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Professor E.T. Ehiametalor University of Benin 18th September, 2003

THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION Education is an organized system of learning. Every country establishes its own system for the induction of the young to learn the morals and values of the society. The purpose of learning is to change human behaviour through the imparting of new ideas, knowledge, values which is expected to remain relatively permanent. The society looks to education not only to change the behaviour of the citizens or learners but to help develop the culture. As a result education is about self-survival and a means of perpetuating the heritage which is paramount to the society's existence. "Learning involves change in human behaviour which explains attitude formation, perceptions, preferences and interest" (Ehiametalor, 1985: 12). Since learning is intended to change behaviour, some countries or societies are dogmatic, selective and guard carefully the education process. The United States of America, China, Japan and others ensure that their national philosophies guide their education operational principles. Hence industrial nations ensure that the education systems train the citizens to change behaviour in relation to "skills or capabilities which the learner retains for his future development" (Thompson, 1981: 23). It can rightly be said that learning is about information which comes to the learner to help him adapt to his immediate environment and meet his immediate needs at his particular stage of development in that environment (Thompson 1981: 25). This is why most nations are particular about the type of knowledge or information the child is exposed to. Whatever information a child gets, helps to determine his future focus. As a result, a properly planned and implemented curriculum is expected to aid the child in fitting into his environment and surviving. This is perhaps the rationale for the national policy on education. The National Policy on Education made Nigeria a purpose driven nation with its own identity and with the motive to give the child knowledge that will be helpful and healthful to his growth. In Proverbs 1, we are told that the purpose of education is to "give instruction of wisdom, justice, and equity". When a wise man hears, he increases in learning. Wisdom involves the ac'quisition of skills for living, physical skills like tailoring, woodwork, metalwork, designing, etc. Education trains up a child in the way he should go and when he grows, he does not depart from it (Proverb, 22:6). Education, thus, has a positive influence in the learner, but negative education can have a destructive effect in a society. 1

ABOUT THE LECTURE This lecture is about my academic work for the past several years. During this highly productive period, many undergraduates, masters and Ph. D. students have gone through my supervision. With great pleasure of achievement, some of my students are professors, associate professors and senior lecturers; a large number of them are principals, headmasters, teachers and directors in companies. My area of interest has been in school business management, which emphasizes the utilization of resources for an organization's goal achievement. I have taught school business management for many years. My lecture is therefore about the management of resources in education and it is divided into two parts, my research experience and the mixed grill. Resources can be explained as those factors, such as human capital, equipment, materials and other facilities which enable the production process of an organization to achieve its measurable objectives (Ehiametalor, 1988: 36 - 39). SCHOOL BUSINESS ADMINISTRA TION School Business Administration developed in the United States of America toward the end of the nineteenth century because of the relative complexity of education as a national priority. At that time, the cities were fast developing, as a result of the increasing development of industries. The school system equally expanded rapidly. So, the school system developed as a response to the "pressures for adequate business procedures'*application to the administration of the education enterprise," (Candoli et ai, 1978:4) In fact, Candoli and his colleagues did give reasons for the need of business technology in education, which was before not thought of in education. He stressed that technological progress has provided the tools to mechanize the business function in our educational systems, and has forced an awakening of the need to develop planning procedures. The gathering, sorting, storing and interpreting of data which once required I inordinate amounts of energy, time and resources have become almost a by-product of the sophisticated business equipment and procedures utilized by most educational systems. The development of school business administration stems from the fact that school business is not significantly different from other business organizations in their utilization of resources in the processing of input (Ehiametalor, 1986). The only difference, perhaps, is the type of input (students) they receive and the end product (output) that go out. The school of business administration discipline borrows its concept from general administration, business administration, public administration and sociology. The concept of


administrative tasks as espoused by Gulick and Urwick were its basic principles (Gulick and Urwick, 1937: 13). These principles are known as POSDCORB, which is to say: 1) Planning: It is a fact that the administrator of a school implements goal-related decisions. It will be foolhardy for any administrator to implement a decision or programme without first planning the strategies for the implementation. Organizing: In essence, this infers that the administrator must put together a network of relationships in the production process. The purpose is to ensure that the resources are harnessed organizationally for utmost goal achievement in the school. Staffing: Employing capable individuals and utilizing them in positions for utmost productive efforts. What is to be accomplished essentially is determined by the requisite experience. In the learning process the quality of individuals employed in teaching determines the output. This determines whether the products will be fully baked or half-baked, or not baked at-all. If it is half-baked, the product is not fit for anything because technology is not culture-bound; its principles are universalized, and require qualitative learning. Directing: Ability to give leadership and be respected by peers in the process of production. A leader who went through a system that fails to prepare him properly for assignment ahead cannot lead others to goal achievement. In a situation where the government appoints leaders on the basis of quota, ethnic nationality, or racial considerations, leadership ascendancy cannot produce the best result in decisionmaking. As the Nigerian adage says, follow those who know the road or you will be lost in the maze when led by a half-baked leader. Co-ordinating: Harmonizing the work of individuals to meet the required quality of production. Reporting: An individual with a given leadership responsibility should be able to give report or give accountability on the resources available for goal achievement and be able to motivate stakeholders for support. Budgeting: the administrator is required to be skillful in budget planning (Ehiametalor, 1995; Agbonifoh and Ehiametalor, et ai, 1999).







RESOURCE UTILIZA TION The discipline of school business administration concerns the utilization of available resources which are scarce in relation to the needs to achieve the goals of the education system. Resource utilization is the main emphasis in school management. The major problem confronting the school administrator is how to utilize the "available limited funds, manpower, equipment, buildings and materials for effective impact on the students. 3

The resources for the achievement of school's goals include students, teachers, non-teachers, equipment, buildings, money and materials. These resources are so important that no school system can give qualitative learning without them. Since these resources are scarce, their utilization in the production process requires skill and training. The utilization of the resources demands careful planning, supervision, coordination and control.

