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NSC 93-2412-H-002-023-SSS 93 8 1 94 7 31

20 1944 11.3% 18 1924

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Long-term Adjustment to Witnessing Marital Violence and Experiencing Child Maltreatment Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to investigate the long-term adjustment to witnessing marital violence and experiencing maltreatment during childhood. Method: The research design of this study is cross-sectional. This study uses self-report measures to collect data from a national proportionate stratified sample of 1924 college students in Taiwan. The sample is divided into four groups: no violence, exposed only, abused only, and dual violence, to compare their similarities and differences. Semi-structured interview was also conducted to collect

qualitative data from 8 participants. Results: Results indicate a significant relationship between child abuse and marital violence. Eleven percent of the participants reported experiencing physical abuse and exposure to parental marital violence during childhood. Participants who

experienced dual violence reported more trauma symptoms and behavioral problems than those experiencing only one form of violence or none at all. Exposure to both marital violence and child abuse during childhood was a significant predictor of young adults' problem behavior and traumatic symptoms, after controlling for other potentially confounding risk factors. Cultural factors also play a significant role in

predicting young adults' problem behavior and traumatic symptoms, after control

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variables were accounted for. Key words: Marital violence, Child abuse, Long-term impact, Protective factor

Appel & Holden, 1998 e.g., Silvern, Karyl, Waelde, Hodges, Starek, Heidt, & Min, 1995 (e.g., Carter, 1998; McGuigan & Pratt, 2001)

Grych, Jouriles, Swank, McDonald, & Norwood, 2000; O'Keefe, 1995 Carlson, 1991; O'Keefe, 1996; Silvern, et al., 1995 2003

2001

2001 2003

Grych, Jouriles, Swank,

McDonald, & Norwood, 2000; O'Keefe, 1995

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Mrazek & Mrazek, 1987; Rutter, 1985 resilience Hughes & Luke, 1998 2003

(Grych, Jouriles, Swank, McDonald, & Norwood, 2000) Hughes & Luke, 1998 2005

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1924 PTSD Table 2)

(Table 1)

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(Table 3)

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2000 1924 96.25 5 3 10 5

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(2001) 94 (2005) 18 (2001) (2003) 1 241-250

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25-64 94 252-267 -

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Appel, A. E., & Holden, G. W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 578-599. Carlson, B. E. (1991). Outcomes of physical abuse and observation of marital violence among adolescents in placement. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 526-534. Carter, J. (1998). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: Strategies for prevention and early intervention. Family Violence Prevention Fund. http://www.mincava.umn.edu/link/fvpf2.htm Grych, J. H., Jouriles, E. N., & Swank, P. R. (2000). Patterns of adjustment among

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children of battered women. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1, 84-94. Hughes, M. H., & Luke, D. A. (1998). Heterogeneity in adjustment among children of battered women. In G. W. Holden, R. Geffner, & E. N. Jouriles (Eds.), Children exposed to marital violence (pp. 185-221). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. McGuigan, W. M., & Pratt, C. C. (2001). The predictive impact of domestic violence on three types of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 869-883. Mrazek, P. J., & Mrazek, D. A. (1987). Resilience in child maltreatment victims: A conceptual exploration. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 357-366. O'Keefe, M. (1995). Predictors of child abuse in martially violent families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 3-25. Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598-611.

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Table 1: Sample Distribution

1 (19.26 247,094 (4.18 53,734 (28.96 371,540 ) 2 3 3 ) 1 3 2 ) 8 1 1 1 (21.69 278,314 ) 5 1 1 2 (22.84 292,992 (3.03 38,939 1,282,613 ) 2 2 3 ) 20 44 1 1 2005

25 72 208 80 34 50 87 359 75 58 78 265 35 56 90 200 92 76 20 41

22 105 156 96 42 119 71 342 65 37 111 235 49 50 75 102 77 110 27 33 1924

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Table 2: Reliability of Scales

.73 .72 .67 .62 .82 .81 .82 .82 .86 .84 .79 .78 .72 .94 .96 .98 .93 .91 .89 .93 .88 .85 .97 .97 .98 .93 .95 .95 .95 .82 .90 PTSD .94 .88 .86 .84

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Table 3: The cross table of marital violence and child abuse Marital Violence Child abuse No Yes Total 2 = 215.6, p<.001 No (n) 91.0% (1171) 9.0% (116) 100.0% (1287) Yes (n) 63.0% (370) 37.0% (217) 100.0% (587) Total 82.2% (1541) 17.8% (333) 100.0% (1874)

Table 4: Summary of ANOVA and LSD tests for PTSD and adjustment scores Variables PTSD Groups 1.No violence 2.Abused only 3.Exposed only 4.Dual violence Total Externalizing behavior 1.No violence 2.Abused only 3.Exposed only 4.Dual violence Total Internalizing behavior 1.No violence 2.Abused only 3.Exposed only 4.Dual violence Total n 1112 106 355 208 1781 1148 113 361 205 1827 1152 114 364 211 1858 Mean 23.98 27.24 26.85 33.12 25.81 10.45 13.58 11.43 17.38 11.62 21.58 23.38 23.45 28.22 22.82 SD 14.40 15.51 13.62 13.67 14.52 7.13 8.59 6.72 11.68 8.09 8.03 8.22 8.01 10.08 8.55 39.15 (3,1837) .000 4>1,2,3 3>1 2>1 48.23 (3,1823) .000 4>1,2,3 3>1 2>1,3 F (df) 25.40 (3,1777) p .000 LSD 4>1,2,3 3>1 2>1

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Table 5: Results of Hierarchical Regression Analyses of PTSD and Adjustment Measures

Variables Block 1 Control variablesa PTSD R = .313 R2 = .098 R2 change = .098 *** Block 2 Dual violence group R = .316 R = .10 R2 change = .002 F change = 3.62 Block 3 Traditional Beliefs R = .356 Chinese R = .127 R2 change = .027 ***

a 2 2

External R = .334 R2 = .111 R2 change = .111

Internal R = .322 R2 = .104 R2 change = .104 F change = 27.71 *** R = .324 R2 = .324 R2 change = .006 F change = 11.91 *** R = .348 R2 = .125 R2 change = .016 F change = 35.27 ***

F change = 25.98 F change = 29.98 *** R = .364 R = .133 R2 change = .021 F change = 47.18 *** R = .367 R = .135 R2 change = .002

2 2

F change = 59.95 F change = 4.3 *

control variables include: Gender, Age, Family income, Parent's divorced, Family risks,

Other traumas, Marital Verbal Aggression, Child Verbal Aggression

* p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001

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