Read Chapter 8 Resource: Life's Structure and Classification text version

Glencoe Science

Chapter Resources

Life's Structure and Classification

Includes:

Reproducible Student Pages

ASSESSMENT

Chapter Tests Chapter Review

TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES

Section Focus Transparency Activities Teaching Transparency Activity Assessment Transparency Activity

HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES

Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory Activities Foldables­Reading and Study Skills activity sheet

Teacher Support and Planning

Content Outline for Teaching Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and Answers

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets

Glencoe Science

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Reproducible Student Pages

Reproducible Student Pages

Hands-On Activities

MiniLAB: Try at Home Communicating Ideas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MiniLAB: Modeling Cytoplasm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Lab: Comparing Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lab: Design Your Own Comparing Light Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Laboratory Activity 1: The Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Laboratory Activity 2 :Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Foldables: Reading and Study Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Meeting Individual Needs

Extension and Intervention Directed Reading for Content Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Enrichment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Note-taking Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Assessment

Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Transparency Activities

Section Focus Transparency Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Teaching Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Assessment Transparency Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Life's Structure and Classification

1

Hands-On Activities

Hands-On Activities

2 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

Date

Class

Communicating Ideas

Procedure

1. Find a magazine picture of a piece of furniture that can be used as a place to sit and lie down. 2. Show the picture to ten people and ask them to tell you what word they use for this piece of furniture. 3. Keep a record of the answers in the table below.

Person 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Word They Use

9. 10.

Analysis

1. Infer how using common names can be confusing.

2. How do scientific names make communication among scientists easier?

Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Name

Date

Class

4 Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Modeling Cytoplasm

Procedure

1. Add 1 mL water to a clear container. 2. Add unflavored gelatin and stir. 3. Shine a flashlight through the solution.

Analysis

1. Describe what you see.

2. How does the model help you understand what cytoplasm might be like?

Name

Date

Class

Lab Preview

Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.

1. What kinds of cells will you be observing in this lab? 2. What is a wet-mount slide? Which organism will you use to make a wet-mount slide?

If you compared a goldfish to a rose, you would find them unlike each other. Are their individual cells also different? Try this lab to compare plant and animal cells.

Real-World Question

How do human cheek cells and plant cells compare?

Goals

Compare and contrast an animal and a plant cell. dropper Elodea plant prepared slide of human cheek cells

Materials

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microscope microscope slide coverslip forceps tap water

Safety Precautions

Procedure

1. Record your observations in the table in the Data and Observations section. 2. Using forceps, make a wet-mount slide of a young leaf from the tip of an Elodea plant. 3. Observe the leaf on low power. Focus on the top layer of cells.

4. Switch to high power and focus on one cell. In the center of the cell is a membrane-bound organelle called the central vacuole. Observe the chloroplasts--the green, disk-shaped objects moving around the central vacuole. Try to find the cell nucleus. It looks like a clear ball. 5. Draw the Elodea cell in the Data and Observations section. Label the cell wall, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, central vacuole, and nucleus. Return to low power and remove the slide. Properly dispose of the slide. 6. Observe the prepared slide of cheek cells under low power. 7. Switch to high power and observe the cell nucleus. Draw and label the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus in the Data and Observations section. Return to low power and remove the slide. Properly dispose of the slide.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Comparing Cells

Name

Date

Class

(continued)

Conclude and Apply

1. Compare and contrast the shapes of the cheek cell and the Elodea cell.

2. What can you conclude about the differences between plant and animal cells?

Communicating Your Data

Draw the two kinds of cells on one sheet of paper. Use a green pencil to label the organelles found only in plants, a red pencil to label the organelles found only in animals, and a blue pencil to label the organelles found in both.

6 Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Data and Observations

Cell Observations Cell Part Cytoplasm Nucleus Chloroplasts Cell Wall Cell Membrane Cheek Elodea

Drawing of Elodea cell.

Drawing of cheek cell.

Name

Date

Class

Design Your Own Hands-On Activities

Life's Structure and Classification

Comparing Light Microscopes

Lab Preview

Directions: Answer these questions before you begin the Lab.

1. Which two instruments will you be comparing in this lab? 2. What must you do to examine an item under the light microscope?

You're a technician in a police forensic laboratory. You use a stereomicroscope, which uses two eyepieces to see larger objects in three dimensions, and a compound light microscope to see a smaller specimen. A detective just returned from a crime scene with bags of evidence. You must examine each piece of evidence under a microscope.

Real-World Question

How do you decide which microscope is the best tool to use? Will all of the evidence that you've collected be viewable through both microscopes?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Safety Precautions

Test Your Hypothesis

Make a Plan

1. As a group, decide how you will test your hypothesis. 2. Describe how you will carry out this experiment using a series of specific steps. Make sure the steps are in a logical order. Remember that you must place an item in the bottom of a plastic petri dish to examine it under the stereomicroscope, and you must make a wet mount of any item to be examined under the compound light microscope. For more help, see the Reference Handbook. 3. If you need a data table or an observation table, design one in your Science Journal.

