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kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebi axali devnilebisTvis saqarTveloSi: angariSvaldebuleba daxmarebisa da mSeneblobis procesSi

aprili, 2010 weli

dabeWdilia OSGF-is finansuri mxardaWeriT gamocemaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ar gamoxatavs donoris pozicias

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es angariSi momzadda fond `Ria sazogadoeba ­ saqarTvelos~ (OSGF) finansuri mxardaWeriT, `gamWvirvale saerTaSoriso daxmareba saqarTvelosTvis~ koaliciis (TFAG) saqmianobis farglebSi.1 koaliciis mizani donori qveynebisa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier saqarTvelosTvis gamoyofili finansuri daxmarebis efeqtianobisa da gamWvivalobis xelSewyobaa. proeqts fondi `Ria sazogadoeba ­ saqarTvelo~ afinansebs. am angariSis avtorisa da respondentebis mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi da gakeTebuli gancxadebebi mxolod mxolod maT ganekuTvneba da fond `Ria sazogadoeba ­ saqarTvelos~ pozicias ar gamoxatavs. Sesabamisad, fondi `Ria sazogadoeba ­ saqarTvelo~ mocemuli informaciis Sinaarsze pasuxs ar agebs.

1 koaliciis damfuZneblebi da wevrebi arian: `evraziis partniorobis fondi~, ekonomikuri politikisa da kvlevis centri~, `kivitas georgika~, `mwvane alternativa~, `saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia~, fondi ~Ria sazogadoeba ­ saqarTvelo~, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~.

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mokle Sinaarsi

am angariSSi ganxilulia, Tu rogor mimdinareobda saqarTvelo-ruseTs Soris 2008 wlis omis Sedegad devnili mosaxleobisTvis kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebis mSeneblobis procesi. angariSi yuradRebas amaxvilebs mSeneblobis xarisxze, romelic ramdenime damoukidebelma inJinerma Seafasa, aseve, mSeneblobaze pasuxismgebel uwyebebze, gaweul xarjebze da xelisuflebis mxridan mSeneblobis procesis zedamxvedvelobasa da am kuTxiT mis angariSvaldebulebaze. daskvniT nawilSi momavlisken vixedebiT da xelisuflebasa da donorebs vTavazobT rekomendaciebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra unda gaiTvaliswinon 1990-iani wlebis devnilebis sacxovrebeli pirobebis gaumjobesebis etapze.

angariSi Semdeg ZiriTad daskvnebs akeTebs: · kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebSi gamovlenili bevri problema, romelic Tavidan arasakmarisad mSrali samSeneblo masalis gamoyenebisa da mSeneblobis swrafi tempis aucileblobiT aixsna, erT welze metxans gagrZelda, rac imaze mianiSnebs, rom maTi gamomwvevi mizezebi ara mxolod mSeneblobis tempi, aramed Tavdapirveli dizainisa da dagegmvis xarvezebi SeiZleba iyos. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mSeneblobis monitoringis sistema, zogadad, kargad dokumentirebulia, rac dainteresebul mxareebs misi damoukideblad gadamowmebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. Tumca, fondis mier defeqtebis aRricxvasa da maTi aRmofxvris gakontrolebaSi garkveuli araTanmimdevruloba da uzustobebia. es xarvezebi mas samSeneblo kompaniebis mxridan xarisxis uzrunvelyofaSi xels uSlis. mcxeTis municipalitetis (romelmac kotejebis 68% aaSena) mier Catarebul monitorings damoukidebloba aklda da spontanur xasiaTs atarebda. defeqtebis aRmofxvrisadmi midgomac nakleb gamarTuli iyo. mSeneblobisa da inJinruli dagegmvis procesebis Sesaxeb informaciis xelmisawvdomobaSi arsebuli asimetria sazogadoebis mxridan maTze efeqtiani zedamxedvelobis ganxorcielebas arTulebs. Sesabamisad, kidev ufro metia imis saWiroeba, rom ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrom devnilebs am procesebTan dakavSirebiT ufro srulyofili informacia miawodos. devnilebisTvis xelmisawvdomi unda iyos arqiteqturuli proeqtebi, samSeneblo kompaniebTan dadebuli kontraqtebis sruli versiebi, maTTvis damtkicebuli biujetebi da a.S. aseTi komunikaciis damyareba arc Znelia da arc Zviri.

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saWiroa devnilebis ukeTesad informireba da dakvalianeba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor mouaron kotejebs, rom isini gamarTul mdgomareobaSi SeinarCunon. warmatebuli sainformacio kampania, romelic beneficiarebs ganumartavs, Tu ris safuZvelze, ra miznebiT iqna sxvadasxva gadawyvetilebebi miRebuli, angariSvaldebulebis srulfasovnad ganxorcielebis aucilebeli winapirobaa. es sakiTxi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom momdevno etapze igegmeba damatebiTi investiciebis Cadeba 1990-ian wlebSi devnilebis sacxovrebeli pirobebis gaumjobesebaSi.

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Sesavali: sawinaaRmdego Sefasebebi kotejebis xarisxTan dakavSirebiT

