much more.

2.12

KamPala STREET (uC 41)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making Ksh. 504,000 2007 2008 200 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

2.12.1 General Description

The road traverses through a downhill area with the tarmac still in condition. It starts at the roundabout of Barclays Bank and ends at the first bend. On one side of the road, provision for angle parking has been made. Works that were seen to have been done are road marking, painting of kerb stones and painting of the parking area.

2.12.2 Drainage

Drainage provision along the road has been made using invert block drainage and channel blocks on both sides of the road.

2.12.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it was cold paint.

2.12.4 Defects

Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda"). Provision should be made to have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety.

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2.12.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 64% due to the fact that the only works that seem to have been done was road marking, painting of the kerb stones and parking bay. It is effectively done and with good aesthetics.

2.12.6 Recommendations

Use of internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead.

2.12.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 180,000 was obtained for the road marking and painting of the kerbstones activities only. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is some value for money as the road was marked, the kerb stones and the parking bays painted. Additional works could have been done with the amount allocated.

2.13

maKaSEmBO ROaD (uC 1)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 292,001 2007 2008 1200 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

2.13.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area with the tarmac still in condition. It passes through the garage area of `Jua kali', which is densely populated by shops and outdoor garage at the sides of the road. Mechanics have converted sides of the road to working areas, rendering the road a one way street and very hazardous due to its narrowness.

2.13.2 Drainage

Drainage along the road has been made using drifts at intersections.

2.13.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it was cold paint.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.13.4 Defects

Damages on the drifts are visible. The maintenance of the road is inadequate i.e. solid waste disposal is ineffective and the waste will likely be washed back to the road. Gravel intersections have been constructed poorly, hence the erosion from these roads, forms humps on the tarmac. Warning signs at the cross-junctions were not observed. The street name sign is not visible. Since Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda") there should be provision for shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety.

2.13.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 42% due to the fact that the only activity undertaken was road marking.

2.13.6 Recommendations

Use of internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Proper drainage should be ensured so that the gravel roads joining to this road don't erode and create hazards. Maintenance of the road should be ensured by disposing off the solid waste that lies alongside the road.

2.13.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 176,000 was obtained for road marking. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is very little value for money since the work was not done effectively. In fact, the road has become narrow as sections of the road are used for parking of vehicles and some are occupied by solid waste. Besides the above, the area is very dirty and the markings are not visible due to the quality of paint. More important work like clearing the solid waste for instance should have preceded the marking.

2.14

SaBuNi ROaD (uC 28)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 7 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Construction of the tarmac road KSh. 6,340,000 2007 2008 700 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

2.14.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area and the work is incomplete. The road is to serve the industrial area and thus will be used by heavy traffic. The design of the road was to have raised road shoulders of 1.5 m on both sides. Only 250 m of the road has been constructed up to surfacing level. The next 200 m has been filled with stones half width, while the remaining is untouched. Site visit indicated that the contractor seem to have abandoned the work.

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2.14.2 Drainage

Drainage provision along the road has been made by use of cross culverts. Two were noted to have been cast, but incomplete (no aprons, headwalls nor wing walls), while one was excavated and abandoned.

2.14.3 Materials and Machinery

It was observed that the road's design was to have a road base of stones, blinding layer of chippings and finally, surface dressing by asphalt concrete surfacing. The road base was done manually by laying of stones. The surface dressing could also have been done manually, since the finish that was observed is not in line with the use of machinery. Tippers must have been used to dump the stones.

2.14.4 Defects

Damaged road surface i.e. potholes, cracks and movement of the road's base. There is poor provision of drainage system leading to ponding of water, which eventually damages the road. It was noted that little or no excavation was done to remove any unstable material before laying of the stones. The quality of concrete used in making the kerbstones was also very poor. The road's shoulder is incomplete.

2.14.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 33% due to the fact that only part of the works have been done, and the defects reflect either poor design or poor workmanship.

2.14.6 Recommendations

Proper design for the road should be done as it is mainly used by heavy traffic. In its current stage, this road will not last. The supervisors of this work should do more tests to confirm the quality of concrete used in making the kerbstones. There is also need for proper drainage structures to safeguard the road.

2.14.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 3,615,000 was obtained for the works that were seen on the site. The project is controversial and perhaps this explains the absence of the contractor at site when the work is incomplete. At this stage, the road has very little value for money and is likely to result into greater loss as in its present state; it has no proper drainage system and is susceptible to the vagaries of weather.

2.15

aCCRa STREET (uuF)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 460,000 2007 2008 500 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.15.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area with the tarmac still in condition. It passes through a commercial area. The sides of the road have straight parking and at times the road narrows since it is utilized on both sides. Works that were seen to have been done are road markings on only 400m. 100 m was left untouched.

2.15.2 Drainage

Drainage along the road has been made using drifts at intersections and invert block drains.

2.15.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it was cold paint.

2.15.4 Defects

Damages on the drifts are evident. Maintenance of the road is inadequate as solid waste disposal is ineffective - the waste is dumped into the invert block drains. Warning signs at the cross-junctions were not observed. The street name sign is not visible. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda") and thus the need to have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve road safety.

2.15.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 48% due to the fact that the only work that seem to have been done was road marking.

2.15.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Maintenance of the road should be ensured by disposing off the solid waste that lies inside the invert block drains.

2.15.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 83,000 was obtained for road marking only. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is very little value for money since the road marking is not effective as the paint has already faded and some section was left unpainted. Additional works could have done with the amount allocated.

