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Muthu Chippi

Review of Muthu chippi (Mytilus margaritiferus shell) in Traditional Siddha Medicine.

Soundararajan, S*, Murugan, V** Othe r na me s: E nglish : T a mil : Be nga l &Hind i : PEARL OYSTER SHELL. MUTHU CHIPPI MUKTA-JHINUK. : MOTISIMP

Ma ha ra shtra , G uj a ra thi

Pearl-oysters are all marine and belong to a single genus, pinctada roding (pteridae). Five district species, viz, pinctada vulagaris (Schumacher), P.chemnitzi (philippi) P. anomiodes (reeva) and P.atropurea (dunker) are known to occur in Indian waters. Source :

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PINCTUDA vulgaris is the common pearl-oyster found on the pearl banks off TUTICORIN coast in the gulf of manaar. Pearl ­ oyster are usually found on the ridges of rocks or dead corals forming extensive pearl banks or the pars at a depth of 10-12 fathoms (18-22m) and a distance of 19km from the shores. Cha ra cte rs: Pearl ­ oyster grow 89-102mm. across in 4-5 years when they are ready for harvesting. The price of pearl ­ oysters varies from Rs.50 to Rs.150 per thousand.

Pinctada margaritiferc occurs but sparsely along the Indian coasts although it is widely distributed, and the oyster is harvested for the sake of the shell or mother-of ­pearl. The interior margin of the valves is dark with a smoky hue; the shell is there fore, popularly known in commerce as the Black ­ lip. Pearl ­ oyster possess a straight long hinge uniting the two valves, the lower valve being a little deeper then the upper. The shell at either end is distinctly marked off from the

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rest into two small ear regions, one anterior and the other posterior in relation to the hinge. Pearl ­ oyster has both the valves free, a bunch of threads know as the animal. If the pearl ­ oyster by any chance loses its anchorage, it secrets a fresh byssus, for fixation. The internal surface of valves is of a brilliant lustre, which is unrivalled by that of any other shell and raises their commercial value. The shell consists of three layers in general, of which the innermost is the mother-of-pearl and is built up of tiny over lappiny scale-like deposits. Pearl-oyster shell of fine texture are fished for mother-of-pearl in various part of world, especially in AUSTRALIA and the PHILIPPINES, for the manufacture of buttons and other decorative articles, rather then for the pearls.

Action:

Its flesh is acrid, demulcent, stomachic, digestive, cardiac, generative of the

inclination for food and beneficial in abdominal tumors, sula (soolai- pain) and diseases of poison. P re p a ra tion: MUTHU- CHIPPI PARPAM Mix equal quantity of supernatant fluid of kal-chunnam (lime stone) and pooneeru (soil of fuller's earth) and in it boil chippi (mother of pearl) for 3 hours; wash well and dry them. Grind the purified chippi in a kalvam (an instrument for grinding the raw materials) with the following juices and subjected to putam (Traditional method of calcinations). 1. 2. 3. Adathoda juice (juice of Adathoda beddomei ) ­ 1 palam (35gm) Nochi juice (juice of Vitex negundo) ­ 1 palam (35gm ) Nilappanai juice (juice of Curculigo orchioides) ­ 1 palam (35gm)

If the weight of the chippi is 5 palams use 30 cow dung cakes for 1 putam (for calcinations) Dose : 2 ­ 4 Grains (130 ­ 260mg) with ghee / butter. Ind ica tions: Haemorrhoides & fistula in ano.

This parpam can be used in places where Muthu parpam is indicated like Kshyam (Koch's), Kasam (Cachexia) & Raktha kasam (Hemoptysis). R e fe re nce s:

1. Formulary (1992) - The Siddha Formulary of India, Part I, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. 2. Formulary (1972) - Formulary of Siddha medicines, published by the Indian Medical Practitioners' Cooperative Pharmacy and Stores Ltd., Adyar, Madras; ed. 1989. 3. Formulary (1994) - Vaidya Yoga Ratnavali (Formulary of Ayurvedic medicines), IMPCOPS, Madras. 4. T.V. Sambasivam Pillai, Tamil-English Dictionary of Medicine, Chemistry, Botany and

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Allied Sciences, Volume V, publisher: The Research Institute of Siddhar's Science, Mount Road, Madras, India. 1931. 5. Dr. Murugesa Muthaliar, Siddha Materia Medica, Fourth edition 1988, Publisher; Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council, Chennai. 6. Kuppusamy Muthaliar, Uthamarayan, Siddha vaithiya thirattu, 1998, Publisher:

Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai, India. 7. Dr. K.M. Nadkarani, Indian Materia Medica Vol: 1 Publisher: Popular Prakash, Mumbai, India. 8. The Wealth of India Vol 1- 12, Publisher Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R), New Delhi, India.