Fig. 1 Resource flow process

The figure above shows that the quality inputs in the form of resources determine the achievement in terms of behavioural change. The diagram further shows that qualitative result is based on the quality of interaction between the resources. The education production line does not deal with inanimate objects but with people whose environments are replete with all influences, good or bad. The ability of the teachers to perform will depend on the type of training available to them, the quality of facilities, materials and the environment under which they operate. Is it possible for students to excel in chemistry at a senior secondary level? What is the quality of students component in the education system? What is the contribution of the family environment on the learning behaviour of the students? These questions tend to highlight the difficulty inherent in the education production function. The above questions will be dealt with at various stages of our discussion in this lecture. PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION The administrator, unlike what the planner would want us to believe, is first and foremost a planner. For several years in the history of education in this country, the government has always attempted the process of administration before planning. This is, perhaps, one reason for the poor results always achieved in almost all education programmes. The 1976 free education programmes in Nigeria were beautifully thought out, but there were no plans to set in motion their eventual implementation. Sofolahan (1991), Ehiametalor (1984), Nwagwu (1984) and Onwuene (1995) have expressed concern about the problem of planlessness in educational innovation. Our submission is that there must be planning for programme implementation. This is the stage at- which the administrator is made to participate.


There were evidences of planning of some sort, but invariably, these were usually inadequate implementation plans. The inadequacies of such plans were usually based on wrong premises and inaccurate data information on programmes. Thus the programmes fail because the planners truncate their responsibility at the level of planning, and those administrators in the field who ought to have been involved were not always invited in the implementation planning, hence the poor end result. Furthermore, the lack of orientation at the school level and training were responsible for the haphazard implementation of education programmes. Our point of view here is that administrators should be involved in the process of implementation planning. How many principals and head-teachers, for example, are familiar with the National Policy on Education? How many workshops and seminars have been held for them at the local and national levels? How many of these administrators have the various reports and use them as guides to curriculum implementation. These are questions that border on resource management and utilization. OUR EXPERIMENTS For several years, I have been involved in research on the management of learning resources in the Nigerian school system. This has helped me in blending theory with practice in the understanding of the utilization of resources for learning achievement. In this endeavour, three studies were carried out. (a) UNESCO STUDY

The UNESCO research involved the training of head teachers and their assistants in data management and the utilization of staff and other resources available to them. Essentially the head teachers were to acquire skills in recording of statistics on the resources available. This involved training on records management, on enrolment, teacher supervision, facilities and their state of use. This research was intended to achieve two purposes: (1) to enhance the retrieval of accurate records of student enrolment and other resources available, and (2) to enable the government have accurate record for budgeting. Fagbulu, Nwagwu, Ehiametalor, Arubayi and Ajayi (1990) developed a training manual on the approaches to data management in schools. The training was essentially to lead to the collection of accurate and reliable enrolment figures in the school systems across the country. Stupendously, the entry behavioural test found that most of the schools practically had no records on the things they did in the schools. As a result, the training assumed that the head teachers knew nothing about school records and our responsibility was to teach them how such records should be kept, and managed. The team soon discovered that geographical location, ethnicity and politics influenced the trainees' interpretation and perception of the training. This essentially affected the end result, producing an unintended end result. The first attempt to collect data after the training yielded a very frustrating result. Most of the head teachers thought that the exercise was intended to determine the amount of money to allocate to the schools. Enrolment figures were outrageously cooked up and unsupported by the actual number of students in the schools.


A casual verification of the enrolment figures supplied to the project office was at every point at variance with the records kept by the schools. Even after the training, there were still no proper records kept by the schools. Much of the enrolment figures provided were political figures. It was not unlikely that two sets of figures or records were available in the schools, one for their local use and the other for the Federal Government use. In this situation, planning for programme implementation as asserted by Ehiametalor (1984) becomes a matter of trial and error. The 1976 UPE programme rocked the waves, and failed before it started, because the available data were inaccurate. Every other plan to right the system was wrong. The present problems of the UPE could have been avoided if everyone connected with the administration of education in the country did not have different and selfish perception of the intention of government. WORLD BANK PROJECT It would appear that UNESCO, UNICEF and the World Bank work together or perhaps in conflicting roles. The World Bank Project was a nationwide study. Ehiametalor was appointed as the chief research officer for Edo State between 1997 and 1998. The research was designed to study the "Cost, Training and Management of Primary Education". This project was a little different from the previous projects conducted by UNESCO and UNICEF. Significantly, the project took root from the National Policy on Education, which stipulated the goals of primary education in Nigeria. The study was therefore intended to determine the state of implementation of the policy at the school building level. The study sought answers to the questions on the importance of funding on the development of children, in terms of performance, progression and attrition rates, quantity and quality of staff, rate of utilization and the availability of instructional and non-instructional materials. In the selection of the schools, local governments were used as the basis of clusterisation. This ensured that every local government was represented in the sample. Two schools were to be selected from each local government. Only schools funded through the State Primary Education Board or SPEB (that is, public schools) were in the sample. The 18 local government areas in the State were therefore represented. Three research instruments were designed for the study: 1. 2. 3. Questionnaire for the primary school heads Questionnaire for local government education secretaries, and Questionnaire for the State Primary Education Board.


RESULTS Enrolment for 1994 - 1998 showed some level of inconsistency. There was 6.5 percent or (32,173) increase in enrolment in 1995 over the 1994 enrolment. However, the public primary school system suffered a setback because about 12.9 percent or 68,728 pupils failed to turn up in the public school during the 1996/97 session. Strangely enough this great drop in enrolment could not be accounted for, whether this number of pupils was lost to the private school system or parents withdrew their pupils because of their poor financial base. It was discovered that one of the great problems of the school system was underachievement and high wastage rate. For example, in 1997, 3,236 pupils failed to move from their various classes-. That means they were not promoted to their next classes. It was also observed that in 1995, 2.6 percent failed out of the system, 1.3 percent in 1996 and 6.9 percent in 1997. The primary six or First School Leaving Certificate examination is perhaps credentially useful as a measurement of achievement of the pupil, in terms of what the pupils have learnt over the years. As a result, it was necessary to determine how well the pupils performed over a six year period. From 1990 - 1996, it was discovered that an average of 93% of the pupils passed the examination. It was observed that the number of pupils transiting to the secondary school in 1990 -1993 was on the average 89.75 percent. There was a remarkable improvement over the four year period from 1994 - 1996. On the average 96.7% of the pupils who passed the primary six examination went on to the secondary school. Interestingly, however, 78.5% of urban school pupils enrolled in the secondary school between 1990 - 93 while all the rural school pupils who were able to pass the primary six examination entered the secondary school. The study revealed further that all the teaching personnel in the primary schools had the Grade II teachers certificate. In fact, by the 1996/97 school year most of the teachers had the Nigeria certificate in Education and a few of the teachers had acquired the bachelors degree in education. The effectiveness of a teacher is perhaps, determined by several variables, availability of learning resources, attitude of the teacher himself, supervision of the teacher and above all, the number of students in his class. In this study, it was discovered that the ratio of teachers to students was very high, between an average of 1 :41 and 1 :75. Our study showed that a particular school, Ukpogo Primary School, Ogwa, had a teacher-pupil ratio of 1: 182. In the case of facilities and instructional materials, the researchers focused on the 1997 existing 1,007 primary schools in the state. It was discovered that there were 14,281 streams and only 10,030 classrooms were available; and out of these, 6,450 were in good condition. Only half of the pupils in the schools had furniture (writing desks and seats). The total number of furniture items required in the schools were 232,451. Inadequate facilities in the schools is underscored by the lack of offices for head teachers. Only 36.7 percent of the schools had offices for their head teachers, none had staff room or common room for teachers, and only 1.4 percent had science rooms.


