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XIV.

2 . . . , . . . . . . . 19 . . . 473

XIV.

. () . . . . . . . 1960 . . . . . . . .

474

40.

. ? , , . ? , , . ?

() . () 4 . 4 , , , . . 4 40.1 . 4 . 4 , , , . () 4 () . 475

40.1 (, BC 493-403)

XIV.

4 . 480 420 . 40.2 . . atom . 4 18 40.3 . () 1803 . . .

40.3 (, 1766-1844) 40.2 (, BC 460-370)

. 19 . () . , 20 . 476

40.

. , . . . . . . . 2 1 . . 1950 . . . . . . . . . .

477

XIV.

. . . () () . . ? . . . ! . . atom . . , () . . elementary particle . . 27 . 40.4 . . 478

40.

40.4

.

() . . .

. . , , . ? . . .

479

XIV.

. . ? () . . . . () 1930 1950 . . 1937 . 120 MeV 10 - 6 . , , . , . . . , . 3 .

480

40.

. . . 40.5 . . . 0 . . . 120 MeV . 106 MeV . . . 30 . 30 . . , , , , , , . () () .

40.5 (, 1907-1981) 1949

481

XIV.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 1949 . 1949 2 . . . ( ) . 1930 . 1960 . . . . , . 482

40.

40.1 , , K K D D

0

0

1

0 0 0.511 105.66 1784.2

0 0 -1 -1 -1

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2

±

139.6 135.0 548.8 493.7 497.7 1869.4 1864.7

±

0 0 +1 0 +1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

938.3 939.6 1115.6 1189.4 1192.5 1197.3 1314.9 1321.3 1672.5

+1 0 0 +1 0 -1 0 -1 -1

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 3/2

. 40.1 . . . , 483

XIV.

0 . , . . 40.1 , . . . 40.1 , , . . . . ? . , , . . ?

484

41.

. ? 6 . ? . .

, , , 3 . . . 19 . . , , . , . . . 485

XIV.

. . 30 . . 40 40.1 . . +1 0 . . +1, 0, -1 . . . . 1 40.1 +1 , 40.1 0 , 40.1 -1 . . 40.1 . . , . . +1 486

41.

-1 . 0 . . , . . . . . 1947 () , . 41.1 . .

41.1

487

XIV.

. 41.1 . . 0 .

.

. . . . . . . . 41.1 , , 41.1 . 41.1 . . . . , . 1953 . strangeness . 488

41.

. , 41.1

(41.1)

(41.2)

. S 0 S -1 K S +1 . (41.1) 0 (41.2) 0 -1 . , -1 -2 . . . ()

(41.3)

. hyper-charge .

(41.4)

489

XIV.

38.2

B

0 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1

S

0 0 +1 +1 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2

Y

0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 -1 -1

Iz

+1 0 +1/2 -1/2 +1/2 -1/2 0 +1 0 +1/2 -1/2

Q

+1 0 +1 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 -1

. 40.1 . . . . . , . 41.2 . 41.2 . 41.2 6 . ,

41.2

490

41.

. . . . 41.3 . 41.2 . . . . . . . , . 1962 41.4 -1 -3 . . . . 1964 3

41.4 (, 1929- ) 1969 41.3

491

XIV.

41.1 6 41.2 6 . . . , . . . . , up , down , strange . . . up down 0

. up down .

. strange -1 . . up , 0. . 3 2 . , up 2 down 1, up 1 down 2 . -1 strange 1 . down 2 strange 1, down up strange 1 up 2 strange 1 . 41.2 6 1 . 492

41.

1960 . . . . . . . . . up , down , strange 1964 4 . 3 . , 41.5 41.6 charm . , . 493

41.5 () 41.5 (, 1932- ) 1979

XIV.

. . . . . . . 41.6 6 6 . . . 12 . 24 . 41.6 , up(u), down(d), charm(c), strange(s), top(t), bottom(b) . u, c, t d, s, b

. (u, d), (c, s), (t, b)

41.6

. family . u, d, c, s, t, b . flavor . . (e) ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ), 494

41.

( ) . e

, , .

41.6 . (u, d) ( , e) (c, s) ( ) (t, b) ( ) . . . color . . . . . red(r), green(g), blue(b) . . u red green blue . . . . (u, u, d) (u, d, d) . . u d 0 s -1. 0 s -1 s , -2 s . 3 . . u red green d blue . . . 495

XIV.

. . . . . . . . . . hadron . . . K 0 . . . 41.2 41.3 6 . () . . . 0 . .

496

41.

. . . . . . 0 . . . 41.6 , . . , . . . . . . . .

497

XIV.

. . . () 41.6 . . 0 . . . 41.6 g . 0 . 0 . , , . 1983 . , . . . . , . .

498

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