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Copyright © 2006 by National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES®) "NYSTCE®," "New York State Teacher Certification ExaminationsTM," and the "NYSTCE®" logo are trademarks of the New York State Education Department and National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES®). "NES®" and its logo are registered trademarks of National Evaluation Systems, Inc.TM

PREPARATION GUIDE Liberal Arts and Sciences Test (LAST) (01)

Table of Contents

1 ....................................................................................................................... Introduction 2 ........................................................................General Information about the NYSTCE 4 ....................................................................................................... Test-Taking Strategies 6 .......................................................... About the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test (LAST) 7 ..................................................................... Liberal Arts and Sciences Test Objectives 16 .................................................................................................Multiple-Choice Section 17 ............................................ Sample Test Directions for Multiple-Choice Questions 18 ........... Sample Multiple-Choice Questions, Correct Responses, and Explanations 57 .......................................................................................... Written Assignment Section 58 .................................................. Sample Test Directions for the Written Assignment 59 .......................................................................................... Sample Written Assignment 60 ............................................. Stronger Response to the Sample Written Assignment 62 ............................................................................Evaluation of the Stronger Response 64 ...............................................Weaker Response to the Sample Written Assignment 66 ............................................................................. Evaluation of the Weaker Response 68 ......................................................... Performance Characteristics and Scoring Scale

The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs, services, and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print, or audiotape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department's Office for Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.

INTRODUCTION

Purpose of This Preparation Guide

This preparation guide is designed to help familiarize candidates with the content and format of a test for the New York State Teacher Certification Examinations (NYSTCE®) program. Education faculty and administrators at teacher preparation institutions may also find the information in this guide useful as they discuss the test with candidates. The knowledge and skills assessed by the test are acquired throughout the academic career of a candidate. A primary means of preparing for the test is the collegiate preparation of the candidate. This preparation guide illustrates some of the types of questions that appear on a test; however, the set of sample questions provided in this preparation guide does not necessarily define the content or difficulty of an entire actual test. All test components (e.g., directions, question content and formats) may differ from those presented here. The NYSTCE program is subject to change at the sole discretion of the New York State Education Department.

Organization of This Preparation Guide

Contained in the beginning sections of this preparation guide are general information about the NYSTCE program and how the tests were developed, a description of the organization of test content, and strategies for taking the test. Following these general information sections, specific information about the test described in this guide is presented. The test objectives appear on the pages following the test-specific overview. The objectives define the content of the test. Next, information about the multiple-choice section of the test is presented, including sample test directions. Sample multiple-choice questions are also presented, with the correct responses indicated and explanations of why the responses are correct. Following the sample multiple-choice questions, a description of the written assignment section of the test is provided, including sample directions. A sample written assignment is presented next, followed by an example of a stronger response to the assignment and an evaluation of that response. Finally, an example of a weaker response to the assignment is given, followed by an evaluation of that response.

For Further Information

If you have questions after reading this preparation guide, you may wish to consult the NYSTCE Registration Bulletin. You can view or print the registration bulletin online at www.nystce.nesinc.com.

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GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE NYSTCE

How Were the NYSTCE Tests Developed?

The New York State Teacher Certification Examinations are criterion referenced and objective based. A criterion-referenced test is designed to measure a candidate's knowledge and skills in relation to an established standard rather than in relation to the performance of other candidates. The explicit purpose of these tests is to help identify for certification those candidates who have demonstrated the appropriate level of knowledge and skills that are important for performing the responsibilities of a teacher in New York State public schools. Each test is designed to measure areas of knowledge called subareas. Within each subarea, statements of important knowledge and skills, called objectives, define the content of the test. The test objectives were developed for the New York State Teacher Certification Examinations in conjunction with committees of New York State educators. Test questions matched to the objectives were developed using, in part, textbooks; New York State learning standards and curriculum guides; teacher education curricula; and certification standards. The test questions were developed in consultation with committees of New York State teachers, teacher educators, and other content and assessment specialists. An individual's performance on a test is evaluated against an established standard. The passing score for each test is established by the New York State Commissioner of Education based on the professional judgments and recommendations of New York State teachers. Examinees who do not pass a test may retake it at any of the subsequently scheduled test administrations.

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Organization of Content

The content covered by each test is organized into subareas. These subareas define the major content domains of the test. Subareas typically consist of several objectives. Objectives provide specific information about the knowledge and skills that are assessed by the test. Each objective is elaborated on by focus statements. The focus statements provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the tests. Test questions are designed to measure specific test objectives. The number of objectives within a given subarea generally determines the number of questions that will address the content of that subarea on the test. In other words, the subareas that consist of more objectives will receive more emphasis on the test and contribute more to a candidate's test score than the subareas that consist of fewer objectives. The following example, taken from the field of Social Studies, illustrates the relationship of test questions to subareas, objectives, and focus statements.

SOCIAL STUDIES (05) SUBAREA I--HISTORY 0003 Understand the major political, social, economic, scientific, and cultural developments and turning points that shaped the course of world history from 1500 through 1850. analyzing the roles, contributions, and diverse perspectives of individuals and groups involved in independence struggles in Latin America Which of the following was an important goal of nineteenth-century Latin American liberals? A. establishing governments based on the separation of church and state B. reducing the influence of competitive individualism in social and economic life C. creating strong centralized governments D. making plantation agriculture the foundation of economic development Each multiple-choice question is designed to measure one of the test objectives. The focus statements provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the test for questions measuring the objective. The objectives define the knowledge and skills that New York State teachers and teacher educators have determined to be important for teachers to possess. The field is divided into major content subareas. The number of objectives in each subarea may vary, depending on the breadth of content contained within it. This is the name and field number of the test.

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TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES

Be On Time.

Arrive at the test center on time so that you are rested and ready to begin the test when instructed to do so.

Follow Directions.

At the beginning of the test session and throughout the test, follow all directions carefully. This includes the oral directions that will be read by the test administrators and any written directions in the test booklet. The test booklet will contain general directions for the test as a whole and specific directions for individual test questions or groups of test questions. If you do not understand something about the directions, do not hesitate to raise your hand and ask your test administrator.

Pace Yourself.

The test schedule is designed to allow sufficient time for completion of the test. Each test session is four hours in length. The tests are designed to allow you to allocate your time within the session as you need. You can spend as much time on any section of the test as you need, and you can complete the sections of the test in any order you desire; however, you will be required to return your materials at the end of the four-hour session. Since the allocation of your time during the test session is largely yours to determine, planning your own pace for taking the test is very important. Do not spend a lot of time with a test question that you cannot answer promptly; skip that question and move on. If you skip a question, be sure to skip the corresponding row of answer choices on your answer sheet. Mark the question in your test booklet so that you can return to it later, but be careful to appropriately record on the answer sheet the answers to the remaining questions. You may find that you need less time than the four hours allotted in a test session, but you should be prepared to stay for the entire time period. Do not make any other commitments for this time period that may cause you to rush through the test.

Read Carefully.

Read the directions and the questions carefully. Read all response options. Remember that multiple-choice test questions call for the "best answer"; do not choose the first answer that seems reasonable. Read and evaluate all choices to find the best answer. Read the questions closely so that you understand what they ask. For example, it would be a waste of time to perform a long computation when the question calls for an approximation. Read the test questions, but don't read into them. The questions are designed to be straightforward, not tricky.

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Mark Answers Carefully.

Your answers for all multiple-choice questions will be scored electronically; therefore, the answer you select must be clearly marked and the only answer marked. If you change your mind about an answer, erase the old answer completely. Do not make any stray marks on the answer sheet; these may be misinterpreted by the scoring machine. IF YOU SKIP A MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTION, BE SURE TO SKIP THE CORRESPONDING ROW OF ANSWER CHOICES ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. You may use any available space in the test booklet for notes, but your answers to the multiple-choice questions must be clearly marked on your answer sheet, and your response to the written assignment must be clearly written in your written response booklet. ONLY THE ANSWERS AND WRITTEN RESPONSE THAT APPEAR, RESPECTIVELY, ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET AND IN YOUR WRITTEN RESPONSE BOOKLET WILL BE SCORED. Answers and written responses in your test booklet will not be scored.

Guessing

As you read through the response options, try to find the best answer. If you cannot quickly find the best answer, try to eliminate as many of the other options as possible. Then guess among the remaining answer choices. Your score on the test is based on the number of test questions that you have answered correctly. There is no penalty for incorrect answers; therefore, it is better to guess than not to respond at all.

Passages or Other Presented Materials

Some test questions are based on passages or other presented materials (e.g., graphs, charts). You may wish to employ some of the following strategies while you are completing these test questions. One strategy is to read the passage or other presented material thoroughly and carefully and then answer each question, referring to the passage or presented material only as needed. Another strategy is to read the questions first, gaining an idea of what is sought in them, and then read the passage or presented material with the questions in mind. Yet another strategy is to review the passage or presented material to gain an overview of its content, and then answer each question by referring back to the passage or presented material for the specific answer. Any of these strategies may be appropriate for you. You should not answer the questions on the basis of your own opinions but rather on the basis of the information in the passage or presented material.

Check Accuracy.

Use any remaining time at the end of the test session to check the accuracy of your work. Go back to the test questions that gave you difficulty and verify your work on them. Check the answer sheet, too. Be sure that you have marked your answers accurately and have completely erased changed answers.

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ABOUT THE LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES TEST (LAST)

The purpose of the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test (LAST) is to assess knowledge and skills in the following five subareas: Subarea I. Subarea II. Subarea III. Subarea IV. Subarea V. Scientific, Mathematical, and Technological Processes Historical and Social Scientific Awareness Artistic Expression and the Humanities Communication and Research Skills Written Analysis and Expression

The test objectives presented on the following pages define the content that may be assessed by the LAST. Each test objective is followed by focus statements that provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the test for questions measuring that objective. The test contains approximately 80 multiple-choice test questions and one constructedresponse (written) assignment. The figure below illustrates the approximate percentage of the test corresponding to each subarea.

Constructed-Response Assignment

Subarea V. Approx. 20%

Subarea I. Approx. 23%

Subarea IV. Approx. 19%

Subarea II. Approx. 19%

Subarea III. Approx. 19%

The section that follows the test objectives presents sample test questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the test. To demonstrate how each objective may be assessed, a sample question is presented for each objective. The correct response and an explanation of why the response is correct follow each question. A sample written assignment is also presented, along with an example of a stronger response to the assignment and an evaluation of that response. Additionally, an example of a weaker response to the assignment and an evaluation of that response are presented. The sample questions are designed to illustrate the nature of the test questions; they should not be used as a diagnostic tool to determine your individual strengths and weaknesses.

