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The Herbal Database A listing of herbs, spices, and medicinal plants & some clues to their uses

by George Wooten, ©1998-2008


The Herbal Database is dedicated to the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, the source of commercial tea. It embodies the quintessence of herbal products, being used medicinally, nutritionally, through folklore, and as a beautiful ornamental, in addition to its worldwide importance as a stimulant.


The Herbal Database is a dictionary of botanical products used as herbs, spices, medicinals, dyes, charms, and foods. The database alphabetically lists botanicals in a table by the most commonly used name, followed by fields for parts used, Latin name(s), botanical family, uses, and constituents. The Herbal Database includes a glossary of terms, an index and a reference bibliography.

How to use the Herbal Database

Disclaimer: The Herbal Database is a listing of natural, primarily plant, products and some of their properties, whether safe or toxic, real or imagined. This database was developed purely for informational purposes only, and does not in any way purport to be a medical or prescriptive guide. As such, the authors and publishers absolve themselves of all responsibility for any accidental or intended harmful effects or illegal activities resulting from the use or abuse of any of these products. Each herb, spice, medicinal, or botanical is contained in six fields that describe some of its most notable properties. The entire set of data is available in both printed form for appearance, and as a computer database, for easy searches. Rather than being a comprehensive database of every natural product in the world, the project is designed to be informative, educational and interesting, thus products included represent those that are most commonly available, familiar, useful, or interesting. Part of this project involved deciding which products to include or not. For instance, some products were excluded because they were rare, endangered, extremely poisonous, merely nutritive, or primarily used in arts, crafts, or as charms. Any suggestions, hints or additions on the database structure or products included or excluded are welcomed. Copies of this database are available as hard copy printouts, or on diskette (in the following IBM PC formats: Word for Windows 2.0, Windows Write, Word Perfect 5.0). For postpaid orders, send $10.00 for the printout or diskette (12.95 for both) to the author, George Wooten, Floradora Farms, PO Box 1099, Winthrop, WA 98862. Field 1, common name. This field lists natural products alphabetically, by commonly used names. The products listed were chosen to be representative of commonly available, poisonous, special-interest, or important medicinal plants with a few products representing dyes, animal, insect, or mineral products. Common, generally English, names were used as key fields, rather than scientific names, because most interest in this project appeared to be lay, rather than scientific, however the index cross-references the products by other common names and Latin binomial. Field 2, parts used. This field contains the part of the natural product normally used. Field 3, scientific Latin binomial name, including commonly used synonyms (in parentheses when positively out-dated), and closely related species within the genus. Field 4, plant family, in botanical Latin. The common names of the approximately 90 families represented are given in the glossary. Field 5, properties and uses. This field summarizes some notable properties, derivatives and uses of the natural product, reputed or actual. Many historical uses are folkloric or based on use of the plant as a talisman, or because of its physical form (the doctrine of signatures, in Old English usage, believed that the shape of a plant was an indicator of the body part it was useful for). Qualities listed are the best fits of literature searches, as data may have been scant, lacking, or ambiguous. Documented unpleasant or dangerous side effects were included if known, however unknown long-term effects or individual


allergic effects could not always be anticipated and noted. No medical recommendations or claims are made for any of these plants; as such the term agent is used preferentially to remedy or cure.

Field 6, chemical constituents. This field lists the names of some of the known chemical constituents. Constituents, when known, were those chemicals responsible for the listed effects, or the most potent chemicals, or those chemicals found in highest quantities in the natural product.


The following short glossary lists some of the terms, conventions and abbreviations used here. This glossary is not meant to be comprehensive, only helpful. abortifacient: an agent that can induce abortions. alkaloid: a nitrogenous, basic, and often medicinal, plant compound. allergen: a compound that produces an allergic reaction. alterative: a compound that alters body metabolism. analeptic: a restorative. analgesic: an agent that relieves pain. anodyne: an agent that relieves pain through reducing nerve excitability. anthelmintic: a preparation to rid the body of worms. anthraquinones: a ketonic tricyclic anthracenes with laxative action. anti-: prefix for terms designating amelioration, relief, or removal. antiacid: an agent to relieve excess stomach, blood or bowel acidity. antiasthmatic: an agent to dilate bronchioles or break up mucus. antibiotic: an agent to inhibit growth of, or destroy, bacteria. anticarcinogen: an agent to counteract cancer. anticatarrhal: an agent to counteract mucus formation. antidepressant: an agent that counteracts mental depression. anti-diarrheal: an agent to relieve diarrhea. antiemetic: an agent that relieves stomach sickness and vomiting. antihyperlipidemic: an agent to reduce arterial plaques. antilithic: an agent to removes stones; lithotryptic. antipsychotic: see tranquilizer. antipyretic: an agent to reduce fever; febrifuge. antisecretory: an agent that dries the body tissues. antiseptic: an agent for skin application to destroy bacteria. antispasmodic: an agent to lessen muscle spasms; spasmolytic. aperient: a gentle laxative. aphrodisiac: an agent to awaken sexual desires. astringent: an agent that coagulates protein. balsams: resinous mixtures containing cinnamates and benzoates. beta-carbolines: tricyclic MAO inhibitors, hallucinogens. bradycardia: a slowed heartbeat. C-5, C-10,...: used to denote number of carbon atoms. carcinogen: a substance that predisposes cancer development. carminative: a substance to relieve the body of excess gas. catalyst: a preparation that makes other remedies more effective. cathartic: see purgative. cholagogue: an agent to promote flow of bile into small intestine. CNS: abbreviation for central nervous system. depressant, CNS: a compound that reduces mental function. coumarins: bicyclic, aromatic molecules that antagonize vitamin K. CV: abbreviation for cardiovascular. decoction: a boiled extract, used for the preparation of roots. decongestant: an agent to relieve nasal congestion. demulcent: a compound that protects abraded tissues. dextrins: partial hydrolysis products of starch. diaphoretic: a compound that increases perspiration; sudorific. diuretic: an agent promoting urination. dyspepsia: an impairment in digestion. emetic: an agent to induce vomiting. emollient: an agent that smooths and protects the skin. emmenagogue: a preparation that hastens the onset of menses. euphoriant: an agent to stimulate mental or physical pleasure. expectorant: preparations used to break up phlegm in lungs. fatty acids: hydrolysis products of fats. febrifuge: see antipyretic. flavonoids: a class of tricyclic molecules. galactogogue: an agent to increase the flow of milk. GI: abbreviation for gastro-intestinal. glyco-: a prefix indicating the attatchment of a sugar to a molecule. glycosides: sugar esters. gums: water swellable carbohydrate derivatives.


HCN: hydrogen cyanide, a respiratory poison. hemolytic: a compound capable of dissolving red blood corpuscles. hemorragic: a compound that leads to internal bleeding. hemostatic: a compound that retards bleeding; styptic. hepatic: an agent used in maintenance of liver function. hypotensive: an agent to reduce blood pressure. infusion: a water extract; a tea. laxative: an aid to solid waste elimination. lithotriptic: see antilithic. MAO: monoamine oxidase, a major brain detoxification enzyme. miotic: a compound that dilates the pupils. moxybustion: the smoke used in acupuncture. mucilage: tacky, water-insoluble sugar derivatives. mydriatic: an agent used to dilate the pupils. MW: abbreviation for molecular weight. nervine: an agent that relieves nervousness; mild tranquilizer. oleoresins: natural mixtures of resins and volatile oils. oxytocic: an agent to promote uterine contractions during childbirth. parasiticide: an external or internal agent to destroy parasites. parasympathomimetic: an agent that excites the parasympathetic nervous system, e.g., tobacco. pectins: partially methoxylated uronic acid sugars. pedicullicide: an agent to control lice. PMS: premenstrual syndrome. purgative: a strong laxative and emetic agent. refrigerant: an agent to cool the body down.

resins: water-insoluble mixtures of resins, their acids, and alcohols. rubefacient: an agent that brings a blush to the cheeks and increases skin circulation. saponins: glycosides with a soaplike water suspension. sedative: mild depressant; somnorific. sialogogue: an agent that promotes the flow of saliva. spasmolytic: see antispasmodic. sp.: abbreviation for species (singular). spp.: abbreviation for species (plural). sterols: molecules related to cholesterol and some hormones. stimulant: an agent to increase body metabolism. stimulant, CNS: a compound that excites mental function. stomachic: a preparation for the benefit of the stomach; also a tonic. sudorific: see diaphoretic. tachycardia: a raised heart beat rate. tannins: bitter principles of plants containing plant polyphenols. terpenes: hydrocarbon volatile oils, often with a strong smell. tonic: an agent that restores normal tone to the body. tranquilizer: an agent that reduces phychotic behavior. vermifuge: see anthelmintic. vulnerary: an agent to increase the healing of wounds. waxes: esters of fatty acids with high molecular weight alcohols. xanthines: CNS stimulants with a purine type structure, e. g., caffeine.