The results further revealed that the major source of funds for the primary school was from the government. Funds that came from other sources was negligible. In 1998, the unit cost per pupil in the state was about W922. That means, it cost the state W922 to train a student in a year. This revealed that the number of students in each classroom was unbearably high. (b) UNICEF PROJECT 1

From 1990 to 1994 the UNESCO research on the basic education system in Nigeria occupied my work schedule. The research centered on the situation and policy analysis of basic education in Nigeria. Essentially, the study looked at the role of the community, the home, the school, the education, management and supervision of the schools, media participation in education, educational costs and financing and partnership in education. Although the study's premises were very large, it nevertheless covered the various aspects on resource utilization and the effort of society to support basic education. This was the era of universalisation of education for all. Like every other thing in the nation, collecting data on the situation of resources in the schools was daunting. Basic education covers schooling from the kindergarten to the primary school level and those adults learning to read and write for the first time. The basic assumption is that education of these groups of people would move the nation faster in the path of democratization and self reliance. The major document which influenced the study was the National Policy on Education. One aspect of the Policy stipulates that primary education is aimed at: a. the inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy, and the ability to communicate effectively; the laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society; character training and the development of sound attitudes; developing in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment; giving the child the opportunities for developing manipulative skills which will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his capability; providing tools for further educational development, including preparation for trades and craft of the locality (NPE, 1981).

b. c.

d. e. f.


The study was therefore designed to analyze the implementation of the Policy and assumes the supportive role of the various community agencies. 8

Results: The striking features of the results are: 1) Access to many elementary schools, especially in the rural areas, constituted of untarred roads and bush paths. Many pupils had to trek these roads to school. Many of the buildings where the children studied were in very bad shape. Some had blown-up roofs and dusty classrooms. It was discovered that more than 80% of the primary school pupils had no textbooks. Contrary to the requirement of the National Policy on Education, many of the schools had no facilities and manpower to implement the programme. While the policy required specialized skills to handle the various subjects areas, many of the schools did what they were used to: one teacher taught all the subjects. The education of the disabled received very little attention, as no special provisions were made for their learning. Most of the families studied had no learning materials for the children to write with at home. The only material that was readily available for the children to work with was sand, and any other materials that could cost money such as slates, chalk board, drawing book or black wall were hardly available. UNICEF PROJECT 2


3) 4)




As a follow-up to UNICEF project 1 in 1995/96, UNICEF took on another research which was intended to monitor the learning achievement of primary school pupils in Nigeria. In view of the inadequacies highlighted by project 1, the research was to find out what the children were learning in the primary schools. Achievement tests across the country were designed to cover competences in numeracy, literacy and life skills. The problem was to find out whether children were achieving as expected by the national policy document. The achievement tests were to be administered to pupils in primary five in the 1995/96 session. Also questionnaires were administered on teachers and the head teachers of the schools on the facilities available to the schools for enhancement of learning. The study took samples from both the public and private institutions in Edo State. This study seemed very important to my area of specialization because, in the first place, availability of resources and their utilization are paramount to school business administration. So the study provided an opportunity to find out what the schools have been provided with and how the resources were managed by the head teachers. Second, the study gave ardent protagonists of private institutions an opportunity to compare the products of the public and private educational institutions at the elementary level. One thing stands out here, though, the availability of resources and the utilization of such resources.


Thirty-two schools were deliberately selected on a scientific basis, proportionately representing public and private institutions. Assistants were recruited and trained on test administration and assigned to the schools. In order to avoid extraneous variables being introduced to the study, 24 primary IV pupils were selected for the study by systematic sampling technique. It was clear that the pupils in primary V and VI usually sought the assistance of outside tutors to prepare for various examinations in primary V and VI. The intention therefore was to find out what was taught in primary 1 - 4. In all, 748 pupils who had completed primary IV work were administered the test. Of this figure, 624 represented public schools and 124 private schools (see table).

Distribution of Sample Number Sex Sector Type Male Female Urban Rural Public Private 426 312 316 432 624 124 Percentage 57.0 41.7 42.2 57.8 83.4 16.6

RESULTS The literacy test was divided into five sub-tests. When all the schools were grouped together, the performance of Edo pupils was very low. Urban schools seemed to have done better than the rural schools. But a comparison of public and private schools showed that the poor performance in the literacy test in Edo state was as a result of the very poor performance of public schools, which had an average score of 27.6% and as against at of private schools which was 56.5%. In the numeracy test the performance of the pupils was poorer than the performance in the literacy test. Again the average scores from the 12 subtests for the public schools was 26.55%, while the private schools had 48.12%. The scores in the area of life skills showed that Edo State pupils performed poorly but were worst in the rural areas. However, the public school pupils scored an average of 27.16% while the private schools had 49.40%. The result revealed further that most of the pupils had no learning materials. Only 51.2%,32.2%,32.9% and 23% reported that they possessed learning materials in English, mathematics and Social Studies respectively. Less than 20% reported having learning materials in Reading, Writing and science. This was of great concern to the researchers because a large number of the pupils were really not learning. The only conclusion that one can arrive at is that the children only listen to the teachers of the subjects, and that was all.