Form a Hypothesis

Compare items to be examined under the microscope. Form a hypothesis to predict which microscope will be used for each item and explain why.

Goals

Learn how to correctly use a stereomicroscope and a compound light microscope. Compare the uses of the stereomicroscope and compound light microscope.

Possible Materials

compound light microscope stereomicroscope items from the classroom--include some living or once-living items (8) microscope slides and coverslips plastic petri dishes distilled water dropper

Follow Your Plan

1. Make sure your teacher approves the objects you'll examine, your plan, and your data table before you start. 2. Carry out the experiment. 3. While doing the experiment, record your observations and complete the data table.

7

Name

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Class

(continued)

4. Describe If you examined an item under a compound light microscope and a stereomicroscope, how would the images differ?

5. Name the microscope that was better for looking at large or possibly live items.

Communicating Your Data

In your Science Journal, write a short description of an imaginary crime scene and the evidence found there. Sort the evidence into two lists--items to be examined under a stereomicroscope and items to be examined under a compound light microscope.

8 Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Analyze Your Data

1. Compare the items you examined with those of your classmates.

2. Based on this experiment, classify the eight items you observed.

Conclude and Apply

1. Were you correct in your original hypothesis about the correct microscope to use? For which objects would you reconsider the microscope used?

2. Infer which microscope a scientist might use to examine a blood sample, fibers, and live snails. 3. List five careers that require people to use a stereomicroscope. List five careers that require people to use a compound light microscope.

Name

Date

Class

A microscope is a scientific tool used to see very small objects. Objects you cannot see with your eyes alone can be seen using a microscope. In this experiment you will look at a small letter e cut from a magazine, some thread, and a strand of hair.

Strategy

You will learn the names of microscope parts. You will learn how to use a microscope. You will learn to prepare objects for viewing under a microscope. You will examine several objects under a microscope. You will determine how the lens system of a microscope changes the position of an object being viewed.

Materials

microscope scissors magazine coverslip dropper water strand of hair nylon thread wool thread

Procedure

Part A--Using the Microscope

1. Study Figure 1. Identify the parts of your microscope so that you will understand the directions for this activity. 2. Cut out a small letter e from a magazine and place the letter on a microscope slide. WARNING: Use care when handling sharp objects. Put a small drop of water on the letter and place a coverslip over the water and the letter. 3. Place the slide on the microscope stage. Move the slide to center the letter e over the hole in the stage. Use the stage clips to hold the slide in place. 4. Turn on the light if your microscope has one. If it does not, adjust the mirror so that the light is reflected through the eyepiece. Do not use direct sunlight as a light source. It can damage eyes.

Eyepiece Coarse adjustment Revolving nosepiece Arm Low power objective High power objective Fine adjustment Coarse adjustment Base Lamp Mirror Stage Diaphragm Base Fine adjustment Stage clips Arm

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Figure 1

Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

1

Laboratory Activity

The Microscope

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 1 (continued) Hands-On Activities

5. Look to see how the letter e is positioned on the slide before looking through the eyepiece. In the space for Figure 2a in Data and Observations, draw the letter as you see it without the aid of the microscope. 6. Click the low power objective lens (shortest, if more than one lens is present) into position. The lens should be directly over the hole in the stage. Bring the lens close to the slide using the coarse adjustment knob. NOTE: Be careful not to touch the slide with the lens. This might break the lens and the slide. 7. Look through the eyepiece of the microscope. Carefully bring the letter into focus by slowly turning the coarse adjustment knob. If you cannot see the letter, move the slide a little bit to be sure the letter is under the lens. If your microscope has only one objective lens, proceed directly to step 9; skip step 8. 8. Click the high power objective lens into place. If your microscope has a high power objective, it will also have a fine adjustment knob. Look through the eyepiece again. Carefully bring the letter e into focus by slowly turning the fine adjustment knob. NOTE: Never turn the coarse adjustment knob when the high power objective lens is in place. Click the low power objective lens back into place before going on to step 9. 9. When the letter e is clearly visible, draw in Figure 2b the position of the letter as you see it through the microscope. Next, move the slide to the left as you look through the eyepiece. Note which way the letter appears to move. Move the slide forward. Note which way it appears to move now. 10. Remove the slide and clean it.

Part B--Preparing Microscope Slides

1. Place a drop of water on a clean glass slide. Put a strand of hair on the water drop. Place a coverslip over the drop of water and the strand of hair. 2. Observe the hair using the procedure you used in Part A to observe the letter e. 3. In the space for Figure 3a in Data and Observations, draw the hair strand as it appears through the microscope. 4. Repeat Part B using a strand of nylon thread and a strand of wool thread. Draw and label the threads in Figure 3b in Data and Observations.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

In the spaces below, draw what you observed.