2008 wlis oqtomber-dekemberSi saqarTvelos mTavrobam 13 sxvadasxva adgilas 3 9632 individualuri koteji aaSena im devnilebisTvis, romelTac 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg samxreT oseTSi dabruneba ver SeZles. saSualod, TiToeul kotejze 27 800 lari (daaxloebiT 19 700 aSS dolari3) daixarja. maTi mSenebloba msoflio bankis maRalSeRavaTiani sesxebisa da evrokomisiis grantebiT dafinansda. mTlianad kotejebis aSeneba da maTTan dakavSirebuli infrastruqturis mowyoba4 133,3 milioni lari (94,5 milioni aSS dolari) 5 daja. am kotejebSi dRes 13 876 adamiani cxovrobs.6 saqarTvelos mTavrobis dauyovnebeli reagireba da devnilebisTvis saxlebis umokles droSi aSeneba aSkarad dadebiT Sefasebas imsaxurebs. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ msgavsi precedenti, roca konfliqtgamovlili qveyana yovelgvari dayovnebis gareSe axerxebs devnili mosaxleobis sacxovrebeli farTiT uzrunvelyofas, ucnobia. mTavrobis am mondomebam devnilebis mimarT mis damokidebulebasa da qmedebebSi udidesi cvlileba gamoaaSkarava: omamde wina konfliqtebis Sedegad 250 000 devnilis didi nawili wlebis ganmavlobaSi gausaZlis pirobebSi cxovrobda. maT am mgdomareobas xelisufleba sadao teritoriebis garSemo gamarTuli politikuri bataliebisTvis iyenebda. kotejebis aSenebisa da Sesabamisi dagegmvis procesis dawyebaze gadawyvetilebebi uswrafesad iqna miRebuli. samSeneblo kompaniebTan kontraqtebi mTavrobas omidan erT Tveze odnav met xanSi hqonda dadebuli, rac imas niSnavs, rom arqiteqturuli proeqtebi da Sesabamisi miwis moZiebis samuSaoebi am droisTvis ukve Catarebuli iyo. kontraqtebis pirobebis Tanaxmad, samSeneblo kompaniebs maqsimum sam TveSi unda daesrulebinaT samSeneblo samuSaoebi. SedarebisTvis, `gaeros devnilTa umaRlesi komisiis~ (UNHCR) inJinrebis (romlebic humanitaruli daxmarebis operaciebis eqspertebi arian) daangariSebiT, ukve arsebuli, carieli Senobebis gamarTul sacxovrebel farTebad gardaqmnas, 450 ojaxis dasakmayofieblad, minimum 45 dRe dasWirdeboda.7 mSeneblobis procesis uswrafesma tempma humanitarul operaciebSi momuSave bevri saerTaSoriso organizacia gaakvirva.8 imis gamo, rom axali kotejuri dasaxlebebi lamis erT RameSi gaCnda, maT metsaxelad `soko soflebic~ ki uwodes. devnilebis Tbilisisa da goris droebiTi sacxovreblebidan (skolebidan, baRebidan da sxva sajaro dawesebulebebis Senobebidan) kotejebSi gadayvana 2009 wlis ianvarSi, omis dawyebidan xuT TveSi, daiwyo.

SeniSvna devnilebTan dakavSirebuli terminologiis Sesaxeb

devnilebze saubrisas xSirad Cdneba dabneuloba imis gamo, rom devnilebis sxvadasxva jgufebis dros sxvadasxva dros gansxvavebuli terminologia gamoiyeneba. praqtikuli Sexebis mqone adamianebma gansxvavebebi kargad ician, Tumca, isini xSirad naTlad ar gamokveTen, Tu romel devnilebze weren an saubroben. es angariSi e.w. `axal~, igive `meore talRis~ devnilebs, anu im adamianebs exeba, romlebic 2008 wlis omis Semdeg iqcnen devnilebad da romlebic axla kotejebSi cxovroben. jamSi 22 000-mde axali devnilia. `axali~ devnilebis erT-erTi qvekagegoriaa reabilitirebul korpusebSi mcxovrebi devnilebi ­ daaxloebiT 8 100 adamiani. korposebsa da devnilebisTvis aSenebul kotejebs erTobliobaSi devnilTa `dasaxlebebad~ moixsenieben. meore ZiriTadi kagetoria e.w. `Zveli~, igive `pirveli talRis~ devnilebi, anu is adamianebia, romlebsac 1990-ian wlebSi mouwiaT afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis datoveba. maTi saerTo raodenoba 233 453-ia. ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros Tanaxmad, am meore jgufis devnilebis 42% koleqtiur centrebSi cxovrobs. isini maTTvis gamoyofili sacxovrebeli farTebis mesakuTreebi ar arian. koleqtiuri centrebis umravlesobaSi umZimesi pirobebia. `pirveli talRis~ devnilebis danarCeni 58% e.w. `kerZo seqtoris~ devnilebia, anu isini naTesavebis an naqiraveb binebSi cxovroben. zogadad iTvleba, rom kerZo seqtorSi mcxovrebi devnilebis pirobebi aseve sakmaod rTulia.

2 es ricxvi ­ 3 963 ­ aRniSnulia municipaluri ganviTarebis fondisa da mcxeTis municipalitetis mier mowodebul dokumentaciaSi da dadasturebulia ramdenime wyaros mier. ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro asaxelebs kotejebis sxva raodenobas ­ 3 979. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ ver SeZlo mieRo ganmarteba, Tu riT aixsneba sxvaoba 16 kotejSi. 3 gacvliT kursad gamoyenebulia 2008 wlis 15 seqtembers dafiqsirebuli kursi: 1 aSS dolari = 1,41 lars, xolo 1 evro = 2,01 lars). 4 infrastruqturaSi Sedis: misasvleli gzebi, wyalmomarageba da kanalizacia. gazisa da eleqtrogayvanilobis xarjebi am TanxaSi ar Sedis da arc am angariSis romelime sxva nawilSia mocemuli. 5 mTavrobam 2008 wlis devnilebisTvis jamSi 38 axali dasaxleba aaSena. maTgan 25 sacxovrebeli korpusi, romlebic xelaxla SekeTda (sul 1 542 bina), xolo 13 ­ kotejuri tipis dasaxlebaa (devnilebis gansaxlebis samoqmedo gegma, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro, gavrcelebuli 2010 wlis 8 Tebervals, devnilTa sakiTxebze sameTvalyureo sabWos Sexvedraze). germaniisa da TurqeTis mTavrobebma cal-calke daafinanses kotejebis aSeneba 400 da 100 ojaxisTvis (ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro, PP prezentacia devnilTa sakiTxebis sameTvalyureo sabWosTvis, 2009 wlis 4 dekemberi). 6 UNICEF, `wyalmomaragebis, sanitariisa da higienis kuTxiT arsebuli mdgomareoba, saWiroebebi da prioritetebi saqarTvelos devnilTa dasaxlebebSi.~ danarTi A-2: koleqtiuri centrebis, dasaxlebebis da soflebis sia, 2009 wlis 12 ivnisi. 7 `sacxovreblis koordinaciis jgufis~ Sexvedris oqmi, 2008 wlis 3 seqtemberi. http://relief.migration.ge. Semowmebulia 2010 wlis 11 Tebervals. 8 es dadasturda `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ mier 2009 wels Catarebuli ara erTi interviuTi.

