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SYSTEMIC MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY

*Ameen F. M. Fahmy, **J. J. Lagowski

* Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Science Education Center, Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt E-mail: [email protected] ** Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry the University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 E-mail: [email protected]

19th ICCE, Seoul, Aug. 12-17 (2006)

In the last nine years, we have designed, implement, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC)[1-4]. In continuing this work, we have designed a new kind of objective test based on systemics, which is presented here. The questions in objective tests require a very short answer. The questions are related to facts (thus, objective) which have unequivocal answers. Objective questions can be multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the blank. The scoring procedure for an objective test is completely specified enabling agreement among different scorers. Traditional objective tests are usually good instruments examining the recall of information and the application of terms, but they cannot assess learning beyond comprehension. However, systemic objective tests can challenge students and potentially can test higher learning levels (e.g., analysis, synthesis, and evaluation in Bloom's taxonomy [5,6]). We illustrate here examples of systemic multiple choice questions that can form the basis of conventional objective tests and which require a choice from a list of possible systemic-related answers. Each systemic choice represents three to five physical, or chemical relations, between concepts, atoms, or molecules. Various types of systemic multiple choice questions from the fields of general, organic, heterocyclic, and physical, chemistry are presented here.

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Type (I): Choices from among triangular systemics: General Description:

Which of the following systemic diagrams represents the correct relations between (A C)? Indicate the correct systemic diagram by a ( ):

(A, B, C) are concepts, atoms, or compounds. (X, Y, Z) are physical or chemical relations. a)

Z

A

b)

X Z

A

Y

C

Y

(......)

B

C

X

(......)

B

c)

A

Y Z

d)

A

Y X

C

(......)

X

B

C

(......)

Z

B

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

Specific Examples:

Q1. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between iron and its compounds?

a)

Fe

b)

dil H2SO4 Zn

Fe

Cl2/ heat/ air

H2SO4/ O2

Fe2(SO4)3

(......)

FeSO4

FeCl2

FeCl3

(......)

c)

CO/ 700°C

Fe

O 2/ CO 400-700°C Fe3O4

d)

Fe

O 2/ dil./H2SO4

FeO

FeSO4

FeO

(......) Correct answer ( ) is (c)

(......)

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Q2. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between sodium and its compounds? a)

electrolysis

Na

O2/ burn

b)

CO2

Na

O2/ burn

HCl

H2O

NaCl

(......)

Na2O

NaOH

(......)

Na2O

c)

Na

H2O

d)

Mg

Na

H2O

CO2

HCl

Na2CO

(......)

NaOH

NaCl

(......)

NaOH

Correct answer is ( ) (a) Q3. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between ethylene, ethanol, ethyl bromide? a)

aq. KOH, dil/H2SO4 CH2 = CH2

b)

CH2 = CH2

alco. KOH, dil/H2SO4

PBr3

CH CH Br CH3 -CH2OH

3 2

PBr3

CH3CH2OH

(...........)

CH - CH - Br CH33CH22OH

CH3 - CH2OH

(............)

c)

alco. KOH,

CH2 = CH2 Conc./H2SO4

d)

HBr

CH2 = CH2 Conc./H2SO4

PBr3

CH CH OH CH33-CH22Br

PBr3

CH3CH2OH

(..........)

CH - CH - Br CH33CH22OH

CH3 - CH2OH

(..........)

Correct answer ( ) is (b)

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Q4. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between benzene/ chlorobenzene, and phenol?

Correct answer is ( ) (c) Q5. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between pyrrole and its related compounds?

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

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Type (II): Choices from among quadrilateral systemics:

Q1. Which systemic diagram represents the correct relations between (A Indicate the correct systemic diagram by a ( ): (A, B, C,D) are concepts, atoms, or compounds. (X, Y, Z,E) are relations. D)

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

Specific Examples:

Q1. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between iron and its compounds?

Correct answer ( ) is (b)

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Q2. Which systemic diagram represents the correct sequence of physical properties?