Figure 2

Figure 3

a

Letter e without microscope

b

Letter e through microscope

a

Hair through microscope

b

Wool and nylon threads through microscope

10 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 1 (continued) Questions and Conclusions

1. Compare your drawing of the letter e without the microscope to your drawing of the letter seen through the microscope. Describe how the microscope changes the position of the letter.

2. In what direction does the slide under the microscope appear to move when you move it to the left?

3. Describe the differences you observed between wool thread and nylon thread.

4. What is the total magnification of your microscope? (Multiply the magnification of the eyepiece lens by the magnification of the objective lens. These numbers are printed on the lenses.)

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5. Describe how you would correctly prepare a microscope slide of an insect wing for viewing under the microscope.

6. What precautions must be taken when using the high power lens?

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Hands-On Activities

Laboratory Activity 1 (continued) Hands-On Activities

8. From memory, correctly label the parts of the microscope in Figure 4. (Turn to the Procedure only as a self-check.)

Figure 4

a.

g. b. c. h. d. i. j. k. f.

e.

Strategy Check

Can you name the microscope parts? Can you use a microscope? Can you prepare slides of objects to be viewed under a microscope? Can you examine an object under the microscope? Can you explain how the lens system of your microscope changes the position of any object as it is viewed through the eyepiece?

12 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

Date

Class

If you were asked to classify objects, you would probably group together those objects that have a certain characteristic in common. A scientist does the same thing when grouping or classifying living things. Living things are grouped according to certain likenesses or similar characteristics. Each group may then be divided into subgroups. Each group and subgroup is given a name to help simplify the scientist's work.

Strategy

You will classify paper shapes. You will use the words kingdom, phylum, and class in your classifying system. You will determine what characteristics you are using to make your classification.

Materials

paper (2 sheets) scissors

Procedure

1. Cut out the 13 shapes shown in Figure 1. WARNING: Always be careful when using scissors. 2. Place shapes 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 into one group. This will represent the first kingdom. Place these shapes on a separate piece of notebook paper. 3. Place shapes 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, and 13 into a second group, or second kingdom. Place these shapes on a separate piece of notebook paper. 4. Keep the kingdom shapes on the same paper. Further separate them into smaller groups. Place shapes 3, 4, 7 and 10 into one group. This will represent the first phylum. 5. Place shapes 6 and 9 into another group. This will be the second phylum. 6. Place shape 11 by itself for the third phylum. 7. The phyla may be further subdivided by writing an identification letter on each one. Each subgroup will represent a class. On shapes 3, 4, and 7 write the letter A. 8. On shape 10 write the letter B

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Questions and Conclusions

1. How do members of the first kingdom differ from the members of the second kingdom?

2. What two names would you suggest to describe the characteristics common to the two kingdoms?

Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

2

Laboratory Activity

Classification

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued) Hands-On Activities

3. What characteristics do shapes 3, 4, 7, and 10 have that make them different from 6, 9, or 11?

4. How are 6 and 9 different from 11?

5. If you had to use a name to describe the characteristics common to members of the first phylum, what would be a suitable name?

What name would best describe the second phylum?

The third phylum?

7. What would best describe the class for shapes 3, 4, and 7?

For 10?

Strategy Check

Can you classify paper shapes into large and smaller groups based on similar characteristics? Can you name the groups using descriptive terms?

14 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. On the class level, what characteristics do shapes 3, 4, and 7 have that make them different from 10?

Name

Date

Class

Laboratory Activity 2 (continued)

Figure 1

1

2

3

5 4

6

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7

8

9

10

11 12 13

Life's Structure and Classification

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Hands-On Activities

Name

Date

Class

Life's Structure and Classification

Hands-On Activities

Life's Structure and Classification

Directions: Use this page to label your Foldable at the beginning of the chapter.

cell membrane cytoplasm mitochondria ribosome nucleus

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body

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Meeting Individual Needs

Meeting Individual Needs

18 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Overview Life's Structure and Classification

eukaryotic organelles protists

Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms in the list below. animals bacteria cells fungi mitochondria nucleus plants prokaryotic

Living things

are organized into 1.

that can be 2. 3.

which make up

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

which contain 5. 6.

which make up 9.

4.

such as 10. 11.

7.

8.

Directions: Use the words in the concept map to fill in the missing words in the following sentences. 12. Sometimes called the powerhouses of the cell, ____________________ release energy that is needed by the cell. 13. All cellular activities are directed by a cell's ____________________. 14. Most ____________________ are surrounded by a membrane.

