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`ONE-SCHOOL.NETPhysics Equation List :Form 4Introduction to PhysicsRelative DeviationRelative Deviation = Mean Deviation ×100% Mean ValuePrefixes Prefixes Tera Giga Mega Kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico Units for Area and Volume 1 m = 102 cm 1 m = 10 cm2 4 2Value 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001Standard form 1012 109 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12Symbol T G M k d c m  n p(100 cm) (10,000 cm ) (1,000,000 cm3)21 cm= 10-2 m(1 m) 1001 m3 = 106 cm31 cm2 = 10-4 m2(1 m2 ) 10,000 1 m3 ) 1,000,0001 cm3 = 10-6 m3(http://www.one-school.net/notes.html1ONE-SCHOOL.NETAverage SpeedForce and MotionAverage Speed = Total Distance Total TimeVelocityv= s tAccelerationv = velocity s = displacement t = time(ms-1) (m) (s)a=v-u ta = acceleration v = final velocity u = initial velocity t =time for the velocity change(ms-2) (ms-1) (ms-1) (s)Equation of Linear MotionLinear MotionMotion with constant velocityMotion with constant accelerationMotion with changing accelerationv=s tv = u + at 1 s = (u + v)t 2Using Calculus (In Additional Mathematics Syllabus)1 s = ut + at 2 2v 2 = u 2 + 2asu = initial velocity v = final velocity a = acceleration s = displacement t = time (ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-2) (m) (s)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html2ONE-SCHOOL.NETTicker TapeFinding Velocity:velocity =s number of ticks × 0.02s1 tick = 0.02sFinding Acceleration:v-u a= ta = acceleration v = final velocity u = initial velocity t = time for the velocity change (ms-2) (ms-1) (ms-1) (s)Graph of Motion Gradient of a Graph The gradient 'm' of a line segment between two points and is defined as follows: Gradient, m = or m= y x Change in y coordinate, y Change in x coordinate, xhttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html3ONE-SCHOOL.NETDisplacement-Time Graph Velocity-Time GraphGradient = Velocity (ms-1)Gradient = Acceleration (ms-2) Area in between Displacement the graph and x-axis =Momentump = m×vp = momentum m = mass v = velocity(kg ms-1) (kg) (ms-1)Principle of Conservation of Momentumm1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2 v2m1 = mass of object 1 m2 = mass of object 2 u1 = initial velocity of object 1 u2 = initial velocity of object 2 v1 = final velocity of object 1 v2 = final velocity of object 2 Newton's Law of Motion Newton's First Law In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line). (kg) (kg) (ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1) (ms-1)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html4ONE-SCHOOL.NETNewton's Second Lawmv - mu F tThe rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. F = Net Force m = mass a = acceleration (N or kgms-2) (kg) (ms-2)F = maImplication When there is resultant force acting on an object, the object will accelerate (moving faster, moving slower or change direction). Newton's Third Law Newton's third law of motion states that for every force, there is a reaction force with the same magnitude but in the opposite direction. ImpulseImpulse = FtF = force t = time m = mass v = final velocity u = initial velocity(N) (s) (kg) (ms-1) (ms-1)Impulse = mv - muImpulsive ForceF=mv - mu tF = Force t = time m = mass v = final velocity u = initial velocity(N or kgms-2) (s) (kg) (ms-1) (ms-1)Gravitational Field StrengthF g= mWeightg = gravitational field strength F = gravitational force m = mass(N kg-1) (N or kgms-2) (kg)W = mgW = Weight (N or kgms-2) m = mass (kg) g = gravitational field strength/gravitational acceleration(ms-2)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html5ONE-SCHOOL.NETVertical Motion· · · ·If an object is release from a high position: The initial velocity, u = 0. The acceleration of the object = gravitational acceleration = 10ms-2(or 9.81 ms-2). The displacement of the object when it reach the ground = the height of the original position, h.