2.16 aNGaWa STREET (uC 9)

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 9 m wide two lane Dual carriage way tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making Ksh 522,000 2007 2008 500 m

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2.16.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area with the tarmac still in condition. It passes through the district hospital. The sides of the road have straight parking and at times traffic is constricted when vehicles are parking. Works that were seen to have been done are road markings, painting of kerbstones, hatching of the islands and generally, landscaping and beautification of the road.

2.16.2 Drainage

Drainage along the road has been made using invert block drains.

2.16.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it used cold paint.

2.16.4 Defects

There are inadequate warning signs at the junctions and the ones present are old and faded. The street name sign is not visible as well. The road should have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety as Kisumu is largely served by boda boda.

2.16.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 70% due to the fact that the road is well maintained, with no garbage along the road. Road marking has been done well even though it has started fading.

2.16.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. New traffic signs should replace the old ones.

2.16.7 Conclusion

An estimate of Ksh. 335,000 was obtained for road marking, painting of kerbstones and some maintenance works for instance landscaping that seem to have been done There was no evidence of another major activity undertaken. The road is better maintained with good aesthetics, but additional and new traffic signs should be installed.

2.17

BONyO ROaD (uC 8)

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 392,000 2007 2008 400 m

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.17.1 General Description

The road traverses through an uphill area with the tarmac still in condition. It starts at the Imperial hotel, passes through the Police station to the upper market residential area. This is a one-way street with a raised shoulder for pedestrians. The works undertaken included road marking, painting at the junctions and painting of kerbstones.

2.17.2 Drainage

Drainage along the road has been made by using invert block drains.

2.17.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since it used cold paint.

2.17.4 Defects

Adequate warning signs at the junctions were not observed at all junctions i.e. two T ­ junctions with no signs and four cross-junctions, only one had a traffic sign. The traffic signs are also old and faded. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda") and the road should be made to have shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety. The safety bumps were painted but have faded thus becoming a hazard at night.

2.17.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 42% due to the fact that the only works that seem to have been done was road marking.

2.17.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Old traffic signs should be replaced by new ones.

2.17.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh. 327,000 was obtained for road marking, junction paintings as well as painting of the kerbstones. There is value for money as the road marking was done well despite the fact that the road has many T and cross-junctions which take more paint. The same case applies to the safety bumps.

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2.18

NZOia ROaD (uC 13)

Constituency: Kisumu Municipality District: Kisumu Municipality Project Type: KRB Road Type: 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Road Classification: Urban road 2.18.1 of Works: Description General Type Maintenance, road furniture and road making The road traverses through a flat area with the tarmac still in condition. It passes through an upper Allocated Budget: KSh. 803,000 market residential area. Work that was seen to have been done was road markings only. Commencement Date: 2007 Completion Date: 2008 Length of Road: 800 m

2.18.2 Drainage

There are no drainage structures along the road.

2.18.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since cold paint was used.

2.18.4 Defects

There are inadequate warning signs at the junctions and the present ones are old and faded. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda") and there should be shoulders or cycle lanes to improve road safety. It was also noted that materials dumped at the road side are gradually eroded and swept into the road making it narrow with time.

2.18.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 62% based on the activity undertaken.

2.18.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Old traffic signs should be replaced by new ones. Maintenance works should be undertaken so as to ensure that the road is clean.

2.18.7 Conclusion

An estimate of KSh.155,000 was obtained for the road marking only. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is very little value for money seen, since the road marking is not effective because it has started to fade. Additional works could have done with the amount allocated.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

2.19

BElyON ROaD

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 340,000 2007 2008 650 m

Constituency: District: Project type: Road Type: Road classification: Type of works: Allocated budget: Commencement Date: Completion date: Length of Road:

2.19.1 General Description

The road traverses through a flat area. It joins the Nairobi Highway and the bus terminus. The work done was road marking only although the markings are already extensively faded.

2.19.2 Drainage

Stone pitched side drains and a cross culvert are provided.

2.19.3 Materials and Machinery

The road marking was noted to have been done manually, since cold paint was used. There were also signs that the drains were cleaned manually.

2.19.4 Defects

The road has started deforming due to the heavy traffic i.e. the buses going in and out of the bus terminus. Kisumu is predominately served by bicycles ("boda ­ boda") and there should be shoulders or cycle lanes to improve on road safety especially near the bus terminus. It was also noted that garbage dumped into the side drains are not cleared.

2.19.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 62% based on the work undertaken.

2.19.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. "STOP" or `GIVE WAY' signs should be installed at the junctions so that users can be forewarned that there is a junction ahead. Old traffic signs should be replaced by new ones and maintenance works should be undertaken to ensure that the road and drains are clean.

2.19.7 Conclusion

An estimate of Ksh. 300,000 was obtained for maintenance works especially on the side drains and removal of solid waste that initially was an eye sore on this road. No other major activity was seen to have been done. There is fair value for money since the road has already received a major facelift. Repair works should be considered urgently on the roads surface.

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2.20

PEFa-aRiNa-maNyaTTa RiNG ROaD

Kisumu Municipality Kisumu Municipality KRB 6 m wide two lane tarmac road Urban road Maintenance, road furniture and road making KSh. 8,545,000.00 2007 2008 2 km

Constituency: District: Project Type: Road Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Allocated Budget: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road:

2.20.1 General Description

The road traverses through a rolling terrain. It passes through Arina estate to Manyatta estate. No works seem to have been done.

2.20.2 Drainage

Stone pitched side drains, cross culvert and access culverts are provided.