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LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES TEST OBJECTIVES

Scientific, Mathematical, and Technological Processes Historical and Social Scientific Awareness Artistic Expression and the Humanities Communication and Research Skills Written Analysis and Expression

The New York State educator has the knowledge and skills necessary to teach effectively in New York State public schools. The teacher has a broad understanding of the fundamental concepts of mathematics, science, and technology and is familiar with the basic principles and procedures associated with scientific inquiry. The teacher recognizes the interrelatedness of geography and culture and can analyze varied interpretations of human history and society. The teacher has an understanding of the major traditions of art, literature, religion, and philosophy and how cultural contexts inform artistic and literary expression. The teacher can retrieve information from traditional and electronic sources, communicate effectively, reason clearly, and evaluate competing ideas and arguments. Most importantly, the teacher recognizes the fundamental connections among all realms of human thought and endeavor and the diverse perspectives that shape human societies.

SUBAREA I--SCIENTIFIC, MATHEMATICAL, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES 0001 Use mathematical reasoning in problem-solving situations to arrive at logical conclusions and to analyze the problem-solving process. For example: · · · · analyzing problem solutions for logical flaws examining problems to determine missing information needed to solve them analyzing a partial solution to a problem to determine an appropriate next step evaluating the validity or logic of an argument or advertising claim that is based on statistics or probability

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0002

Understand connections between mathematical representations and ideas; and use mathematical terms and representations to organize, interpret, and communicate information. For example: · · · · analyzing data and making inferences from two or more graphic sources (e.g., diagrams, graphs, equations) restating a problem related to a concrete situation in mathematical terms using mathematical modeling/multiple representations to present, interpret, communicate, and connect mathematical information and relationships selecting an appropriate graph or table summarizing information presented in another form (e.g., a newspaper excerpt)

0003

Apply knowledge of numerical, geometric, and algebraic relationships in problemsolving and mathematical contexts. For example: · · · · · · representing and using numbers in a variety of equivalent forms (e.g., integer, fraction, decimal, percent) applying operational algorithms to add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions, decimals, and integers using scales and ratios to interpret maps and models using geometric concepts and formulas to solve problems (e.g., estimating the surface area of a floor to determine the approximate cost of floor covering) solving problems using algebraic concepts and formulas (e.g., calculating wages based on sales commission) applying appropriate algebraic equations to the solution of problems (e.g., determining the original price of a sale item given the rate of discount)

0004

Understand major concepts, principles, and theories in science and technology; and use that understanding to analyze phenomena in the natural world and to interpret information presented in illustrated or written form. For example: · · · · · using an appropriate illustration, graphic, or physical model to represent a scientific theory, concept, or relationship presented in an excerpt relating a major scientific principle, concept, or theory to a natural phenomenon using design processes and procedures to pose questions and select solutions to problems and situations applying technological knowledge and skills to evaluate the degree to which products and systems meet human and environmental needs analyzing excerpts describing recent scientific discoveries or technological advances in relation to underlying scientific principles, concepts, or themes

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0005

Understand the historical development and cultural contexts of mathematics, science, and technology; the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology; and the impact of mathematics, science, and technology on human societies. For example: · · · · analyzing the historical, societal, or environmental effects of given developments in science and technology (e.g., computerization) recognizing how mathematical models can be used to understand scientific, social, or environmental phenomena evaluating how historical and societal factors have promoted or hindered developments in science and technology analyzing how developments in scientific knowledge may affect other areas of life (e.g., recognizing types of scientific data likely to affect government policymaking regarding pollution control)

0006

Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry and problem solving in the sciences. For example: · · · applying scientific methods and principles (including nonquantitative methods such as case studies) to investigate a question or problem formulating questions to guide research and experimentation toward explanations for phenomena and observations inferring the scientific principles (e.g., reliance on experimental data, replication of results) or skills (e.g., observation, inductive reasoning, familiarity with statistics and probability) that contributed to a scientific development as described in an excerpt demonstrating familiarity with electronic means for collecting, organizing, and analyzing information (e.g., databases, spreadsheets) analyzing the components of a given experimental design (e.g., dependent and independent variables, experimental groups, control groups) demonstrating an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (including ethical dimensions) and the role of observation and experimentation in science

· · ·

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SUBAREA II--HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC AWARENESS 0007 Understand the interrelatedness of historical, geographic, cultural, economic, political, and social issues and factors. For example: · · assessing the likely effects of human activities or trends (described in written or graphic form) on the local, regional, or global environment assessing ways in which major transformations related to human work, thought, and belief (e.g., industrialization, the scientific revolution, the development of various religions and belief traditions) have affected human society inferring aspects of a society's social structure or group interactions based on information presented in an excerpt analyzing ways in which social, cultural, geographic, and economic factors influence intergroup relations and the formation of values, beliefs, and attitudes assessing the social or economic implications of political views presented in an excerpt

· · ·

0008

Understand principles and assumptions underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments. For example: · · · · · inferring the political principles (e.g., popular sovereignty, separation of powers, due process of the law) illustrated in given situations or arguments recognizing assumptions (e.g., regarding the nature of power relationships) that inform the positions taken by political parties analyzing assumptions on which given U.S. policies (e.g., national health insurance, foreign relations) are based recognizing concepts and ideas underlying alternative interpretations of past events inferring the economic principle (e.g., supply and demand, redistribution of wealth) upon which a given explanation is based

0009

Understand different perspectives and priorities underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments. For example: · · identifying the values (e.g., a commitment to democratic institutions) implicit in given political, economic, social, or religious points of view recognizing the motives, beliefs, and interests that inform differing political, economic, social, or religious points of view (e.g., arguments related to equity, equality, and comparisons between groups or nations) analyzing multiple perspectives within U.S. society regarding major historical and contemporary issues recognizing the values or priorities implicit in given public policy positions analyzing the perceptions or opinions of observers or participants from different cultures regarding a given world event or development

· · ·

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0010

Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry, problem solving, and decision making in history and the social sciences. For example: · · · analyzing a description of research results to identify additional unanswered questions or to determine potential problems in research methodology determining the relevance or sufficiency of given information for supporting or refuting a point of view assessing the reliability of sources of information cited in historical or contemporary accounts or arguments and determining whether specific conclusions or generalizations are supported by verifiable evidence evaluating the appropriateness of specific sources (e.g., atlas, periodical guide, economic database) to meet given information needs (e.g., the distribution of natural resources in a given region, the political philosophy of a presidential candidate) distinguishing between unsupported and informed expressions of opinion

·

· 0011

Understand and interpret visual representations of historical and social scientific information. For example: · translating written or graphic information from one form to the other (e.g., selecting an appropriate graphic representation of information from an article on historical changes in global population) relating information provided in graphic representations (e.g., regarding population or economic trends) to public policy decisions interpreting historical or social scientific information provided in one or more graphs, charts, tables, diagrams, or maps inferring significant information (e.g., geographic, economic, sociological) about a historical or contemporary society based on examination of a photograph, painting, drawing, cartoon, or other visual representation

· · ·

SUBAREA III--ARTISTIC EXPRESSION AND THE HUMANITIES 0012 Understand and analyze elements of form and content in works from the visual and performing arts from different periods and cultures. For example: · · · · recognizing important elements in a given work of the visual or performing arts (e.g., focal point, symmetry, repetition of shapes, perspective, motif, rhythm) determining how a sense of unity or balance is achieved in a given work from the visual or performing arts characterizing the theme, mood, or tone of a given work from the visual or performing arts determining how specific elements in a given work of the visual or performing arts (e.g., color, composition, scale, instrumentation, set design, choreography) affect audience perceptions of the content of the work

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0013

Analyze and interpret works from the visual and performing arts representing different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of art to their social and historical contexts. For example: · · · identifying similarities and differences in forms and styles of art from different movements or periods of time comparing and contrasting two or more works from the visual or performing arts in terms of mood, theme, or technique demonstrating an understanding of art as a form of communication (e.g., conveying political or moral concepts, serving as a means of individual expression) analyzing ways in which the content of a given work from the visual or performing arts reflects a specific cultural or historical context

·

0014

Understand forms and themes used in literature from different periods and cultures. For example: · · · identifying characteristic features of various genres of fiction and nonfiction (e.g., novels, plays, essays, autobiographies) distinguishing the dominant theme in a literary passage recognizing common literary elements and techniques (e.g., imagery, metaphor, symbolism, allegory, foreshadowing, irony) and using those elements to interpret a literary passage determining the meaning of figurative language used in a literary passage

· 0015

Analyze and interpret literature from different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of literature to their social and historical contexts. For example: · · · · · · analyzing how the parts of a literary passage contribute to the whole comparing and contrasting the tone or mood of two or more literary passages analyzing aspects of cultural or historical context implied in a literary passage distinguishing characteristic features of different literary genres, periods, and traditions reflected in one or more literary passages making inferences about character, setting, author's point of view, etc., based on the content of a literary passage recognizing how a text conveys multiple levels of meaning

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0016

Analyze and interpret examples of religious or philosophical ideas from various periods of time and understand their significance in shaping societies and cultures. For example: · · · · distinguishing the religious and philosophical traditions associated with given cultures and world regions recognizing assumptions and beliefs underlying ideas presented in religious or philosophical writing analyzing societal implications of philosophical or religious ideas comparing and contrasting key concepts presented in two excerpts reflecting different philosophical or religious traditions

SUBAREA IV--COMMUNICATION AND RESEARCH SKILLS 0017 Derive information from a variety of sources (e.g., magazine articles, essays, Web sites). For example: · · · · · identifying the stated or implied main idea of a paragraph or passage selecting an accurate summary or outline of a passage organizing information presented on a Web site or other electronic means of communication comprehending stated or implied relationships in an excerpt (e.g., cause-andeffect, sequence of events) recognizing information that supports, illustrates, or elaborates the main idea of a passage

0018

Analyze and interpret written materials from a variety of sources. For example: · · · · recognizing a writer's purpose for writing (e.g., to persuade, to describe) drawing conclusions or making generalizations based on information presented in an excerpt interpreting figurative language in an excerpt comparing and contrasting views or arguments presented in two or more excerpts