The Herbal Database

Common Name Abelmosk Acacia Agrimony Parts Used seeds gum resin leaves Latin Name(s) Hibiscus moschatus Acacia senegal, A. vera Agrimonia eupatoria Family Malvaceae Leguminoseae Rosaceae Properties & Uses nervine, perfume, aphrodisiac, demulcent gum, sweets, adhesives, demulcent dye, tonic, astringent, vulnerary, diuretic, stomachic, hepatic, antisecretory nutritive spice, carminative fragrance, spice, cinnamon substitute, antispasmodic antiseptic, burn ointment, purgative, GI irritant, not for pregnant tasteless yellow food dye spice, candies, expectorant, carminative, diaphoretic, mild stimulant, antibacterial bitter stomachic, appetite stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, drinks spice, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant vulnerary, external use only culinary, sweetener, anti-diarrheal alterative, llithotriptic, stimulant carminative, expectorant, candies Chemical Constituents

gums, tannins

Alfalfa Allspice

leaves, sprouts seeds

Medicago sativa Pimenta officinalis Calycanthus floridus Aloe barbadoensis, A. vera var. officinalis

Leguminosae Myrtaceae Calycanthaceae Liliaceae

protein eugenol, cineole, caryophyllene

Allspice, Carolina bark Aloe leaves

barbaloin O-pentosides, aloinosides, chrysophanic acid, cinnamic acids angleic, fumaric, caffeic, chrorogenic acids, angelicol, angelicin quinolines: cusparine, cuspareine, galipine, galipodine, galipoline anethole volatile oil, arnicin, arnisterol, anthoxanthine, tannin, resin starch

Anatto Angelica

seeds root

Bixa orellana Bixaceae Angelica archangelica, A. Umbelliferae sinensis, A. spp. Angostura febrifuga, Galipea officinalis Pimpinella anisum Arnica montana, A. spp. Maranta arundinacea Harpagophytum procumbens Ferula assa-foetida Astragalus gummifer, A. glycphyullus, A. sinicus, A. spp. Populus candicans, P. balsamifera Momordica balsamina Berberis vulgaris Rutaceae



Anise Arnica Arrowroot Arthritis Root Asafoetida Astragalus

seeds petals root root resin various parts buds fruit bark, fruits leaves

Umbelliferae Compositeae Marantaceae Pedaliaceae Leguminoseae Leguminosae

ferulic, tannic esters, pinene, vanillin, gum, oil

Balm-of-Gilead Balsam-Apple Barberry Basil, Sweet Bay Leaf Bayberry

Salicace Cucurbitaceae Berberidaceae Labiateae Lauraceae Myricaceae

Chinese medicinal (A. sinica), gums, lotions (A. gummifer), some with selenium or alkaloid toxicity wound sealer, expectorant, antiseptic propolis, sap onamental, fragrance tonic, laxative, refrigerant, antiseptic, stomachic spice, mild stimulant spice, carminative, astringent astringent, emetic, mild stimulant, sialagogue, hemostatic, dye, insecticide, candle wax fragrance antisecretory, mydriatic, antispasmodic, stimulant-depressant, hallucinogen, psychotic, delusinogen tea, fragrance, mild stimulant, carminative parasympathomimetic, stimulantdepressant, dye, narcotic, can cause cardiac strain appetite stimulant, cordial, tea counterirritant, antipyretic, analgesic, irritates ulcers, can cause salicylate poisoning vaginal antihemmorragic, mucous membrane irritant dye, demulcent, expectorant, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma

berberine ocimene (an open chain C-10 terpene) long-chain esters resin, tannin, gum, starch, palmitic, myristic, lauric acids atropine, scopolamine


Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum spp. leaves Laurus nobilis bark Myrica cerifera, M. gale, M. pennsylvanica, M. californica, M. spp. whole plant Atropa belladonna


Bergamot Betel Nuts

leaves seeds

Monarda didyma, M. citriodora, M. spp. Areca catechu

Labiateae Palmaceae

l-linalool acetic ester, dlimonene, carvacrol, cymene arecolines (compounds related to the tobacco alkaloids) methyl salicylate

Betony Birch

leaves bark, sap

Stachys officinalis Betula lenta

Labiateae Betulaceae

Birthroot Bloodroot

root sap, root

Trillium pendulum Sanguinaria canadensis

Liliaceae Papaveraceae

trilline, trillarin (a diglycoside resembling diosgenin) sanguinarine, chelidonine




Peumus boldus




Eupatorium perfoliatum


Borage Buchu Burdock

leaves leaves roots, leaves, stems leaves

Borago officinalis Barosma betulina, Agathosma spp. Arctium lappa

Boraginaceae Rutaceae Compositae

fragrance, tea, carminative, formerly used in hepatic dysfunction, gastric stimulant antimalarial, diaphoretic, mucilage, emetic, depletes blood sugars, chronic toxicity potherb, diuretic, demulcent, emollient, may have chronic toxicity tea, fragrance, weak diuretic, urinary antiseptic, diaphoretic diaphoretic, diuretic, demulcent

volatile oil, boldine (an aporphine) wax, tremetrol, resin, tannin

pyrrolizidines diosphenol, volatile oils, flavonoids volatile oils, inulin, tannin, arctiin (a glycoside)

Burnet, Salad

Sanguisorba officinalis (Poterium sanguisorba) Pedalium murex Acorus calamus Calendula officinalis Eschscholtzia californica Cocculus palmatus, Jateorrhiza palmata


Burra Gokeroo Calamus Calendula California Poppy Calumba

seeds root flowers sap root

Pedaliaceae Araceae Compositeae Papaveraceae Menispermaceae

vulnerary, salad herb, tonic, astringent, hemostatic, diaphoretic, herb beer, cordials GI antiseptic, ganglial stimulant, male aphrodisiac, tonic, antispasmodic anthelmintic, stimulant, carminative, mild hallucinogen, carcinogen vulnerary, astringent, diaphoretic, antispasmodic sedative, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma bitter tonic, toxic?, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma

asarone, eugenol, pinene, camphene, caryophyllene carotenoids, calendulin, a saponin of calendin coptisine, sanguinarine C. indicus contains picrotoxin, menispermine, cocculine, quarternary berberine-type alkaloids 2 - bornanone, a C-10 terpene



Cinnamomum camphora


Capers Caraway Cardamon Carob Carrot Cascara sagrada Castor Bean Catnip

seeds seeds seeds

Capparis spinosa Carum carvi Elettaria cardamomun

Capparidaceae Umbelliferae Zingiberaceae Leguminoseae Umbelliferae Rhamnaceae Euphorbiaceae Labiateae

roasted Ceratonis siliqua seeds whole plant Daucus carota bark bean oil leaves Rhamnus purshiana Ricinus communis Nepeta cataria

incense, counter-irritant, anaesthetic, antiseptic, narcotic, abuse can cause liver and kidney damage spice, seasoning spice, carminative, anti-griping agent, carvone, limonene pedullicide, mild CNS depressant spice, carminative cineole, terpineole, terpinyl acetate spice, condiment, sweetener spice, diuretic, purgative for bladder, antilithic bitter tonic, strong laxative purgative, source of castor oil tea, feline sex stimulant, antispasmodic, nervine, mild CNS stimulant spice, digestive aid, antiseptic, CNS agent, antispasmodic aromatic, appetite stimulant, bitter tonic, stomachic, blood-purifier vitamin A, caryophyllene anthraquinone glycosides triglycerides of fatty acids, mostly ricinoleic and stearic nepetalactone, citral, limonene, geraniol, citronellal, nerol sedonic anhydrides, nitrates

Celery Centaury

seeds whole herb

Apium graveolens


Chamomile, Roman Chamomile, German Chapparal Cherry, Wild Chervil Chia Chickweed

flowers flowers leaves bark leaves seeds, sprouts aboveground parts roasted root roots