2.20.3 Materials and Machinery No works seem to have been done. 2.20.2 Drainage

The road has a poor drainage system and garbage dumped on the side drains is never cleared.

2.20.5 General Score

The road was given a score of 48% due to the fact that the only works that seem to have been done is the maintenance works on the drains.

2.20.6 Recommendations

Internally reflectorized hot thermoplastic paint should be used since it is more durable and offers good reflection at night. New traffic signs should replace the old traffic. Maintenance works should be carried out to make the road and drains clean.

2.20.7 Conclusion

It seems that no activity was undertaken to warrant any conclusion. It is assumed that the major works to warrant the allocated budget will begin in 2008/2009 financial year.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

3.0 mOmBaSa DiSTRiCT ROaDS

A total of seven roads were inspected by the engineer in Mombasa district. These roads are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Miritini ­ Maji Ya Chumvi ­ A109 (35km); Kisauni ­ Shanzu ­ E949 (9.5km); Corner Mbaya ­ Dongo Kundu ­ UUA1-01 (9. 5km); Likoni Police ­ Jamvila Wageni ­ UUA5-01 (4km); KIEMBENI ­ Mwakirunge Dumping Site ­ E930 (9km); MAGONGO ­ Old Mombasa Road ­ UUA01 (2.2km); and, Serena Beach Road ­ UUF73 (3.3km).

The findings and recommendations are discussed below:

3.1 miRiTiNi-maJi ya Chumvi ROaD ­ a109

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Changamwe / Kaloleni Mombasa / Kaloleni Coast KRB/NDF Bitumen Standard Class A 2006 2008 35 km

3.1.1 General Description

This is a section of the main Nairobi ­ Mombasa highway. The road is class A (International). It is constructed to a bitumen standard with careful consideration of all the necessary features, i.e. bridges, drainages, lay bays etc. There are a significant number of feeder roads, hence the junctions which have been constructed to accommodate these feeder roads e.g. Route C111 ­ Mazeras-Kaloleni, and C102 ­ Mariakani-Kaloleni. The road converts into a dual carriageway about 2Kms from Miritini and runs for about 5km up to Mazeras. This is a zigzag section, previously notorious for some of the worst traffic accidents. The road runs on a flat terrain for the rest of the distance to Maji ya Chumvi in Kaloleni District. Lay bays have also been put up where necessary, viz: Miritini, Mazeras, Mariakani.

3.1.2 Drainage

The road has numerous culverts and at least one bridge constructed in it to accommodate a seasonal river crossing the highway. The road has also sloped to both sides to enhance the drainage. Side drains have been incorporated where necessary.

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3.1.3 Materials and Machinery

Hardcore and gravel was used to form the sub-base. Bitumen/asphalt and concrete were the other materials used. The construction process was over 80% mechanized, the rest being manual. Trucks to ferry materials to site were used. Excavators, grinders, pavers, concrete mixers, pneumatic jackhammers, rollers, were also employed in the construction.

3.1.4 General Score

The project has been completed. The construction process has been given a score of 90%. This is due to the fact that the project went as per the schedule, no delays whatsoever and the completion time was right.

3.1.5 Recommendations

The works are 100% complete. The estimate for the entire project is given as KSh.2.15 billion. The actual spending for the project was about KSh.2.0 billion (Daily Nation, 16th August 2009). The estimated budget for this project was about KSh.3.0B. There is a saving of about KSh.1.0 billion; hence there is value for money for the taxpayer.

3.2 KiSauNi ­ ShaNZu E949

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisauni Mombasa Coast KRB Bitumen E949 RURAL ROAD 2007 2008 9.5 KM

3.2.1 General Description

This is a rural road that runs on almost a flat terrain. It starts at Kisauni and links with the new Mombasa-Malindi road at Shanzu, a distance of 9.5km.

3.2.2 Drainage

There are several sub-standard culverts constructed across the road. There are also two poorly constructed small bridges across the streams. The shoulders of each of these features have either been knocked off or cracked longitudinally. No significant attention was paid to address these potential death traps. The road also lacks standard side drains and the sides are likely to be washed away by rainwater. Side slopes have not been incorporated resulting into early gaping potholes and a shorter life span of the project.

3.2.3 Material and Machinery

Excavation was not necessary. Trucks were used to ferry materials to site and the contractors used pavers, rollers, concrete mixers and graders.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

3.2.4 General Score

The project was awarded a score of 65%. The score is explained by the fact that the sides trains were not done and that the substandard culverts were used in fact they are already cracked and pose a safety risk.

3.2.5 Recommendations

The project was completed and the cost estimate is KSh. 4.5 million. The allocated budget for this road was KSh. 5.0 million. This is an overshot of KSh.0.5 million and amounts to misuse of taxpayers' money.

3.3 CORNER mBaya ­ DONGO KuNDu ROaD uua1 ­ 01

Constituency: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Mombasa Coast Municipal Council of Mombasa Grading UUA1-01 RURAL 2007 2008 9.5 KM

3.3.1 General Description

This is a rural road running across drifts and the terrain is hilly. It is a feeder road linking the Dongo Kundu area to the Likoni ­ Mtongwe road. The road has many culverts along it due to the small streams transcending the road. The road ends at Mwangala Primary School.

3.3.2 Drainage

The road has culverts where necessary. A number of these have been poorly constructed posing a safety concern. In one particular case, a culvert was noted to have a puncture on the top (surface) while the rest are either cracked or blocked hence causing poor drainage. The cracks on the road shoulders further indicate serious sloppiness in construction of the road. Whereas the road was recently graded, it was appalling that side drains were not constructed.