The researchers were aware of the influence of the teachers in the learning process, so it was necessary to find out their attitude towards teaching. The very poor performance of the pupils can be traced to the perception of teachers about themselves. The result revealed that 82.9% of the teachers in the study felt discouraged because of the low regard the public give teachers, 68% indicated irregular salary, 54% complained of poor salary. Did the teachers have materials to do their work? The responses to this question revealed that 53.7%, 61%, 41% and 32% had English, Mathematics, Social Studies and Science textbooks respectively. These four subjects are the major areas of study in the primary school, yet many schools did not have the necessary materials for teachers. There is a connection between what the teachers teach and the knowledge of the pupils. The National Policy on Education requires that every primary school have special teaching rooms for art, science, music, home economics and library. It was discovered that 83.9% had none of these rooms. Only some private schools had some spaces demarcated for the learning of these subjects. In most of the schools, there were inadequate learning facilities. Most of the classes in the public schools were overcrowded. All the schools studied had no Home Economics equipment, no Games/Sporting equipment, and no Art and Craft equipment. THE MIXED GRILL Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Sir, permit me to put together my perception in retrospect, of the crisis in Education in our country, which I have dealt with in many of my publications. You will agree with me that there have been numerous problems and some have become endemic. In a lot of instances they have been treated superficially. As a result, the problems would not just go away. In perspective, we shall look at the problem of the three tiers of 'education primary, secondary and university, with regard to resource utilization. CRISIS AT THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVELS The National Policy on Education charted for us what appears as a glorious path to technological development. The elements of the curricula presented and developed were a beautiful work which should ultimately take the nation to the promised land. The expectations are high and could make any nation to develop within a few years. The curricula that emanated from the National Policy on Education require so much to meet goals desired, in terms of manpower, buildings, laboratories, equipment and materials. This means that a detailed analysis of what is to be taught? who is to teach it? how should it be taught?, and when should it be taught? are taken into careful planning. It is no doubt a metamorphic change and as a result, it requires a clean break from the past, and a carefully planned transition (Ehiametalor, 1984; Ehiametalor, 1990; Ehiametalor, 1985).


The problem of the elementary education level started in 1976 with the implementation of the National Policy on Education. The implementation of the policy was launched in 1976 and every person connected with the system was supposed to comply as directed, even though the needed facilities for the programme were not in place. The envisaged enrolment of primary one pupils was 2.3 million but three million showed up for registration. From day one there was accommodation problem. In the same vein, 60,000 teachers were immediately needed, instead of the 48,000 envisaged. The sheer number of deficit in resources created a crisis of sorts (Newswatch, 1988). Since some human beings in the name of teachers were needed to keep the pupils quiet in the classrooms which were non-existent, retired teachers and WASC failures had to be recruited and a year later, because of the tremendous increase in the number of pupils, the requirements for teachers rose to 193,750 and only 70,000 were trained. Ehiametalor (1998, 2000) states that imaginary figures were used in the projection for both pupil enrolment and staff recruitment. One could not expect anything different, like a dynamo, in terms of quality, every thing quickly collapsed. It is interesting to know that a projected budget for the programme which was implemented in 1976 was presented to government by the Ministry of Education in 1978 (Sofolahan, 1991). That is to say two years after the programme started. What this means is that there was no budget for the first two years of Universal Primary Education programme, yet there was funding for the programme. Actually in 1982, the products of the UPE had matured, if not in learning then in age and were ready to enter the Junior Secondary School. Many states of the Federation were not ready for them and had to continue with the old 6, 5, 2, 3 programme because of the enormity of the problems created by the new programme. As a result, only 30% of the products could enter the junior school. Obviously, the various states governments under the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) believed strongly in Awolowo's manifestoes which aimed at reducing: (a) ignorance (b) illiteracy, (c) disease - a good deal of this is perennial in Nigeria, (d) calorie deficiency, (e) dependence on subsistence agriculture and excessive and widespread unemployment of rural population, (f) deficiency in technology, capital and technical and managerial knowhow. It was imperative that it succeeds (Awo, 1979). . Essentially, education at the elementary level is a necessary step to the preparation of the Nigerian child to understand himself. Even in 1979, when the civil government came into being, nothing significant was planned in the States for the implementation of the National Policy on Education. As a result, the 1982 take-off date for the junior school was a mirage and a calculated applause to failure. In the first place, there was a well planned curriculum. But, were there classrooms, equipment and materials necessary for efficient and effective learning? Besides, were there manpower to provide the learning environment in the schools?


The problems became acute, because the 1982, projected intakes into junior secondary schools of 70% from the products of the primary schools would have no classrooms and the necessary resources for learning. If the previous experience of the primary school was anything to go by, there was bound to be some frightening problems when the products actually get to the junior school system. To underscore the acute shortage of teachers in the secondary schools, Okeke (1989) studied the implementation of the National Policy on Education in Anambra State in relation to the provision of human resources for adequate learning in the core vocational subjects. The result of the study showed that the State was not implementing the programme to achieve the desired result. Table 2: Status of the Pre-Vocational Subjects: Teacher Requirements 1985/86 in Anambra State No. of Schools Offering Subject 362 362 341 29 175 No. of Teachers Teaching Subject 642 445 485 19 291 No. Qualified to teach % Qualified


Integrated Science Introductory Technology Business Studies Local Crafts Home Economics

42 13 16 256

6.5 0 2.7 84.2 87.9

From the figures above none of the secondary schools in the State had qualified teachers in Introductory Technology. Only 6.5 and 2.7 percent were qualified to teach Integrated Science and Business Studies. Interestingly, the core vocational subjects were being taught by teachers who had no qualification, experience or training in the area. What knowledge can an unqualified teacher impart on students who are just beginning to develop their academic potentials? In their early years, are the students not already being misguided? Are the students likely to develop interest in the subjects? This was the beginning of the problem, the unqualified teaching staff invariably taught something. From the study, we can conclude that what the teachers have taught cannot be certain, but definitely no useful knowledge may be transferable for further development. In other words, there was no proper grounding in the subject area. MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT As far as we are concerned, the successes of the numerous confer~nces, white papers, and curriculum planning meetings were only to be judged by the implementation of the new system. In order to be seen to have done something, many States including Bendel State, decided t9 establish more schools and simultaneously train more teachers. The Baguda Seminar report (1980) indicated that Nigeria would need 369,000 teachers in 1982. In the area of vocational education alone Ehiametalor (1985) projected that more than 21,000 teachers would be required. This brought about the second stage of crash programmes. Actually, 13