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axal kotejebSi sacxovrebeli pirobebi Sors iyo idealurisgan. problemebs Soris yvelaze aSkara ­ sveli da civi oTaxebi _ dagegmvisa da mSeneblobis tempiTa da samSeneblo masalis xelmisawvdomobasTan dakavSirebuli problemebiT aixsna. kedlebis sisvelis gamo kotejebSi ara erTi sxva defeqti warmoiqmna, ris gamoc qarTulma mediam da bevrma adgilobrivma arasamTavrobo organizaciam kotejuri dasaxlebebi sakmaod mwvaved gaakritika.9 magaliTad, `koaliciam devnilTa uflebebis dacvisaTvis~ 2009 wlis ivlisSi gamoqveynebul angariSSi dawera: `am saxlebis xarisxTan dakavSirebuli seriozuli eWvebi da pretenziebi sainformacio saSualebebis, eqspertebis, Tu Tavad devnilebis mxridan sakmaod xSirad ismis.~ igive angariSi mSeneblobis xarisxis problemebsac aRwers: `koaliciis wevrebs sxvadasxva dasaxlebebSi Casvlisas xvdebodaT sakmaod mZime suraTi: saxuravebidan Camosuli wvimis wyali, nestisgan daobebuli kedlebi, deformirebuli iataki, oTaxebSi amosuli balaxi, kar-fanjris Casmisas darRveuli hermetuloba.~10 msgavsi braldebebi, bevri maTgani fotoebiT gamyarebulic, 2009 wels ara erT konferenciasa da sxva sajaro RonisZiebazec gamoiTqva.11 arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da mediis warmomadgenlebi, ZiriTadad, im safrTxes usvamdnen xazs, rom, Tu kotejebis dazianeba igive tempiT gagrZeldeboda, ramdenime welSi isini saerTod daingreoda. kotejuri dasaxlebebis garSemo negatiuri yuradReba ar Semcirebula. male kritikas opoziciuri politikuri partiebic SeuerTdnen. magaliTad, 2009 wlis noemberSi parlamentSi `janmrTelobis dacvisa da socialuri sakiTxTa komitetis~ wevrma aRSniSna: `devnilebisTvis zamTris gadatana iqneba urTulesi. imis gamo, rom es saxlebi Zalian swrafad aSenda, yvela saWiro piroba ar iyo daculi. daixarja sakmaod didi Tanxa, magram Sedegad ra miviReT? me TviTon nanaxi maqvs bevri saxlis kedlebi dabzarulia, zogan wvima Cadis, ara aris mowyobili nagavsayrelebi. aseT pirobebSi zamTarSi yofna SeuZlebeli iqneba~.12 ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis ministri koba subeliani am braldebebis did nawils uaryofs da maT yviTeli presis sensaciebze gaTvlil da politizebuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebs miawers: `roca Cven presidan problemis Sesaxeb vigebT, maSinve mivdivarT im sofelSi da veZebT statiaSi aRweril saxls. saxlis patroni, rogorc wesi, gveubneba _ `xo, romeliRac organizaciidan iyvnen, daaTvalieres aqauroba, kedelze Camoclili saRebavi naxes da mere Tqves, rom kedeli daingrao.~ marTlac, mtkicebulebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom kotejebi dabali xarisxis aris jer mxolod calkeul SemTxvevebs efuZneba. garda amisa, mSeneblobis mdgradobis Sesaxeb eqspert-inJinrebis Sefasebebis gareSe daskvnis gakeTeba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. `koaliciam devnilTa uflebebisaTvis~ sworad miuTiTa 2009 wlis angariSSi, rom kotejur dasaxlebebSi gamovlenili defeqtebis masStabisa da xarisxis Sesaxeb damoukidebeli kvleva ar Catarebula.13 aseTi sajaro kvleva arc `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ am angariSis gamoqveynebis droisTvis arsebobs.

dagegmvisa da mSeneblobis procesSi CarTuli uwyebebi da organizaciebi miiCneven, rom warmoqmnili problemebi, mSeneblobis dros arsebuli situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, gardauvali iyo. msoflio bankis urbanuli menejmentis mTavari specialistis ahmed eiveidas (romelic dagegmvis sawyis etapze da mogvianebiT, kotejebis dafinansebis procesSi iyo CarTuli) TqmiT, problemebis gamarTleba SeiZleba: `aseTi swrafi reagirebis dros mTavrobas uwevda garkevuli balansi moeZebna sam rames Soris. eseni iyo: tempi, xarji da xarisxi. TiTqmis SeuZlebelia samive komponenti maRal doneze iyos. Tu imas miaRwie, rom ori gqondes maRal doneze ­ bravo!~14 msoflio bankma axali kotejebis nawilis mSeneblobisTvis saqarTvelos mTavrobas SeRavaTiani sesxebi gamouyo. eiveidasve TqmiT: `mTavrobas xarjebis gawevisas ar uZunwia. devnilebs aqvT televizorebi, aveji da a.S. miTxariT, romelma sxva qveyanam gaakeTa igive?~ mSeneblobis swraf temps icavs ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis ministric: `cecxlis Sewyvetidan sam TveSi karavSi aravin

9 magaliTad, ixileT Tea TediaSvilis statia: `aq cxovreba SeuZlebelia~ _ amboben kotejebSi Sesaxlebuli devnilebi~, gazeTi `monitori~, specialuri gamoSveba, 2009 wlis ianvari. 10 koalicia devnilTa uflebebisaTvis, `programuli angariSi~ ,2009 wlis 6 ivlisi. http://www.idp.ge/geo/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=120:-6-&catid=49&Itemid=78&lang=ka 11 magaliTisTvis, `koaliciam devnilTa uflebebisaTvis~ 2009 wlis noemberSi gamarTa prezentacia, sadac organizaciis warmomadgenelma warmoadgina kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebSi arsebuli defeqtebis amsaxveli fotoebis slaidSou. am Sexvedris Sesaxeb momzadebul saboloo angariSSi mokled aris Sejamebuli slaidSous Tanmxlebi zepiri komentari: daxmareba, romelic adgilnacvalma pirebma mTavrobisagan da mosaxleobisagan miiRes mniSvnelovani iyo, ris Sedegadac maTi gansaxlebis sakiTxi swrafad gadawyda. magram zog SemTxvevaSi siswrafe xarisxis xarjze miiRweoda. gansaxlebis procesi ukeT dagegmili da ganxorcielebuli unda yofiliyo, gansakuTrebiT zogierTi sacxovreblis mSeneblobis xarisxis TvalsazrisiT. axal Senobebs ara aqvT saZirkveli, rac maT arastabilurobas aniWebs. stiqiisagan dacvac SeuZlebelia, saxlebi cudadaa gadaxuruli da wvimis wyali oTaxebSi Cadis~, (saboloo angariSi, `evrokavSiri-saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis seminari iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebze~, Tbilisi, 2009 wlis 12 noemberi.) 12 Tako xuciSvili, `valeri kopaleiSvili: zamTarSi yvela devnili Tbilad icxovrebs~, humanrights.ge, 2009 wlis 6 noemberi, http://www.humanrights.ge/ index.php?a=article&id=4350&lang=ge. 13 `koalicia devnilTa uflebebisaTvis, igive. 14 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu ahmed eiveidasTan, seqtoris koordinatori, msoflio banki, 2010 wlis 28 ianvari.