3.3.3 Materials and Machinery

Murram was used as the main constituent material. The culverts were made of concrete, which was pre-cast. The project employed a grader and trucks were used to ferry materials to site. A bit of some manual labour was used (30%).

3.3.4 General Score

The project received a score of 46% as the implementation was poor. The drainage was wanting and some culverts compromised on safety standards Besides, the width of the road was substandard.

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3.3.5 Recommendations

The estimated cost for this project is KSh.9.5 million. The allocated budget was not available. However, the road needs to be improved especially the culverts, the width and the side drains.

3.4 liKONi POliCE ­ Jamvi la WaGENi ­ uua5-01

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Likoni Mombasa Coast Municipal Council of Mombasa Grading Bitumen UUA5-01 RURAL 2008 On Going 4 km

3.4.1 General Description

This is a rural road, starting at Corner ya police slightly off Likoni Ferry tall station. The road passes through Bahati Academy, Jamvi la Wageni, Peleleza Primary School, Puma Primary & Secondary school, Salvation Army and back to Corner ya Police. It is mainly a graded road, with rehabilitation work going on.

3.4.2 Drainage

The road has two culverts constructed at 1 and 1.5km respectively from Corner ya police. The rest of the section has no culverts even though they should have been constructed. No side drains were put in place even though they should have been; leading to early erosion hence gaping potholes.

3.4.3 Material and Machinery

Marrum was used as the main constituent material; with the culverts made of pre-cast concrete. Trucks were used to ferry materials to site with excavators / graders, concrete mixers, and vibrators being the main construction equipments. Manual labour was also employed.

3.4.4 General Score

The road was awarded a score of 54%. This is due to the poor drainage (No side escape routes) and inadequate width of the road although it is still under construction.

3.4.5 Recommendations

The cost estimate is KSh. 0.8 million against a budget of KSh.1.1 million. This is an over short by KSh. 0.3 million. It does not reflect good value for the taxpayers' money. The width is substandard and must be improved. The culverts must also be constructed at the designed locations shown in the photos.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

3.5 KiEmBENi ­ mWaKiRuNGE DumPiNG SiTE E930

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Road Classification: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisauni Mombasa Coast Municipal Council of Mombasa Grading E930 Rural 2009 Going On 9.5 km

3.5.1 Assessment Details

This is a rural road that passes through the villages of Kiembeni, Vikwathani, Nguu Tatu and Mwakirunge. The terrain is hilly with a total of 5 culverts constructed on the road.

3.5.2 Drainage

The road comprises of 5 culverts with side escape routes for the drains. These have been constructed to acceptable engineering standards. However, there is one whose shoulders have cracked, but this doesn't pose any significant danger.

3.5.3 Material & Machinery

Murram was used as the main constituent material with pre-cast concrete for the culverts. The machinery used included grader, roller, concrete mixer and plate compactor. Trucks were used to ferry materials to the site. Manual labour was also used under the KAZI KWA VIJANA initiative.

3.5.4 General Score

A score of 58% was awarded to the project. This was mainly attributed to the fact that the road's width was inadequate and evident instance of poor workmanship was noticed. The project cost also seems escalated.

3.5.5 Recommendations

The cost estimate for this project was put at KSh. 4.8 million while the budgeted cost, is KSh. 5.2 million. This translates to an overshot of KSh. 0.4 million. This does not reflect value for the taxpayers' money. The pace of construction is also relatively slow.

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3.6 maGONGO ­ OlD mOmBaSa ROaD -uua01

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Changamwe Mombasa Coast Municipal Council of Mombasa Grading UUA01 RURAL 2009 On Going 2.2 km

3.6.1 General Description

This is a rural road. It starts at the main Magongo matatu terminus and passes through the villages of Magongo, Wayani, Bokole and finally linkswith the Old Mombasa road (A109.) at SCOPE. Although the terrain is flat, some necessary features like side escape routes, culverts etc are not incorporated.

3.6.2 Drainage

The road lacks the necessary drainage facilities. There is only one culvert constructed across the road; with virtually no side drains put up. The road therefore suffers a lot of water clogging, as there is no accommodation undertaken to take care of this. The net effect is that the road is exposed to storm water that erodes the road thus the gaping potholes as captured in the picture, which are a clear illustration of the problem. It was also noted that no provision was made for the road to slope to the sides so as to enhance dissipation of water during heavy rains season.

3.6.3 Material and Machinery

The main constituent material is murram. Concrete has been used for the culvert works which are in fact poorly done. The project has mainly made use of manual labour under KAZI KWA VIJANA initiative. No expertise was seen throughout the whole length of the section. No grader was used either to set the levels and necessary professionalism was lacking.

3.6.4 General Score

The score for this project was put at 29%. This is mainly due to the factors outlined on the Assessment Form: poor drainage, poor workmanship, and the fact that no excavation was undertaken for this project. The cost is also on the higher side. Accordingly, the general implementation is poor.

3.6.5 Recommendations

The cost estimate for this project is KSh. 2.1m. The budget cost for this project is put at KSh. 3.0m, translating to an over short of KSh. 0.9m. There is no value for the taxpayers' money. The construction is about 30% through. There is great need to look into the workmanship, which is very poor.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

3.7 SERENa BEaCh ROaD - uuF 73

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement: Completion Date: Length of Road: Kisauni Mombasa Coast Municipal Council of Mombasa Grading UUF73 Rural 2008 2008 3.3 km

3.7.1 General Description

The road runs past a number of beach hotels in the northern part of the district. The terrain is relatively flat, with no culverts on the entire length of the road. This is a rural road (UUF73) and mainly assists in giving access to the beach hotels whose core business is tourism (both local and international).