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0019

Use critical-reasoning skills to assess an author's treatment of content in written materials from a variety of sources. For example: · · · · · analyzing the logical structure of an argument in an excerpt and identifying possible instances of faulty reasoning distinguishing between fact and opinion in written material determining the relevance of specific facts, examples, or data to a writer's argument interpreting the content, word choice, and phrasing of a passage to determine a writer's opinions, point of view, or position on an issue evaluating the credibility, objectivity, or bias of an author's argument or sources

0020

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of expression in a written paragraph or passage according to the conventions of edited American English. For example: · · · revising text to correct problems relating to grammar (e.g., syntax, pronounantecedent agreement) revising text to correct problems relating to sentence construction (e.g., those involving parallel structure, misplaced modifiers, run-on sentences) revising text to improve unity and coherence (e.g., eliminating unnecessary sentences or paragraphs, adding a topic sentence or introductory paragraph, clarifying transitions between and relationships among ideas presented) analyzing problems related to the organization of a given text (e.g., logical flow of ideas, grouping of related ideas, development of main points)

·

0021

Demonstrate the ability to locate, retrieve, organize, and interpret information from a variety of traditional and electronic sources. For example: · · · · · · · demonstrating familiarity with basic reference tools (e.g., encyclopedias, almanacs, bibliographies, databases, atlases, periodical guides) recognizing the difference between primary and secondary sources formulating research questions and hypotheses applying procedures for retrieving information from traditional and technological sources (e.g., newspapers, CD-ROMs, the Internet) interpreting data presented in visual, graphic, tabular, and quantitative forms (e.g., recognizing level of statistical significance) organizing information into logical and coherent outlines evaluating the reliability of different sources of information

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SUBAREA V--WRITTEN ANALYSIS AND EXPRESSION 0022 Prepare an organized, developed composition in edited American English in response to instructions regarding audience, purpose, and content. For example: · · · · · taking a position on an issue of contemporary concern and defending that position with reasoned arguments and supporting examples analyzing and responding to an opinion presented in an excerpt comparing and contrasting conflicting viewpoints on a social, political, or educational topic, as presented in one or more excerpts evaluating information and proposing a solution to a stated problem synthesizing information presented in two or more excerpts

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MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION

This preparation guide provides sample multiple-choice questions and a sample written assignment for the test. The multiple-choice questions illustrate the objectives of the test--one sample question for each objective. Three pieces of information are presented for each test question: 1. the number of the test objective that the sample question illustrates, 2. a sample test question, 3. an indication of the correct response and an explanation of why it is the best available response. Keep in mind when reviewing the questions and response options that there is one best answer to each question. Remember, too, that each explanation offers one of perhaps many perspectives on why a given response is correct or incorrect in the context of the question; there may be other explanations as well. On the following page are sample test directions similar to those that candidates see when they take the test.

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SAMPLE TEST DIRECTIONS FOR MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

DIRECTIONS This test booklet contains a multiple-choice section and a section with a single written assignment. You may complete the sections of the test in the order you choose. Each question in the first section of this booklet is a multiple-choice question with four answer choices. Read each question CAREFULLY and choose the ONE best answer. Record your answer on the answer sheet in the space that corresponds to the question number. Completely fill in the space that has the same letter as the answer you have chosen. Use only a No. 2 lead pencil. Sample Question: 1. What is the capital of New York? A. B. C. D. Buffalo New York City Albany Rochester

The correct answer to this question is C. You would indicate that on the answer sheet as follows: 1. You should answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You may use the margins of the test booklet for scratch paper, but you will be scored only on the responses on your answer sheet. The directions for the written assignment appear later in this test booklet. FOR TEST SECURITY REASONS, YOU MAY NOT TAKE NOTES OR REMOVE ANY OF THE TEST MATERIALS FROM THE ROOM. The words "End of Test" indicate that you have completed the test. You may go back and review your answers, but be sure that you have answered all questions before raising your hand for dismissal. Your test materials must be returned to a test administrator when you finish the test. If you have any questions, please ask them now before beginning the test.

DO NOT GO ON UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

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SAMPLE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS, CORRECT RESPONSES, AND EXPLANATIONS

Objective 0001

Use mathematical reasoning in problem-solving situations to arrive at logical conclusions and to analyze the problem-solving process.

1.

Use the passage below to answer the question that follows. The next time you see lightning and hear the accompanying thunder, you can easily estimate the distance between yourself and the lightning by using the following method. When you see a lightning bolt, start counting the seconds until you hear the thunder. Divide the total number of seconds by five. The result is the approximate distance to the lightning. Thus, if you counted 10 seconds between the flash of the lightning and the sound of the thunder, the lightning struck about two miles away. How does the method work? It's simple. The speed of sound in air is about 1,125 feet-- approximately one-fifth of a mile--per second. The speed of light is approximately 186,000 miles per second. The light and sound created by the lightning bolt originate at the same time, but because the speed of light is much greater than the speed of sound, we see the flash of the lightning before we hear the rumble of the thunder. When you count the seconds between the lightning and the thunder and divide the total by five, you are in fact estimating the distance in miles--one mile per five seconds--that the sound traveled since the lightning flash.

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Which of the following is a fundamental assumption of this method of estimating the distance between an observer and a bolt of lightning? A. The wavelength of light is much shorter than the wavelength of sound. The speed at which light travels is so great that the time required for the light waves to reach the observer is essentially zero. Sound waves are more strongly affected by atmospheric conditions than are light waves. The speed at which sound and light travel varies proportionately with the distance they travel.

B.

C.

D.

Correct Response: B. As stated in the passage, an observer sees a lightning flash before hearing the sound of thunder because light travels more quickly than sound and reaches the observer first. In fact, both light and sound take some time to reach the observer. However, light travels so fast that the extremely short time that the light takes to reach the observer does not figure in the estimation. The observer counts only the time it takes for the sound of the thunder to arrive. Other Responses:

· · ·

Response A. The method described in the passage relies on the relative speeds of light and sound without requiring a consideration of their wavelengths. Response C. The method described in the passage does not depend on the effects of atmospheric conditions on either sound waves or light waves. Response D. The method described in the passage depends on the speeds at which light and sound travel, which are not affected by the distance they travel.

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Objective 0002

Understand connections between mathematical representations and ideas; and use mathematical terms and representations to organize, interpret, and communicate information.

2.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A small stream of water is poured at a constant rate into the flask shown above, until the flask is full. Which of the following graphs best represents the way in which the height of the water in the flask changes in relation to the length of time the water is poured? A.

Height of Water

B.

Height of Water

Time

Time

C.

D.

Height of Water

Height of Water

Time

Time

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Correct Response: C. Because of the shape of the flask, the height of the water will at first rise slowly as the water fills the wide bottom. Then the water level will rise at an increasing rate as the water fills the steeply sloped sides. Finally, the water level will rise at a rapid, constant rate as the water fills the narrow, straight neck of the flask. This pattern of a slow initial rise, followed by a gradually increasing rise, and ending with a sharp, steady rise is exactly the pattern represented in the graph for Response C. Other Responses:

·

Response A. In this graph, the line depicting the height of the water first rises at a constant rate, without the progression from a slow rise to a quicker rise that the shape of the flask would cause. The line then shows the water filling the neck of the flask all at once, without any further time passing. This pattern does not correspond to the shape of the flask. Response B. In this graph, the line depicting the height of the water first increases at a constant rate, then shows no additional increase in water level as time passes. This pattern does not correspond to the shape of the flask. Response D. In this graph, the line depicting the height of the water rises first at a rapid rate, then at a slower rate, and then at a very rapid rate. This pattern does not correspond to the shape of the flask.

·

·

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Objective 0003

Apply knowledge of numerical, geometric, and algebraic relationships in problemsolving and mathematical contexts.

3.

Which of the following situations best illustrates the mathematical concept of a linear relationship--a relationship between two variables such that a change in one is accompanied by a proportional change in the other? A. Joe's Pizza sells an 8-inch-diameter pizza for $10.00, a 12-inch-diameter pizza for $14.00, and a 16-inchdiameter pizza for $16.00. College Painters estimates that two people could paint a house in ten days, four people could paint the same house in four days, and eight people could paint the house in one day. A recycling center offers $22.00 for 100 pounds of scrap aluminum, $33.00 for 150 pounds, and $44.00 for 200 pounds. The world's population doubled in the 15 years from 1960 to 1975, doubled again in the 20 years from 1975 to 1995, and is expected to double once more in the 30 years from 1995 to 2025.

B.

C.

D.

22

Correct Response: C. The relationship in Response C is linear; the amount of money the recycling center will pay is directly proportional to the number of pounds of aluminum it receives. This relationship may be demonstrated graphically as a straight line, as shown below.

60 Price Paid (in dollars) 50 40 30 20 10 50 100 150 200 Scrap Aluminum (in pounds) 250

As shown in the graph, doubling the amount of scrap aluminum will double the amount paid. Compared with the $22 the recycling center will pay for 100 pounds of scrap aluminum, it will pay 50 percent more ($33) for 50 percent more aluminum (150 pounds) and 100 percent more ($44) for 100 percent more aluminum (200 pounds). The price per 100 pounds remains constant, at $22 (which can also be expressed as 22 cents per pound). Other Responses:

· ·

Response A. This relationship is not linear. There is no linear relationship between the size of a pizza and its cost in this example. Response B. This relationship is not linear. The number of painters doubles from two to four and then doubles again from four to eight, but the time required to paint the house decreases from ten days to four days to one day. Response D. This relationship is not linear. The world's population doubled over a 15-year period, doubled again over a 20-year period, and is expected to double once more over a 30-year period.

·

23

Objective 0004

Understand major concepts, principles, and theories in science and technology; and use that understanding to analyze phenomena in the natural world and to interpret information presented in illustrated or written form.

4.

Many systems in the living and physical worlds have mechanisms that use feedback to help maintain equilibrium-- that is, help to keep the overall conditions of the system relatively constant over time. Which of the following processes is the best example of a mechanism that uses feedback to maintain equilibrium in the human body system? A. B. C. D. the increase in breathing rate while exercising the detection of temperature by a finger touching a cool surface the continual growth of hair and nails the loss of blood at the site of a cut

Correct Response: A. The human body needs oxygen and must discard carbon dioxide. Exercise increases both the demand for oxygen and the level of carbon dioxide in the body. To maintain equilibrium, the body responds by increasing the breathing rate during and immediately after exercise so that the lungs take in more oxygen and exhale more carbon dioxide. Other Responses:

·

Response B. The detection of temperature by a finger illustrates how the body takes in information about its environment rather than showing a feedback mechanism for maintaining equilibrium in the body. Response C. The growth of hair and nails is an ongoing growth process rather than a feedback mechanism for maintaining equilibrium in the body. Response D. The loss of blood at the site of a cut is a direct result of damage to the skin and blood vessels rather than a mechanism for maintaining equilibrium in the body.