* Lecturer, Department of Siddha Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, T.N., India. [email protected] ** Asst. Lecturer, Department of Sirappu Maruthuvam (Special Medicine), Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, T.N., India. [email protected]

Os Sepiae

Review of OS SEPIAE in Traditional Siddha Medicine

(Internal shell of sepia officianalis) G. Essakky Pandian*

Family: CEPHALOPODA Class: MOLLUSCA Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. Os sepiae is often found floating on sea-water. It is 1 to 3 inches in width and 5 to 10 inches in length. The skeleton is an oblong, elliptical or oval, flat substance, of whitish colour, very hard and brittle. It can be easily scratched with the nails and is highly pulverisable. Source : Cuttle fish are common on the Indian coasts. Among the cuttle fish, sepioteuthis arctiprinnis Gould, Loligo indica pfeffer, Loligo affinis koning, Loligo hardwickii Gray and Loligo duvancelii d¡¯ orb are commonly used as food. The chief commercial species caught is sepioteuthis arctipinnis, which is in the high demand for food and fetches a good price in the Ramnad district of Madras state, India. Othe r ve rna cula r na me s: * Sa nskrit : Samudraphena

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* * * * * * * *

E nglish G e rma n Hind i P e rsia n

:

Cuttle- fish bone

: Kuttel fish beim : Darya ¨C ka ¨C kaf : Zuddulbaher kafdarya. : Samudraphina : Kadal noray

G uj a ra th a nd ma ha ra s T a mil a nd Ma la ya la m Ca na T e lugu : :

Samudranaligay Sorupenka; Samudrapunuragu.

Othe r na me in Sid d ha : KANAVAAI ODU. Che mica l constitue nts: It contains calcium carbonate 80 to 85 percent, also phosphate and sulphate with silica. Cuttle fish tends to have high cholesterol content. Actions: It is antacid like chalk; also astringent and local relative (or) Cuttle fish bones of sepia species are used as antacid, astringent and sedative. Use s in T ra d itiona l Sid d ha Me d icine : 1. When powdered it is used as a dusting powder to relieve the pain of ear-ache or in otorrhoea. Its paste when mixed with lime-juice is usefully applied in itches and other skin diseases. In prickly heat, the powdered cuttle fish bone is applied to the body along with Rose water. 4. 5. The powder is an ingredient of tooth-powders. A medicated oil prepared by boiling fine scraping of the bone in sweet or sesamum oil is useful for dropping into the ear in otorrhoea. 6. A thin paste made of Cuttle fish bone and rock-salt (Sodium chloride impura) in rose water base is usually applied to the eyes in conjunctivitis. Othe r comme rcia l use s: 1. The Cuttle fish bone of sepia species is used by cabinet makers and glaziers for polishing purposes; fine grade wood acquired a high polish when treated with Cuttle bone. A dark brown pigment, called sepia, is obtained from the ink-sec of Cuttle fish and related forms. It is extracted by boiling the material with caustic soda, filtering the extract

2. 3.

2.

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and then adding hydrochloric acid for precipitating the colouring matter. It contains a black pigment, melanin (78%) and is used for imparting tone and background to photographs and art work. R e fe re nce : 1. The wealth of India vol. ¢ö L-M, vol. ¢ö supplement 2. Dr. K.M. NADKARNI¡¯S Indian materia medica. Vol. 2, page no: 210. 3. Gunapadam Thathu ¨C jeeva vaguppu Part 2&3.

*

Asst. Lecturer, Dept. of Physiology, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. [email protected]

Thamboolam

Effects of Consumption of Thamboolam (Conventional Betel Chewing) in Traditional Siddha Medicine

Thomas M.Walter* H.Nalini Sofia**

Introd uction "Thamboolam" is a name referred to betel leaf, areca nut and slaked lime taken together or considered as a whole. Sometimes cardamom, long pepper, clove, calophyllum aromaticum, nutmeg, mace and dried ginger are also added with them and chewed. Areca nut has a long history of use and is deeply ingrained in many sociocultural and religious activities. The use of betel leaf can be traced as far back as two thousand years. It is described in the most ancient historic book of Ceylon, the Mahavasma, which is written in the Pali language. Areca nut is the seed of the fruit of the oriental palm, Areca catechu. Thin slices of the nut, either natural or processed, may be mixed with a variety of substances including slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and spices such as cardamom, coconut, and saffron. Most significantly, they may be mixed with tobacco products or wrapped in the leaf of the piper betel plant. Areca nut is used by an estimated 200-400 million people, mainly IndoAsians and Chinese. Betel chewing is considered as a good and cheep source of dietary calcium. Major ingredients of "Thamboolam" 1. 2. 3. Kammaru betel - Dark coloured pungent betel leaf. Areca nut (Areca catechu) Lime (Calcium hydroxide)