Centaurium erythraea, C. Gentianaceae umbellatum, C. spp., Erythraea centaurium Anthemis nobilis Compositeae (Chamaemelum nobile) Matricaria chamomilla Compositeae Larria mexicana, L. divaricata Prunus serotina Anthriscus cerefolium Salvia hispanica, S. columbariae Stellaria media, S. spp. Zygophyllaceae Rosaceae Umbelliferae Labiateae Caryophyllaceae

erythro-centaurin (bitter principle), eritaurin, valeric acid tea, mild stimulant, appetite stimulant, anthemides, tiglic esters bitter tonic, emetic tea, sedative, antipyretic, mild CNS azulenes, sesquiterpenes, depressant alpha-bisabolol antiseptic, alterative, expectorant, NDGA (a powerful diuretic, antibiotic, antioxidant antioxidant) aroma, tea, expectorant, cough syrup, cyanogenic glycosides, stomachic emulsin spice, salad herb anise-like terpenes bulk former, nutritive demulcent, refrigerant, poultice, nutritive coffee additive spice, potherb fructosans allyl disulfides

Chicory Chives

Cichorium intybus Allium schoenoprasum

Compositeae Amaryllidaceae


Chrysanthemum, Edible Chufa Cilantro Cinnamon Citronella Citrus

leaves rhizomes leaves bark leaves peel

Chrysanthemum coronarium Cyperus esculentus Coriandrum sativum Cinnamomum zeylanicum Cymbopogon nardus Citrus aurantium, C. limon Trifolium pratense Syzygium aromaticum, Caryophyllus aromaticus Theobroma cacao

Compositae Cyperaceae Umbelliferae Lauraceae Gramineae Rutaceae

oriental vegetable, potherb flour substitute culinary herb, see Coriander for seed spice, tea, fragrance, perfume insect repellant, perfume candies, nutritive, spice, carminative starch linalool, malic acid, tannin, mucilage cinnamaldehydes citronellal flavonoids, limonene, wax, ketonic acids, aldehydes, esters, alcohols proteins eugenol fat, mucliage, theobromine (a xanthine)

Clover, Red Cloves Cocoa

tops dried flower buds woody fruit

Leguminoseae Myrtaceae Sterculiaceae


roasted beans root root

Coffea arabica


Cohosh, Black Cohosh, Blue

Cimifuga racemosa Caulophyllum thalictroides

Ranunculaceae Berberidaceae

Cola Nuts


Cola nitida, C. acuminata Sterculiaceae

Coltsfoot Comfrey Coriander Costmary Cramp Bark Cubeb

leaves leaves seeds whole herb bark

Tussilago farfara Symphytum officinale Coriandrum sativum Chrysanthemum balsamita Viburnum opulus

Compositeae Boraginaceae Umbelliferae Compositae Caprifoliaceae Piperaceae

dried unripe Piper cubeba fruit seeds Cuminum cyminum

tea, vitamin, protein spice, dental anaesthetic, antiseptic, aphrosidisiac, stimulant, ~allergen cocoa drinks, candies, emollient butter, demulcent, CNS stimulant, can produce nervousness, sleeplessness CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, irritates ulcers & mucous membranes pesticide, bitter astringent, mild emetic, sedative oxytocic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diuretic, not for pregnant analeptic, aphrodisiac, CNS stimulant, diuretic, astringent, irritates ulcers & mucous membranes, can cause nervousness demulcent, expectorant, emollient, smokable poultices, internal demulcent, diuretic, laxative, ~allergen spice, carminative, antipyretic, see Cilantro for leaf fragrance, teas, herb pillows, soups, bitter stomachic, tonic, blood purifier PMS antispasmodic, astringent, nervine spice, aphrodisiac, to heal mucous membranes (as a counterirritant?) spice, liniment


ferulic, palmitic, oleic acids, resin, tannin, cimifugin leontin, caulophylline, saponins, resins xanthines, gum, catechols

tannin, saponins, resin, pectin, caotchouc pyrrolidizines, allantoin, mucilage, tannin linalool, malic acid, tannin, mucilage





Turnera aphrodisiaca, T. diffusa


Dandelion Devil's Club Dill Dita

whole plant Taraxacum officinale roots, bark, Oplopanax horridus leaves seeds, Anethum graveolens flowers bark Alstonia scholaris (Echites scholaris) leaves leaves tree resin rhizome Cunila origanoides Origanum dictamnus Daemonorops draco Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. spp.

Compositeae Araliaceae Umbelliferae Apocynaceae

tea, smokable, aphrodisiac, euphoriant, antipyretic, tonic, purgative, GI irritant hepatic tonic, diuretic, stomachic, antilithic, astringent, cholagogue stomachic, antispasmodic, vulnerary, toothache agent, tonic, charm spice, carminative, stomachic, nervine tonic, astringent, anthelmintic, antimalarial, hallucinogen spice, herb, tea spice, antiseptic, preservative charm, dye, tannin source alterative, contact parisiticide, antiseptic, sialogogue, analgesic, immune system stimulant

terpenes, sesquiterpenes, furanobenze, dipentene, cadinene para-substituted isopropylbenzenes, cuminaldehyde volatile oil

taraxerol, choline, levulin, inulin, pectin

dillapiole chlorogenine, echitamine, echitenine, alsonine, porphyrine carvacrol, thymol sap inulin, sucrose, 2methlytetradecadienes, echinacein, caffeic glycoside

Dittany, Maryland Dittany of Crete Dragon's Blood Echinacea

Labiateae Umbelliferae Palmaceae Compositeae



flowers, fruits, bark

Sambucus nigra, S. canadensis, S. cerulea


Elecampane Epazote Eucalyptus

root leaves

Inula helenium Chenopodium ambrosioides Eucalyptus globulus Oenothera biennis, O. spp. Euphrasia officinalis Helonias dioica (Chamaelirium luteum), H. luteum Foeniculum vulgare

Compositeae Chenopodiaceae Myrtaceae Onagraceae Scrophulariaceae Liliaceae

leaves, pods Evening Primrose leaves Eyebright False Unicorn leaves root






Trigonella foenumgraecum



Flax Fleeceflower Frankincense Galangal

whole plant Pyrethrum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium seeds Linum usitatissimum, L. spp. root Polygonum multiflorum gum resin rhizome Boswellia carteri Alpinia galanga, A. officinarum, Kaempferia galanga Cannabis sativa


Linaceae Polygonaceae Burseraceae Zingiberaceae

aperient, diuretic, dye, diaphoretic, cough syrup, PMS antispasmodic, sedative, HCN toxicity, esp. in bark of N. Am. spp. tonic, charm, expectorant, diuretic, astringent seasoning, anthelmintic, toxic in quantity spice, astringent, anti-diarrheal, expectorant astringent, sedative, anti-aging agent, PMS treatment, potherb alterative, astringent for eye strain formerly used for conception, sexual tonic, emetic, sialogogue, parisiticide, ~toxic to livestock spice, digestive aid, carminative, expectorant, mild stimulant, cold treatment spice, bulk laxative, horse's cure-all, demulcent, aphrodisiac, astringent, emollient, tonic, expectorant, galactagogue, GI irritant tonic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, mild stimulant, emetic, can cause headache & CNS disturbances demulcent, emmollient, bulk former, mucilage, laxative general and reproductive female tonic, diuretic perfume, incense respiratory stimulant, toothache agent, demulcent, antibacterial, hallucinogen appetite stimulant, antiemetic, euphoriant, mild hallucinogen, can cause tachycardia, lowers blood pressure spice, bacteriostat, alterative, antibiotic, expectorant, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, used for heart benefits, GI irritant bitter tonic, stomachic, appetite mild stimulant, digestive aid mouthwash, ointment mild stimulant, tonic, beer flavoring spice, carminative, diaphoretic, mild stimulant, GI irritant mild stimulant, stomachic roasted seeds as a culinary, leaves as a memory enhancer tea, mental stimulant, alterative, stomachic, tonic, can lower blood sugar teas astringent, hemostatic, douche, antibiotic, emmenagogue, antiseptic, smooth muscle stimulant, dyspeptic, hypotensive bitter tonic, oral hemostatic

cyanogenic glycoside, sambuline, viburnic acid, tyrosine, tannic acid inulin, alantol, helenin, alantic acid, resin

volatile oil, resins, tannin, eucalyptic acid, rutin gamma-linoleic acid (GLA,a prostaglandin precursor) tannin, bitter principle


protein, choline, phosphates, trigonelline, volatile oil

pyrethrins, insecticidal compounds mucilage, wax, tannin, gum, cyanogenic glycosides oxalates volatile oil, resins, gum, bassorin flavonoids


flowering tops


tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), an oxygenated terpene derivative allyl disulfides