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cxovrobda. Sri-lankaSi xalxi axlac karvebSi cxovrobs.~15 SesaZloa, es Sefaseba gadaWarbebulia16, Tumca, misi arsi mniSvnelovania, radgan is xsnis mTavrobis gadawyvetilebas swrafi mSeneblobis sasargeblod. maT, vinc mTavrobis qmedebas eTanxmebian, sjeraT, rom kotejebis aSeneba da devnilebis droebiTi sacxovrebeli adgilebidan am kotejebSi gadayvana SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad unda momxdariyo. bunebrivia, fsiqologiurad devnilebisTvis ukeTesi iyo, rom namdvil saxlebSi ecxovraT da sakuTar momavalze zrunva Tavadve daewyoT, vidre cariel skolebSi, mudmivad viRacis daxmarebis imedze yofiliyvnen. mTavrobis gadawyvetileba sruliad praqtikuli da Sedegze orientirebulia. is, aseve, adekvaturia im qveynisTvis, romelsac SezRuduli finansuri da instituciuri resursi da gazrdili socialuri saWiroebebi aqvs. amis miuxedavad, es angariSi Seecdeba daasabuTos, rom dagegmvis ufro grZeli periodi, romelSic ufro meti adgilobrivi da ucxoeli eqsperti iqneboda CarTuli, gacilebiT ukeTesi Sedegis miRebis SesaZleblobas Seqmnida, Tan ­ mcire damatebiTi xarjiT. 2010 wlis zafxulidan donori qveynebi da organizaciebi da saqarTvelos mTavroba rogorc axali, aseve Zveli devnilebisTvis didi raodenobiT axal Tanxas gamoyofen. axlandeli molaparakebebisa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebis tempi mniSvnelovnad CamorCeba 2008 wels kotejebis mSeneblobis temps, romelic lamis sinaTlis siCqares utoldeboda. imisTvis, rom samomavlo investiciebis warmatebas xeli Seuwyos, es angariSi mSeneblobis processa da xarisxTan dakavSirebul yvelaze xSirad wamoweul problemebs mimoixilavs. momdenvo TavebSi gTavazobT kotejebis xarisxis Sefasebas damoukidebeli inJinris mier, aseve, saxelmwifo Sesyidvebisa da mSeneblobis procesis aRweras, da municipaluri ganviTarebis fondisa da mcxeTis municipalitetis monitoringis sistemebis analizs.

kotejebis xarisxis Sefaseba damoukidebeli inJinris mier

2009 wlis martSi, devnilebis kotejebis uxarisxobis Sesaxeb ramdenime angariSisa da gancxadebis farTod gavrcelebis Semdeg, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ daiqirava damoukidebeli inJineri, raTa mas axali dasaxlebebis xarisxi da mdgradoba Seefasebina. Tavdapirveli Sefasebisas inJinerma is Seamowma, Tu ramdenad swori iyo yvelaze mwvave gancxadebebi imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom kotejebi, uxarisxobis gamo, ukve nawilebad iSleboda. 2009 wlis dekemberSi, kontraqtiT gansazRvruli mSeneblobebis sagarantio periodis gasvlis Semdeg, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ kvlav daiqirava meore damoukidebeli inJineri da mas dasaxlebebis xelaxla Semowmeba sTxova. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ mkvlevarebiTa da damoukidebeli inJinriT dakompleqtebuli jgufi 2009 wlis martSi, ori dRis ganmavlobaSi, xuT dasaxlebaSi Cavida (karaleTSi, xurvaleTSi, SavSvebSi, skraSi da berbukSi), xolo 2009 wlis dekemberSi, erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi ­ oTx dasaxlebaSi (karaleTSi, xurvaleTSi, SavSvebSi da axalsofelSi). dasaxleba karaleTi xurvaleTi SavSvebi skra berbuki axalsofeli marti 2009 X X X X X dekemberi 2009 X X X

X

15 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu, 2010 wlis 13 ianvari. 16 marTalia, krizisis pikze TiTqmis 185 000 adamiani iqca devnilad, magram es ricxvi male Semcirda. Tavad mTavrobis SefasebiT, agvistos bolosken (roca gansaxlebis strategiis SemuSaveba mimdinareobda) grZelvadiani devnilobis problemis winaSe mxolod 15 000 ­ 30 000 adamiani rCeboda. am periodSi goris karvebis banakSi sul ramdenime aTasi devnili cxovrobda. oqtombris pirvel naxevarSi es banaki daixura. (devnilebis statistika ixileT `amerikis daxmarebisa da saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos~ (USAID) `demokratiis, konfliqtebis gadaWris da humanitaruli daxmarebis biuros~, `ucxoeTSi katastrofebis dros daxmarebis ofisis~ dokumentebSi Fact Sheets #13 da Fact Sheets #18, 2008 wlis 26 agvisto da 11 seqtemberi. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/countries/georgia/template/fs_sr/georgia_ce_fs18_09-11-2008.pdf and http://ocha-gwapps1. unog.ch/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MYAI-7HW2K3?OpenDocument. informacia goris karvebis banakis daxurvis Sesaxeb ixileT `angariSebi ukanonobis Sesaxeb, romelic iZulebiT gadaadgilebis axal safrTxeebs qmnis saqarTveloSi~, 2008 wlis 26 agvisto, `gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisarii~, presrelizi, http://www.unhcr.org/48b424f94.html; `saqarTvelos uwyebaTaSorisi janmrTelobisa da kvebis samuSao jgufis angariSi #4~, 2008 wlis 4 seqtemberi, msoflio janmrTelobis organizacia (WHO), http://www.euro.who.int/Document/EHA/GEO_sitrep_04.pdf; da `gaeros humanitaruli koordinaciis ofisis angariSi #31 saqarTveloSi arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb~, 2008 wlis 16 oqtomberi, http://blog.afgeorgia.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/20081016-georgiasit-rep-31.doc.)