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Properties of the Ingredients and its traditional uses 1. Betel leaf Betel leaves have a strong pungent aromatic flavor and is widely used as masticators. The presence of a fairly large quantity of diastase in the betel leaves is likely to play an important part in starch digestion. Large quantities of saliva produced by chewing betel leaf act as digestive and probably the presence of diastase enhance this activity. The leaves contain good amount of B vitamins (particularly nicotinic acid) ascorbic acid and carotene. Kammaru betel leaf consists of more juice which cures pharyngitis, abdominal pain and abdominal distension. Ordinary betel leaf cures urticaria and the effects due to the derangement in the equilibrium of the three humours namely Vatha, Pitha and Kabha. It gives a pleasant odour in the mouth. Betel leaves possess an anti-oxidant action. The anti-oxidant effect is due to the presence of phenols particularly hydroxyl- chavicol (4- allyl pyrocatechol). The leaf produces an aromatic volatile oil containing a phenol called chavicol which has powerful antiseptic properties. The essential oil present gives rise to a sensation of warmth and well ­being in the mouth and stomach. It is also known to produce a primary stimulation of the The betel leaf is central nervous system, followed by a kind of inebriety in large doses. believed as a common household remedy for various ailments. Traditional uses 1. 2. 3. A paste of betel leaves mixed with salt and hot water can be administered for filariasis. For treating obesity one betel leaf mixed with piper nigrum is prescribed for two months. Juice with honey or a liquid extract is useful in coughs, dyspnoea, deranged phlegm and indigestion, common in children.

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4.

The application of leaves smeared with oil is said to promote secretion of milk when applied on the breasts of lactating women.

5.

A local application is recommended for inflammatory swellings such as orchitis, arthritis and mastitis. In pulmonary affections of childhood and old age, leaves soaked in mustard oil and warmed are applied to the chest in order to relieve cough and dyspnoea.

6.

2. Areca catechu (Betel nut) The nut is used as a masticatory by the people of India and East Asia. The betel nut contains several alkaloids, the chief of which is arecoline, an oily liquid, which is soluble in water and most of the organic solvents, and boils at 220° C. pilocarpine in action. The quality of areca nut If one chews areca nut, it removes kapham (phlegm) and relieves constipation. It destroys the germs and cures hemorrhoids and fissure in ano. If taken in excess it will cause anasarca. Dried nut is stimulant, astringent and taenifuge. It increases the flow of saliva; lessens perspiration; sweetens the breath, strengthens the gum and produces mild exhilaration. Raw nut produce vertigo and a sense of intoxication resembling that experienced after alcohol; with old nuts these effect are not clearly so marked. The variation in the effects produced is due to differences in the arecoline content of the nuts. The quality of tender areca nut Tender areca nut removes the kapham (phlegm) formed in throat, neutralizes deranged vatham and kapham removes staunch Anorexia. But it will never reduce the digestive fire. T he q ua lity of worm e a te n a re ca nut The worm eaten areca nut should be made into pieces and soaked in water. They should be washed several times, dried, spices are added and powdered. stool after eating and chewing recants which improves digestion. Exclusion criteria in the selection of Areca nuts. One should pass It is highly poisonous and resembles

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1) 2)

Unripe areca nut, much ripened areca nut, dampened nut, insects laden nuts with holes should be avoided. Fresh, tender, immature, over ripen or rotten areca nuts should not be chewed. If kalipakku, the dried and coloured areca nut, is consumed, chest congestion due to sputum and diarrhea will be caused.

3)

4)

If the areca nut alone is consumed it cause anaemia and so it should not be taken alone.

5)

Fresh nut is some what intoxicating and produces giddiness in some persons.

Traditional uses * Powder of the dried nuts in 10-15 grain doses with equal parts of sugar will check diarrhea due to debility. * One forth tola of the powder rubbed in o a paste with two tolas of fresh lemon juice makes an excellent vermifuge. * 4-6 drachms of the powder stirred up with 2 or 3 ounces of milk is generally administered for the expulsion of the tape- worm. * The nut is useful in checking the heart burn of pregnancy. The nut is used as an astringent for bleeding gums.