· ·

24

Objective 0005

Understand the historical development and cultural contexts of mathematics, science, and technology; the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology; and the impact of mathematics, science, and technology on human societies.

5.

Read the excerpt below, adapted from The Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin; then answer the question that follows. The Chinese had been making a rudimentary paper since about A.D. 105, when Ts'ai Lun, using mulberry, waste fish nets, and rags, made the first known sheet of paper for the emperor. Chinese prisoners of war whom the Arabs had taken at Samarkand introduced the Arabs to the arts of papermaking. By 800 the brilliant caliph Harun al-Rashid (764?­809) was having paper made for him in Baghdad. Then through the Arabs paper was brought to Byzantium and across the Mediterranean to Spain, whence it spread over Europe. Even before the invention of printing, manuscripts written on paper were not uncommon, and there were paper mills in Spain, Italy, France, and Germany. This excerpt illustrates which of the following characteristics of the relationship between culture and technological discovery? A. Technological discovery may be hindered by political, cultural, and religious restrictions on the sharing of ideas. Technological discoveries may be spread by warfare and other interactions across cultures. Technological discovery may be halted until seemingly unrelated scientific advances are made in widely diffuse cultural areas. Technological discoveries initially designed for military purposes may soon be adapted for nonmilitary uses.

B.

C.

D.

25

Correct Response: B. The discovery of papermaking and the spread of this technology throughout Asia, the Arab world, and Europe is an example of the way in which warfare and other interactions across cultures can serve to disseminate ideas and discoveries. Papermaking, a Chinese discovery, spread to the Arab world as a result of warfare. Thereafter, Arabs and Europeans contributed to its spread throughout Europe. Other Responses:

·

Response A. This response is not justified by the information in the excerpt. The excerpt does not suggest that the discovery and spread of papermaking technology were hindered by political, cultural, or religious restrictions. Response C. This response is not justified by the information in the excerpt. The excerpt indicates that papermaking technology developed gradually but not that its development and spread ceased while awaiting the development of other scientific knowledge in different cultures. Response D. This response is not justified by the information in the excerpt. The excerpt does not suggest that papermaking technology was developed to serve a military purpose. From the beginning, the uses of paper appear to have been more general.

·

·

26

Objective 0006

Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry and problem solving in the sciences.

6.

Researchers are beginning to conduct clinical trials of a new medication designed to reduce the itching associated with poison ivy. The researchers randomly divide a group of trial participants in half. One group of participants is treated with the actual medication, while the other participants are treated with a placebo, a substance that looks the same as the medication but has none of the active ingredients. Only the researchers know which participants receive the medication and which receive the placebo. Which of the following best explains the purpose of having a group of participants receive a placebo in a study such as this? A. It allows the researchers to test the medication's effectiveness without exposing more people than necessary to potential side effects. It prevents the researchers from inadvertently allowing their own preconceptions and expectations to influence the clinical trial or the interpretation of results. It helps the researchers distinguish between the actual effects of the medication and effects participants might imagine they feel. It keeps the overall research and development costs associated with the medication to a minimum.

B.

C.

D.

27

Correct Response: C. In a study such as the one described, participants' perceptions about the effectiveness of a medication can be influenced by what they think they should feel. If the participants know whether they are receiving real medication or a placebo, their expectations about the results of the treatment might differ depending on whether they are in the medication group or the placebo group. Using a placebo with a control group of randomly chosen participants who do not know that they will receive a placebo permits all participants to feel that they are being treated the same. In this way, researchers can be more certain that any reported effects of the medication are actual rather than imagined, and differences between the medicated and nonmedicated groups can more confidently be attributed to the medication. Other Responses:

·

Response A. A concern about side effects would be better addressed by testing the medication first on a very small number of participants and observing its effects rather than by comparing a nonmedicated group with a medicated group. Response B. The researchers would be prevented from inadvertently allowing their expectations to influence the course of the study or the interpretation of its results only if the researchers were prevented from knowing who received the medication and who received the placebo. This is not a feature of the described study. Response D. Use of placebos would not lower costs, since a predetermined number of participants in the experiment would be selected to receive the real medication regardless of whether there was a control group.

·

·

28

Objective 0007

Understand the interrelatedness of historical, geographic, cultural, economic, political, and social issues and factors.

7.

Read the passage below, from the translated writings of Juan Bautista Alberdi, a nineteenth-century Argentine political theorist; then answer the question that follows. What name will you give a land with 200,000 leagues of territory and a population of 800,000? A desert. . . . But what constitution best fits a desert? One that will help to make it disappear: one that will enable it in the shortest possible time to cease being a desert and become a populated country. This, then, should and must be the political aim of the Argentine constitution and in general of all South American constitutions. The constitutions of unpopulated countries can have no other serious and rational end, at present and for many years to come, than to give the solitary and abandoned countryside the population it requires, as a fundamental condition for its development and progress. Based on information contained in the passage, it is reasonable to assume that its author would most strongly support which of the following economic proposals? A. B. limiting foreign investment in Argentine industries using government land grants to promote highway and railroad construction taxing all goods produced for sale within Argentina using monetary policy to tighten the supply of money and raise interest rates

C. D.

29

Correct Response: B. In the passage, Juan Bautista Alberdi maintains that the vast territory of Argentina is too sparsely populated for development and progress to take place. He argues that the Argentine government, through the constitution, should strongly encourage the movement of people into the unpopulated countryside as a way to spur development. These political ideas are closely related to an economic program that would make transportation into the countryside easier and thereby encourage the movement of people. Such a program could include land grants to promote highway and railroad construction, as described in Response B. Other Responses:

·

Response A. The opinions expressed in the passage, which strongly favor development of the countryside, make it unlikely that the author would support limiting foreign investment in Argentine industries. Such a program would most likely discourage foreign business investment and limit the flow of foreign capital into the countryside. Response C. The evidence in the passage suggests that the author would not support taxation of all goods produced for sale within Argentina. Such a program would most likely burden businesses and consumers and hamper development. Response D. The evidence in the passage indicates that the author would not support a policy that limited the supply of money and, by raising interest rates, discouraged business and individual loans. Such a program would be likely to impede development.

·

·

30

Objective 0008

Understand principles and assumptions underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments.

8.

Which of the following excerpts from the U.S. Constitution best illustrates the principle of checks and balances? A. "The judicial power shall extend to . . . controversies between two or more States;--between a State and citizens of another State;--between citizens of different States;-- between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects." "Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of twothirds, expel a member." "Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it with objections to that house in which it originated, who shall . . . proceed to reconsider it." "The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators."

B.

C.

D.

31

Correct Response: C. The principle of checks and balances refers to the system of overlapping and mutually limiting powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Response C describes the process by which bills passed by the legislative branch (the House of Representatives and the Senate) go for approval or rejection to the executive branch (the president)--a clear example of the principle of checks and balances in operation between these two branches of government. Other Responses:

·

Response A. This response concerns the operations of the judicial branch of government alone rather than its role in checking and balancing the operations of the legislative or executive branches. Response B. This response concerns the internal operations of each house of the legislative branch rather than the relationship of that branch with the other branches of government. Response D. This response concerns rules governing the election of the members of the legislative branch rather than the relationship between that branch and the other branches of government.

·

·

32

Objective 0009

Understand different perspectives and priorities underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments.

9.

Read the selection below, adapted from a speech delivered by Frances Harper at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in support of women's right to equal social status and political participation; then answer the question that follows. [T]o-day we stand on the threshold of woman's era, and woman's work is grandly constructive. The social and political advancement which woman has already gained bears the promise of the rising of the full-orbed sun of emancipation. Yet I do not think the mere extension of the ballot a panacea for all the ills of our national life. What we need to-day is not simply more voters, but better voters. It is the women of a country who help to mold its character, and to influence if not determine its destiny. In coming into her political estate woman will find a mass of illiteracy to be dispelled. If knowledge is power, ignorance is also power. Which of the following statements most closely expresses a central democratic value underlying the speaker's arguments in this selection? A. I believe--indeed I know--that whatever is fine and beautiful in the human expresses and asserts itself in spite of government, and not because of it. Emma Goldman B. Every democratic system evolves its own conventions. It is not only the water but the banks which make the river. Indira Gandhi C. Democracy always makes for materialism, because the only kind of equality that you can guarantee to a whole people is, broadly speaking, physical. Katherine Fullerton Gerould D. A democratic form of government, a democratic way of life, presupposes public education over a long period; it presupposes also an education for personal responsibility that too often is neglected. Eleanor Roosevelt

33

Correct Response: D. In arguing on behalf of the participation of women in the political life of the United States, Frances Harper focuses on the improvement of society and the entire democratic electorate through education ("woman will find a mass of illiteracy to be dispelled"). Through education, the society will be the beneficiary of "not simply more voters, but better voters." An educated electorate is essential, Harper suggests, because ignorance can be as powerful a force in the wrong direction as knowledge can be in the right one ("If knowledge is power, ignorance is also power"). This appreciation of the importance of education to responsible democracy is the same principle as that expressed by Eleanor Roosevelt in Response D. Other Responses:

·

Response A. This response portrays government as an obstacle to the creation of goodness and beauty, a sentiment that is not expressed in the selection, which suggests instead the potential benefits to society of political participation. Response B. This response relates to the principle that democratic systems must operate within the constraints of self-generated conventions (such as regulations and rules) rather than addressing the need for an educated electorate, which is the focus of the selection. Response C. This response portrays government as contributing to materialism by addressing primarily physical concerns, while the selection focuses on the constructive role of political involvement.

·

·

34

Objective 0010

Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry, problem solving, and decision making in history and the social sciences.

10.