· · · ·If an object is launched vertically upward: The velocity at the maximum height, v = 0. The deceleration of the object = -gravitational acceleration = -10ms-2(or -9.81 ms-2). The displacement of the object when it reach the ground = the height of the original position, h.Lift In Stationary·When a man standing inside an elevator, there are two forces acting on him. (a) His weight which acting downward. (b) Normal reaction (R), acting in the opposite direction of weight. The reading of the balance is equal to the normal reaction.·R = mghttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html6ONE-SCHOOL.NETMoving Upward with positive acceleration Moving downward with positive accelerationR = mg + maMoving Upward with constant velocityR = mg - maMoving downward with constant velocity.R = mgMoving Upward with negative accelerationR = mgMoving downward with negative accelerationR = mg - maR = mg + mahttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html7ONE-SCHOOL.NETSmooth Pulley With 1 Load T1 = T2 Stationary: T1 = mg Accelerating: T1 ­ mg = ma Moving with uniform speed: T1 = mgWith 2 LoadsFinding Acceleration: (If m2 &gt; m1) m2g ­ m1g = (m1+ m2)a Finding Tension: (If m2 &gt; m1) T1 = T2 T1 ­ m1g = ma m2g ­ T2 = maVector Vector Addition (Perpendicular Vector) Magnitude =x2 + y2Direction =tan -1| y| | x|Vector Resolution| x |=| p | sin  | y |=| p | coshttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html8ONE-SCHOOL.NETInclined Plane Component parallel to the plane Component perpendicular to the plane = mgsin = mgcosForces In EquilibriumT3 = mgT2 sin  = mgT2 cos = T1T3 = mgT2 cos = T1 cos T2 sin  + T1 sin  = mgT1 tan  = mgWork DoneW = Fx cos W = Work Done (J or Nm) F = Force (N or kgms-2) x = displacement (m)  = angle between the force and the direction of motion(o )When the force and motion are in the same direction.W = FsW = Work Done F = Force s = displacement(J or Nm) (N or kgms-2) (m)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html9ONE-SCHOOL.NETEnergy Kinetic Energy1 EK = mv 2 2EK = Kinetic Energy m = mass v = velocity(J) (kg) (ms-1)Gravitational Potential Energy EP = Potential Energy EP = mgh m = mass g = gravitational acceleration h = height Elastic Potential Energy(J) (kg) (ms-2) (m)1 EP = kx 2 2 1 EP = Fx 2Power and Efficiency PowerEP = Potential Energy k = spring constant x = extension of spring F = Force(J) (N m-1) (m) (N)W P= tP=EfficiencyE tP = power W = work done E = energy change t = time(W or Js-1) (J or Nm) (J or Nm) (s)Efficiency =Useful Energy × 100% EnergyOrEfficiency =Hooke's LawPower Output × 100% Power InputF = kxF = Force k = spring constant x = extension or compression of spring(N or kgms-2) (N m-1) (m)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html10ONE-SCHOOL.NETForce and PressureDensitym = V = densityPressure m = mass V = volume (kg m-3) (kg) (m3)F P= ALiquid PressureP = Pressure (Pa or N m-2) A = Area of the surface (m2) F = Force acting normally to the surface (N or kgms-2)P = h gh = depth  = density g = gravitational Field Strength(m) (kg m-3) (N kg-1)Pressure in LiquidP = Patm + h  gh = depth  = density g = gravitational Field Strength Patm = atmospheric Pressure(m) (kg m-3) (N kg-1) (Pa or N m-2)Gas Pressure ManometerP = Patm + h  gPgas = Pressure Patm = Atmospheric Pressure g = gravitational field strength (Pa or N m-2) (Pa or N m-2) (N kg-1)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html11ONE-SCHOOL.NETU=tubeh1 1 = h2  2Pressure in a Capillary TubePgas = gas pressure in the capillary tube Patm = atmospheric pressure h = length of the captured mercury  = density of mercury g = gravitational field strength Barometer Pressure in unit cmHg Pa = 0 P b = 26 P c = 76 P d = 76 P e = 76 P f = 84(Pa or N m-2) (Pa or N m-2) (m) (kg m-3) (N kg-1)Pressure in unit Pa Pa = 0 P b = 0.26×13600×10 P c = 0.76×13600×10 P d = 