Allium sativum




Gentiana lutea


Geranium, Scented Gill-Over-TheGround Ginger Ginger, Wild Ginkgo Ginseng

leaves leaves root rhizomes leaves, seeds root

Pelargonium odoratissimum Glechoma hederacea Zingiber officinale Asarum canadense, A. caudatum Ginkgo biloba Panax ginseng

Geraniaceae Labiateae Zingiberaceae Aristolochiaceae Ginkgoaceae Araliaceae

water-soluble phenolic glycosides, gentiopicrin, gentiamarin, gentiin geraniol esters, citronellol, linalool

citral, zingerone, sesquiterpenes, bisabolene methyl eugenol

gingenosides, sapogenins, ginsenin, mucilage, resin anise-like volatile oil hydrastine, berberine-type alkaloids

Goldenrod, Sweet leaves Goldenseal root

Solidago odora Hydrastis canadensis

Compositae Ranunculaceae


root, plant

Coptis trifolia, C. groenlandica, C. spp.


berberine, coptine



Grains of Paradise Gravel Root Guarana

aboveground parts seeds root leaves

Hydrocotyle asiatica var. minor, (Centella asiatica) Aframomum melegueta Eupatorium purpureum Paulinia cupana


Zingiberaceae Compositeae Sapindaceae

memory stimulant, nervine, psychic energizer, alterative, antipyretic, tonic, diuretic spice, cordial bitter, strong antilithic, diuretic, astringent xanthines mild CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, irritates ulcers, mucous membranes cardiac tonic, diuretic, astringent, triterpene acids, flavonoids, antispasmodic, sedative choline, acetylcholine, ascorbic acid hair dye, externally for impotence, lawsone fungicide, ~allergen tea, mild stimulant, fiber mats, rope flavonoids tea, used in brewing beer, antiseptic, stomachic, diuretic, nervine, carminative, anodyne, cholagogue, sedative, smokable expectorant, carminative, mild stimulant, charm, diaphoretic, tonic, candy gentle tonic, mild stimulant, diuretic, anti-diarrheal spice, herb, diaphoretic, diuretic, stomachic, expectorant humulene (a sesquiterpene), lupulon



Crataegus monogyna, C. spp. Lawsonia inermis, L. alba, L. spinosa Hibiscus spp. Humulus lupulus


Henna Hibiscus Hops

leaves stems, flowers leaves

Lythraceae Malvaceae Cannabinaceae



Marrubium vulgare


tannin, marrubin (a bitter hydroxy diterpene lactone) resin, saponin, tannin, mucilage myrosin, sinigrin, choline esters of allylisothiocyanates, N-sulfates silica, nicotine, aconitic acid, equisitine pinene, sesquiterpenes glucosides: baptisin, baptitoxine (cytisine), alkaloid iridin, oleoresin, tannin, gum, camphoraceous substance polysaccharides resin, gum, sugar jasmone

Horse Mint Horseradish

whole plant Collinsonia canadensis roots




Armoracia lapathifolia, A. Brassicaceae rusticana, Rorippa armoracia, Cochleria amoracia Equisetum arvense, E. Equisetaceae spp. Hyssopus officinalis Labiateae Leguminoaeae Iridaceae Gigartinaceae (seaweed) Convolvulaceae Oleaceae Rhamnaceae Pinaceae

Hyssop Indigo, Wild Iris Irish Moss Jalap Jasmine Jujube Juniper


root, leaves Baptisia tinctoria root Iris X florentina

whole plant Chondrus crispus (various seaweeds) root Ipomoea purga flowers Jasminum officinale fruit Zizyphus jujuba, Ziziphus jujuba fruits Juniperus communis

astringent, abrasive, diuretic, mineral source, can cause muscle weakness, abnormal pulse, hypertension pungent spice, poultice, expectorant, mild stimulant, diaphoretic purgative, emetic, vulnerary, can cause heart arrythmias purgative, floral fixative, ~toxic, ~allergen demulcent, nutrient, diet aid, bulk former, emollient drastic purgative tea, incense, florals flavoring for candies urinary and general antiseptic, flavoring for gin, diuretic, overdose can cause kidney and personality disorders, convulsions, catharsis stimulant tea, or narcotic when thoroughly chewed, causes skin lesions amongst the habituated nutritive, mineral source, demulcent, bulk laxative, can cause water retention CNS & spinal stimulant, can cause tachycardia & nervousness perfume fixative, insect repellant

terpinenol, alpha-pinene, camphene, cadinene



Piper methysticum


methysticin, yangonin, dihydrokawain iodine, bromine, alginic acid


Khat Khus-Khus

whole plant Laminaria spp., Fucus spp., Sargassum spp., Macrosytica spp., etc. fresh Catha edulis leaves roots Vetiveria zizanioides, Andropogon muricatus leaves Arctostaphylos uva-ursi


Celastraceae Gramineae



Kuthmithi Labrador Tea

whole plant Wiltharia somnifera leaves Ledum palustre, L. groenlandicum, L. glandulosum

Solanaceae Ericaceae

choline, cathine, cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine vetiverone, a C-15 terpene, vetivenoids, palmitic, benzoic acids smokable, diuretic, antiseptic, GI arbutin (hydrolyses to astringent, mild CNS depressant hydroquinolone), flavonoids, gallic, malic acids sedative, tranquilizer, tonic somniferine, possibly other toxic alkaloids bitter astringent, vulnerary, can cause ledol cause kidney disorders


Lad's Love Lady's Mantle Lady's Slipper

leaves leaves root

Artemisia abrotanum Compositeae Alchemilla vulgaris Rosaceae Cyprepedium pubescens, Orchidaceae Cypripedium spp. Lavandula vera, Lavandula spp. Melissa officinalis Cymbopogon citratus Lactuca virosa, Lactuca quercina Glycyrrhiza glabra Labiateae Labiateae Gramineae Compositeae Leguminoseae

Lavender Lemon Balm Lemon Grass Lettuce, Wild Licorice

flowers leaves leaves leaves root

culinary, astringent, bitter tonic astringent, hemostatic, vulnerary nervine, antispasmodic, sedative, overharvesting is leading to species endangerment sachets, perfumes, bath oils spice, herb, fragrance, diaphoretic, sedative incense, pesticide, perfume, carminative mild narcotic, analgesic, sedative aphrodisiac, stomachic, aperient, expectorant, antispasmodic, androgenic steroid agent, can cause mineral retantion, hypertension astringent, vulnerary for mouth stomachic, sialogogue expectorant, stimulant-depressant, emetic, can cause tolerance

tannins tannin, resins

eucalyptol, borneol, camphor, linalool, terpineol citral, linalool, geraniol methyl heptenone, citronellal, terpene alcohols lactucarine glycyrrhizin (a mild mineral corticoid), gum, tannin, pentacyclic terpenes

Life Everlasting Linden Lobelia

leaves flowers, leaves leaves

Gnaphalium polycephalum Tilia europaea, T. spp. Lobelia inflata

Asteraceae Tiliaceae Lobeliaceae

Lotus Lovage Love Vine Ma-Huang Madder Magnolia Maha

Ligusticum levisticum, Levisticum officinale whole plant Cuscuta spp. leaves Ephedra sinica roots bark flowers Rubia tinctorum Magnolia glauca Quararibea funebris

flower capsules root

Nelumbo spp.