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orive vizitis dros jgufebma Tavisufali, araanketirebis meTodiT, devnilTa xuTidan rvamde ojaxi gamokiTxes. TiToeuli gamokiTxva 20 wuTidan 1 saaTamde gagrZelda. jamSi `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ daaxloebiT 60 ojaxisgan aiRo interviu, inJinerma ki TiTqmis 30 koteji Seamowma eqvs sxvadasxva dasaxlebaSi. jgufebma mxolod municipaluri ganviTarebis fondisa da misi kontraqtori kompaniebis mier aSenebuli dasaxlebebi moinaxules (rogorc Semdeg TavSi aris aRwerili, kotejebis 68% mcxeTis municipalitetma da misma erTaderTma kontraqtorma ­ S.p.s. `niu enerjim~ aaSena). jgufebma kotejebi Signidanac daaTvalieres da garedanac. defeqtebis gamovlenis Semdeg isini, damatebiTi ganmartebebis misaRebad, Sesabamisi kotejebis mcxovreblebsac gaesaubrnen. mesame daTvalierebisas amjerad ucxoelma inJinerma, romelsac didi saerTaSoriso da qarTuli gamocdileba aqvs, kotejebis teqnikuri dizaini Seamowma. man `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ am angariSis momzadebisasac gauwia konsultacia. damoukidebeli inJinris mier ganxorcielebuli inspecqciis ZiriTadi daskvnebi: · Semowmebul kotejebSi struqturuli mdgradobis problemebi ar gamoikveTa. · martSi jgufebis mier nanax TiTqmis yvela saxlSi sxvadasxva saxis, ara umniSvnelo defeqtebi gamovlinda. Cveni SefasebiT, am defeqtebs saxlebis binadarTa cxovrebis pirobebze aSkara uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis efeqti aqvs (aq igulisxmeba obi kedlebsa da Werze, didi bzarebi da Rarebi kedlebSi, ris gamoc kotejebSi civi haeri Sedis, rac, Tavis mxriv, gaTbobaze danaxarjebs zrdis, deformirebuli iatakebi, rac aseve uSvebs civ haers da garda amisa, saxlebSi qvewarmavlebisa da mRrRnelebis SeRwevis safrTxes qmnis). · problemebis umravlesoba gamowveulia ara mSeneblobis Cqari tempiT, rogorc amas `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~ da sxvebi Tavidan varaudobdnen, aramed arqiteqturuli dagegmarebis dros daSvebuli SecdomebiT. mSeneblobis procesi imdenad swrafad warimarTa, rom arc erTi ZiriTadi samSeneblo masala (gansakuTrebiT cementi/ betoni da xe) kedlebis SeRebvisa da kotejebSi ojaxebis Sesaxlebis momentSi bolomde mSrali ar iyo. cementis saZirkvels gamosaSrobad, karg amindSi, daaxloebiT ori Tve sWirdeba, Tumca, ori kviris Semdeg is sakmarisad myaria imisTvis, rom damatebiTi mSeneblobis simZimes gauZlos.17 vinaidan yvela koteji daaxloebiT sam TveSi aSenda, naxevradmSral saZirkvelSi darCenilma sisvelem saTburis efeqti warmoqmna ­ man Senobis interierSi, kedlebsa da WerSi gadainacvla. imis gamo, rom samSeneblo samuSaoebi zamTarSi Catarda, gamoSrobis periodi kidev ufro gaxangrZlivda. sxva samSeneblo masala, maT Soris, iatakebisa da saxuravebisTvis gamoyenebuli ficrebi da kedlebis asaSenebeli cementis blokebi aseve ar iyo bolomde mSrali. xis masala garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrom gamoyo, radgan mSeneblobis dros, foTis portis daxurvis gamo, misi importi SeuZlebeli iyo.18 satyeo departamentma 38 859 kuburi metri wiwvovani da 3 800 kuburi metri foTlovani xis donacia gaakeTa.19 vinaidan saqarTveloSi xis gadamuSavebisa da gamoSrobis mZlavri sawarmo ar arsebobs, mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebuli xe jer kidev nedli iyo. 2009 wlis dekemberSi, damoukidebeli inJinris mier inspeqtirebis meore raundis win, `saerTaSoriso gamWirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~ fiqrobda, rom zafxulis ganmavlobaSi samSeneblo masala kargad gamoSreboda da maRali nestianobiT gamowveuli problemebi gaivlida. Tumca, dekemberSi inJinerma da mkvlevarebma kotejebis daTvalierebisas aRmoaCines, rom nestianoba jer kidev SemorCenili iyo. bevr kotejSi obi isev izrdeboda, gansakuTrebiT, im oTaxebSi, sadac gaTbobis mTavari sistema ar iyo damontaJebuli. erT kotejSi fanjris qveda kedlis sineste xelis SexebiTac igrZnoboda, Tumca, kotejebis umravlesobaSi obis gamo kedlebi ubralod civi da gaSavebuli iyo. devnilebi samarTlianad SiSoben, rom obi janmrTelobis problemebs da seriozuli alergiebis safrTxes qmnis. SenarCenebuli nestianoba imazec mianiSnebs, rom kotejebSi insulaciis sistema gamarTuli ar aris. erTma devnilma Tqva, rom yoveli wvimis dros, saxlis erT kuTxeSi, iatakidan ucnauri suni amodis. aseTi SemTxvevebi nedli samSeneblo masaliTa da mSeneblobis maRali tempiT veRar aixsneba, amitom maTi gamomwvevi mizezebi kotejebis arqiteqturul dizainSi unda veZeboT. naijel rutilom, `saqarTvelosa rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis kompaniis~ (GRDC) inJinerma, romelmac kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebis arqiteqturul proeqtebi Seamowma, ganmarta, Tu ratom aris kotejebi jer kidev nestiani. pirvel rigSi, saWiroa, rom samSeneblo masalis fizikur TvisebebSi gaverkveT. betoni TavisTavad wyalgaumtari masala ar aris, Tu is sxva masalas ar Seeria, an raime saxis damcavi ar gaukeTda.