Which of the following would be considered primary sources in researching the factors influencing U.S. involvement in Vietnam in the 1960s? I. the official correspondence of Lyndon B. Johnson from 1963 to 1968, the years of his presidency II. a journal article, published in 1975, about Robert S. McNamara, secretary of defense from 1961 to 1968 III. a biography, published in 1969, of John F. Kennedy, president from 1961 to 1963 IV. an interview, taped in 1976, with Dean Rusk, secretary of state from 1961 to 1969 A. B. C. D. I and II only I and IV only II and III only III and IV only

35

Correct Response: B. Primary sources are persons who were present at, participated in, or had firsthand knowledge of the events under study and documents (e.g., official papers, letters, newspaper articles, diaries) or other records (e.g., audiotapes, videotapes) produced by those persons. By contrast, secondary sources are summaries (e.g., biographies, textbooks) based on information provided by or derived from primary sources. Of the options presented in the question, only the official correspondence of Lyndon Johnson (Option I), who directed the U.S. involvement in Vietnam during the years of his presidency, and the interview with Dean Rusk (Option IV), who was secretary of state during the U.S. involvement in Vietnam, are primary sources. Response B identifies both these options. Other Responses:

·

Responses A and C include Option II, a journal article about Robert McNamara. Unless the article was written by a primary source, and Option II gives no reason to believe that it was, this is a secondary source. Responses C and D include Option III, a biography of John Kennedy. Unless the biography was written by a primary source, and Option III gives no reason to believe that it was, this is a secondary source.

·

36

Objective 0011

Understand and interpret visual representations of historical and social scientific information.

11.

Use the graphs below, depicting annual rainfall and population statistics of a western farming state during the period from 1926 to 1935, together with average annual rainfall data for the previous 26 years, to answer the question that follows.

30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6

Annual Rainfall

Inches of Rain

Average Annual Rainfall 1900­1925

1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 Year

600,000 525,000 450,000 375,000 300,000 225,000 150,000 75,000

Population

Number of People

1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 Year

Which of the following conclusions about the relationship between rainfall and population from 1926 to 1935 is best supported by the information in the graphs above? A. B. C. D. Increases and decreases in population directly paralleled increases and decreases in annual rainfall. Despite a steady decline in annual rainfall during this period, the state's population remained stable, varying by no more than about 10 percent. There was no relationship between annual rainfall and fluctuations in the state's population during this period. Population began to decline significantly only after several years of below-average rainfall.

37

Correct Response: D. The first graph shows that annual rainfall in 1929 fell below the previous average and remained below that average throughout the 1929­1935 period. The second graph shows that the population of the state remained fairly constant, varying between about 300,000 and 375,000 people, through 1931 and then began to decline significantly to a low of about 150,000 in 1935. If information from both graphs is combined and interpreted, it is clear that the population decline beginning in 1932 occurred only after a period of below-average rainfall that began in 1929. This is the same conclusion given in Response D. Other Responses:

·

Response A. This response is unjustified because the increases and decreases in rainfall and population displayed in the graphs are not directly parallel. In fact, the decrease in average rainfall from 1929 to 1931 is greater than the decline in population, and in 1932, while rainfall actually increased, population declined. Response B. This response is unjustified because the state's population did not remain stable throughout the period. In fact, population declined sharply between 1931 and 1935, from around 350,000 in 1931 to around 150,000 in 1935, and there were several years in which the decrease was more than 10 percent. Response C. It is incorrect to conclude that the graphs show no relationship between annual rainfall and fluctuations in the state's population during this period. The graphs show that population began to decline after several years of below-average rainfall, and this general decline in population appears to be correlated with the pattern of sustained belowaverage rainfall.

·

·

38

Objective 0012

Understand and analyze elements of form and content in works from the visual and performing arts from different periods and cultures.

12.

Use the reproduction below of a woodcut by Suzuki Harunobu to answer the question that follows.

The diagonal arrangement of the figures, faces, and gestures in this woodcut serves to: A. B. C. D. emphasize the difference in status between the woman and the child. draw the viewer's attention to the bird. create a feeling of suspense and foreboding. define the perspective from which the artist viewed the scene.

39

Correct Response: B. The arrangement of the figures, faces, and gestures in the woodcut suggests a diagonal that runs from upper right to lower left. By drawing the viewer's eye toward the lower-left corner of the woodcut, this arrangement focuses attention on the source of the action in the scene--the bird. Other Responses:

· · ·

Response A. The woodcut does not appear to suggest or focus on a difference in status between the woman and the child. Response C. The arrangement of the human figures contributes to the depiction of a peaceful domestic scene rather than the feeling of suspense and foreboding. Response D. The diagonal arrangement tends to draw the eye of the viewer rather than define the perspective from which the scene is viewed, which is from foreground to background.

40

Objective 0013

Analyze and interpret works from the visual and performing arts representing different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of art to their social and historical contexts.

13.

Read the passage below about Doris Humphrey's 1931 dance piece The Shakers, which was inspired by the religious group founded in the late eighteenth century; then answer the question that follows. Later [Humphrey] told her students that the Shakers attracted her because they believed in dancing; their religious ritual was, in fact, a dance and its original steps and formations served as the basis for her choreography. . . . The basic themes were few: hopping, swaying, falling forward and pulling back, shaking. The dancers moved in straight, symmetrical lines, often in unison but with individual "shaking" movements. Against the formal processions of the ritual, she pitted ecstatic falls; inspired speech; man and woman trembling as they approached one another, knowing they must not touch. Which of the following views of Shaker society and culture is the choreography described in this passage most likely intended to suggest? A. B. C. D. a society centered on ambition and personal achievement a generally peaceful society, marked by occasional violence a society in which strong emotions are kept under control a belief system characterized by openness to new experiences

41

Correct Response: C. From the description in the passage, Doris Humphrey's choreography appears to suggest profound but controlled emotion. The passage describes "ecstatic falls," "inspired speech," and "trembling" dancers, which indicate emotion, and "straight, symmetrical lines" and "formal processions," which suggest control of that emotion. Other Responses:

·

Response A. Response A is not justified by the passage because Humphrey's choreography, as described, appears to focus on communal and social activities rather than on ambition and individual accomplishments. Response B. Response B is not justified by the passage because Humphrey's choreography, as described, suggests the energy of emotion rather than peaceful or violent activities. Response D. Response D is not justified by the passage because Humphrey's use of repetition and ritualized steps, as described, suggests a respect for practiced rituals and well-established patterns of behavior rather than providing any indication of the Shakers' attitudes toward new experiences.

·

·

42

Objective 0014

Understand forms and themes used in literature from different periods and cultures.

14.

Read "Child of the Americas" below, a poem by Aurora Levins Morales; then answer the question that follows. I am a child of the Americas, a light-skinned mestiza of the Caribbean, a child of many diaspora, born into this continent at a crossroads. I am a U.S. Puerto Rican Jew, a product of the ghettos of New York I have never known. An immigrant and the daughter and granddaughter of immigrants. I speak English with passion: it's the tongue of my consciousness, a flashing knife blade of crystal, my tool, my craft. I am Caribeña, island grown. Spanish is in my flesh, ripples from my tongue, lodges in my hips: the language of garlic and mangoes, the singing in my poetry, the flying gestures of my hands. I am of Latinoamerica, rooted in the history of my continent: I speak from that body. I am not african. Africa is in me, but I cannot return. I am not taína.1 Taíno is in me, but there is no way back. I am not european. Europe lives in me, but I have no home there. I am new. History made me. My first language was spanglish. I was born at the crossroads and I am whole.

1

taína: Taínos were the Indian tribe indigenous to Puerto Rico.

Which of the following statements best expresses an important theme of the poem? A. B. C. D. Retaining a strong sense of ethnic identity can be an empowering response to discrimination. In attempting to recover the past, one can miss out on interesting opportunities for the future. Learning to speak the dominant language of a country is a necessary part of acculturation. Individual identity can comprise a rich and exciting amalgamation of cultures and languages.

43

Correct Response: D. In this poem, the speaker identifies herself as "a child of the Americas, / a light-skinned mestiza of the Caribbean," "a U.S. Puerto Rican Jew," and "Caribeña," thus highlighting her uniqueness; one descriptor will not suffice to describe who she is. The speaker's identity is rooted in and yet transcends many places, cultures, and languages. The speaker's use of precise diction ("ripples," "lodges") and vivid sensory imagery emphasizes her passion for her cultural and linguistic roots. For example, English is "a flashing knife blade of crystal, my tool, my craft" and Spanish is "the language of garlic and mangoes." Other Responses: · Response A. This response is not justified by the poem. While the speaker clearly feels empowered by a strong sense of ethnic identity, nothing in the poem suggests that her sense of ethnic identity is a response to discrimination. Response B. This response is not justified by the poem. Although the speaker treasures the history that informs her present-day identity, she is not attempting to recover that history. Indeed, she explicitly states that she "cannot return" to Africa, "there is no way back" to the Taíno culture, and she has "no home" in Europe. The repetition of the phrase "I am" throughout the poem affirms that the speaker is grounded in the present, as does her declaration "I am new" in the final stanza. Response C. This response is not justified by the poem. The speaker conveys the joy and exuberance with which she embraces English, Spanish, and "spanglish," each of which allows her to express different facets of her identity. She does not seek to be acculturated to a single culture.

·

·

44

Objective 0015

Analyze and interpret literature from different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of literature to their social and historical contexts.

15.

Read the excerpts below about an aspect of Native American culture from "A Vision Beyond Time and Place" by N. Scott Momaday; then answer the question that follows. When my father was a boy, an old man used to come to [my grandfather] Mammedaty's house and pay his respects. He was a lean old man in braids and was impressive in his age and bearing. His name was Cheney, and he was an arrowmaker. Every morning, my father tells me, Cheney would paint his wrinkled face, go out, and pray aloud to the rising sun. . . . I often think of old man Cheney, and of his daily devotion to the sun. . . . He was a man who saw very deeply into the distance, I believe, one whose vision extended far beyond the physical boundaries of his time and place. . . . In his mind's eye he could integrate all the realities and illusions of the earth and sky; they became for him profoundly intelligible and whole. . . . Most Indian people are able to see in these terms. . . . It is indeed the basis upon which they identify themselves as individuals and as a race. . . . When old man Cheney looked into the sunrise, he saw as far into himself, I suspect, as he saw into the distance. He knew certainly of his existence and of his place in the scheme of things. In contrast, most of us in this society are afflicted with a kind of cultural nearsightedness. . . . [W]e do not see beyond the buildings and billboards that seem at times to be the monuments of our civilization, and consequently we fail to see into the nature and meaning of our own humanity. Now, more than ever, we might do well to enter upon a vision quest of our own, that is, a quest after vision itself. According to the excerpts, which of the following best describes a central aspect of the vision that Cheney achieved in his daily devotion? A. B. C. D. a faith in the reality of a spiritual life after death a belief in divine forgiveness and human redemption a perception of the interconnectedness of all things a rejection of the temptations and illusions of the material world

45

Correct Response: C. N. Scott Momaday describes Cheney's daily devotion as involving an integration of "all the realities and illusions of the earth and sky" so that they became "profoundly intelligible and whole." This vision of the interconnectedness of the whole of creation is, according to Momaday, not merely a personal accomplishment of Cheney's, but an aspect of the society of which Cheney was a part ("Most Indian people are able to see in these terms"). Other Responses:

· ·

Response A. These excerpts focus on the integration of all reality in the present life rather than on a spiritual life after death. Response B. These excerpts emphasize Cheney's devotion to daily spirituality and his acceptance and understanding of his place in the scheme of things as they now exist. The notions of divine forgiveness and human redemption are not apparent in the excerpts. Response D. Cheney's ability to integrate "all the realities and illusions of the earth and sky" is presented in these excerpts as a positive acceptance of all things rather than as a rejection of the material world.