Correct answer ( ) is (c)

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Q3. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between sodium and its compounds?

Correct answer ( ) is (d) Q4. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between calcium and its compounds?

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

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Q5. Which systemic diagram represents the reaction sequence Substitution ­ Substitution ­ Elimination ­ Addition?

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

Q7. Which Systemic diagram represents the chemical relations between oxirane, aziridine, ethanolamine, and ethylene?

Correct answer ( ) is (b)

Type (III): Choices from among pentagonal systemics:

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Which systemic diagram represents the correct relations between (A Indicate the correct systemic diagram by a ( ): (A E) are concepts, atoms or compounds. (X, Y, Z,M,F) are physical or chemical relations.

a M E D Z A X B Y C b Z E D M A X B Y C

E)?

F

F

(......)

(......)

c A F E D Z E X B d Y C M A

Y

B

X C

M

(......)

F (......)

D

Z

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

Specific Examples:

Q1. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between calcium and its compounds?

a O2

Ca

CaO

H2O

electrolysis

Ca(OH)2

HCl

CO2

CaCl2

(.......................)

CaCO3

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HCl b)

Ca(OH)2

CaCl2

electrolysis

Ca

H2SO4

CO2

CaSO4

(..............) c)

CaCO3

CaCO3

CaO

HCl

H2O

CaCl2

electrolysis O2

CaO

(..............)

Ca

HCl d

CaO

CaCl2

electrolysis

Ca

H2SO4

CO2 Ca(OH)2

CaCO3

(..............)

Correct answer ( ) is (a)

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Q2. Which systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between ethylene, ethane, acetaldehyde, ethylbromide, and ethanol?

a) Br2/ hv

CH3-CH3

CH3CH2Br

aq. KOH

H2/Ni

CH3CH2OH

KMnO4/ Conc.H2SO4

HgSO4/

CH2=CH2

dil H2SO4

(.......................)

CH3CHO

b HBr

CH2=CH2

CH3CH2Br

aq. KOH

H2/Ni

CH3CH2OH

Zn/ Conc. HCl/

KMnO4/ Conc.H2SO4

CH3-CH3

(.......................) c) alco. KOH

CH3CHO

CH3CH2Br

CH2=CH2

dil/H2SO4

Br2/ hv

CH3CH2OH

KMnO4/ Conc.H2SO4

CH3-CH3

Zn/ Conc. HCl/

CH3-CHO

(.......................)

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d)

aq. KOH

CH3CH2Br

CH3-CH2OH

dil/H2SO4

HBr

CH3CHO

Zn/ Conc. HCl/ H2/Ni

CH2=CH2

(.........................)

CH3-CH3

Correct answer ( ) is (c)

CONCLUSIONS

We have shown how the ubiquitous multiple choice format for questions can be adapted to evaluate student learning using the systemic method of teaching. These kinds of questions probe the student's ability to make maximum connections between classical concepts, elements, compounds, and their reactions. Additionally, students' recognition of patterns of connection instead of the individual convictions is an important outcome of teaching and learning. Using systemic methods are important outcomes of that process and the evaluation technique described here probes that characteristic. Keywords: Systemics, objective tests, evaluation

References: 1- Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J., J. Pure and Appl. 1998, [15th ICCE, Cairo, August 1998]. 2- Fahmy, A. F. M., Hamza, M. A., Medien, H. A. A., Hanna, W. G., Abdel-Sabour, M. : and Lagowski, J.J., Chinese J.Chem. Edu. 2002, 23(12),12 [17th ICCE, Beijing, August 2002]. 3- Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J; J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80 (9), 1078. 4- Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., "Using SATL Techniques to Assess Student Achievement," [18th ICCE, Istanbul Turkey, 3-8, August 2004).

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5- Bloom, B.; Englehart, M.; Furst, E.; Hill, W. and Krathwohl, D. (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green. 6- Anderson, L. W. and Drathwohl (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.

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