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Arrival and secondary spread of non native species in UK fouling communities

John Bishop, Aliya El Nagar & Christine Wood, Marine Biological Association

Annual Science Meeting Liverpool 1-3 June 2009

Nonnative species

www.ascidians.com

The ascidian Styela clava

A fouling pest on submerged gear, oyster beds, mussel culture ropes. Shown here: Prince Edward Island, Canada

Ciona intestinalis Prince Edward Island

Didemnum vexillum

From Minchin & Sides (2006)

From Minchin & Sides (2006) Photo: Gretchen Lambert

Holyhead Harbour Marina £380,000?

International Invasive Sea Squirt Conference-I

Woods Hole 2005

Prince Edward Island 2007

Alien seasquirts in the UK

To 1999 Since 1999

Photo: Gretchen Lambert

Oceans 2025 Deliverable D6.11:

Elucidate spatiotemporal pattern of immigration leading to successful introductions and mechanisms of secondary spread [of nonnative species].

People: Frédérique Viard (Roscoff) and Lise Dupont Paul Hallas Mike Dowell Rocio Pérez Portela Claudia Buser

Styela clava

`Leathery seasquirt' `Clubbed seasquirt'

Native: Japan, Korea, China, Russian Federation

Styela clava. 5 microsatellites. Microgeographical differentiation

MIP Plymouth N.S.

1 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 50

DA Dartmouth p<0.05

Q & G rij

0.5 0

0 -0.5 -1

100

Distance in metres Distance in metres

Distance in metres Distance in metres

Styela clava. 6 microsatellite loci. BAPS (Bayesian analysis of population structure)

Assignment probabilities Clustering of samples of individual genotypes

Northern Denmark

Europe

W coast USA E coast USA Japan

Styela clava. 6 microsatellites. Classification of samples according to BAPS

JEG DOV

PUG

TSU

OTS

RIA

SAN MIS

WOO

CAI CAI FEN FEN FLE FLE SHODVR SHO RAM RAM GOS PLY GUE PLY GUE LEZ LEZ HAV STM STM PER PER

COR COR FAL FAL BRE BRE CON CON ROC ROC

500 km

Corella eumyota

A unitary ascidian forming aggregates)

Native range:

?

Very widespread in cooler waters of Southern Hemisphere

Corella eumyota

Photo: Dan Minchin

On yacht hull

Corella eumyota

Corella eumyota. COI haplotypes (from partial sequences)

H1

H1

Carr Cork

H1

H1

H1

Carl

H1

H1

Fe

H1

Dart Ply

H1

Wa

H1 H2

Gos

H1 H1

Bri

H1

Fal Guer

H1 H1

Boul

H1

H2

H1

FP

H1

H2 H1

H1

Bre

H1

H1

Con

H1

H1 H1

Sv

Per

SM

Cqm

H17

H18

H15 H14

H16

Chil

H1

Sa

H1

Aus

H8 H7 H6 H5

H10 H11 H9

Nz

H2

H13

H3 H4

H12

H2

H2

Corella eumyota. 7 microsatellite loci (BAPS clusters)

Carr

H1

H1

Carl

H1

Fe

H1

Dart Ply

H1

Wa

H1 H2

Gos

H1 H1

Bri

Fal Guer

H1

Boul

H1

H2

H1

H1

FP

H1

H2 H1

Bre

H1

Con

H1

Sv

Per

H1

Sa

H1

Aus

Nz

H2

H2

Corella eumyota On the shore around Plymouth (early 2008)

KEY 0

Plymouth Yacht Haven QAB Torpoint

19 1019 2049 50+

R. Plym

R. Tamar

Cremyll

Numbers found in timed search

Plymouth Sound

Rame Head

Bovisand

R. Yealm

Wembury

5 km

Data: Sam Collin

Marinas and leisure craft: a distribution network for nonnatives?

50 000 UK berths 13 000 in Irish Sea (2004)

Perophora japonica

A colonial (budding) species

Photo: Richard Lord

Native range: Japan, Korea

Perophora japonica

Annual sampling of Plymouth `bridgehead' since first occurrence in 1999: COI

COI Haplotype diversity

Perophora japonica: Year · failing to spread in the UK · appears to be undergoing loss of genetic variability (Plymouth) · population in the Fleet, Dorset, 20002002genetically monomorphic before became extinct. Corella eumyota: resampling of populations at 23 year intervals to assess genetic changes during early colonization.

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