Nelumbonaceae Umbelliferae Cuscutaceae Gnetaceae Rubiaceae Magnoliaceae Bombacaceae

culinary, soup thickener mild stimulant, carminative, emmenagogue, stomachic laxative decongestant, CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, hypertension alizarin crimson dye bitter tonic, diaphoretic perfume, flavoring for chocolate drinks at funerals & festivals, hallucinogen black potpourri color spice, carminative, digestive aid demulcent, emollient, poultice astringent, sex stimulant, urinary antiseptic (GI irritant?) charm, emetic, hemorragic, can cause CV collapse, weak pulse, vasodilation, smooth muscle contractions nasal decongestant, CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness hallucinogen, purgative, abortifacient, can cause gangrene nervine, cardiac tonic, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, laxative, PMS nervine acupuncture moxybustion, dream herb, nervine, diuretic, diaphoretic aphrodisiac smokable, demulcent, rubefacient, astringent, counter-irritant, expectorant spice, poultice, counterirritant, carminative, rubefacient incense, local stimulant, antiseptic, expectorant, mouthwash, embalming fluid, carminative

Alpha-lobeline (a di-(hydroxyethyl-phenyl) - 2 - piperidine, a compound related to tobacco alkaloids) starch

ephedrine anthraquinones 5 - membered cyclic enols and enamines pectin, tannin limonene, other terpenes asparagine, mucilage, sugar, pectin Matico camphor, asarone tyramine, phenethylamines

Malva Marjoram Marshmallow Matico Mistletoe

flowers leaves root leaves stems

Malva spp. Origanum vulgare Althea officinalis Piper angustifolium

Malvaceae Labiateae Malvaceae Piperaceae

Phoradendron flavescens Loranthaceae

Mormon Tea Morning Glory Motherwort

Mugwort Muira Pauma Mullein

whole plant Ephedra vulgaris, E. trifurca, E. spp. seeds Ipomoea violacea, Argyriea nervosa Leonurus cardiaca aboveground parts leaves, Artemisia vulgaris flowers wood Liriosma ovata, Acanthea shavings virilis leaves Verbascum thapsus

Gnetaceae Convolvulaceae Labiateae

ephedrine lysergamides

Compositeae Olacaceae Scrophulariaceae

aromatic resin, muirapaumine, fat saponins



Brassica nigra



gum resin

Commiphora myrra


myrosin, sinigrin, choline esters of allylisothiocyanates, N-sulfates resin, acetic, formic, myrrholic acids


Myrtle Neem

leaves seeds, leaves leaves seed, aril (as mace) stems, leaves bulbs leaves roots leaves, seeds leaves

Myrtus communis Myrtaceae Azadirachta indica (Melia Meliaceae azadirachta) Urtica dioica Myristica fragrans Avena sativa Labiateae Myristaceae Gramineae

Nettles Nutmeg Oat Straw

Onion Oregano Osha Parsley Passion Flower

Allium sativum Origanum major, O. vulgare Ligusticum porteri Petroselinum crispum Passiflora incarnata, P. edulis Pogostemon cablin

Amaryllidaceae Labiateae Umbelliferae Umbelliferae Passifloraceae

fragrance, infusion, gargle timber, antibacterial, antiemetic, soap, toothpaste, insecticide, antipyretic, vulnerary potherb, vitamin, protein, alterative, antiseptic, hemostatic, nutritive emmenagogue, spice, aphrodisiac, mild stimulant, mild hallucinogen nutrient, demulcent, antidepressant, nervine, tonic, antispasmodic, digestive aid, motor ganglial stimulant culinary, spice spice, seasoning herb stomachic, respiratory agent, antipyretic, snakebite agent herb, diuretic, can raise blood pressure smokable, spinal depressant, respiratory stimulant, nervine, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic incense, cosmetic

eucalyptol, d-pinene glycerides, nimbin, a terpenic ester, bitters vitamins, A, C, protein myristicin, elemicin, eugenols albumin, gum, protein, saponin, avenin allyl disulfides terpenes

pinene, apiole beta-carbolines, cyanogenic glycosides, contains HCN patchoulene, azulene, eugenol, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, sesquiterpene




Pau d'Arco

Tabebuia impetiginosa




Mentha pulegium


Pepper, Red


Peppercorns Peppermint Pink Root Plantain, Narrow

fruit leaves root leaves

Capsicum tetragonum, C. Solanaceae annuum, C. frutescens, C. spp. Piper nigrum Piperaceae Mentha piperita Spigelia marilandica Plantago lanceolata Labiateae Loganiaceae Plantaginaceae

Pollen Poppy

pollen from bees seeds

Apis mellifera Papaver somniferum

Insect product Papaveraceae

immune stimulant, anti-allergen, anticarcinogen, anti-fungal, avoid if pregnant herb, carminative, diaphoretic, pedicullicide, mild CNS depressant, overdose can cause kidney damage spice, GI stimulant, nerve ending stimulant, counter-irritant, irritates ulcers and mucous membranes spice, digestive stimulant, mucous membrane irritant tea, spice, candies, antispasmodic, carminative anthelmintic, can cause dizziness, heart palpitations ointment for exzema, burns, hemmorroids, bowel pain, laxative, see Psillium for Plantago seed sweetener, vitamin, nutrient culinary herb


vanillyl noneamides, carotenoids piperidines, piperazines menthol, terpenes spigeline, resin, tannin xylin (a xylopyranose derivative related to cellulose) sugars, vitamins B & C, minerals, hormones albuminoids, ethiodol, lipiodol, devoid of morphine alkaloids

Prickly Ash

stem bark

Prickly Poppy


Zanthoxylum (Xanthoxyllum) americanum, Z. clavaherculis Argemone mexicana



Prince's Pine Psillium

whole plant Chimaphila umbellata, C. Ericaceae spp. fruit, husks Plantago ovata Plantaginaceae

tonic, antispasmodic, flavoring, alterative, rubefacient, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, circulatory stimulant smooth muscle stimulant, causes capillary dilation, can irritate glaucoma, emetic, purgative alterative, diuretic, astringent, tonic antidiarrheal, bulk demulcent, laxative, emollient, expectorant, astringent, see plantain for Plantago leaf GI stimulant, sexual hormone production stimulant nutritive tea, antispasmodic, astringent laxative, astringent, sialogogue, stomachic

protopine, berberine, dihydrosanguinarine, sanguinarine chimaphilin, arbutin, erecolin, tannins colloidal mucilage



Cucurbita pepo


Raspberry Rhubarb

leaves stalks

Rubus ideaus, Rubus spp. Rheum officinale, R. palmatum

Rosaceae Polygonaceae

protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, phosphorus citric acid, tannins anthraquinones


Rose Rosemary Rue

fruits (hips) leaves leaves

Rosa canina, R. spp. Rosmarinus officinalis Ruta graveolens

Rosaceae Labiateae Rutaceae

Rue, Syrian Safflower Saffron

seeds flowers flower stigmas leaves

Peganum harmala Carthamus tinctorius Crocus sativus

Zygophyllaceae Compositae Iridaceae

Sage, Garden

Salvia officinalis


Sagebrush leaves Saint John's Wort tops

Artemisia tridentata Compositae Hypericum perforatum, H. Hypericaceae spp.

Sandalwood Sarsaparilla Sassafrass Savory, Summer Savory, Winter Saw Palmetto

wood chips Santalum album roots root bark leaves leaves fruits Smilax officinalis, S. regelii, S. ornata, S. spp. Sassafrass albidum Satureja hortensis Satureja montana Serenoa repens, S. serrulata

Santalaceae Liliaceae Lauraceae Labiateae Labiateae Palmaceae

Schisandra Sea Holly

fruits leaves

Schisandra glabra, S. sp. Schisandraceae (Magnoliaceae) Eryngium maritmum Umbelliferae

pinene, camphene, borneol, & esters nervine, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, methyl nonyl ketone & esters, emmenagogue, rubefacient, skin and ketones, tannins, methyl anthranilate kidney irritant hallucinogen beta-carbolines floral, food dye, diaphoretic carthamin alpha-crocin (a gentobiose of spice, dye, respiratory stimulant, crocetin) aphrodisiac, rubefacient, can cause bradycardia spice, antisecretory, insect repellant, thujone, camphor, salvene anthelmintic, astringent, perfume perfume, antibacterial camphor hypericin, an 8-ringed external astringent, alterative, compound nervine, sedative, antidepressant, antiviral, can cause dermatitis through ultraviolet light sensitivity incense, fumigant santalol and esters, bicyclic C-15 terpenes toothache, male hormone adjunct, resin, oxalates, phytosterols, tonic, diaphoretic, alterative adrenal hormones spice, tea, tonic, alterative, safrole carcinogen herb, garnish carvacrol herb, stronger than summer savory, carvacrol liquers fatty acids and esters GI stimulant, glandular stimulant, bladder analgesic, tonic, antiseptic, can cause diarrhea ornamental, tonic, sedative aphrodisiac, candies, nervine, alterative, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, mild stimulant, expectorant, used in kidney & bladder disease laxative, anthelmintic, anti-griping agent, can cause dermatitis smokable, sexual stimulant when touched (!) spice, antispasmodic, nervine, especially for genital nerves spice, aphrodisiac sushi ginger spice, herb smokable, sedative, antispasmodic, nervine astringent, nutritive for invalids, demulcent purgative, expectorant, stimulates secretions strong tranquilizer, strong depressant action sometimes fatal aromatic bitter, snakebite agent, emetic, can cause vertigo, abortifacient tonic, demulcent, astringent, emetic, contains potent and dangerous cardioactive glycosides carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, herb tonic, alterative, diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic tea, perfume, anthelmintic, antipyretic

vitamin C source, tea, astringent, aperient spice, herb, carminative, GI irritant

vitamin C, geraniol, citronellol


leaves, pods leaves leaves seeds

Cassia species


Sensitive Plant Serpolet Sesame Shiso Skullcap Slippery Elm

Mimosa pudica Thymus serpyphyllum

Leguminoseae Labiateae Pedaliaceae Labiateae Labiateae Ulmaceae Polygalaceae Apocynaceae Aristolochiaceae

sitosterol, anthraquinone glycosides, chrysophanic, flavonoids, emodins tryptamines