*

Toxic symptoms of betel nut Some individuals are very sensitive to betel nuts, and develop poisonous symptoms soon after taking even a small fragment of a betel nut. Acute poisoning may be caused by

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chewing unripe betel nuts.

The chief symptoms are,

* * * * * * * * * * *

Flushing of the face Profuse perspiration Bronchial spasm Contraction of the pupils Thirst Colicky pain in the abdomen Diarrhoea Tetanic spasms Difficult breathing Slow pulse Collapse

3. Lime (Chunnambu) In the animal kingdom lime is found in the hard part of Corals and in Oyster shells. It is obtained from lime stone; Calcined cowries; Conch shells; Bivalve shells and Snail shells. These shells are purified by being soaked in lemon juice and are prepared for use by being calcined with in covered crucibles. The lime is employed to neutralize the astringent effect of the acid nut. In addition to the above two main ingredients, the alkaline reaction of the lime plays an important part in liberating the alkaloid arecoline from areca nut. In this way lime also plays an important role in enhancing its nervous effects. Using lime stone variety helps in the digestion of food. It cures the indigestion caused by ghee, diarrhea, centipede poison and other poisons. It increases spermatogenesis and strengthens the teeth. Using pearl lime cures chronic diarrhea, phlegm, worms and diseases of the stomach and anorexia caused by vatha humour. The other types of lime should be avoided. T ra d itiona l use s Lime water given internally forms a good antacid in dyspepsia and heart burn. 1) One to four drachms is given with ilk to children in acidity of the stomach. In the diarrhea and vomiting of infants and young children, resulting from artificial feeding one part of lime water diluted with four to six parts of milk is suitable and the saccharated solution of lime internally is also of great service. 3) Obstinate vomiting, diarrhea, in consumption, in poisoning by mineral acids, vomiting

2)

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attendant on the advanced stages of fever, even the black vomit of yellow fever and pyrosis or water brash sometimes yield to a few doses of lime water four or five ounces being added to a pint of milk. 4) In poisoning by any mineral acids, and also arsenic, lime water given plentifully in milk is an antidote. 5) Externally calcium popularly used in the form of lime-water, is a well known remedy in all inflammatory swellings. Scrofulous and other ulcers with much discharge have been found to improve under the use of lime water as a local application. 7) For syphilitic ulcers or chancres one of the best applications is a mixture of lime water half a pint and Calomel 30 grains (commonly known as black wash). 8) To burns and scalds lime liniment called carron oil, composed of equal parts of lime water and a bland oil (olive oil or sesamum oil, preferably linseed oil) thoroughly shaken well together so as to form a uniform mixture is a popular remedy.

6)

9)

A paste made of quick lime and pearl ash equal parts is a useful application to remove

warts. T oxic fe a ture s of lime Lime is used along with betel leaves and areca nut. If it consumed in excess it causes oral ulcers, inflammation of gastro intestinal tract, stomatitis, glossitis, pharyngitis and burning sensation of the stomach, diarrhea and vomiting. It acts as a caustic, when used externally and acts as a corrosive poison when taken in a large quantity. The action is due to the alkalinity and not due to calcium. Lime may be taken accidentally or with a suicidal intent. If inhaled, it may cause

irritation of the respiratory tract. The toxic symptoms such as severe burning pain in the throat and stomach, nausea, vomiting, thirst, cold and clammy skin, rapid and feeble pulse are seen. Collapse and death may occur with in 24 hours. In the post mortem appearance there may be congestion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestine. Anti d ote

1)

Coconut milk, butter and ghee are given to neutralize the toxic effects; Na va ne e tha p a rp a m or kungilia ve nna i (Siddha medicines) or decoctions with astringent tastes are also given.

2) 3)

Turmeric paste is applied on the tongue. Turmeric powder is dissolved in water and filtered water is given.

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4)

Buffalo's butter milk can also be given

Thus the poisonous effects of lime can be removed.

Method of preparation and consumption of Thamboolam The betel leaf is consumed in a fresh state; the old deteriorated leaves are believed to loss their properties. Plain betel leaf should be chewed first. After removing the pedicle, veins and the tip of the betel leaf, lime is rubbed on the reverse of the leaf lightly, folded and then chewed. Then areca nut should be taken. In the process of chewing, the morsel is pushed from one side of the mouth to other, it is masticated, pressed against or between the teeth in order to remove the juice, and it may protrude between the lips. The areca nut constitutes one half or even more of the total weight of the morsel, the balance being made up with betel leaf spices and lime. Generally one large betel leaf or one and a half of the smaller leaves are used in making one morsel to which half to one grain of lime is added. The saliva secreted immediately after chewing betel nut in the first stage causes ill effects and the saliva secreted in the second stage causes insanity. The saliva secreted in the third stage is considered as ambrosia and the saliva secreted in the fourth stage is very good and sweet. The saliva secreted in the fifth and sixth stage is not useful as they cause the derangement of pitham, indigestion and anaemia. Hence the saliva secreted in between the first two and the last two stages (i.e. 3 rd and 4 th stages only) must be swallowed and the rest should be split out. This is good for the brain and eyes.