the intention was to rush potential teachers through the teacher training colleges. In this direction several problems were encountered: the available potential teacher entrants with the required qualification were few and would not be enough to feed the schools. As a result, the entry qualification into the NCE Teacher Training programmes was lowered to three credit passes in the school certificate examination and later to two credits and a pass. Some decided to run remedial programmes for the unqualified candidates for one year before enrolling in the NCE programme (Ehiametalor, 1992, 1997). The end result is that many of the women who had abandoned education to sell pepper and salt in the market enrolled in the teacher training colleges, to the detriment of the system. Those who were already Grade II teachers went on to a one-year pivotal programme, to enable them teach in the Junior Secondary School. In one account, I had argued that training of teachers cannot be crashed, because anything crashed is not good enough for any nation whose quest is to develop (Ehiametalor, 1984). A teacher who graduated from a crashed programme can only develop crash products. A crash programme of training cuts off some robustness, instead the products become lean because of improper nurturing. Ehiametalor (1983) and Sartin et al (1967) support the principle of teacher accountability in student learning through continuous assessment of change in cognitive, psychomotor and affective behaviours. It takes time to develop this awareness in teachers. A crash programme loses some of the essential elements of this principle. This gave the subtitle of this section, the mixed grill. In essence, when orange, apple, pineapple, guava and lime are mixed together, none of the fruits can claim dominance in taste, and for lack of a better name it is called "Five Alive", because there is no distinctive taste of a particular fruit so a mixed grill. When the performance of the pupils in the UNESCO, UNICEF and World Bank Projects are viewed from this background, no one will be surprised. There are lots of other elements that may have affected the performance of pupils: the teacher quality had a great deal of influence on the students' performances as well as the children's background. BUILDINGS, EQUIPMENT AND MA TERIALS In the area of infrastructure and materials needed for effective teaching, one can make bold to say the obvious, that these items have been provided in inadequate quantity and quality, Ehiametalor (1990, 1993, 1998, 2000). Findings in Edo State clearly presented a clear picture. Some of my students have also worked in this area and their findings were not different from mine. . In Ogun State, Ajayi (1986) carried out a study to determine the availability of infrastructures in primary schools and compared it with what was required. His findings showed that the teachers, classrooms and teaching equipment for science, arts, vocational subjects were not adequate in number and in quality. In a similar study of secondary Schools in Edo State, Utulu (1993) and Ehiametalor and Utulu (1996) set out to determine the situation of resources in the schools. They discovered that the percentage of schools with inadequate teaching staff (that is to cover the subjects as required by 14

the National Policy on Education) was 93.5 percent and only 6.5 percent of schools had adequate numbers of teachers. Utulu also discovered that on the average 62.2 percent had chemistry, physics, biology and introductory technology laboratories and libraries. Also, only 17.4 percent of the schools had adequate desks and seats. All the schools studied offered these subjects leading to the school certificate examination. Almost fifteen years after Utulu's, Ehiametalor's, and Ajayi's studies, Oyeka (2001) in a recent research study discovered that the facilities and funding of secondary schools in Edo state have worsened from what they used to be. The findings of these studies should cause a great deal of concern because they are not theoretical problem solving researches, but situational analysis studies, dealing with current situations. From these studies, it has become obvious that the school system in Edo State lacked adequate resources (human, material and infrastructural) to achieve the goals of quality education required for national development. Notwithstanding the difficulty faced by the school system, the state government has converted teachers to civil service appointments. The new status of teachers allows the government to retire them whenever civil servants are retired or retrenched. Many teachers who are at the prime of their profession are retired without replacement. This invariably denies the State of quality teachers to carry the students comfortably through their classes. It is a truism that the older a teacher becomes, the wealthier in knowledge and experience and of course the more valuable to the system he becomes. Developed countries (like the United States of America) are concerned about the number of students in a classroom. Hence, during the Clinton Presidency, reducing the number of students to about 20 to a teacher became a political issue. This led to the recruitment of about 100,000 new teachers for the public school system funded directly by the Federal Government. In the case of Nigeria, class sizes have continually increased. It is not unusual to find classes with 70 or more students. Can we achieve technological development without quality education? Can we all go to America and Britain to enjoy the good life and leave our country in hardship? The answer is No! America is only interested in individuals who can develop that country to maximize the satisfaction of the good life and not those who can destroy it. There is no basis for comparing American schools with Nigerian ones, but our nation does not have 200 years to catch up. Whether Nigeria likes it or not, it has to develop to utilize the Global System of Communication. It has to develop its manpower to sustain the system and the technological equipment and gadgets being dumped on us. If Nigeria fails to develop its education, even with its abundant mineral wealth God has endowed her, she will end up a market nation for the goods produced in other countries. CRISIS A T UNIVERSITY LEVEL Let me come back home. I have been in the university system fo~ over twodecades. I can claim to know the system fairly well and I also have done some work in the area.


"The University is the highest level of schooling. Its natural characteristics set it apart uniquely from any other institution in the world" (Ehiametalor, 1999a: 20). Brickel (1975: 3) described universities as: places where professionals of many disciplines can follow lines of inquiry determined by themselves, individually and collegially, and not dictated by anyone else, on either ideological or practical grounds. ... only in a University can inquiry and teaching constitute creative whole, so that knowledge and insight of the scholar and the methods by which he gained them are shared with students, so that students may be the scholar's company, nourishing him, giving as well as taking in. At the beginning of university education in Nigeria, this was the accepted concept; hence the "ivory tower" concept. The University was viewed at as a tower on a hill looking down on the city state and providing directions to shape attitudes toward development. The University was seen as a place of lecturing and research. Its responsibility and interaction were with the students, and their books. Society reaches the ivory tower through the latter's service to the community which, by and large, was one of its responsibilities to society. So many things happened to affect the original aims of the university as a transforming agent. The founders of the university system thought of development of technology, not necessarily transfer, because what is transferred is not your own. Hence Ehiametalor (1982) said that Nigeria was waiting for technology to be transferred to her. To quote Fafunwa, the countries of Asia (Japan, Korea, India and China) did not wait for technology to suit their own cultures, environments and needs. The first thing these countries did was to strengthen their educational system from primary to university levels because whatever affects the primary school system affects the entire education system. In practically everything for living, Nigeria depended on other countries of the world to meet such needs. Instead of strengthening the nation's educational system, Nigeria finds a way to depend on other countries even in areas where comparative advantage is on her side. In 1976, because of the urgent need to fill middle manpower positions in technology, 105,000 technicians were needed to fill vacancies. Before 1980, out of panic the Federal Government with its oil money sent a majority of people with some training in technical education to many American Universities. That project from every indication did not train more than 16,000 individuals to fill vacancies that existed in 1976, (Ehiametalor, 1982). Instead of signing an Agreement with U.S.A.I.D. (United States of America International Development) to spend dollars in America, perhaps spending dollars in Nigeria to strengthen home Universities would have had a multiplying effect. Ukeje and Ehiametalor (1998), Ehiametalor (1999) spent some time in analyzing the crisis in Nigerian education. Some of the problems they highlighted are discussed below. They are problems that cannot go away like magic (see Crisis in Nigerian Education).