Sesamum orientale, S. indicum leaves Perilla frutescens whole plant Scutellaria lateriflora bark Ulmus fulva Polygala senega Rauwolfia serpentina Aristolochia serpentaria

oil, Calcium

scutellarin (a flavonoid), tannins mucilage, starch, oxalates, polysaccharides, tannins

Snakeroot, root Seneca Snakeroot, Indian roots Snakeroot, Virginia Solomon's Seal root

rauwolfine, serpentine aristolochic acid, an aromatic nitrate constituents unknown, same genus contains cardiac glycosides carvone, limonene, pinene


Convallaria multiflora


Spearmint Speedwell Spicebush

leaves flowers leaves, twigs

Mentha viridis Veronica officinalis Lindera benzoin

Labiateae Scrophulariaceae Lauraceae


Spikenard, American Star Anise Stevia Storax

root seeds leaves gum resin

Aralia racemosa, A. spinosa Illicium verum Stevia rebaudiana Liquidambar styraciflua

Araliaceae Magnoliaceae Compositae Hammamelidaceae

mild stimulant, alterative, expectorant, flavoring spice, mild stimulant, carminative sweetener breath sweetener

Strawberry Strychnine

leaves seeds

Fragaria vesca, F. spp. Strychnos nux-vomica

Rosaceae Loganiaceae



Sweet Cicely Tamarind Tansy Tarragon Tea

root seed pulp herb leaves leaves

Rhus glabra, R. aromatica, R. typhina, R. spp. Osmorrhiza odorata, O. spp., Myrrhis odorata Tamarindus indica Tanacetum vulgare


mild astringent, nutritive, antihistamine catalyst catalyst, spinal stimulant, tonic, can can cause rapid pulse, convulsions, death tea, astringent

starch, pectin, resin, active compound not isolated anethole, phellandrene stevioside (a diterpene glycoside) storesin, benzoates, cinnamates, cinnamic acid, styrene vitamin C, minerals, catechins strychnine

albumin, gum, tannin, resin, malic acid anise-like volatile oil citric, malic acids, potassium, gum, pectin, grape sugar resins, thujone, camphor, borneol

Umbelliferae Leguminosae Compositae

Artemisia dracunculus, A. Compositae dracunculoides Thea sinensis, Camellia Theaceae, sinensis Ternstroemiaceae Melaleuca quinquenervia, Myrtaceae M. cajuputi, M. alternifolia, M. spp., Leptospermum ericoides, L. petersonii, L. scoparium, L. spp. Gaultheria procumbens Thymus vulgaris Nicotiana tobaccum, N. attenuata, N. spp. Coumarouna odorata Curcuma longa, C. domestica Ericaceae Labiateae Solanaceae

aromatic, carminative, expectorant, stomachic sour flavoring, soup thickener, curries, chutneys bitter tonic, anthelmintic, abortifacient, can cause convulsions herb CNS stimulant, anticarcinogen, can cause nervousness, can cause cardiac strain timber, tea, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, anthelmintic, mild stimulant, vulnerary, expectorant, various essential oils (cajuput, niaoli from Leptospermum spp., tea-tree oil from Melaleuca spp.), counter-irritant, elevates blood pressure tea, spice, carminative, antirheumatic, anticarcinogen, diuretic carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, rubefacient stimulant-depressant, can cause dependance, lung cancer, heart disease perfumes, vanilla adulterant, toxic, hemmorragic curries, condiments, dye


Tea Tree


cineol, terpineol, valeric, benzoic and butyric aldehydes

Teaberry Thyme Tobacco

fruit leaves leaves

methyl salicylate thymol, carvacrol, cymene, pinene nicotine

Tonka Bean Turmeric

seeds rhizomes

Leguminoseae Zingiberaceae

coumarins curcumin, cinnamoids, turmerone, alphaphellandrene, sabinene, cineol, borneol low MW bornyl esters, camphene, velerines, pinene, limonene, valepotriat vanillin, vanillic acid coumarins



Valeriana officinalis, V. spp. Vanilla planifolia Heirochloa odorata Lippia citriodora, Aloysia triphylla Verbena officinalis


narcotic, antispasmodic, tranquilizer, sedative spice, fragrance fragrance, liquers, hemmorragic teas, potpourris, sachets, drinks, garnish antipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, astringent, antispasmodic, vulnerary, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, tea dye, perfume, aperient, acid-base indicator, anticarcinogen, cough syrup, nutritive, anodyne spice and condiment used in Japanese cuisine diuretic, mild stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, emetic in large doses) astringent, analgesic, antipyretic, ornamental, aromatic tonic, sedative, can cause ulcers

Vanilla Vanilla Grass Verbena, Lemon Vervain

pods leaves leaves flowers, leaves aboveground parts root root bark

Orchidaceae Gramineae Verbenaceae Verbenaceae


Violet, Sweet

Viola odorata, Viola spp.


flavonoids, salycilates

Wasabi Water Eryngo Willow

Wasabi japonica Eryngium aquaticum Salix alba, S. spp.

Cruciferae Umbelliferae Salicaceae



Witch Hazel Woodruff, Sweet Wormseed Wormwood Yarrow Yerba de Maté Yerba de Santa

twigs Hammamelis virginiana whole plant Asperula odorata tops Chenopodium botrys

Hammamelidaceae Rubiaceae Chenopodiaceae Compositae Compositae Aquifoliaceae Hydrophyllaceae

tops, leaves Artemisia absinthium flowering tops leaves leaves Achillea millefolium Ilex paraguaiensis Eriodictyon californicum

externally as astringent, hemostatic pot pourri fixative, May wine flavor, hemmorragic, vitamin K antagonist dried arrangements, pot pourri, anthelmintic, ~toxic cordials, narcotic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, diaphoretic antiseptic, astringent, hemostatic, tonic, anti-itching agent CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness expectorant, tonic, cough syrup

gallitannins coumarins, asperuloside, tannins ascaridiol thujone

caffeine, theobromine eriodictyol


Index to Synonyms

The following index lists alternate common and Latin synonyms for the Herbal Database. This index contains alternate synonyms not used as the key field for the Herbal Database. Genera with multiple species referrences are abbreviated sp. Different plants with identical synonyms are both given, separated by semicolons.