·

46

Objective 0016

Analyze and interpret examples of religious or philosophical ideas from various periods of time and understand their significance in shaping societies and cultures.

16.

Use the poem below, translated from the works of Yang Kwang, to answer the question that follows. In Spring when all the flowers are in bloom, The evening river appears smooth and motionless. Suddenly the tidewater comes with the reflection of glittering stars; The ebbing waves carry away the image of the moon. This poem most closely reflects which of the following tenets of Asian belief systems? A. the Taoist emphasis on simplicity and contemplation of the effortless processes of nature the Confucian emphasis on ethical precepts for the proper management of the social order the Shintoist emphasis on the supernatural and the power of the divine forces of nature the Buddhist emphasis on enlightenment and renunciation of worldly cravings and attachments

B.

C.

D.

47

Correct Response: A. The poem, with its serene observation of natural processes of change, suggests the Taoist belief in the contemplation and understanding of nature as a guide to life. Other Responses:

· ·

Response B. The poem suggests the personal contemplation of nature rather than ethical precepts or the management of the social order. Response C. Rather than suggesting a concern about or awareness of supernatural beings or divine forces in nature, the poem appears to be concerned with the contemplation of nature in and of itself. Response D. In its contemplation of nature and natural processes, the poem does not appear to suggest renunciation of the world or striving for enlightenment.

·

48

Objective 0017

Derive information from a variety of sources (e.g., magazine articles, essays, Web sites).

Objective 0019

Use critical-reasoning skills to assess an author's treatment of content in written materials from a variety of sources.

Read the selection below, excerpted from a letter written from the Birmingham jail in 1963 by Martin Luther King, Jr.; then answer the two questions that follow. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. One may well ask: "How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?" The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. . . . A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. . . . Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. . . . An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. 17. The views expressed in this selection are most consistent with which of the following statements? A. In a democratic system, disobedience to the law can never be justified. Human law and moral law are inevitably in conflict. Civil disobedience is an appropriate and necessary response to an immoral law. A society that permits its citizens to disobey even unjust laws cannot remain healthy. 18. Which of the following assumptions is most fundamental to the development of the argument presented in this selection? A. In a just society, the rights of the majority group outweigh the rights of smaller and less powerful groups. That government is best which governs least. Law represents the collective historical wisdom of human society. All human beings are created equal.

B. C.

B. C. D.

D.

49

17. Correct Response: C. In this excerpt, Martin Luther King, Jr., argues that people have "a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws." The practice of civil disobedience--nonviolent resistance to laws in order to call attention to and protest them--is an instance of disobeying unjust laws to exercise moral responsibility, a practice that is consistent with the author's argument. Other Responses:

·

Response A. The argument in the excerpt tends to contradict the statement in Response A. King refers to the legal system of the United States, a democratic system, in arguing that disobedience is sometimes justified. Response B. The excerpt does not suggest that human law and moral law must be unavoidably at odds; in fact, the definition of a just law as "a man-made code that squares with the moral law" suggests that there is no necessary conflict between human and moral law. Response D. The argument in the excerpt tends to contradict the statement in Response D. The suggestion appears to be that in a truly healthy society, just laws will be obeyed and unjust laws disobeyed.

·

·

18. Correct Response: D. In discussing the nature of just and unjust laws, Martin Luther King, Jr., uses segregation laws as an example of unjust laws. He then argues that just laws apply equally to all people; they represent "sameness made legal." The assumption that underlies this argument is that all human beings are created equal. Other Responses:

· ·

Response A. The excerpt suggests that, in a just society, both the rights of the majority and the rights of minority groups must be taken into account. Response B. King's argument does not relate to the amount of power or influence that a government exerts or the number of laws it enacts. Instead, the focus is on the justness or unjustness of a government's laws. Response C. The excerpt does not suggest a belief in law as representing the collective historical wisdom of human society. Instead, King criticizes unjust laws as illegitimate.

·

50

Objective 0018

Analyze and interpret written materials from a variety of sources.

19.

Read the passage below, excerpted from an anthropology text, about the rise of urban civilizations; then answer the question that follows. The rapid growth of population and food production in major river valleys of the Old World-- the Tigris and Euphrates, the Nile, the Indus, the Yellow River--and an accompanying transformation of societies into complex urban civilizations were to come quickly. So too was the rise of impressive New World civilizations in Mesoamerica and Peru. . . . The rise of urban civilizations not only dramatically changed human life in the great river valleys where urban centers developed. It radically transformed the village farmers at their margins: they became peasants, pieces in a wider design, supplying food to the elites and craft specialists in the towns. And the great cultural traditions, the priestly religions and philosophies and literatures that developed in the centers of civilization, penetrated into many parts of the tribal world. Islamic, Hindu, Aztec, and other civilized traditions gave tribal peoples new conceptions of the cosmos and of themselves. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by information presented in the passage? A. Village farmers in this period generally resisted the changes imposed on them by the emerging urban elites. River valley civilizations in this period typically evolved through a process of expansion from urban centers. Expanded economic opportunities for peasants during this period usually disrupted traditional family relationships. Religious and secular interests generally struggled for dominance throughout this period.

B.

C.

D.

51

Correct Response: B. In this passage, the author gives several indications that the major river valley civilizations of this period tended to evolve outward from urban centers. For example, the passage describes how urban civilizations "radically transformed the village farmers at their margins," how peasant farmers began to supply food to the towns, and how cultural ideas from the "centers of civilization penetrated into many parts of the tribal world." Other Responses:

·

Response A. This response is not justified by the passage. Rather than suggesting that farmers resisted the demands made by urban elites, the passage suggests that the transformation from farmers to town-oriented peasants was a natural cultural development. Response C. This response is not justified by the passage. The passage does not suggest any effect that expanded economic opportunities might have had on traditional family relationships. Response D. This response is not justified by the passage. The passage does not relate to any struggle for dominance that might have arisen between religious and secular interests during the period.

·

·

52

Objective 0020

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of expression in a written paragraph or passage according to the conventions of edited American English.

20.

Read the passage below, which contains a grammatical error; then answer the question that follows. are traditional stories of unknown authorship that were originally passed down by word of mouth. 2Typically, myths evolved in preliterate societies to explain natural events and forces, to come to terms with heroes and gods, and to prescribe rituals to ward off evil. 3In a society of this type, an individual body of myths were developed to guide the community's religious and social life. 4Unlike fables and folk tales, which people told for amusement but did not believe, myths were considered sacred and completely true. Which part of the passage should be revised to correct a grammatical error? A. B. C. D. Part 1: to correct an error in the placement of modifiers Part 2: to correct an error in parallel structure Part 3: to correct an error in subject­ verb agreement Part 4: to correct an error in prepositional phrasing

1Myths

53

Correct Response: C. In Part 3, the clause "an individual body of myths were developed" contains an error in subject-verb agreement. The singular subject body is used with the plural verb were developed. In grammatical expression, the subject and verb must agree in number. The clause should be written as "an individual body of myths was developed." Other Responses:

·

Response A. In Part 1, there is no grammatical error. The participial phrase "originally passed down by word of mouth" correctly modifies the noun phrase "traditional stories of unknown authorship." Response B. In Part 2, there is no grammatical error. The three explanations for the evolution of myths follow correct parallel structure: "to explain," "to come to terms," and "to prescribe." All are infinitive forms. Response D. In Part 4, there is no grammatical error. The prepositional phrase "for amusement" is correctly placed and phrased, as is the introductory prepositional phrase "Unlike fables and folk tales."

·

·

54

Objective 0021

Demonstrate the ability to locate, retrieve, organize, and interpret information from a variety of traditional and electronic sources.

21.

While researching a nineteenth-century presidential candidate, a researcher locates four sources that provide conflicting information about a controversial position that the candidate adopted during his campaign. Which source is likely to be most reliable in explaining why the candidate adopted the position? A. an autobiography that the candidate wrote later in life, covering the years during which the campaign was conducted a copy of the speech, written in the candidate's handwriting, in which the candidate announced the position a newspaper editorial opposing the candidate's position, written just after the candidate announced the position a series of notes on the issue between the candidate and a key advisor, written just before the candidate adopted the position

B.

C.

D.

55

Correct Response: D. Of the options listed, the source that is likely to be most reliable and informative is the series of notes between the candidate and the advisor (Response D). This source provides information that is directly relevant to the formulation of the candidate's position, it dates from the time the position was being formulated, and it is likely to be candid and comparatively unguarded. These factors contribute to the reliability of the information in such notes. These factors do not all apply to the other responses. Other Responses:

·

Response A. Autobiographies tend to present controversial issues in ways that are most favorable to the author. They are typically neither candid nor unguarded. Further, they are written after the fact and reflect knowledge acquired since the time when the original position was being formulated. This makes autobiographies less reliable than sources that are more contemporaneous with the events that they discuss and less spontaneous and objective. Response B. A speech, even a hand draft of a speech that may be contemporaneous with the position being announced, is a finished product, not the record of an ongoing process. As such, it may document the position as it was finally decided on but will be less informative on the process that went into formulating the position. Response C. A newspaper editorial about an issue may be contemporaneous with the announcement of the position, but it is not likely to contain inside information on the formulation of the position. The purpose of an editorial is to state a position supporting or opposing a controversial idea, not to trace the origin of the idea as formulated by the candidate.

·

·

56

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT SECTION

On the following pages are: Sample test directions for the written assignment section A sample written assignment An example of a stronger response to the assignment and an evaluation of the stronger response An example of a weaker response to the assignment and an evaluation of the weaker response The performance characteristics and scoring scale Your written response should be your own original work. The evaluation of your response will be based on how effectively you communicate in writing, not on the opinion you express. On the actual test, candidates will be given a different written assignment from the one provided as a sample in this preparation guide.