STAFFING FACTOR It is true that there is a National Policy on Education in Nigeria. This Policy raised the aspiration of the nation to achieve technological development through quality education. What we understand from the Policy is that the products of the school system will be fed into the University system to be produced properly to meet the needs of society. Unfortunately, there was no deliberate policy on university education as a priority sector for the development of technology. It was said, however, that science and technology related areas should admit 60 percent of all applicants to the system. The aspects of staffing and funding were neglected (Ehiametalor et ai, 1992). A university that was originally built to admit 10,000 students at full maturity now admits over 20,000 full-time and about the same number on part-time programmes. One interesting aspect is that the full-time lecturers also teach in the part-time programmes (Ehiametalor, 1999: 30). This means the full-time lecturers have to share themselves thinly between the two programmes, or either fully service one to the neglect of the other. Although more staff than usual were needed to meet the requirement of various faculties, such individuals were nowhere to be located and recruited. Potential candidates in the first class and second class upper divisions were no longer available to the university because of the abysmally poor take-home salary and inability to compete for the essential commodity in the market place. Such candidates had to choose between working in the university, going abroad or taking up a job in the oil companies which compete with the universities for the academic achievers. Ukeje and Ehiametalor (1998: 17) supported the above statement that Nigeria has been able to produce world renowned scholars but she has not been able to retain most of them due to lack of adequate facilities and incentives. FUND FACTOR Education is a productive resource (future capital) put away for future use. Any money spent on it is an investment in a wealth-creating venture whose magnitude or multiplying effect cannot easily be quantified. As a result, the whole spectrum of education from the primary school to the university is capital intensive. This is human capital being developed for the production of capital goods and services (Ehiametalor, (1989). The more money invested in it, the more return it yields. For example, the dynamism of western education and the ability to sustain their economies is deeply rooted in the willingness of the government to commit huge financial resources to it. The University is the center of excellence, as long as resources are provided to enable the system operate at a level comparable to the universities in the West. The university is an international institution and it is no culture bound and has or should have no culture barriers. In order for the University system to adequately perform its task of nation building, a funding formular was carefully spelt out by the National Universities Commission (Ehiametalor, (1999). 17

The student-teacher ratio was the basis of funds allocation to the university. The criterion of student-teacher ratio considered the intensity of training. In budget planning at the University, the following criteria were always used: (a) Arts 20:1, education 20:1, Admin. 20:~, Law 20:1, Social Sciences 20:1, Sciences 10: 1, Environmental Sciences 10: 1, Agriculture ,9:1 , Engineering 9:1, Medicine 6:1, Veterinary Medicine 6:,1, Dentistry 6:1,. In addition to the above, other criteria were used for determining budgetary requirement. (b) i. Non-Teachinq Staff in Academic Departments One Senior Administrative Staff to 12 Teachers One Senior Technical Staff to 4 Teachers in Science Departments One Senior Technical Staff to 20 Teachers in Arts Departments One Junior Technical Staff to 2 Teachers in Science Departments Two Junior Non-Technical Staff to 3 Teachers in any Discipline

(b) ii. In Non-Teachinq Units One Senior Administrative Staff to 10 Teachers One Senior Technical Staff to 10 Teachers One Junior Technical Staff to 6 Teachers One Junior Non-Technical Staff to 1 Teacher (This means seven Junior Staff to six lecturers) In the past, some universities had used the above criteria in the recruitment of staff. While it was easy to find junior and senior accountants to be employed to meet the NUC criteria, it was difficult to find academic staff in the right quality and quantity. Definitely the above criteria for both academic and non-academic staff would under normal conditions bring in more money to the university and provide more employment to more people. Although Budget usually follows the criteria above, funding does not always follow it. The criteria always give a bloated budget based on what ought to be. If one were to use (a) and (b)i as the basis of budgeting for a science faculty with about 100 lecturers, the number of non-academic staff would be 78. This shows that the number of staff to support those actually doing the work is about 75 percent. In the university as a whole, for every 6 lecturers, seven junior staff will be engaged and for every 10 lecturers 4 senior staff. Any university that operates on this formula/criterion will perennially be under-funded. Actually if the university were to use the NUC formular, it would be impossible to fund its activities. When one carefully looks at it, all the money provided will be for salaries alone. The university has always been under-funded because the allocation of funds is usually based on what the Government can afford and not necessarily what the university requires to meet its needs. A case study of the University of Benin carried out recently by Osagie (2000) painted a vivid picture of the scenario. In the report, she pointed out that the University requested for its funding needs in relation to the formula provided by the National Universities Commission, earlier enumerated, and this gave a total sum of N685,224,11.2 for the year 1996/97, but surprisingly, even after budget defence at Abuja and the cogency of the request was established, 18

the government approved only N362,364,124 or about 53 percent. In the same report, it was. shown that 83.4 percent of the recurrent expenditure is spent on salaries and 16.6 percent goes for other resources. Based on the NUC criteria, the required number of academic staff for 1996/97 in all the Faculties was 1,608 but only 769 or 48% were available. Ukeje and Ehiametalor (1999: 13 - 17) noted that universities are so poorly funded that lecturers are currently unproductive in their areas of specialization because of the lack of materials. And they said: It is, for instance, known that scientific knowledge doubles every seven years. Actually, in this regard the blame is not so much on the scholars but more on the non-access to journals that contain the new developments or technology. Job characteristics, all the world over, are changing very rapidly; thus it is necessary to give the students an education that will fit them for the different world of tomorrow in which they will live. Teachers and lecturers need to keep up-todate in their knowledge and expertise in order to deal effectively with the changing situation. In the same report, they noted that the poor salaries paid to teachers do not encourage them to stay in Nigeria and produce result. A serious academically-minded professor needs a salary that will make him leave other chores of life to those who can do them better than himself, satisfying his family needs, while he concentrates on his research to meet the needs of the larger society in terms of improved living conditions. The end results of the poor funding of education in general are as follows: (a) The society gains by having poorly educated school teachers who taught little of what they know to their pupils. The teachers, knowing the limitation of their pupil's knowledge, help the children to cheat in examinations. As a result, a student may have passed the school certificate examination not with his efforts. Such students get placement in the university with the intention to cheat out and many have successfully done that through the assistance of their lecturers who either are "blocked" or sell grades for a reward. Both the academic and the nonacademic staff have in one way or the other aided the deterioration of standards. Many students have come in with false credentials through the connivance of both groups. The cheating by staff is an attempt to make more money to live the better life. The poorly educated individuals are already showing up in industry and government service. Can you imagine that a lot of lecturers are being accused of involvement in fraudulent practices. It is unusual to know that some examination bodies send out results to candidates on subjects they never sat for. Some misguided persons sell certificates to those who did not sit for any examinations. The lecturer feels that there is nothing dignifying without money. The dignity and envy of the ivory tower have been thrown to the dogs. Standard textbooks are no