Acacia sp.: Acacia Acanthea virilis: Muira Pauma Achillea millefolium: Yarrow Acorus calamus: Calamus Adam Red: Bergamot Aframomum melegueta: Grains of Paradise Agastache sp.: Hyssop Agathosma sp.: Buchu Agrimonia eupatoria: Agrimony Alchemilla vulgaris: Lady's Mantle Alehoof: Gill-Over-The-Ground Alligator Pepper: Grains of Paradise Allium sp.: Garlic; Onion; Chives Aloysia triphylla: Verbena, Lemon Alpinia sp.: Galangal Alstonia scholaris: Dita Althea officinalis: Marshmallow Ambrette: Abelmosk Ambrosia: Wormseed American Storax: Storax Andropogon citratum: Lemon Grass Andropogon muricatus: Khus Khus Andropogon muricatus: Khus-Khus Anethum graveolens: Dill Angostura febrifuga: Angostura Anthemis nobilis: Chamomile, Roman Anthriscus cerefolium: Chervil Apis mellifera: Pollen Apium graveolens: Celery Apocynum cannabinum: Jaborandi Aralia sp.: Spikenard, American Archangel Root: Angelica Arctium lappa: Burdock Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: Kinnickinnick Areca catechu: Betel Nuts Argemone mexicana: Prickly Poppy Argyreia sp.: Morning Glory Argyriea nervosa: Morning Glory Aristolochia serpentaria: Snakeroot, Virginia Armoracia sp.: Horseradish Artemesia absinthium: Wormwood Artemesia dracunculus: Tarragon Artemesia dracunculoides: Tarragon Artemisia abrotanum: Lad's Love Artemisia dracunculoides: Tarragon Artemisia vulgaris: Mugwort Asarum sp.: Ginger, Wild Asperula odorata: Woodruff, Sweet Atropa belladonna: Belladonna Avena sativa: Oat Straw Azadirachta indica: Neem Bachelor's Buttons: Centuary Balm: Lemon Balm; Balm-of-Gilead; Bergamot Baptisia tinctoria: Indigo, Wild Barosma betulina: Buchu Basswood: Linden Bearberry: Kinnickinnick Bee Balm: Bergamot Bee fodder: Borage Berberis vulgaris: Barberry Bethroot: Birthroot Betula lenta: Birch Bible Leaf: Costmary Bissy: Cola Nuts Bixa orellana: Anatto Black Indian Hemp: Jaborandi Blue Flag: Iris Bluebottle: Centuary Borago officinalis: Borage Boswellia carteri: Frankincense Brassica sp.: Mustard Burrage: Borage Button Snake Root: Water Eryngo Cacao: Cocoa Calendula officinalis: Calendula Calycanthus floridus: Allspice, Carolina Camellia sinensis: Tea Canadian Hemp: Jaborandi Cannabis sativa: Ganja Capparis spinosa: Capers Capsicum sp.: Pepper, Red Carrageenan: Irish Moss Carthamus tinctorius: Safflower Carum carvi: Caraway Caryophyllus aromaticus: Cloves Cassia sp.: Senna Catarrh Root: Galangal Catha edulis: Khat Caulophyllum thalictroides: Cohosh, Blue Cayenne: Pepper, Red Camellia sinensis: Tea Centaurium sp.: Centaury Centella asiatica: Gotu-Kola Ceratonis siliqua: Carob Chamaelirium luteum: False Unicorn Chamaemelum nobile: Chamomile, Roman Chamalirium luteum: False Unicorn Checkerberry: Squaw Vine; Teaberry Chenopodium sp.: Wormseed, Epazote Cherry: Wild Cherry Chimaphila sp.: Prince's Pine Chinese Parsley: Coriander Chocolate: Cocoa Chondrus crispus: Irish Moss Chrysanthemum balsamita: Costmary Chrysanthemum coronarium: Chrysanthemum, Edible Chrysanthemum parthenium: Feverfew Chuchupate: Osha Cichorium intybus: Chicory Cimifuga racemosa: Cohosh, Black Cinnamomum camphora: Camphor Cinnamomum zeylanicum: Cinnamon Clover: Clover, Red Cocculus palmatus: Calumba Coffea arabica: Coffee Cola sp.: Cola Nuts Collinsonia canadensis: Horse Mint Columbo: Calumba Commiphora myrra: Myrrh Cone Flower: Echinaceae Convallaria multiflora: Solomon's Seal Coptis sp.: Goldthread Coriandrum sativum: Coriander; Cilantro Coumarouna odorata: Tonka Bean Crataegus sp.: Hawthorn Crazyweed: Astragalus Crocus sativus: Saffron, Indian Cucurbita pepo: Pumpkin Cuminum cyminum: Cumin Cunila origanoides: Dittany, Maryland Curcuma sp.: Turmeric Cus Cus: Khus Khus Cuscuta sp.: Love Vine Cyani: Centuary Cydonia vulgaris: Quince Cymbopogon citratus: Lemon Grass Cymbopogon nardus: Citronella Cyperus esculentus: Chufa Cyprepedium sp.: Lady's Slipper Daemonorops draco: Dragon's Blood Daucus carota: Carrot Dent de Lion: Dandelion Devil Tree: Dita Devil's Claw: Arthritis Root Devil's Dung: Asafoetida Diosma ericoides: Buchu Dittany: Dittany, Maryland; Dittany of Crete Dodder: Love Vine Dong Quai: Angelica Echinacea sp.: Echinacea Echites scholaris: Dita Elettaria cardamomun: Cardamon Endive: Chicory Ephedra sp.: Ma-Huang; Mormon Tea Equisetum sp.: Horsetail Eriodictyon californicum: Yerba de Santa Eryngium sp.: Water Eryngo; Sea Holly Eryngo: Water Eryngo; Sea Holly Erythraea centaurium: Centaury Eschscholtzia californica: California Poppy Eucalyptus globulus: Eucalyptus Eupatorium perfoliatum: Boneset Eupatorium purpureum: Gravel Root Euphrasia officinalis: Eyebright Ferula assa-foetida: Asafoetida Fo Ti Root: Fleeceflower Fo Ti Tieng: Gotu-Kola Foeniculum vulgare: Fennel Food of the Gods: Asafoetida Fragaria sp.: Strawberry Fucus sp.: Kelp Galipea officinalis: Angostura Garden Heliotrope: Valerian Gaultheria procumbens: Teaberry Gentiana lutea: Gentian German Chamomile: Chamomile, German Ginkgo biloba: Ginkgo Glechoma hederacea: Gill-Over-The-Ground Glycyrrhiza glabra: Licorice Gnaphalium polycephalum: Life Everlasting Goldenrod: Goldenrod, Sweet Goosefoot: Wormseed Grapple plant: Arthritis root Great Flannel Mullein: Mullein Ground Ivy: Gill-Over-The-Ground