17 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu da vizitebi dasaxlebebSi damoukidebel inJinerTan erTad, 2009 wlis marti. 18 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu ahmed eiveidasTan, igive. 19 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ korespondencia garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministrosTan, 2010 wlis 15 Tebervali.

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kotejebis kedlebi betonis blokebiT aris aSenebuli (romlebic wylis, cementis, qviSisa da myari masalebis, magaliTad, qva-RorRis SereviT aris damzadebuli) da maTSi darCenilia mcire sicarieleebi, rac wyals (wvimas an gruntis wylebs) aZlevs saSualebas, rom kapilaruli gziT infiltracia ganicados. arsebobs mSeneblobis sxvadasxva meTodebi, romlebic, betonis blokebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSic ki, danestianebis Tavidan acilebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. erT-erTi meTodi, romelic saqarTveloSi adre farTod gamoiyeneboda (da axlac gamoiyeneba), imaSi mdgomareobs, rom unda aSendes betonis Zalian sqeli _ 50 santimetridan 1 metramde sisqis _, kedeli. sineste garedan kedlebSi Sedis, Tumca misi sisqe imdenad didia, rom Sida mxaremde ver aRwevs. batoni ritulos TqmiT, aseTi sisqis kedlebis aSeneba Zalian Zviri jdeb.20 kotejebSi kedlis sisqe 20 santimetrs ar aRemateba.21 kedelSi nestis horizontalurad gavrcelebis (rac maSin xdeba, roca kedeli wvimiT sveldeba da wvima betonis blokebSi Sedis) prevenciis ufro iafi gzebic arsebobs. maTi saSualebiT sinestisgan dacvisa da insulaciis iseTive donis miRweva SeiZleba, rogoric sqeli kedlebiT. magaliTisTvis, aSS-Si gavrcelebulia kedlebze garedan amindis zemoqmedebisgan damcavi masalis damagreba, gaerTianebul samefoSi mSeneblobis standartuli teqnikaa ormagi kedlis aSeneba SuaSi carieli sivrciT. kotejebis aSenebisas arc erTi es meTodi ar gamouyenebiaT. garda amisa, kotejebis saxuravebis arsebuli dizaini, roca saxuravebi kotejebis kideebs odnav scdeba da wylis sawretelebi ara aqvs, isedac Txel kedlebSi horizontalur danestianebas zrdis. niadagSi arsebuli wyali danestianebis kidev erTi wyaroa. am SemTxvevaSi danestianeba vertikalurad xdeba da kotejebs azianebs. es gansakuTrebiT mwvave problemas im kotejebSi warmoadgens, romlebic brtyel, dablob zedapirzea aSenebuli da sadac drenaJis gamarTuli sistema ar arsebobs. es bevri kotejuri tipis dasaxlebis damaxasiaTebeli niSania. vertikaluri danestianebisgan dacvis iafi meTodi betonis blokebis fenebs Soris, iatakis donemde, wyalgaumtari safenebis Cagebaa. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma daadastura, rom kotejebis aSenebisas aseTi safenebi ar gamouyenebiaT. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis ganmartebiT, TiToeuli kotejis garSemo dagebulia betonis safari, romelic erTi metris siganis da ramdenime santimetris siRrmisaa. es swored imisTvis aris gakeTebuli, rom wvimis wyali Senobis saZirkvelSi ar moxvdes. batoni ritulosTvis mSeneblobis aseTi teqnika ucnobia, Tumca, rogorc Cans, saqarTveloSi is sakmaod gavrcelebulia. Tu aseTi betonis safarSi wyalgaumtari masalaa Sereuli, Teoriulad man saZirkvlis danestianebisgan dacva unda SeZlos. kotejebis meored daTvalierebis Semdeg `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ mvklevarTa da inJinris jgufma aRniSna, rom betonis safarebis did nawilSi, oTxive mxares grZeli bzarebi iyo gaCenili. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis TqmiT, es bzarebi imis gamo gaCnda, rom devnilebi SeSas am betonis safarze Cexaven da garda amisa, masze sxvadasxva simZimeebs aTavseben. fondis ganmartebiT, kedlebis danestianebis mizezi, savaraudod, swored betonis safarebis dazianebaa. dekemberSi, sagarantio periodis amowurvis Semdeg, am safarebis didi nawilis SekeTeba samSeneblo kompaniebs ukve dasrulebuli hqondaT, Tumca, rogorc `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ mkvlevarebisa da inJinris jgufma naxes, zogierTi adgilas SekeTebuli iyo safaris mxolod quCispira mxare, ukana mxare ki isev ise iyo datovebuli. bevrma devnilma, visac `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~ esaubra, ar icoda, rom saxlis garSemo dagebuli betoni safaris funqcias asrulebda da is ubralod saZirkvlis nawili egona. es aaSkaravebs erTerT mTavar problemas, romelic devnilTa kotejebis mSeneblobaSi CarTul sajaro uwyebebs Soris funqciebis ganawilebas ukavSirdeba. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi beneficiarebTan urTierTobaze pasuxismgebeli ar aris, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros ki, romelic garkveulwilad devnilTa ombucmenis funqcias unda asrulebdes, mSeneblobis monitoringis meqanizmebi ara aqvs. Sedegad, ar arsebobs angariSvaldebulebis gamarTuli sistema, romlis saSualebiTac teqnikur eqspertebsa da beneficiarebs Soris informaciis efeqtianad gacvla moxdeboda da magaliTisTvis, devnilebi miiRebdnen instruqcias imis Sesaxeb, rom SeSa maTi saxlebis win dagebul betonis safarze ar daCexon. amJamad msoflio banki, evrokomisia da USAID, municipaluri ganviTarebis fondTan erTad, muSaoben axal finansur paketze, romliTac kotejebis Tavdapirvel dagegmvaSi arsebuli xarvezebiT gamowveuli defeqtebis gasworeba dafinansdeba. savaraudod, SesakeTebeli samuSaoebi 2010 wlis gazafxul-zafxulSi Catardeba, Tumca, am angariSis gamoqveynebis periodisTvis dafinansebis axali detalebi cnobili ar iyo. jerjerobiT ar aris gadawyvetili, konkretulad ra saxis samuSaoebi Seva am paketSi da jamSi ra Tanxa daixarjeba. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~ saqarTvelos xelisuflebasa da donorebs urCevs, rom, rogorc minimum, yuradReba Semdeg sakiTxebze gamaxvildes:

20 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu (2010 wlis 22 ianvari) da el-fostiT korespondencia (2010 wlis 3 marti). 21 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mier mowodebuli arqiteqturuli proeqtebi.