3.7.2 Drainage

The road does not have any culverts. This is mainly due to the fact that the terrain is relatively flat. The road however has side slopes to enhance the drainage during heavy rainy season.

3.7.3 Material and Machinery

Murram is the main constituent material. Trucks were used to ferry the materials to the site. Graders, rollers, excavators and other necessary machinery were used.

3.7.4 General Score

The project was awarded a score of 68%. This is explained by the fact that the width of the road was inadequate thus posing a safety risk. Besides, the cost is perceived to be on the higher side.

3.7.5 Recommendations

Whereas the cost estimate for this project is KSh.1.8 m it was allocated KSh.2.02 m. The project has therefore cost over and above the intended budget. The width should be improved to reduce the risk of accidents. Otherwise, the workmanship is relatively good. (No photos allowed- near a security facility.)

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4.0 maChaKOS DiSTRiCT ROaDS

A total of eight roads were inspected in Machakos District. These are listed below and followed by discussions on findings and recommendations.

Roads

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Machakos turn-off - Embakasi (45km); Machakos turn-off - Masii (78km); Syokimau -- Katangi (E1890 ­ 6km); Athi River -- Kinanie (E484 ­ 15km ); Lukenya ­ Daystar (6km); Lukenya -- Kenol (D519- 14km); Kithini -- Votha (E1820 ­ 5km); and, Miwani -- MKs TTC (G5 ­ 2km).

4.1 maChaKOS TuRN OFF - EmBaKaSi

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of work: Road classification: Commencement date: Completion date: Length of road: Machakos Town Machakos Eastern KRB Bitumen standard Class A 2007 Ongoing 45km

4.1.1 General description

The road is class A (international) built to bitumen standard with all necessary features i.e. drainage, bridges, shoulders and necessary junctions. There is a high class inter-change (Junction) being done at the Namanga road junction at Athi River. 10 km of the road (i.e. from Embakasi to Athi River) will be dual carriage way with lay bays for tracks and necessary connections to the Mulolongo way bridge.

4.1.2 Drainage

The road has all necessary bridges at river crossings and culverts where required. These are done to acceptable standards and there is also provision of side drains.

4.1.3 Materials & machinery

Hardcore and murram (Gravel), concrete and bitumen / asphalt material are used. The work is highly mechanized with a bit of manual labour involved. The contractor is making use of graders, trucks, excavator's concrete mixer, rollers and bitumen pavers.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

4.1.4 General score

Detailed scores are given in the appended forms. Road works are on-going and have been given a score of 71% mainly due to delay in implementation as per the original schedule.

4.1.5 Conclusion / recommendation

The budget for the project was KSh. 4.3 billion. The work is approximately 65% complete. The estimate puts the amount so far consumed by the work at about KSh. 3.0 billion. This definitely reflect good value for money.

4.2 maChaKOS TuRN OFF ­ maSii

Constituency: District: Province: Project type: Road classification: Type of work: Commencement date: Completion date: Length of road: Machakos Town Machakos Eastern KRB Class B Bitumen / Asphalt standard 13/09/05 on going 78km

4.2.1 General description

The road is class B (provincial) built to bitumen/ asphalt standards with all the necessary drainage features (e.g. Culvers, bridges, shoulders, junctions etc.)

4.2.2 Drainage

All river crossings have been installed with either bridges or culverts. About 90% of the road passes through hilly terrain and as such, there are many bridges.

4.2.3 Material & machinery

Hardcore, murram (gravel), concrete and asphalt / bitumen material are used. The work is so highly mechanized with some manual labour input; the contractor is also making use of pavers, trucks, graders, rollers, excavators and other necessary machinery.

4.2.4 General score

Detailed scores are shown on the assessment form. The project was awarded a score of 69% largely due to the fact that it has not been completed within the scheduled time.

4.2.5 Conclusion / recommendation:

The budget for the project was KSh. 1.14 billion and the project is 60% complete. The estimate of the work done so far puts the total cost spent at about Kshs 1 billion and there are indications that the money has been used well so far.

Getting value for money on investments in rural roads infrastructure

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4.3 SyOKimau ­ KaTaNi - E1890

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road classification: Type of work: Commencement date: Completion Date: Length: Kathiani Machakos Eastern CDF Rural Road E1890 Heavy & spot gravelling. 2008 2008 6Km.

4.3.1 General description.

This is a rural road branching from Mombasa road (near Mulolongo), passing through Syokimau Estate and going to Katani area. It is made to gravel standards and has a main drift / culvert at around 1km from the junction.

4.3.2 Drainage

The road has an existing culvert bridge at 1 Km from the main road junction and 2 other culverts as one move towards Katani. Most of the road is slopped to the side drains.

4.3.2 Materials & machinery

Gravel (Murram) is the main material used with the culverts made out of pre-cast concrete. A grader was used to even the road and trucks for transporting excavated materials and bringing in murram. Some of the work was done manually.

4.3.3 General Score:

The project was given a score of 55% based on the quality of workmanship. Some areas lacked side drain while others were observed to be rough, meaning that minimal repairs were executed.