Guinea Grains: Grains of Paradise Gum Arabic: Acacia Gum Tragacanth: Astragalus Hammamelis virginiana: Witch Hazel Hardrock: Horse Mint Harpagophytum procumbens: Arthritis Root Hedge Maids: Gill-Over-The-Ground Heirochloa odorata: Vanilla Grass Helonias sp.: False Unicorn Hemp: Ganja Herb of Gladness: Borage Herb of Grace: Rue Hibiscus sp.: Abelmosk; Hibiscus Ho Shou Wu: Fleeceflower Holy Grass: Vanilla Grass Hop Marjoram: Dittany of Crete Horse Balm: Horse Mint Humulus lupulus: Hops Hydrangea arborensis: Hydrangea Hydrastis canadensis: Goldenseal Hydrocotyle asiatica: Gotu-Kola Hypericum perforatum: Saint John's Wort Hyssopus officinalis: Hyssop Ilex paraguaiensis: Yerba de Mate Illicium verum: Star Anise Indian Physic: Jaborandi Indian Tobacco: Lobelia; Mullein Inula helenium: Elecampane Ipomoea purga: Jalap Ipomoea violacea: Morning Glory Iris X florentina: Iris Jasminum officinale: Jasmine Jateorrhiza palmata: Calumba Joe Pye Weed: Gravel Root Juniperus communis: Juniper Kaempferia galanga: Galangal Kalumb: Calumba Lactuca sp.: Lettuce, Wild Laminaria sp.: Kelp Larrea sp.: Chapparal Laurel: Bay Leaf Laurus nobilis: Bay Leaf Lavandula sp.: Lavender Lawsonia sp.: Henna Ledum sp.: Labrador Tea Lemon: Citrus Leonurus cardiaca: Motherwort Leopard's Bane: Arnica Leptospermum sp.: Tea Tree Lettuce: Lettuce, Wild Levisticum officinale: Lovage Ligusticum levisticum: Lovage Ligusticum porteri: Osha Lime Tree: Linden Lindera benzoin: Spicebush Linseed: Flax Linum sp.: Flax Lion's Tooth: Dandelion Lippia citriodora: Verbena, Lemon Liquidambar styraciflua: Storax Liriosma ovata: Muira Pauma Lobelia inflata: Lobelia Locoweed: Astragalus Lousewort: Betony Mace: Nutmeg Macrosytica sp.: Kelp Magnolia glauca: Magnolia Maidenhair tree: Ginkgo Maraba: Galangal Maranta arundinacea: Arrowroot Margosa: Neem Marigold: Calendula Marijuana: Ganja Marrubium vulgare: Horehound Maryjane: Ganja Maryland Dittany: Dittany, Maryland Master Of The Woods: Woodruff, Sweet Matricaria chamomilla: Chamomile, German Medicago sativa: Alfalfa Melia azadirachta: Neem Melissa officinalis: Lemon Balm Mentha piperita: Peppermint Mentha pulegium: Pennyroyal Mentha viridis: Spearmint Milfoil: Yarrow Mimosa pudica: Sensitive Plant Mitchella repens: Squaw Vine Momordica balsamina: Balsam-Apple Monarda sp.: Bergamot Moth Herb: Labrador Tea Mother of Thyme: Serpolet Mountain Balm: Bergamot Mugwort: Mugwort, Tarragon Muskseed: Abelmosk Myrica sp.: Bayberry Myristica fragrans: Nutmeg Myrrhis odorata: Sweet Cicely Myrtle: Bayberry Myrtus communis: Myrtle Nard: Spikenard Nelumbo sp.: Lotus Nepeta cataria: Catnip Nicotiana sp.: Tobacco Nim: Neem Ocimum sp.: Basil, Sweet Oenothera biennis: Evening Primrose Old Man: Lad's Love Old Man's Root: Spikenard Olibanum: Frankincense Oplopanax horridus: Devil's Club Orange: Citrus Origanum sp.: Oregano; Marjoram; Dittany of Crete Orris: Iris Osmorrhiza sp.: Sweet Cecily Oswego Tea: Bergamot Panax ginseng: Ginseng Papaver somniferum: Poppy Paraguay Tea: Yerba de Mate Partridge Berry: Squaw Vine Passiflora sp.: Passion Flower Paulinia cupana: Guarana Pedalium murex: Burra Gokeroo Peganum harmala: Rue, Syrian Pelargonium odoratissimum: Geranium, Scented Perilla frutescens: Shiso Petroselinum crispum: Parsley Peumus boldus: Boldo Phoradendron flavescens: Mistletoe Pimenta officinalis: Allspice Pimpinella anisum: Anise Piper angustifolium: Matico Piper cubeba: Cubeb Piper methysticum: Kava-kava Piper nigrum: Peppercorns Pipsissewa: Prince's Pine Plankton: Spirulina Plantago lanceolata: Plantain, Narrow Plantago ovata: Psillium Pogostemon cablin: Patchouli Polygala senega: Snakeroot, Seneca Polygonum multiflorum: Fleeceflower Populus sp.: Balm-of-Gilead Pot: Ganja Pot Marigold: Calendula Poterium sanguisorba: Burnet, Salad Prunus serotina: Cherry, Wild Purple coneflower: Echinacea Pyrethrum parthenium: Feverfew Quararibea funebris: Maha Quassia: Senna Queen of the Meadow: Gravel Root Rattle Root: Cohosh, Black Rattlebush: Wild Indigo Rauwolfia serpentina: Snakeroot, Indian Red Bee Balm: Bergamot Reefer: Ganja Rhamnus purshiana: Cascara sagrada Rheum sp.: Rhubarb Rhus sp.: Sumac Ricinus communis: Castor Bean Roman Chamomile: Chamomile, Roman Rosa sp.: Rose Rose Geranium: Geranium Rosmarinus officinalis: Rosemary Rubia tinctorum: Madder Rubus sp.: Raspberry Ruta graveolens: Rue S. columbariae: Chia Salix sp.: Willow, White Salvia hispanica: Chia Salvia officinalis: Sage, Garden Sambucus sp.: Elderberry Sang: Ginseng Sanguinaria canadensis: Bloodroot Sanguisorba officinalis: Burnet, Salad Santalum album: Sandalwood Sarcocolla Gum: Astragalus Sarenea serrulata: Saw Palmetto Sargassum sp.: Kelp Sassafrass albidum: Sassafrass Satureja hortensis: Savory, Summer Satureja montana: Savory, Winter Scabwort: Elecampane Scullcap: Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora: Skullcap Seneca: Snakeroot, Seneca Senega: Snakeroot, Seneca Serenoa sp.: Saw Palmetto Serpentaria: Snake Root, Virginia Sesamum sp.: Sesame Seven Barks: Hydrangea Shoo Koo: Fleeceflower Shungiku: Chrysanthemum, Edible Smilax sp.: Sarsaparilla Snakeroot: Echinacea; Calamus; Ginger, Wild Solidago odora: Goldenrod, Sweet Southernwood: Lad's Love Spigelia marilandica: Pink Root Spignet: Spikenard Squaw Bush: Cramp Bark Squaw Root: Cohosh, Blue Stachys officinalis: Betony Starweed: Chickweed Starwort: Chickweed Stellaria sp.: Chickweed Stevia rebaudiana: Stevia Stone Mint: Horse Mint Stone Root: Horse Mint; Dittany, Maryland Strychnos nux-vomica: Strychnine Styrax: Storax Sweet Flag: Calamus Sweet Gum: Storax Sweet Magnolia: Magnolia Sweet Rush: Calamus Sweet Weed: Marshmallow Symphytum officinale: Comfrey Syzygium aromaticum: Cloves


Tailed Pepper: Cubeb Tamarindus indica: Tamarind Tanacetum vulgare: Tansy Tang Kuei: Angelica Taraxacum officinale: Dandelion Thea sinensis: Tea Theobroma cacao: Cocoa Thoroughwort: Boneset Thymus serpyphyllum: Serpolet Thymus vulgaris: Thyme Tilia sp.: Linden Traganth Gum: Astragalus Trifolium pratense: Clover, Red Trigonella foenum-graecum: Fenugreek Trillium pendulum: Birthroot Tunhoof: Gill-Over-The-Ground Turnera sp.: Damiana Tussilago farfara: Coltsfoot Ulmus fulva: Slippery Elm Urtica dioica: Nettles Uva Ursi: Kinnickinnick Valeriana officinalis: Valerian Vanilla planifolia: Vanilla Velvet Dock: Mullein Verbascum thapsus: Mullein Verbena: Verbena, Lemon; Vervain Verbena officinalis: Vervain Veronica officinalis: Speedwell Vetiveria zizanioides: Khus-Khus Vetivert: Khus-Khus Viburnum opulus: Cramp Bark Viola sp.: Violet, Sweet Wake Robin: Birthroot Wasabi japonica: Wasabi Water Eryngo: Sea Holly White Bay: Magnolia Wild Senna: Senna Wiltharia somnifera: Kuthmithi Wintergreen: Teaberry Wolf's Bane: Arnica; Aconite Wood Betony: Betony Woodruff: Sweet Woodruff Xanthoxyllum americanum: Prickly Ash Yellow Root: Gold Thread Zanthoxylum sp.: Prickly Ash Zingiber officinale: Ginger Ziziphus (Zizyphus) jujuba: Jujube


Bailey, L. H., 1977. Manual of Cultivated Plants, 16th ed., Macmillan Publ. Co., NY, NY. Bianchine, Francesco, and Francesco Corbetta, 1985. The Complete Book of Health Plants: Atlas of Medicinal Plants, Crescent Books, New York. Coon, Nelson, 1974. The Dictionary of Useful Plants, Roadle Press, Emmaus, Pa. Geissman, T. A., and D. H. G. Crout, 1969. Organic Chemistry of Secondary Plant Metabolism. Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco Genders, Roy, 1988. Edible Wild Plants, a Guide to Natural Foods, van der Marck Editions, NY, NY. Grieve, Mrs. M., 1971. A Modern Herbal in Two Volumes, a 1971 Dover reprint of an original by Harcourt Brace and Co. in 1931, Dover Publications, Inc., New York. Harding, A. R., 1972. Ginseng and Other Medicinal Plants, Rev. Ed. Columbus Ohio. Lust, John, 1974. The Herb Book, Bantam Books, New York. Mabberly, D.J., 1987. The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Great Britain. Meyer, Joseph, rev. and enlarged by Clarence Meyer, 1981 (original from 1918). The Herbalist, Meyerbooks, Glenwood, Illinois. Morton, Julia F., 1977. Major Medicinal Plants, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. Rehder, Alfred, 1940. The Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America, 2nd ed, Macmillan Publ. Co., NY, NY. Rose, Jean, 1976. Jeanne Rose's Herbal Body Book: The Herbal Way to Natural Beauty and Health for Men and Women, Pedigree Books, Putnam, NY, NY. Santillo, Humbart, 1989. Natural Healing With Herbs, Hohm Press, Prescott, AZ. Spoerke, David G., Jr., 1990. Herbal Medications, Woodbridge Press, Santa Barbara Calif. Stecher, Paul G., ed., 1968. The Merck Index, Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ. Tyler, Varro E., L. R. Brady, and J. E. Robbers, 1981. Pharmacognosy, Eighth Ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA. Wheelwright, Edith Gray, 1974 (original from 1935 by Houghton Mifflin). Medicinal Plants and Their History, Dover Publications, Inc., New York.


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Note: This draft, dated 9 July 2004, prepared by the US Army Research Laboratory, Department of the Army, has not been approve