longer recommended by lecturers for use. Instead such textbooks are hidden from students and handouts are culled from them for sale at exorbitant rates. Reputable publishers have refused to publish books for use in the university for the reason that their investment on such books will be lost, because most lecturers no longer recommend books by other authors for use in their classes, except the ones they wrote which are neither ref~rred by their peers not published by reputable publishers. It has also become a dictum that the lecturer enjoys the two worlds, extort money from students for plagiarized materials and at the same time get promotion with such materials. It does appear that a genuinely academic-minded lecturer is agreeable that teaching in the university should be rescued. Nwadiani (1999) captured the essence when he said that the sale of examination grades (particularly in state and younger universities) tend to make university education meaningless. Because of this ugly development, hard work and scholarship are relegated. The quality of students' grades depends on how much they offer to those in charge, either in cash or in kind, sometimes both. Examination malpractice in sophisticated manners is widespread in the nation's higher educational institutions. The saddening part of the wastage syndrome is that parents are now involved in "blocking" for their children. Several examination misconduct cases have shown that parents, in their deep desire to get their wards to have a university degree, were usually willing to pay for the fixing of grades for their children. The society blame the university for selling handouts and other materials, but parents usually encourage their children to do whatever is possible to pass. Do parents not hire dummy candidates to sit for school certificate and JAMB examinations for their children? Even at the university examination, dummy candidates are now a threat to quality: boyfriends writing examinations for their girlfriends, paid agents writing for a reward and so forth. RECOMMENDATIONS The brain-drain phenomenon has led to the employment of those individuals who are not able to contribute to the realization of the goals of the university. The assumption of many individuals is that the University must be sufficient in lecturers, registrars, clerks, electricians, horticulturists, engineers, architects, secretaries, messengers, cleaners, cooks, drivers and so forth. Even when such individuals become redundant, no Vice-Chancellor can terminate their appointments. The great problem for the Vice-Chancellors, no matter how well they want to do their job, is that there are pressures from their political lineage and self-interest seekers. The result is that several Universities' administrations end up serving interests rather than judiciously demanding accountability from heads of department. This is the crisis in the university system. Research has shown that there are lots of wastages, such as in the retaining of a driver who can no longer drive, a chef who can no longer cook, a gardener who cannot cut grass anymore, and even a lecturer who can no longer teach. These form a conduit pipe draining the resources of the university. 20

Mr. Vice-Chancellor, ladies and gentlemen, who loses in all this? The society does; you do; collectively all of us, because a majority of our children can no longer read or master skills because of inadequately prepared teachers and poor learning resources. Many people assume that the standard of education has fallen. Your opinion on this vexed issue depends on which side of the divide you belong. The 6-3-3-4 system of education was a deliberate attempt to achieve a standard, but it lacked the essential resources to make it work. In order to strengthen all levels of education, the teachers should be properly trained, and retrained on a continuous basis to meet the level of expectation required in the National Policy on Education for technological development. Nigerian teachers appear unproductive when at home here in Nigeria, but overseas, where they are given the necessary equipment, materials and incentives, they are superlatively superior to their counterparts. Something should be done to reengineer the system. It is highly recommended that all jobs should be re-evaluated and a determination made of the caliber of individuals needed for the positions. Job evaluation in terms of automation, whether in teaching or in administration, is important. Funding is one of the major problems of the university, and in fact, the entire education industry. Education being one of the social sectors, government has said repeatedly, that it cannot spend all the scarce resources to meet its needs, yet education is free at all levels. This is why the industry has not achieved beyond the present state. After all, without a good education, all the other social sectors may not exist at all. The more mediocre persons you have around, the more problems for the economy. As a result, Government should remove politics from education and face the reality. And the reality is, the Federal Government which gives all the funds to sustain the states and local governments cannot pay for education at all levels by itself. When education is free the society should pay the bill, not the government alone. Industries are already paying a certain percentage of their profits for education. What percentage of the wealth of the rich, with visible and invisible investments is contributed to education? In this direction, we recommend that Government should come up with a law to tax all landed properties, that property should be evaluated and taxed as education support tax. If someone has a house or some other landed property, he should be made to pay a certain amount yearly to the local government toward the support of education in his locality. If someone has a house worth more than one million naira, he should be taxed to support education in the locality. Of course, God fearing people should be made to collect the money. As a former director of academic planning for several years, I found many problems with the NUC funding formulae. The staff recruitment formula is unrealistic. For example, the University was expected to employ a staff strength of junior staff not more than 20 percent of the student population in a university. So a University with 20,000 students can employ up to 4000 junior workers. This is unbelievable. Since Universities are already in strain trying to meet their wage bills, it is reasonable to actually determine their needs in relation to what they can afford. As a 21