57

SAMPLE TEST DIRECTIONS FOR THE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

DIRECTIONS FOR THE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT This section of the test consists of a written assignment. You are to prepare a written response of about 300­600 words on the assigned topic. The assignment can be found on the next page. You should use your time to plan, write, review, and edit your response to the assignment. Read the assignment carefully before you begin to write. Think about how you will organize your response. You may use any blank space provided on the following pages to make notes, write an outline, or otherwise prepare your response. However, your score will be based solely on the response you write in the written response booklet. Your response to the written assignment will be evaluated on the basis of the following criteria. · · · · · FOCUS AND UNITY: Comprehend and focus on a unified, controlling topic. APPROPRIATENESS: Select and use a strategy of expression that is appropriate for the intended audience and purpose. REASON AND ORGANIZATION: Present a reasoned, organized argument or exposition. SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT: Use support and evidence to develop and bolster one's own ideas and account for the views of others. STRUCTURE AND CONVENTIONS: Express oneself clearly and without distractions caused by inattention to sentence and paragraph structure, choice and use of words, and mechanics (i.e., spelling, punctuation, capitalization).

Your response will be evaluated based on your demonstrated ability to express and support opinions, not on the nature or content of the opinions expressed. The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English. This should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work. Be sure to write about the assigned topic and use multiple paragraphs. Please write legibly. You may not use any reference materials during the test. Remember to review what you have written and make any changes that you think will improve your response.

58

SAMPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Should law enforcement officials in a criminal investigation be allowed to compel reporters to reveal the names of their confidential sources? The arguments below present opposing views on this question. In favor of compelling reporters to reveal confidential sources. The ability to compel reporters to reveal confidential sources in criminal cases would benefit law enforcement officials, defendants, and reporters alike. For example, police officers and district attorneys deserve the cooperation of all citizens in the fight against crime. Moreover, people charged with a crime or official misconduct deserve the opportunity to confront their accusers and examine the evidence presented. Too often reporters rely on so-called "confidential" sources when by digging a little deeper they could find the information themselves. It would be a sad mistake to handcuff the criminal justice system just so reporters have an easier time getting a story. Opposed to compelling reporters to reveal confidential sources. Relying on confidential sources is one of the most powerful tools journalists have to investigate wrongdoing and official misconduct. For example, many public officials--and ordinary citizens--will talk to a reporter only if they are assured of anonymity. Some fear they may lose a promotion or their jobs; others are concerned for their own safety or that of their families. If reporters cannot be trusted to keep their sources confidential, people will be reluctant to step forward to tell the truth about criminal activity or official corruption. In the long run, such a policy would only jeopardize the ability of news organizations to obtain information vital to the public. Should law enforcement officials in a criminal investigation be allowed to compel reporters to reveal the names of their confidential sources? In an essay written for a general audience of educated adults:

· · ·

evaluate the opposing arguments related to this question; state your position on whether reporters should be compelled to reveal the names of their confidential sources to law enforcement officials; and defend your position with logical arguments and appropriate examples.

59

STRONGER RESPONSE TO THE SAMPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

The Courts, the News Media, and the Public: A Conflict of Rights The writing assignment describes a situation in which the separate and legitimate rights of groups within U.S. society come into conflict. This is not unusual. In a democratic society, rights often come into conflict and must be balanced against each other. The result is not so much a case of right versus wrong, but of right versus right. First, newspapers and other news media in a democratic society have a right and a responsibility to report stories accurately. They often serve as watchdogs against corruption and wrongdoing. The public expects to learn about wrongdoing through the work of investigative reporters. Often the reporters get their stories from anonymous sources who know about the wrongdoing and want to uncover it but are afraid to reveal their names. For the sake of the public's right to know, the news media must encourage such people to come forward with the truth, and often the only way to do this is to guarantee the sources confidentiality. The sources have rights too. They have a right to privacy. They have the right to tell the truth without fear of harm. They have the right to expect that the reporters they confide in will never reveal their names. If reporters betray their confidentiality, this is a betrayal not only of the sources' right to privacy, but also of the public's right to know, because without a guarantee of confidentiality, few people would blow the whistle on wrongdoing. But just as the media and their confidential sources have rights that are important to the public in a democratic society, so do the courts. The justice system, including prosecutors and the police, has a right to pursue wrongdoers and put them behind bars. But the justice system has responsibilities, too. Perhaps the most important is the responsibility to pursue only those who are reasonably suspected of wrongdoing and to punish

(continued)

60

STRONGER RESPONSE TO THE SAMPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT (continued)

only those who are proven guilty. It is a cornerstone of a democratic society that a person is innocent until proven guilty. And it is the prosecutor's job to gather evidence to convince a jury that a defendant is guilty. The evidence is gathered by the police, not the media. If the police can't find enough evidence to convince a jury, the defendant is innocent. The next set of rights belongs to the defendant. He or she has the right to see the evidence that the prosecutor has gathered and to refute it. He or she also has the right to confront accusers face to face. It is unfair to expect the defendant to confront a news organization as well as the prosecutor. The prosecutor must make his or her own case, and the defendant must defend himself or herself against it. But the defendant is innocent unless the prosecutor can do it. Perhaps the most important right in a democratic society is the public's right to be free of the fear of unfair prosecution. We deserve a court system that punishes the guilty and leaves the innocent alone. If mistakes are to be made, it is better to err on the side of the innocent. It is better to have ten guilty people out on the streets than one innocent person in jail. The public also has the right to expect the media to tell it the truth and to be responsible in checking the accuracy of what it reports, but the work of newspapers is and must remain separate from the work of the police and prosecutors. If an irresponsible newspaper tells lies about someone, that person can always take the newspaper to court. But to force newspapers to reveal their sources and to serve as an arm of the courts is not appropriate. In conclusion, the rights of the public are the most important consideration in this issue. The public needs a good judicial system, with proper investigations and prosecutions, and it needs a good system of news reporting, with responsible media organizations and sources who are not afraid of telling the truth. But to serve the public the two systems must remain distinct. The judiciary and the media must be separate.

61

EVALUATION OF THE STRONGER RESPONSE

A stronger response is marked by the following characteristics. Focus and unity The writer clearly addresses the stated task, states or strongly implies a purpose for writing and a controlling topic, and maintains a steady focus on that topic. The chosen expressive approach is consistent with the writer's purpose and audience. Opinions are presented clearly, and arguments and/or expositions are well organized and ably reasoned. The writer offers relevant evidence and details to develop and support the position taken, showing awareness of other potential or actual positions. The paper is free of distracting flaws in sentence structure and paragraph structure (e.g., subject-verb disagreements, run-on sentences), shows proficient use and choice of words, and avoids disruptive mechanical errors (e.g., inappropriate capitalization, misspellings of common words).

Appropriateness Reason and organization Support and development Structure and conventions

Focus and unity. The response maintains a steady focus on the topic: the issue of revealing sources or holding them confidential, and the conflicting rights of the media, sources, the defendant, the prosecutor, and the public. The writer unifies the discussion by consistent reference to the word rights (which is used at least once in every paragraph); this word is the thread that runs through the composition from beginning to end. No extraneous information or irrelevant arguments appear; every sentence contributes to the discussion. Appropriateness. The writer uses an appropriate level of language throughout the composition. The tone is appropriately serious without being too formal. For example, in the fourth paragraph the phrase "to pursue wrongdoers and put them behind bars" is more appropriate for this audience than an overly stilted expression such as "to apprehend perpetrators and incarcerate them." In addition, the writer uses no inappropriate slang. For example, in the fifth paragraph "to confront accusers face to face" is more suitable than a highly colloquial expression such as "to look his accusers square in the eye and call them liars." Reason and organization. The writer's argument is clear, consistent, and easy to follow. The first paragraph signals the approach that the writer will take by stating that the issue can be thought of as a case of "right versus right." In the following paragraphs, the composition proceeds through the rights of each major group in the discussion, clearly identifying the group and announcing the writer's position. The logic of including each group is evident, and no irrelevant groups or arguments appear. The organization of the seven paragraphs following the introduction is also very clear: the media and their sources; then the two sides of a court case; and finally the public, whose rights, in the writer's argument, will decide the issue and lead to the conclusion.

62

EVALUATION OF THE STRONGER RESPONSE (continued)

Support and development. The writer logically investigates each group's rights. Basing the analysis on U.S. Constitutional principles, the writer not only provides ample support for the argument that the courts and the media must remain distinct but also fully considers other potential or actual arguments that might be made. According to the author, the media can serve as watchdogs only if they can get at the truth through informed sources. The sources will not speak unless they can be guaranteed anonymity. Prosecutors have a right and a responsibility to investigate--but only if they have reason to believe a person is guilty. Defendants have a right to be presumed innocent and to confront the evidence and their accusers. Finally, the public has a right to get at the truth (which supports the rights of the media and their sources) and see wrongdoers punished (which supports prosecutors). The most important right is the "right to be free of the fear of unfair prosecution." This right decides the issue: the public's right to be left alone is best served if the media and the judicial system are kept separate. The writer makes a strong argument by furnishing clear ideas that are supported by reason. Structure and conventions. The writer structures paragraphs well: each paragraph discusses one idea and leads logically to the next paragraph. Clear transitions connect paragraphs and signal the argument's progress (First; The sources have rights too; But just as . . . so do; The next set; But the defendant; Perhaps the most important; The public also; But to force; In conclusion). Within the paragraphs, sentence structure varies sensibly. Words are well chosen, and there are no distracting lapses in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.