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Section 1 Section 2

Living Things How Are Living Things Classified?

Directions: Use the following terms to complete the puzzle below.

1 2

3

4

5

20 Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6

7

All living things are made of ____________________. The first word in an organism's two-word name is its ____________________. All living things use ____________________. All living things maintain ____________________. To ____________________, all living things need a place to live, a food source, and water. 6. A dichotomous ____________________ is a detailed list of identifying characteristics that includes scientific names. It can be used to identify organisms. 7. Scientists use a two-name system, called binomial ____________________ to name living things.

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Section 3 Section 4

Cell Structure Viruses

Directions: Use the words to label the diagram below.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

cell membrane Golgi body

cytoplasm nucleus

endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion ribosomes

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Directions: Use the labels on the diagram to complete the sentences below. 8. Viruses can attach to specific attachment sites on the ____________________ of host cells. 9. Cells make their own proteins on structures called ____________________. 10. If your body has a latent virus, the virus might be part of the hereditary material in the ____________________ of some of your cells. When these cells reproduce, the hereditary material of the virus is also copied.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

Directed Reading for Content Mastery

Key Terms Life's Structure and Classification

cell theory genus organelle

Directions: Select the term from the list that matches each description. binomial nomenclature cell cell membrane cell wall chloroplast cytoplasm homeostasis mitochondrion organ phylogeny tissue virus

1. a strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coat 2. the protective layer around all cells 3. a tough, rigid, outer covering that protects some cells and gives them shape 4. green organelle that captures light energy and uses it to make food 5. any living thing 6. the smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life 7. a two-word naming system used to name organisms 8. how an organism has changed over time 9. states that all living things are made up of one or more cells 10. the regulation of an organism's internal, lifemaintaining condition despite changes in its environment 11. a group of similar species 12. a group of similar tissues that work together to do a similar job 13. the gelatin-like material inside cells 14. a structure made up of two or more tissues that work together 15. organelle where energy is released when food is broken down

22 Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Sinopsis Estructura y clasificación de la vida

Instrucciones: Completa el mapa de conceptos con los términos de la siguiente lista. animales bacterias células eucarióticas hongos mitocondrias núcleo organelos plantas procarióticas protistas

Los seres vivos

están formados por 1.

que pueden ser 2. 3.

que forman

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que contienen 5. 6.

que forman 9.

4.

como 10. 11.

7.

8.

Instrucciones: Completa las siguientes oraciones con los términos del mapa de conceptos. 12. Las ____________________, que a veces son llamadas las centrales de energía de la célula, producen la energía que la célula necesita. 13. El ____________________ de la célula dirige todas las actividades celulares. 14. La mayoría de los ____________________ están rodeados por una membrana.

Estructura y clasificación de la vida

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para el dominio del contenido

Sección 1 Sección 2

Los seres vivos ¿Cómo se clasifican los seres vivos?

Instrucciones: Completa el crucigrama con los siguientes términos.

1 2

7

1. Todos los seres vivos están formados por ____________________. 2. La primera palabra del nombre de dos términos de un organismo es el ____________________. 3. Todos los seres vivos utlizan ____________________. 4. Todos los seres vivos mantienen la ____________________. 5. Para ____________________, todos los seres necesitan un lugar para vivir, una fuente de alimento y agua. 6. Una ____________________ dicotómica es una lista detallada de características distintivas que incluye los nombres científicos. Se puede usar para identificar organismos. 7. Los científicos utilizan un sistema de dos nombres, denominado ____________________ binaria, para identificar a los seres vivos.

24 Estructura y clasificación de la vida

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

3

4

5

6

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para el dominio del contenido

Sección 3 Sección 4

La estructura celular Los virus

Instrucciones: Rotula el diagrama con los siguientes términos.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

membrana celular aparato de Golgi

citoplasma núcleo

retículo endoplásmico mitocondria ribosomas

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Instrucciones: Completa las siguientes oraciones con los rótulos del diagrama 8. Los virus pueden adherirse a determinados lugares de la ____________________ de la célula huésped. 9. Las células elaboran sus propias proteínas en estructuras denominadas ____________________. 10. Si en el cuerpo hay un virus latente, ese virus puede ser parte del material hereditario que se encuentra en el ____________________ de alguna de las células. Cuando esas células se reproducen, el material hereditario del virus también se copia.