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· sawretebi da saxlis kideebze gadmosuli saxuravebi: municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mier aSenebuli arc erTi kotejis saxuravs ara aqvs wvimis wylisgan dasacavi sawretebi. amis gamo kotejebSi vertikaluri danestianebis problema iqmneba. · danestianebisa da obis prevencia: `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ rTuli saTqmelia, Tu risi gakeTeba SeiZleba, rom danestianebis arsebuli problemebi gamoswordes. rogorc minimum, mniSvnelovani iqneboda eqspertebTan konsultaciis gavla imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra gzebi arsebobs am problemis SedarebiT dabal fasad gadasaWrelad, radgan drois ganmavlobaSi es problema ufro gamwvavdeba. Tan es sakiTxi energoefeqturobasa da kotejebis gaTbobis xarjebTanac aris kavSirSi. · insulacia: yvela iataki saWiroebs miwisgan ukeTesad insulacias, iatakis ficrebs Soris arsebuli Rarebi ki ­ amovsebas, an mTeli iatakis linoniumiT an sxva safariT dafarvas. arsebuli iatakebi damzadebulia xis safarisgan, romelic qvemodan ramdenime grZeli ficriT aris gamagrebuli. iatakis ficrebs Soris didi Rarebia, maT qvemoT ki ­ miwa. Sedegad, erTis mxriv, RarebSi haeri moZraobs da meores mxriv, kotejebSi mRrRnelebi da qvewarmavlebi aRweven. mRrRnelebi, SesaZloa, adamianebis usafrTxoebas did problemas ar uqmnidnen, magram, rogorc `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ erTma devnilma uTxra, isini saxlSi Senaxul sakveb produqtebs Wamen da afuWeben. gaumarTavi insulacia energomoxmarebaze da Sesabamis xarjebzec axdens did gavlenas.22

mSeneblobis procesi: vin aaSena kotejebi da rogor daixarja fuli?

kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis mimRebi mTavari uwyeba ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro ar iyo. konfliqtis periodSi ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros imisTvis sakmarisi finansuri da adamianuri resursi ar hqonda, rom kompleqsuri humanitaruli daxmarebis procesi efeqtianad waremarTa. zogadad, is am dros erT-erT ufro sust saministrod moiazreboda. ara erTi mcdelobisa da moTxovnis miuxedavad, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ ver SeZlo daedgina, zustad rodis iqna kotejebis aSenebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba miRebuli da vis mier. `saomari moqmedebebis Sedegad miyenebuli zianis aRmofxvris RonisZiebaTa dafinansebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2008 wlis 8 seqtembris N563 gankarguleba" pasuxismgebel uwyebebad ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrosa da regionuli infrastruqturisa da ganviTarebis saministros asaxelebs, Tumca, am dadgenilebaSi kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebis dafinansebis sakiTxi calke gamoyofili ar aris. saerTaSoriso donor organizaciebTan komunikacias, ZiriTadad, Sinagan saqmeTa saministros spikeri warmarTavda. swored is acnobda donorebs kotejebis mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebul gegmebs. gadawyvetilebebis miRebis processac koordinacias Sinagan saqmeTa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministroebi uwevdnen.23 kerZod, isini kurirebdnen kotejebis dizainze gamocxadebul tenders, kotejebis asaSeneblad adgilis SerCevis Sida qarTlis regionSi adgilobriv municipalitetebTan erTad da saWiro saxelmwifo finansebis moZiebis process.24 kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebisTvis teritoriebis SerCevaze, ZiriTadad, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro iyo pasuxismgebeli. is am sakiTxze ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrosa da adgilobriv municipalitetebTan erTad muSaobda. SerCevis kriteriumebad ganisazRvra is, Tu ramdenad SeZlebdnen am teritoriaze devnilebi arsebobis damoukidebeli wyaroebis Seqmnas da ramdenad iafi dajdeboda mSenebloba. magaliTad, SerCeuli teritoriebi axlos unda yofiliyo iseT infrastruqturasTan, rogoricaa gzebi, wyalmomaragebis sistema da a.S. aseve, xelmisawvdomi unda yofiliyo sasmeli wyali da sasoflo-sameurneo miwis nakveTebi.25 mSeneblobas ori uwyeba ­ municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi26 da mcxeTis municipaliteti ­ xelmZRvanelobda. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ ucnobia, Tu ra mizeziT gadanawilda es funqcia or sxvadasxva uwyebas Soris. drois dazogvis mizniT municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma da mcxeTis municipalitetma samSeneblo kompaniebi, Rias nacvlad, daxuruli tenderis gziT SearCies (humanitaruli katastrofebis dros, Cveulebriv, saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis gamartivebuli formebis gamoyeneba miRebulia, Tumca, saukeTeso praqtikad kompaniebis winaswar dadgenili siis gamoyeneba iTvleba). municipaluri ganviTarebis fonmda TanamSromloba im

22 dagegmvisTvis meti dro rom yofiliyo, dasaxlebebis alternatiul dizainad SeiZleboda ganxiluliyo ramdenimeojaxiani saxlebis aSeneba. es energomomaragebis xarjebsa da samSeneblo masalebs dazogavda, radgan gare kedlebis naklebi raodenoba iqneboda saWiro. am etapze ucnobia, saerTod ganixileboda Tu ara aseTi alternativa. 23 Til brukneri, `gadawyvetilebebis miReba da saqarTvelos uwyveti revolucia: devnilTa saxlebis magaliTi,~ saerTaSoriso sakiTxebis kavkasiis mimoxilva (Caucasus Review of International Affairs), gamocema 3(2), 2009 wlis gazafxuli. 24 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu, ahmed eiveida, msoflio banki, igive. 25 igive. 26 municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis, rogorc sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piris formireba, 2007 wels moxda. misi ZiriTadi misia mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT infrastruqturuli proeqtebis zemdaxedvelobaa. 2007 wlamde is funqcionirebda rogorc msoflio bankis mier Seqmnili saagento, romelsac msoflio bankis infrastruqturuli proeqtebis gakontroleba evaleboda. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mrCevelTa sabWos premier-ministri xelmZRvanelobs.