4.3.4 Conclusion / recommendation

Allocated budget of KSh. 1.152 million seemed to be on the higher side since the estimated execution cost is about KSh. 800,000. This would mean that some was lost or simply misused thus compromising on value for taxpayer's money.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

4.4 aThi RivER ­ KiNaNiE ROaD - E484

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of work: Commencement date: Completion date: Length: Kathiani Machakos Eastern Grading E484 2008 2008 15 km

4.4.1 General Description

This is a rural road linking Athi River town with Kinanie area passing across Stony Athi River on a relatively flat terrain.

4.4.2 Drainage

Most of the road is drained using a side drain which is achieved by slopping the road to the sides. There are at least three culverts, one of which is poorly done.

4.4.3 Material & Machinery

The contractor removed the cotton soil found on some sections of the road and brought in murram. Excavating trucks were used to bring in the gravel.

4.4.4 General score

The road scored 54% since a number of rock outcrops are still visible on the repaired sections, some sections are not well drained and a culvert seems to have been abandoned before completion.

4.4.5 Conclusion / Recommendation.

For a budget of KSh.1.62 million, the work done seems to be much less based on our estimate that put the cost at KSh. 1.1 million. There is therefore hardly value for money for the taxpayer.

4.5 luKENya ­ DaySTaR

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length: Kathiani Machakos Eastern E484 Gravelling 2008 2008 6 km

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4.5.1 General description

This is the Mombasa Road link to Daystar University in Lukenya / Athi River. The road runs on a relatively flat terrain and is done to quite high gravel standards.

4.5.2 Drainage

Of all the roads inspected this is the only one with side escape routes for drainage. There is however a culvert whose width does not correspond well with the road width and may pose a danger to road users, especially at night.

4.5.3 Material & Machinery

The construction employed the use of gravel to fill up excavated areas. Graders / excavators were used and trucks were employed to deliver supplies.

4.5.4 General Score

The project was awarded a score of 66% since it was felt that the implementation was done well except that the road seems to end abruptly with some materials left un-used on the road.

4.5.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

The inspection team was to a large extent satisfied with the work done except the two issues raised above. It was felt that the project indeed reflects good value for money.

4.6 luKENya - KENOl - D519

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length: Kathiani Machakos Eastern CDF Gravelling D519 2008 2008 14 km

4.6.1 General description

The road runs through a hilly area with a number of drifts and stream crossings. The road joins Mombasa Road next to the Lukenya Hill.

4.6.2 Drainage

A number of culverts were done but the road is mainly drained by side drains. However, a number of poorly drained sections were observed.

4.6.3 Material & Machinery

The constructor used gravel from a nearby quarry and transported it with lorries, making use of a grader / excavator to get his levels. Concrete culverts were also installed.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

4.6.4 General score

It was felt that the implementation was below expectation, especially with respect to drainage and removal of rock outcrops from the road alignment. The project was given a score of 53% since some road sections were found to be quite rough.

4.6.5

Conclusion/Recommendations

The allocation for the road repairs was KSh. 1.03 million but the estimate of the works is KSh. 700,000. There is therefore a substantial overshot from the initial budget.

4.7 miWaNi / maChaKOS TEaChERS TRaiNiNG COllEGE ROaD

Constituency: District: Province: Project type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Machakos Town Machakos Eastern CDF G5 Gravelling 2008 2008 2 km

4.7.1 General Description

The road links the main road to the Machakos Teachers Training College. It runs on relatively flat terrain.

4.7.2 Drainage

Due to the nature of the terrain and the road length, no culverts were provided, although it was felt that a maximum of three should have been allowed. The road is generally sloped to the sides as a way of drainage into the side ditch.

4.7.3 Materials and Machinery nd Machinery

Repairs must have been made using grader/excavator to get the desired levels and distribute soil/ gravel. Trucks/lorries were used to bring in the required materials.

4.7.4 General Score

It was felt that the ending of the road repairs was a bit abrupt and a chance to provide culverts at certain points was missed. This lowered the score to 58%, although much of the road is well done. The road reflects value for money except the issues referred to above. However, it was felt that the budget would have been KSh.650,000 instead of the KSh.808,800 spent on the project.

Getting value for money on investments in rural roads infrastructure

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4.8 KiThiNi ­ vOTha ROaD - E1820

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Works: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Machakos town Machakos Eastern CDF E1820 Gravelling 2008 2008 5 km

4.8.1 General Description

This is a rural road passing through villages on sloping terrain. It was generally done manually with a culvert at 1.5km from the main road junction.

4.8.2 Drainage

A culvert was provided at 1.5 km from the main road junction.

4.8.3 Materials and Machinery

The works were generally done manually with a few spot gravelling points and concrete work at the culvert position.

4.8.4 General score

This road could have scored highly were it not for the fact that the general width (and hence safety) of the road was seen as narrow. There is also a sharp bend near the culvert, with the culvert level not done too well. In view of the foregoing, the project was a warded a score of 64%.

4.8.5 Conclusion and Recommendations

An implementation cost of KSh. 800,000 was deduced as opposed to the budgeted KSh. 949,200. There is relatively value for money in the project.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

5.0 NyERi DiSTRiCT ROaDS

A total of seven roads were inspected by the engineer in Nyeri district. followed by the findings and recommendations. These are listed below

Roads

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mukurweini ­ Gakonya and Rutune ­ Mahuaini road; Sagana state lodge access road; Ragati ­ Unjiru road; Asian Quarters road; Thangathi- Kangurwe road; Muhoya ­ Nyayo road; Karatina Kagochi road.