One who is in the habit of chewing betel nut in the morning should take areca nut in excess which relieves constipation, less of betel leaves and lime. After lunch more lime may be added with the betel nut which helps in the digestion. If betel leaf is consumed in excess in the night it gives a pleasant odour to the mouth and prevents the offensive odour. Effects of Thamboolam Chewing betel leaf with areca nut which has pungent and astringent taste removes derangement of humors in the body. Germs will die; it removes thirst and kapham, prevents several diseases, reduces hunger, endears women; improve taste and cleans the abdomen. One becomes wise and able; righteousness prevails and adds splender of countenance. They sweeten the breath, improve voice, and remove foetor from the mouth. Also they increase salivary secretion. Betel chewing is considered as a good and cheap source of dietary calcium. The calcium ingested is reported to be well absorbed by the system. Pathological changes produced by betel chewing (Side effects) Excessive indulgence in chewing for long periods is liable to produce,

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i. Dental caries ii. Deposition of black tartar iii. Recession of gums iv. Partial or complete loss of sensibility of buccal mucosa v. Pyorrhoea alveolaris vi. Atrophy of the alveolar process vii. Oral sepsis viii. Cancer of the mouth ix. Dyspepsia x. Palpitation xi. Neurosis xii. Giddiness xiii. Slow cerebration.

Contraindications for consuming Thamboolam Persons who suffer from

§ § § § § § § §

Haemoptysis Hypertension Eye congestion Unconsciousness Psychological disorders Tuberculosis Burning fever and Head ache

should not take Thamboolam. Reference:

1.

Dr. C.S.Uthamarayan, A compendium of Siddha Doctrine, 1 st edition, Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106.

2.

Dr. G.Durairasan, Siddha principle of Social and Preventive Medicine, 1 st edition, Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106.

3.

Dr. Pon.Gurusironmani Siddha Toxicology, 1 st edition, Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106.

4.

A.K. Nadkarni, Materia Medica, Vol I & II, 3 rd edition, Popular Prakashan pvt. Ltd. Bombay.

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5.

C.P. Khare, Encyclopedia of Indian medicinal plants, 1st edition, Springer-verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York.

6. 7. 8.

The Wealth of India, Raw materials, Vol. VIII Ph-Re, 1 st edition, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. Rev. Fr. Jean Ferdinand Caius, The Medicinal and Poisonous plants of India, 5 th Reprint 2003, Scientific publishers, Jodhpur (India). K.R. Kirtikar, B.D. Basu, Indian Medicinal plants, Vol IV, 2nd edition, & An I.C.S, Bishen Singh Mahendra pal singh, Dehra Dun (India).

9.

R.N Chopra, I.C.Chopra, K.L.Handa & L.D. Kapur, Chopra's Indigenous drugs of India, 2nd edition, Academic publishers, Calcutta ( India )

10. Dr. K. Mathiharan, Prof. Dr.Amrit K.Patnaik, Modi's Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, 23rd edition, Lexis Nexis, New Delhi.

11. T.V. Sambasivam Pillai, Tamil-English Dictionary of Medicine, Chemistry, Botany and Allied Sciences by Volume IV Part: I and page: 982, publisher: Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai, India. IInd edition, March 1998.

12. Saman Warnakulasuriya, Chetan Trivedy, Timothy J Peters, Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental Institute, London SE5 9RW, "Areca nut use: an independent risk factor for oral cancer", Editorials, British Medical Journal, BMJ 2002;324:799-800 ( 6 April )

13. Williams SA. Betel-quid chewing: a community perspective. In: Bedi R, Jones P, eds. Betel-quid chewing among Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom. London: Centre for Transcultural Oral Health, 1995:11-25.

14. Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of areca nut usage. Addiction Biology 2002; 7: 77-83 [CrossRef] [ISI] [Medline].

* Asst. Lecturer, Dept. of Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. [email protected] ** PG Scholar, Department of Maruthuvam (Medicine), National Institute of Siddha, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai, India. [email protected]

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