63

WEAKER RESPONSE TO THE SAMPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Let the Truth Come Out I feel a reporter should never be forced to reveal the names of his or her sources. Reporters are able to attain information from certain people because they felt it would be kept confidential. If they weren't sure, they would never have come forward and told the truth. They would have stayed hidden and ashamed. They realized something had to be done and decided to release the information to the reporter involving an important public figure. They did their civic duty and shouldn't be punished for it, they should be applauded. It is a brave thing to blow the whistle, not cowardly as some people think. It is not "ratting out" on someone or "tattling", it is standing tall and letting the chips fall where they may. In my thinking some of the bravest people have told the truth about something that everyone else was letting happen or not paying attention to out of fear of the consequences. Some of the biggest criminals have been caught because of someone telling the truth on them. In return the whistle blowers felt it was necessary to stay under the covers for the protection of their families and selves. Dealing with authoritative figures is very dangerous. If you are telling someone about a person who is capable of committing a serious crime you just don't know what else he is capable of doing. People like that are not people to fool with. And again, it isn't cowardly or tattling. It's the person doing the wrongdoing who is cowardly and wrong, not the person telling on them. Who was wrong, Al Capone or his accusers? Nixon or the men who told on him? A reporter's job is to protect the whistle blowers from being hurt or killed. If someone trusts a reporter, the reporter can't just go and hand them over to the police or a judge. That wouldn't make sense. To be able to come forward and release such information means to me that they were probably spying on the person being accused, not doing it openly. And that means that that person probably would have trusted the people who just put him behind bars. Now what would he do? Probably out of anger

(continued)

64

WEAKER RESPONSE TO THE SAMPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT (continued)

and to get out of jail he might harm them or make threats on their families. People often harm the people who accuse them, especially violent people. And it's no matter that they're behind bars, they can find ways, using gang confidential.

members outside jail, to get even. No, the reporter's job is to keep everything If the reporters hand over their sources, who will ever trust them again?

You could see somebody killing somebody else, and you probably wouldn't go to the newspaper or the police because you'd be afraid you'd get hurt, and the killer would go free. Crime would run rampant. To keep everybody honest, reporters have to keep quiet. And judges shouldn't force reporters to tell their sources. Besides, reporters who uncover these stories are called investigative

reporters and they need their jobs. They have to be able to do their work. If they can't get to the whistle blowers, how will they find everything out? They don't have big budgets to investigate crime like the FBI. They are

newspaper people who only make enough to feed their families, not big stars who earn a lot of money. In television, even, it's only the main anchormen stories. They don't get their jobs because of investigative reporting, but who make big money, and they're not the investigators, they only report the because they look good on television and everybody will tune in to see them. scenes and for little pay. If they can't get to the whistle blowers because

No, the investigative reporters do the dirty work, and they do it behind the they are afraid to talk because their names will appear in the paper or on TV and they will be hunted down, the investigative reporters will be out of work be served. and newspapers will not do investigative stories. And then the public will not

So in conclusion I say that reporters should keep the sources confidential and

evidence.

the court should put the accused persons on trial with other knowledge and

65

EVALUATION OF THE WEAKER RESPONSE

A weaker response is marked by the following characteristics.

Focus and unity The writer attempts to address the stated task but does so incompletely, and the purpose for writing and the topic may be unclear. The focus on the topic may not be consistently maintained, and several digressions may be present. The chosen expressive approach may be partially inconsistent with the writer's purpose and audience. Opinions may not be presented clearly, and arguments and/or expositions may give little evidence of organization and reason. Little or no evidence or detail may be provided to develop and support positions, and the existence of other potential or actual positions may not be recognized. The paper may contain distracting flaws in sentence structure and/or paragraph structure, inappropriate use and choice of words, and disruptive mechanical errors.

Appropriateness Reason and organization Support and development Structure and conventions

Focus and unity. The response does not successfully maintain its focus on the conflict between revealing sources and maintaining confidentiality. Several digressions intrude, including the issue of whistle-blowers' bravery versus cowardice in the first paragraph and the jobs and pay of investigative reporters in the fifth paragraph. Further, the response largely ignores the topic of the rights of defendants and prosecutors in the courtroom. Appropriateness. The writer attempts to write effectively, but lapses in diction and tone impair the presentation. "To stay under the covers" in the second paragraph seems too colloquial, as does "People like that are not people to fool with" in the same paragraph and "the reporter can't just go and hand them over" in the third paragraph. The shift from third to second person in the second paragraph ("If you are telling someone about a person") and the fourth paragraph (beginning with "You could see somebody killing somebody else") is also too informal for the audience and purpose of this composition. Reason and organization. The composition lacks reason and organization. Its argument would be clearer if it omitted digressions and improved structure. The connection between the writer's main ideas (the reporter got the truth from the sources; the sources needed confidentiality; the judge should not force the reporter to betray that confidentiality) is nearly broken by tangential ideas. For example, the third paragraph neglects to extend the argument about the danger of retribution to whistle-blowers; instead it introduces new claims about the danger to sources--including a convict's ability to harm a person from behind bars--that belong with the ideas in the second paragraph. The fourth paragraph logically belongs with the first paragraph (about a reporter's duty), or (if expanded) could be part of a new idea about the public's rights to a free press and independent investigations of wrongdoing. Instead it merely injects emotional statements about crime running rampant.

66

EVALUATION OF THE WEAKER RESPONSE (continued)

Support and development. The writer addresses only one aspect of the issue (the rights of the reporter and of the sources) and ignores other aspects that were mentioned in the assignment. The result is that the argument is inadequately developed. The reader is left to wonder what the writer might think about the rights of prosecutors and defendants. The only reference to this issue in the composition is the phrase in the last sentence about the judge putting the accused on trial "with other knowledge and evidence." This lone phrase does not adequately develop the theme or support the writer's argument. Structure and conventions. The writer demonstrates little control of sentences or paragraphs; word choice and mechanics are similarly uncertain. Paragraph structure is muddled: ideas jumble together within paragraphs, and the argument does not progress from one paragraph to the next. Sentence structure is likewise confusing ("decided to release the information to the reporter involving an important public figure" in the first paragraph; nearly all of the sentences in the fourth and fifth paragraphs). The choice of words does not inspire confidence ("to attain information" instead of obtain). The writer has an adequate grasp of capitalization and spelling but sometimes uses commas where semicolons would be more appropriate ("They did their civic duty and shouldn't be punished for it, they should be applauded" and "It is not. . . 'tattling', it is standing tall" in the first paragraph; "they're not the investigators, they only report the stories" in the fifth paragraph).

67

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND SCORING SCALE

Performance Characteristics

The following characteristics guide the scoring of responses to the written assignment. FOCUS AND UNITY APPROPRIATENESS REASON AND ORGANIZATION SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT STRUCTURE AND CONVENTIONS Comprehend and focus on a unified, controlling topic. Select and use a strategy of expression that is appropriate for the intended audience and purpose. Present a reasoned, organized argument or exposition. Use support and evidence to develop and bolster one's own ideas and account for the views of others. Express oneself clearly and without distractions caused by inattention to sentence and paragraph structure, choice and use of words, and mechanics (i.e., spelling, punctuation, and capitalization).

68

Scoring Scale

Scores will be assigned to each response to the written assignment according to the following scoring scale. Score Point Score Point Description

The "4" response gives evidence of strong skills of written expression. The writer clearly addresses the stated task, states or strongly implies a purpose for writing and a controlling topic, and maintains a steady focus on that topic. The chosen expressive approach is consistent with the writer's purpose and audience. Opinions are presented clearly, and arguments and/or expositions are well organized and ably reasoned. The writer offers relevant evidence and details to develop and support the position taken, showing awareness of other potential or actual positions. The response is free of distracting flaws in sentence structure (e.g., subject-verb disagreements, run-on sentences) and paragraph structure (e.g., lack of paragraph breaks to coincide with thought transitions), shows proficient use and choice of words, and avoids disruptive mechanical errors (e.g., inappropriate capitalization, misspellings of common words). The "3" response gives evidence of satisfactory skills of written expression. The writer addresses the stated task, states or at least implies a purpose for writing and a controlling topic, and generally maintains a focus on that topic, with few digressions or extraneous points. The chosen expressive approach is generally consistent with the writer's purpose and audience. Opinions are presented clearly, and arguments and/or expositions give evidence of organization and reason, although some minor flaws in these areas may be present. The writer offers evidence and details to develop and support the position taken, and generally acknowledges other potential or actual positions. The response contains very few distracting flaws in sentence structure and/or paragraph structure, shows generally competent use and choice of words, and avoids most disruptive mechanical errors. The "2" response gives evidence of limited skill in written expression. The writer attempts to address the stated task, but does so incompletely, and the purpose for writing and the topic may be unclear. The focus on the topic may not be consistently maintained, and several digressions may be present. The chosen expressive approach may be partially inconsistent with the writer's purpose and audience. Opinions may not be presented clearly, and arguments and/or expositions may give little evidence of organization and reason. Little or no evidence or detail may be provided to develop and support positions, and the existence of other potential or actual positions may not be recognized. The response may contain distracting flaws in sentence structure and/or paragraph structure, inappropriate use and choice of words, and disruptive mechanical errors. The "1" response gives evidence of a lack of skill in written expression. The writer may attempt to address the stated task but does so incompletely, and the purpose for writing and the topic are generally unclear. There is little or no sense of intended audience. Opinions may not be presented clearly or may simply be asserted without support, elaboration, or detail. If arguments and/or expositions are present, they give little or no evidence of organization or reason. The existence of other potential or actual positions is generally not recognized. The response usually contains distracting flaws in sentence structure and/or paragraph structure, inappropriate use and choice of words, and disruptive mechanical errors that interfere with understanding.

4

3

2

1

69

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Page Number 25 Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin. From The Discoverers. Random House 1983. © Daniel J. Boorstin QTIP Trust. Alberdi, Juan Bautista. "Bases y puntos de partida para la organizacion politica de la República Argentina" (Buenos Aires, 1951; reprint of 1853 edition), in Benjamin Keen, editor and translator, Latin American Civilization: History and Society, 1492 to the Present. Copyright © 1991 Robert Buffington, Lila Caimari. Reprinted by permission of Westview Press, a member of Perseus Books Group. Harunobu, Suzuki (Japanese). Drying Clothes, 1767­68. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Samuel S. White, 3rd and Vera White Collection. Reprinted with permission. Cohen, Selma Jeanne. Doris Humphrey: An Artist First. Courtesy of Princeton Book Company, Publishers from Doris Humphrey: An Artist First. Aurora Levins Morales, "Child of the Americas" from Aurora Levins Morales and Rosario Morales, Getting Home Alive (Firebrand Books, 1986). Copyright © 1986 by Aurora Levins Morales and Rosario Morales. Reprinted with the permission of The Permissions Company, Inc., on behalf of Aurora Levins Morales, www.permissionscompany.com. N. Scott Momaday, Life Magazine (1971), © Time­Warner. Reprinted with permission. Chang (2011) Creativity and Taoism: A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art, and Poetry, Singing Dragon, London and Philadelphia. King, M. L., Jr. (1963). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Reprinted by arrangement with the Heirs of the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., c/o Writer's House, Inc. Keesing. Cultural Anthropology, 1E. © 1976 Wadsworth, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions.

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