Estructura y clasificación de la vida

25

Satisface las necesidades individuales

Nombre

Fecha

Clase

Lectura dirigida para Dominio del contenido

Términos claves Estructura y clasificación de la vida

Instrucciones: Selecciona el término de la lista que corresponde a cada descripción. nomenclatura binaria célula membrana celular teoría celular pared celular cloroplasto citoplasma género homeostasis mitocondria órgano organelo filogenia tejido virus

7. sistema de dos nombres utilizado para identificar a los organismos 8. modificación de un organismo a lo largo del tiempo 9. establece que los seres vivos están formados por una o más células 10. regulación de la condición interna de un organismo a pesar de los cambios en el ambiente 11. grupo de especies similares 12. grupo de tejidos similares que trabajan en conjunto para desempeñar la misma función 13. material gelatinoso que se encuentra dentro de las células 14. estructura compuesta de dos o más tejidos que trabajan en conjunto 15. organelo que produce energía cuando se descompone el alimento

26 Estructura y clasificación de la vida

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Satisface las necesidades individuales

1. filamento de material hereditario rodeado por una capa de proteínas 2. capa protectora que rodea a las células. 3. cubierta exterior, rígida y fuerte, que protege algunas células y les da forma 4. organelo verde que capta la energía luminosa para producir alimento 5. cualquier ser vivo 6. la unidad más pequeña de un organismo que lleva a cabo las funciones vitales

Name

Date

Class

1

Reinforcement

Living Things

Directions: After each statement, write the feature of life that is illustrated.

1. "That boy shot up five inches in only one year." 2. "Our cat had a litter of kittens yesterday." 3. "To win at that sport, her muscle cells need to be worked hard every day." 4. "My dog has become much less clumsy now that he is a year old." 5. "Eat a good breakfast and you'll feel better through the morning." 6. "When that car pulled into the driveway, my cat ran to hide under the porch." 7. "The fish died after living in the aquarium for many years."

8. "The bee collected nectar from the flowers."

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Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.

A

B

9. In Figure A, the Sun is what to the plant? 10. In Figure B, the plant leans toward the Sun. What is this reaction an example of? 11. Your body normally maintains a temperature of 37° C. This is an example of what? 12. What are the smallest units that carry on the functions of life?

Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

Name

Date

Class

2

Reinforcement

How are living things classified?

Directions: Answer the following questions using information from the textbook.

1. Why don't scientists use common names to identify organisms?

2. Why are scientific names important? Give four functions for scientific names. a. b. c. d.

Directions: Use the key to species of birch trees below to answer the questions that follow.

Key to Species of Birch Trees

1. a. b. 2. a. b. 3. a. b. 4. a. b. 5. a. b. 6. a. b. 7. a. b. 8. a. b. 9. a. b. bark dark, reddish-brown, yellowish-brown to black, go to 2 bark creamy white, pinkish, or gray, go to 6 bark and twigs with wintergreen fragrance when cut, go to 3 bark and twigs without a fragrance when cut, go to 5 leaves with 8-12 pairs of veins, go to 4 leaves with 4-6 pairs of veins, Betula uber bark dark red to almost black; scales smooth, 6-12 mm long, Betula lenta bark reddish brown, peeling in loose, ragged sheets, scales hairy, 5-7 mm, Betula alleghaniensis branchlets covered near tip with many small glands, Rocky Mountains or Western Canada, Betula occidentalis branchlets smooth, shiny, no glands present, eastern U.S., Betula nigra leaves hairy on lower surface, go to 7 leaves smooth, hairless underside, go to 8 leaves 5-13 cm long, pointed tip, Betula papyrifer leaves 3-7 cm long, pointed tip, winter buds shiny, Betula pendula bark dull gray to grayish-white, smooth and not peeling, Betula populifolia bark white to pinkish-white, peeling, go to 9 leaves 6-10 cm, round base, Betula caerulea leaves 3-5 cm, squared base, Betula pubescens

3. Are the leaves of Betula populifolia hairy or smooth on the lower surface? 4. How many pairs of veins are on the leaves of Betula lenta? 5. What is a characteristic of the bark of Betula alleghaniensis?

6. When a twig of Betula nigra is broken, does it give off a wintergreen fragrance?

28 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

3

Cell part 1.

Reinforcement

Cell Structure

Directions: Complete the following table using the correct cell part or function.

Function gelatinlike mixture that flows inside the cell membrane cell membrane 3. endoplasmic reticulum 5. 6. chloroplast cell wall 9. Golgi bodies 11.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. directs all cell activities 4. makes protein releases energy stored in food 7. 8. stores water, waste products, food, and other cellular materials 10. breaks down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out cell parts

Directions: Study the following diagrams. Then identify each part by filling in the blanks in the center.

Animal cell 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Plant cell

Life's Structure and Classification

29

Meeting Individual Needs

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4

Reinforcement

Viruses

1. Listed below are the steps by which an active virus multiplies and destroys a cell. Number the steps in the correct order in the blanks provided at the left. a. The cell bursts open and hundreds of new virus particles are released. These new virus particles go on to infect other cells. b. A specific virus attaches to the surface of a specific host cell. c. The viral hereditary material takes control of the host cell and the cell begins to make new virus particles. d. The hereditary material of the virus entering the host cell.