5.1 muKuRWEiNi ­ GaKONya aND RuTuNE ­ mahuaiNi ROaDS

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Type of Work: Road Classification: Commencements Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Mukurweini Nyeri south Central Development fund (GOK) Upgrading to Bitumen standards Class D and E July 2007 4th July 2009 31 km

5.1.1 General description

This road starts at Mukurweini shopping centre and serves as link between Nyeri, Muranga, and Kirinyaga districts. The road is class D and e ( D429, E559 and e554) with all the three processes involved already put in place ( earthworks, sub-base and base). It has all the necessary factors i.e. an existing bridge, culverts and shoulders.

5.1.2 Drainage

There is an existing bridge which is about 23 km from Mukurweni junction. Culverts have been provided at about 10m chainage due to the fact that Nyeri district is of relatively hilly terrain with three box culverts of average length 30m designed to be constructed. Side drains with stone pitching have also been provided.

5.1.3 Material and Machinery

Hard core and gravel, cement ( for stabilization ) and bitumen are used. The work is highly mechanized with a bit of manual labour involved. Machines such as graders, tippers, rollers, spreaders and excavators are being used.

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5.1.4 General Score

The contractor has failed to beat the July deadline and is working on contract extension. The roadworks are still ongoing and have been awarded a score of 69% due to delay in project implementation.

5.1.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

The initial budget for the project was 1.1 billion but an additional 0.14 billion was awarded which is justifiable due to the scope of work involved. The work is 62% complete which translate to KSh.0.7688 billion. The work has consumed about KSh.0.95 billion which reflects good value for money.

5.2 SaGaNa STaTE lODGE aCCESS ROaDS

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Work: Commencement date: Completion date: Length of road: Mathira and Kieni Nyeri North and Nyeri East Central Fuel levy fund ( G.O.K) Class D and E Rehabilitation and Resurfacing to bitumen standard February 2004 February 2008 47 km

5.2.1 General Description

This road starts at Giagatika (on Karatina Nyeri road) connecting to Sagana State Lodge and all the way to Chaka shopping centre. The road is also class D and E (D450, E 590, D 451 and E 601) and has the necessary drainage features such as three bridges (about 8 km, 14km, and 21km) from the junction, culverts and shoulders.

5.2.2 Drainage

There are three main bridges which have been widened from single lane to double lane. Culverts are also common due to nature of terrain.

5.2.3 Material And Machinery

Gravel, murram, bitumen and cement were used. The work is highly mechanized with a bit of manual labour involved. Graders, excavators, spreaders, tippers and rollers are being used.

5.2.4 General Score

Road works are complete and the project has been handed over to the government. The project is still within the roads defects period. However, no road markings or road signs have been done. The project has been given a score of 75%.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

5.2.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

The budget for the project was KSh.416 millions. The project is complete and has been handed over. The project reflects good value for money except for the road signs and markings cited above.

5.3 RaGaTi ­ uNJiiRu ROaD

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Work: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length: Mathira Nyeri East Central Fuel levy fund through the District Roads Committee Class E ( E1699) Grading and spot graveling May 2009 2009 5km

5.3.1 General Description

This road starts at the Nyeri town abbatoir to Unjiru market and connects to Miiri- Itundu road which is being rehabilitated. It generally passes on a hilly terrain.

5.3.2 Drainage

It has generally been achieved by slopping the road to the sides. No culverts have been provided due to the nature of the terrain but at least one should have been provided near Unjiru market.

5.3.3 Materials and Machinery

Gravel is used. A grader was used to even the road and spread the gravel while tippers were used to ferry the gravel to the site. Some manual labour was employed.

5.3.4 General Score

A score of 61 % have been awarded. Some of the gravel was too fine which might pose a problem when it rains, since it will soak water.

5.3.5 Conclusion and Recommendations

The allocated budget was KSh. 532,000. According to the inspection team assessment, the money is worth the work done except for the few areas cited above.

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5.4

aSiaN QuaRTERS ROaD

Nyeri town Nyeri South Central CDF Improvement to gravel standard including heavy grading Class B5 Early 2009 2009 0.7km

Constituency: District: Province: Project type: Type of work: Road classification: Commencement date: Completion date: Length:

5.4.1 General description

This is the road serving the Asian Quarters estate from town.

5.4.2 Drainage

There are culverts provided at about 0.3 km and 0.6 km. There are also side drains and mitre drains provided.

5.4.3 Materials and machinery

Gravel of CBR greater than 20% was used. The work was mostly done manually with only a grader to even and spread the gravel and tippers to ferry the gravel being used.

5.4.4 General Score

A score of 56% was awarded as the road seemed too narrow to guarantee users safety.

5.4.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

The budget for the project was KSh.625,000, which according to the inspecting team's assessment, is not worth the work done. The work should have cost about KSh.450,000 and thus the project does not reflect value for money.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

5.5 ThaNGaThi ­ KaNGuRWE ROaD

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Work: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length: Mukurweini Nyeri south Central CDF Class E Bush clearing, grading and graveling 2009 2009 6 km

5.5.1 General Description

This is a road linking Thagathi and Kangurwe shopping centres. The road is also a link to many institutions such as secondary schools.

5.5.2 Drainage

Drainage is catered for by providing side drains. However, they have not been done well since the locals complained about interference with their water pipes.

5.5.3 Materials and machinery

Most of the work was done manually although a grader and tipper were used. Gravel is the main material used.

5.5.4 General Score

The project was awarded a score of 62% due to the drainage problems.

5.5.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

The initial budget was KSh. 600,000 but the inspecting team's estimate indicates that the work done so far would have cost about KSh. 550,000. The slight deviation indicates that generally, the resources have been well managed and used.