result, strict evaluation of the job an individual can perform within eight hours, or the duration of a day's work, should be determined. Universities are becoming autonomous and, eventually, funding will be affected, especially when some Union agreements require them to interact with their Councils. There is need for prudence in resources management. Careful internal allocation of funds to essential need a,reas and avoiding conflict will determine the success of the university administration. The university system should be open to the outside world, to enable linkage programmes to exist between universities. This can only happen when equipment and material for research work are made available to specialized areas. In fact, the secondary school system needs to be strengthened in terms of providing facilities (such as science and technology laboratories) to enhance learning through hands-on-technique. There is need to re-evaluate university education and the quality of instruction. Professor Galbraith (1977: 15) gave us an insight that Professors who were lazy or incompetent or merely dull and who are being deserted in droves by the students attributed their small classes to the importance of their subject and attendant rigour of their instruction. They argued that their courses should be made a requirement for this degree. This merely inferred that lecturers' appointments should be on the basis of ability to stimulate learning and add value to the student's growth. Guided registration of students into some specific courses supports Galbraith's argument. In Adam's Smith time, salaries were based on the number of students a professor can attract. This calls for lecturers evaluation by students in terms of competence and ability to motivate the lecturer. This discussion strongly gives credence to productivity- and not merely the number of years spent in the university as a lecturer. Students evaluation should be taken seriously and possibly as a criterion for lecturer's retention. This is the only way quality of education can be ensured. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ladies and Gentlemen, grant me a little moment to acknowledge individuals who have had great influence in my development and those who have followed it with keen interest. When I decided as a young man to follow the line of academics, it never occurred to me that I would need to spend much of my time in doing the work, sometimes, to the neglect of my responsibility as head of the family. There has been a unique personality who understood it all. This individual, even when I was not quite ready to be born again, she inspired me and made me to know that God is full of goodness. She is the pastor of our family, our mother, my confident, spiritual adviser, who prays for me everyday, a woman of great faith and wisdom, a beautiful lover of the things of God, and a lover of God's work, a woman who supports her husband, even to a fault, she is my dear wife Pastor Liz Ehiametalor.


Two of my biological children are here today with me, while the others are University abroad. I thank Jaye and Obehi for their love and support of the work God has entrusted to all of us in the family. And all my other children God gave me are present here today, may God bless you. I am grateful to my senior sister (Mrs. Okoeguale) who has been a mother to me, an instrument in God's hand. To my mother who nicknamed me, Aifobhokhan, I am glad as she predicted that I ani now a man, thank you mama. I wish to appreciate the kindness of Rev. Jerrel White who was my host-family while I attended Murray State University. His assistance to me in several ways, will remain indelible in my mind. Prof. Carl, my supervisor taught me that academics is a serious business and how to survive in it, that lesson I learnt very early and I survived. I am grateful to him. I remember late Prof. Ashedu Akrofi who was my mentor, a prolific and famous writer, a difficult and well groomed scholar. He inspired me to a great height. He had always told me that an academic is a complete person who must not be afraid to expand his theory of knowledge and therefore, he must "say his say". He made me to understand that what God has made, no gate of hell can prevail against it. Our Department (DEAF) has been a good breeding ground for academics. I am indebted to all my colleagues, especially, our fathers in the faculty, Professor N.A. Nwagwu and Professor J.A. Aghenta. I want to thank them for making the Department a conducive environment for the young ones to develop. I thank many of my superious in the Lord's Vineyard who are here today and our church members who have come here to support me. May God mightily bless you, in Jesus name. Amen. CONCLUSION Ladies and gentlemen, I have tried to give you a picture of my stewardship over the past few years. During this period, there were senior colleagues to emulate me because of their selfless effort at providing leadership to the young academics. Many of these senior colleagues produced their kind in us. Now, the question that must be asked is how many of the lecturers that would leave the scene in the next few years have mentored others in genuine academic values? Have you asked, "Who will take over my position when I retire?" One thing is certain, it is not possible for you to work in the university forever. This earnestly calls for rethinking on our part, to leave the system better than we met it. This is the only truth that can prevail. Nigeria will survive the period it will take to reach the Promised Land, but it will depend on us as we accelerate learning toward development.


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APPENDIX A SUBJECTS English Mathematics Social Studies Reading Writing Science All None PERCENTAGE 51.7 32.9 23.6 13.4 14.6 15.1 13.0 22.0

UNICEF PROJECT Possession of Learning Materials


Availability of Classrooms and Furniture in Schools in Edo State, 1994-1997

CLASSROOMS. YEAR CLASS No of Streams No Available No in Good No Needing New Rooms No Available 125,720 132,800 154,200 232,600 Pupils No

FURNITURE Teachers No Available 1,380 1 ,495 2,180 2,500 No Required 9,086 8,875 8,142 7,883

Condition Renovation Required 1994 1995 1996 1997 1-6 1-6 1-6 1-6 14,251 15,251 14,257 14,281 10,030 10,250 10,400 10,688 6,450 6,500 6,811 6,921 3,780 3,750 3,589 3,767 4,021 4,001 3,857 3,561

Required 373,078 398,171 308,045 232,451


General Performance on Subtests



T2 28.3603 30.4948 33.8306 26.0254 25.4505 48.8092

T3 28.9114 31 .4840 35.6692 25.8010 25.4431 52.7502

T4 35.6397 36.2821 42.1303 31.5336 29.8798 66.8347

T5 32.3553 32.6391 33.6391 31.9445 28.7662 51.3440

33.9984 35.5059 40.2423 30.6973 28.9089 64.0224





General Performance on subtests

MEAN SCORE T1 SEX Male Female SECTOR Urban Rural TYPE Public Private 33.9302 34.6502 37.4535 31.8076 30.0936 54.6542 T2 26.3854 26.5709 30.4285 23.5369 23.3119 42.1335 T3 39.2665 39.4155 45.1234 35.0220 34.6534 62.4 732 T4 28.5096 28.8754 31.8715 26.2749 25.2243 45.6957 T5 33.7913 33.1431 37.9578 31.6618 30.3268 54.2714 T6 28.4030 29.9935 33.1834 26.0263 25.1840 48.3682 T7 26.7196 27.0558 30.9556 23.8281 23.6254 42.9126 T8 39.5047 36.1371 41.4826 35.6977 33.3601 62.0000 T9 25.6722 23.8474 26.3354 23.7947 22.2911 37.7198 T10 32.0380 32.7961 36.6744 29.1197 28.4333 51.6940 T11 29.1211 29.5764 32.1650 27.2126 25.8994 46.3065 T12 26.0490 24.8907 28.3489 23.4783 22.4972 40.7123


General Performance on Subtests

MEAN SCORE T1 SEX Male Female SECTOR Urban Rural TYPE Public Private 35.2936 35.6903 40.2202 31.8111 30.5514 59.5763 T2 27.8828 28.6154 31.6964 25.4717 25.1039 43.2286 T3 29.8923 29.8787 34.0064 26.6497 26.4203 46.6188 T4 30.1210 31.1049 34.3206 27.6222 26.7308 49.1842 T5 32.4270 32.6456 36.9433 29.1733 27.7522 56.1016 T6 30.7648 31.9272 34.7062 28.6050 27.8710 47.8586





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