4. What are vaccines made from?

5. How does gene therapy work?

30 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

Directions: Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

2. Explain what a latent virus does when it enters a cell.

3. Discuss several ways to prevent viral infections.

Name

Date

Class

1

Enrichment

Living or Nonliving?

As you now know, all living organisms share characteristics. Some of these characteristics are (1) being made up of cells, (2) having the ability to respond, (3) using energy, (4) growing and developing, and (5) being able to reproduce.

Directions: Use a dictionary to define the following. Be sure to indicate whether the item is a living organism or a nonliving thing and which, if any, of the five characteristics it has.

1. fossil Definition: Living or nonliving: Characteristics: 2. lancelet Definition: Living or nonliving: Characteristics: 3. yeast Definition: Living or nonliving:

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Characteristics: 4. seed Definition: Living or nonliving: Characteristics: 5. algae Definition: Living or nonliving: Characteristics: 6. virus Definition: Living or nonliving: Characteristics:

Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

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2

Enrichment

A bug or a beetle?

Often we pick up an insect and casually refer to it as a bug or a beetle. Using scientific definitions, the insect may not belong to either of these orders of insects. Bugs belong to the order Hemiptera and beetles belong to the order Coleoptera. Look carefully at these two pictures and use the key below to find out which order these insects belong to. The key is not complete for all orders of insects, but it should help you tell the difference between bugs and beetles. There are a few wingless bugs that are not covered by this key. Use other references if needed.

Front wing

1. Which insect is a true bug and which is a true beetle?

2. What are some of the distinguishing characteristics of the insects shown? List them below. Bug Order Wings Antennae Mouthparts 32 Life's Structure and Classification Beetle

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

Head showing beak A. B.

Key (partial) to Orders of Insects

1. Wing type a. wings transparent, go to 2 b. front wings hard or leathery and covering hind wings, go to 2 2. Type of mouthparts a. mouthparts chewing, go to 3 b. no chewing mouthparts, go to 4 3. Wing venation a. front wings with veins, Orthoptera b. front wings without veins, Coleoptera 4. Front wing texture a. front wings nearly always thickened at the base; membranous at tip, beak comes from front or bottom of head; antennae have 4 or 5 segments, Hemiptera b. front wings of uniform texture; beak comes from hind part of head, Homoptera

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Enrichment

The Early Cell Explorers

It's hard to believe, but there was a time when we didn't know anything about cell structure. In fact, the word cell (from the Latin word for chamber, cello) wasn't used as a biological term until 1665. That's when Robert Hooke, an English-born scientist, looked at a thin slice of cork bark under a compound microscope he had built himself. Hooke noticed small holes surrounded by walls and named these tiny pores cells. After that, scientists believed cells were found only in plants. But in 1839, Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, both German scientists, shared their scientific findings with one another. Schleiden had been studying plant cells and Schwann had been studying animal structures. Together, they compared plant and animal structures and found that the structures were very similar--too similar to be accidental. They concluded that cells are the basic building blocks for both plants and animals and that all living things are made of one or more cells. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow stated that all cells come from other cells. Together, these three statements are known as the cell theory. Throughout the mid-1800s and into the 1900s, scientists continued to discover more and more about cells thanks in part to Gregor Mendel's study of genetics, Friedrich Miescher's discovery of nuclein (which later became known as DNA), and James Watson's findings about DNA's structure. Although many amazing discoveries have happened in recent years, including genetic engineering and gene therapy, all of it is because of the work of those early cell explorers. 1. How important was Hooke's homemade microscope to the discovery of the plant cell? Explain.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Restate the cell theory in your own words.

3. Why do you think it took almost 200 years for scientists to formulate the cell theory?

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Meeting Individual Needs

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4

Enrichment

The Size of Viruses

Directions: Study the following diagram. It shows the sizes of viruses, bacteria, and blood cells. The largest is a red blood cell. Then answer the questions that follow.

Cells Largest diameter in (micrometers)

Flu virus Polio virus Virus that affects plants Red blood cell molecule

85 27 15 15

1. How large is the smallest virus on the diagram that affects plants? 2. What is the smallest thing shown on the diagram? 3. The smallest virus on the diagram attacks what kinds of organisms? 4. How do the rabies virus and the polio virus compare in size? 5. How large is the Streptococcus bacteria? Red blood cell molecules? 6. Generalizing from this diagram, infer which are larger, viruses or bacteria 34 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