0.76×13600×10 P e = 0.76×13600×10 P f = 0.84×13600×10 (Density of mercury = 13600kgm-3)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html12ONE-SCHOOL.NETPascal's PrincipleF1 F2 = A1 A2F1 = Force exerted on the small piston A1 = area of the small piston F2 = Force exerted on the big piston A2 = area of the big piston Archimedes Principle Weight of the object, W Upthrust,= 1V1 gF =  2V2 g1 = density of wooden blockV1 = volume of the wooden block 2 = density of water V2 = volume of the displaced water g = gravitational field strengthDensity of water &gt; Density of woodDensity of Iron &gt; Density of waterVg = T + mgF=T+WVg + T = mgT+F=Whttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html13ONE-SCHOOL.NETHeat Heat ChangeQ = mcm = mass c = specific heat capacity  = temperature change Electric Heater (kg) (J kg-1 oC-1) (o) Mixing 2 Liquid Heat Gain by Liquid 1 = Heat Loss by Liquid 2Energy Supply, E = Pt Energy Receive, Q = mc Energy Supply, E = Energy Receive, Qm1c11 = m2 c2 2Pt = mcE = electrical Energy (J or Nm) P = Power of the electric heater (W) t = time (in second) (s) Q = Heat Change (J or Nm) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat capacity (J kg-1 oC-1)  = temperature change (o) Specific Latent Heatm1 = mass of liquid 1 c1 = specific heat capacity of liquid 1 1 = temperature change of liquid 1 m2 = mass of liquid 2 c2 = specific heat capacity of liquid 2 2 = temperature change of liquid 2Q = mLQ = Heat Change m = mass L = specific latent heat Boyle's Law (J or Nm) (kg) (J kg-1)PV1 = P2V2 1(Requirement: Temperature in constant) Pressure LawP P2 1 = T1 T2(Requirement: Volume is constant)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html14ONE-SCHOOL.NETCharles's LawV1 V2 = T1 T2(Requirement: Pressure is constant) Universal Gas LawPV1 PV2 1 = 2 T1 T2P = Pressure V = Volume T = Temperature (Pa or cmHg .......) (m3 or cm3) (MUST be in K(Kelvin))LightRefractive Index Snell's Law Real depth/Apparent Depthn=n = refractive index i = angle of incident r = angle of reflectionsin i sin r(No unit) (o) (o )n=n = refractive index D = real depth d = apparent depthD d(No unit) (m or cm...) (m or cm...)Speed of lightTotal Internal Reflectionn=c vn=n = refractive index c = critical angle1 sin c(No unit) (o )n = refractive index (No unit) c = speed of light in vacuum (ms-1) v = speed of light in a medium (like water, glass ...) (ms-1)http://www.one-school.net/notes.html15ONE-SCHOOL.NETLens PowerP=P = Power f = focal length Linear Magnification1 f(D(Diopter)) (m)m=hi hom=v u(No unit) (m or cm...) (m or cm...) (m or cm...) (m or cm...)hi v = ho um = linear magnification u = distance of object v = distance of image hi = heigth of image ho = heigth of object Lens EquationConventional symbol positive negative1 1 1 + = u v fu v fReal object Real image Convex lensVirtual object Virtual image Concave lenshttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html16ONE-SCHOOL.NETAstronomical Telescope Magnification,Pe m= Pom = linear magnification Pe = Power of the eyepiece Po = Power of the objective lens fe = focal length of the eyepiece fo = focal length of the objective lens Distance between eye lens and objective lens d = fo + fefo m= fed = Distance between eye lens and objective lens fe = focal length of the eyepiece fo = focal length of the objective lens Compound Microscope Magnificationm = m1 × m2 = = Height of first image , I1 Height of second image, I 2 × Height of object Height of first image , I1 Height of second image, I 2 Height of object, I1m = Magnification of the microscope m1 = Linear magnification of the object lens m2 = Linear magnification of the eyepiece Distance in between the two lensd &gt; fo + fed = Distance between eye lens and objective lens fe = focal length of the eyepiece fo = focal length of the objective lenshttp://www.one-school.net/notes.html17`

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