5.6 muhOya ­ NyayO ROaD

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Work: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length of Road: Nyeri town Nyeri South Central Municipal council ( Fuel levy maintenance fund) Municipal council road Spot patching, laying of asphalt concrete layer 2009 2009 1.2 km

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5.6.1 General Description

This road serves as an outlet to Nyeri town on your way to Mweiga.

5.6.2 Drainage

It is achieved by slopping the road towards one side.

5.6.3 Materials and machinery

A roller and sprayer were used with some manual input being employed. Premix and asphalt concrete were used.

5.6.4 General Score

The road is rough hence not comfortable to drive on and was awarded a score of 54%.

5.6.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

The work was done in two phases: phase I which involved patching was done at a cost of KSh. 1.1 million and phase II which involved laying of asphalt concrete layer at was done at a cost of KSh. 2.6 million. This brought the total budget KSh. 3.7 million. Due to the nature of the road, the implementation cost should be about KSh. 2.8 million and therefore, does not adequately provide value for taxpayer's money.

5.7 KaRaTiNa ­ KaGOChi ROaDS

Constituency: District: Province: Project Type: Road Classification: Type of Work: Commencement Date: Completion Date: Length: Mathira Nyeri East Central Fuel levy fund through District Roads Committee Class E Bush clearing, grading and graveling Early 2009 2009 4.2 km

5.7.1 General Description

This is a rural road from Ragati tea factory to Kagochi shopping centre and passes on a relatively flat terrain.

5.7.2 Drainage

Drainage is achieved by slopping the road to the sides with at least two culverts done. However, the slope of the side is not effective to allow rainwater to flow freely.

5.7.3 Materials and machinery

Gravel was the material used while a grader was used to even and spread the gravel. Tippers ferried this material to the site.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

5.7.4 General score

The project was awarded a score of 54% because of the drainage problem cited above. Besides, gravel seemed to have been deposited on some of the excavated material.

5.7.5 Conclusion and Recommendation

From the inspecting team's estimate, the budget of the road should have been KSh.1.2 million contrary to the KSh.1,440,480 awarded. The significant deviation indicates that taxpayers' money may have been misused or mismanaged

6.0 OvERall RECOmmENDaTiON

Citizen oversight of roads infrastructure -- Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees

To significantly improve the current poor quality of roads infrastructure provision the NTA recommends establishment of eight Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees responsible for undertaking an annual, professional assessment of all funded roads infrastructure ­ at completion and after three years ­ in each region of Kenya. The scope f each annual assessment would include all new roads, renovated roads and repaired roads tarmac and marum in each region. The overall aim of this initiative is to provide an independent, technicallysound assessment of completed roads infrastructure to government officials managing the sector. An thorough report from each region is expected to provide invaluable insight as to the value for money in roads construction across the country. The Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees would submit their reports on roads infrastructure they assessed to key stakeholders in the sector, such as government officials (Rural Roads Authority, Urban Roads Authority and the Ministry of Transport, Office of Prime Minister) and users, such as citizens and stakeholder groups (roads transport associations and farmer producer groups among others). The Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees would be engaged only for the period that they conducted their annual assessment of roads infrastructure. Each Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committee would be facilitated for the period, not more than two months, that they undertook the study. This would involve transportation and accommodation and food in the field. Each Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committee would comprise no more than seven members, of which five would be nominated stakeholder representatives, and two private sector roads engineers. The proposed Regional Stakeholder Roads Infrastructure Monitoring Committees will strongly support government efforts to strengthen decentralisation, as well as greater stakeholder involvement in service delivery.

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NTA Citizen's Report Card on Rural Roads

hEaD OFFiCE National Taxpayers Association (NTA) Riara Gardens, off Riara Road Adjacent to Makini Schools P. O. Box 4037 - 00506, City Stadium, Nairobi, Kenya TeleFax: 254-20-2734576/9 Cell Phone: 254-734-500940 Email: [email protected] Nairobi Regional Office New Life Christian Building (formerly Rainbow Cinema) P.O. Box 27527 - 00506 Nairobi West Cell Phone: 254-738-992660 Email: [email protected] Coast Regional Office Kanderbhouy Building Nkurumah Road,1st Floor, Suite 14, Opp Co-Op Bank P.O. Box 98860 Mombasa Cell Phone: 254-738-992664 Email: [email protected] Central Regional Office Nyeri Teachers Plaza, 1st Floor, Room 10 P.O. Box 576 - 10100 Nyeri Cell Phone: 254-738-992661 Email: [email protected] Nyanza Regional Office Mosata Plaza, 2nd Floor Behind Imperial Hotel P.O. Box 204-40123 Kisumu Cell Phone: 254-738-992668 Email: [email protected]

Eastern Regional Office Town Plaza, 3rd Floor, Ngei Road P.O. Box 2046 90100 Machakos Cell Phone: 254-738-992666 Email: [email protected] Western Regional Office at Legio, along Hotel Generation Way Adjacent to Three Storey Residential Opposite International Child Support (I.C.S) P.O. Box 474-50400 Busia Cell Phone: 254-738-992667 Email: [email protected] Rift valley Regional Office Meadows Hse, 1st Floor, Room 106 Opposite Sirikwa Hotel P.O. Box 4956-30100 Eldoret Cell Phone: 254-738-992663 Email: [email protected]

North Eastern Regional Office Jihan Centre, 1st Floor, Room 7 Harambee Road P.O. Box 1235-70100 Garissa Cell Phone: 254-738-992665 Email: [email protected]

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