Red blood cells

7500

Bacteria Streptococcus

750

Herpes simplex virus

130

Rabies virus

125

Name

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Class

Note-taking Worksheet Section 1 Living Things

Life's Structure and Classification

A. Organism--any living thing 1. All living things are made of ___________________, the ___________________ unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life. 2. All living things grow and develop. a. Growth of a many-celled organism, such as a human, is mostly due to an increase in the ___________________ of cells. b. In a one-celled organism, growth is due to an increase in the ___________________ of the cell. c. All of the changes that take place during the life of an organism are called ___________________. 3. All living things interact with their surroundings and respond to stimuli. Often, a response results in ___________________. 4. All living things maintain ___________________, the regulation of an organism's

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

___________________, life-maintaining condition despite changes in its environment. 5. All living things use energy. The energy used by most organisms comes either directly or indirectly from the ___________________. 6. Living things ___________________ to make more of their kind. Otherwise, they would die out. B. Living things need a place to live, ___________________, and ___________________.

Section 2

How Are Living Things Classified?

A. ___________________ developed the first widely accepted method of classification, which was based on ___________________ structures. 1. Binomial nomenclature is a ___________________ system that scientists use today. 2. Genus is a group of similar ___________________. 3. Scientific names include a ___________________ name and another identifying name.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

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Note-taking Worksheet (continued)

B. Modern scientists use similar structures to ___________________ organisms. They also use ___________________, hereditary information, and early stages of ___________________. 1. Phylogeny--the evolutionary history of an organism, or how the organism has changed over ___________________ 2. The smallest group in the classification system used today is the ___________________. 3. The largest group is a ___________________. 4. Scientists use field guides and dichotomous keys to identify organisms.

2. The ___________________ is the basic unit of organization in organisms. 3. All cells come from ___________________. C. Cells are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound structures. 1. ______________--tough, rigid outer coverings that protect cells and give them their shape 2. ___________________--regulates interactions between the cell and its environment. 3. ___________________--gelatinlike stubstance that constantly flows inside the cell membrane of all cells 4. ___________________--structures that make ___________________. 5. ___________________--structures within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Most organelles are surrounded by a ___________________. 6. ___________________--directs all cellular activites; contains long, threadlike, hereditary material made of ___________________.

36 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Meeting Individual Needs

a. field guide--includes ________________ and ________________ of organisms and information about where each organism lives b. dichotomous key--detailed list of identifying characteristics that inclues _____________

Section 3

Cell Structure

A. Cells were first seen 400 years ago, when van Leeuwenhoek invented the first ___________________. B. Improvements to the microscope and more observations of living things led to the cell theory. It states: 1. All ___________________ are made up of one or more cells.

Name

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Class

Note-taking Worksheet (continued)

7. ___________________--green organelles in the cytoplasm of plant cells; use light energy to make a sugar called ___________________. 8. ___________________--where ___________________ is released when food is broken down into carbon dioxide and water 9. ___________________, also called ER--a series of ___________________ membranes in which materials can be processed and moved around inside the cell. Rough ER contains ___________________. 10. ___________________--stacked, ___________________ membranes that sort and package materials and move them to outside the cell 11. ___________________--membrane-bound space that can store water, waste products, food, and other materials 12. ___________________--help break down and recycle food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out cell parts C. In a ___________________ organism, each cell depends on other cells in the organism. 1. tissue--group of similar ___________________ that work together to do one job

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. organ--structures made up of two or more ___________________ that work together 3. organ system--group of ___________________ working together to perform a certain function 4. Organ systems work together to make up a(n) ___________________.

Section 4

coating

Viruses

A. virus--a strand of ___________________ material surrounded by a ___________________

1. A ___________________ multiplies by making copies of itself with the help of a host cell. 2. ___________________ viruses cause host cells to make new viruses. This process ___________________ the host cell. 3. Latent viruses are ___________________. Its ___________________ material is copied along with that of the ___________________, but the latent virus does not immediately make new viruses.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Meeting Individual Needs

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Note-taking Worksheet (continued)

B. Viruses can ___________________ animals, plants, fungi, protists, and all prokaryotes. 1. Most viruses affect only specific kinds of cells. 2. The virus first attaches to the ___________________ of a host cell. Viruses can attach only to places where they fit exactly. C. Prevention is the best way to fight viral infections. 1. Ways to ___________________ viral infections include vaccinating people, improving sanitary conditions, separating patients with diseases, and controlling animals that spread the disease. 2. ___________________ are proteins produced by cells infected with viruses and that protect other cells from the viruses. 3. ___________________ against viruses are made from weakened virus particles and cause the body to make ___________________. D. Some viruses are helpful in ___________________. 1. First ___________________ is put inside a virus. 2. The virus then infects a ___________________ cell. 3. The infected cell's defective hereditary material is ___________________ with the new hereditary material. 4. Gene therapy might one day provide cures for ___________________ or ___________________.

38 Life's Structure and Classification

Assessment

Assessment

40 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

Date

Class

Chapter Review Part A. Vocabulary Review

Life's Structure and Classification

Directions: Use the clues below to complete the crossword puzzle.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12

13 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14

Across 1. a powerhouse of a cell 6. the first word in a scientific name 8. smallest unit of an organism that carries out the functions of life 9. Organ _____ work together to make up a many-celled organism. 11. The cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria get their shape from a cell _____. 13. group of similar cells that work together to do one job 14. nonliving particle that causes disease

Down 2. The cell _____ includes the statement that all cells come from cells. 3. some are attached to endoplasmic reticulum and some are not 4. the home of a eukaryotic cell's hereditary material 5. This cell structure is made up of a double layer of fat molecules. 7. the regulation of food or water levels inside an organism's cells, for example 10. _____ bodies package materials and move them out of the cell. 12. An active virus will destroy its _____ cell.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Assessment

Name

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Class

Chapter Test (continued) Part B. Concept Review

Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.

1. Study the diagram of two cells below. One is prokaryotic. The other is eukaryotic. Label each cell in the spaces below the diagrams. Then write the name of each cell part in the blank with the corresponding letter below.

a. b. f. e.

d. c. i. _______________ cell h. g. j. _______________ cell

a. b.

f.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

g. h. i. j.

Assessment

c. d. e. 2. What do living things need to survive?

3. What is binomial nomenclature?

4. List four characteristics that all living things share.

42 Life's Structure and Classification

Transparency Activities

Life's Structure and Classification

47

Transparency Activities

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1

Section Focus Transparency Activity

Most Enlightening

Have you ever seen a house plant growing toward the window? Most plants grow toward the light. This bending is caused by a plant hormone that makes plant cells stretch and grow in the direction of the light source.

1. Why do plants need light? Transparency Activities 2. What would happen if you gave the pot a half turn? 3. What does this plant need to live?

48 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Class

Section Focus It's a Bird! It's a Plane! Transparency Activity It's All of the Above! What do all of these things have in common? Look closely and try to notice characteristics that can be used to classify these items into groups.

2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. How many different ways can you divide these flying things into groups? 2. Choose a method and classify these objects. Start with two headings, then subdivide each group.

Life's Structure and Classification

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Transparency Activities

Name

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3

Section Focus Transparency Activity

A Factory Analogy

If this factory were a cell, it would run 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Just like a factory, cells use raw materials to produce what's needed. Like a factory, they have a control center, a source of power, and a way to move products and waste.

Control center Factory wall Electric generator

Storage barrel

1. What part of the drawing directs the activities in the factory? 2. Identify the part of the drawing that provides energy to the factory. 3. What function do the storage barrels have?

50 Life's Structure and Classification

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Transparency Activities

Name

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4

Section Focus Transparency Activity

Thanks for Sharing!

Sneezing is an involuntary action that aids the body by clearing congestion within the nose. But sneezing also spreads germs, including cold and influenza viruses.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. What are your symptoms when you catch a cold? 2. What can you do to limit the spread of viruses? Transparency Activities

Life's Structure and Classification

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Name

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Teaching Transparency Activity

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Ribosome

Animal and Plant Cells

Centrioles Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Nucleus Nucleolus

Mitochondrion Cytoskeleton Free ribosome Golgi bodies Lysosome Lysosome Chloroplast Free ribosome

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cell membrane

Central vacuole

Cell wall of adjacent cell Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Nucleolus Ribosome Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Golgi bodies Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell membrane

Life's Structure and Classification

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Transparency Activities

Name

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Teaching Transparency Activity

(continued)

1. Which organelles are common to both plant and animal cells?

2. Why are plant and animal cells classified as eukaryotic cells?

3. Which organelles are found in plant cells, but not in animal cells?

4. What is the major physical difference between vacuoles in a plant cell and vacuoles in an animal cell?

5. What is the function of a plant cell that contains many chloroplasts?

6. What is the cell membrane made up of?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Which organelles are needed in cells that make protein?

8. Why might a cell that moves by means of cilia or flagella contain many mitochondria?

Transparency Activities

54 Life's Structure and Classification

Name

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Class

Assessment Transparency Activity Directions: Carefully review the diagram and answer the following questions.

Virus

Cell

Nucleus Cytoplasm Vacuole Chromosome Interferon Cell

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. The chromosomes are located in the ___. A cytoplasm B vacuoles C nucleus D nucleolus 2. The scientist performing this experiment wants to study interferon because it may work as a powerful medicine. If the scientist wanted to learn how powerful interferon is, the experiment could be repeated ___. F at a higher temperature H with less interferon G at a lower altitude J with more labels 3. The cell on the far right of the picture will probably soon ___. A grow C move B divide D die

Life's Structure and Classification

55

Transparency Activities

Information

Chapter 8 Resource: Life's Structure and Classification

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