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kompaniebs SesTavaza, romlebsac, fondisa da municipalitetis davalebiT, garkveuli samSeneblo samuSaoebi ukve hqondaT Sesrulebuli. aseTi iyo, magaliTad, S.p.s. `niu enerji~, romelsac axali damTavrebuli hqonda mcxeTis municipalitetTan dadebuli kontraqtis valdebulebebis Sesruleba. es kontraqti mcxeTis wyalmomaragebis sistemis reabilitacias exeboda.27 municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma kontraqtebi 14 svadasxva samSeneblo kompaniasTan gaaforma. am kontraqtebze kotejebis 32% (1 263 koteji) modis. TiToeul kotejze saSualod 27 183 lari daixarja. mcxeTis municipalitetma kontraqti mxolod erT kompaniasTan ­ S.p.s. `niu enerjisTan~ dado. man kotejebis darCenili 68% (2 799 koteji) aaSena, TiTo ­ saSualod 28 200 larad. maSasadame, mcxeTis municipalitetma TiToeul kotejze daaxloebiT 1 000 lariT (700 aSS dolariT) meti daxarja, vidre municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma. S.p.s. `niu enerjim~ samSeneblo samuSaoebisTvis aTze meti kerZo kompania daiqirava.28 `niu enerjis~ mier aSenebuli sami kotejuri tipis dasaxleba yvelaze didi dasaxlebebia. saerTo jamSi, kotejebis aSenebaze 110,5 milioni lari (78,4 milioni aSS dolari) daixarja. am TanxaSi ar Sedis damxmare infrastruqturis ­ gzebis, wyalmomaragebis sistemis, wyalgamtari arxebis da a.S. ­ xarjebi (ixileT cxrili 2). cxrili 1. kotejebze gaweuli xarjebi TiToeuli dasaxlebisa da kontraqtoris mixedviT TiToeul kotejze kontraqtis gaweuli xelmoweris xarji TariRi (2008 w.) larebSi

26 257 16 seqtemberi

kotejebis raodenoba

dasaxleba (raioni)

samSeneblo kompania

kontraqtis Rirebuleba larebSi

kontraqtis dasrulebis TariRi (2008 w.)

17 noemberi

pasuxismgebeli uwyeba

berbuki (gori)

S.p.s. lazo investi

134

3 518 450

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi

skra (gori) SavSvebi (gori)

S.p.s. nola

86

2 278 602

26 495

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

saaqcio sazogadoeba tbiltrestmsheni-3

27

722 752

26 769

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. oda

30

824 479

27 483

17 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. RTG

30

813 312

27 110

18 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. goni

30

797 793

26 593

19 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. imereTi-2000

30

809 855

26 995

20 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. mSenebeli 80

30

821 933

27 398

21 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

27 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu merab TuxarelTan, mcxeTis municipalitetis saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis samsaxuris ufrosTan, 2010 wlis 28 ianvari. 28 `axalganzrda iuristTa asociaciis angariSi~, romlis gamoqveynebac axlo momavalSi igegmeba, savaraudod, ufro detalurad mimoixilavs am kontraqts.

12

xurvaleTi (gori)

saaqcio sazogadoeba samSeneblo tresti #3

100

2 672 385

26 724

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis pondi municipaluri ganviTarebis pondi municipaluri ganviTarebis pondi mcxeTis municipaliteti mcxeTis municipaliteti mcxeTis municipaliteti

S.p.s. intermSeni A&P karaleTi da wmindawyali (gori)

39

1 042 230

26 724

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. axmSeni

162

4 531 605

27 973

22 seqtemberi

20 noemberi

S.p.s. planeta

158

4 433 783

28 062

23 seqtemberi

20 noemberi

S.p.s. blok-jorjia Teliani (kaspi) metexi (kaspi) axalsopeli (kaspi) moxisi (kaspi) werovani (mcxeTa) wilkani (mcxeTa) frezeTi (mcxeTa)

160

4 505 067

28 157

24 seqtemberi

20 noemberi

S.p.s. planeta

54

1 417 906

26 258

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. planeta

35

919 013

26 258

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

S.p.s. aqsisi

100

2 706 824

27 068

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

saaqcio sazogadoeba inJmSeni S.p.s. niu enerji S.p.s. niu enerji S.p.s. niu enerji jami

58

1 534 448

26 456

16 seqtemberi

17 noemberi

2 000 400 300 3 963

56 400 000 11 280 000 8 460 000 110 490 437

28 200 28 200 28 200

9 seqtemberi** 17 seqtemberi 17 seqtemberi

15 dekemberi 15 dekemberi 15 dekemberi

* karaleTi ori, geografiulad gansxvavebuli, dasaxlebebisgan Sedgeba. maT erTmaneTisgan qalaq gorSi manamde arsebuli korpusebi yofs. mSeneblobis miznebisTvis municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma es ori dasaxleba erT proeqtSi gaaerTiana. ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro da bevri ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso saagento maT calk-calke gamoyofs da erTs karaleTs, xolo meores wmindawyals uwodebs. es dasaxlebebi calcalkea ganxiluli Cvens angariSSic da Sesabamisad, is dasaxlebebis raodenobad 13-s asaxelebs. **`niu enerjisTan~ sul xuTi kontraqtia gaformebuli, rogorc saxelmwifo biujetidan gamoyofil transferebi. pirveli kontraqti 9 seqtembers gaformda. yvela kontraqtiT samuSaoebi 15 dekembrisTvis unda dasrulebuliyo. kontraqtebis Rirebulebebis Sesaxeb informacia `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ municipaluri ganviTarebis fondisgan 2009 wlis aprilSi miiRo. 2010 wlis ianvarSi `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ moipova proeqtebis Rirebulebebis meore sia, romelic ara individualuri kontraqtorebis, aramed dasaxlebebis mixedviT iyo dalagebuli. am or siaSi mocemuli ricxvebi erTmaneTs emTxveva. gamonakliss mxolod karaleTi warmoadgens. aq sxvadasxva dros dadebuli sami kontraqtis dajamebuli Rirebuleba (2009 wlis monacemi) 33 579 laria, rac proeqtis Rirebulebas (2010 wlis monacemi) aRemateba. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma TiToeuli kontraqtis saerTo Rirebuleba erTi kotejisTvis saWiro Tanxis mixedviT daiangariSa da Semdeg kotejebis raodenobaze gadaamravla (erTi da 2000 kotejis mSeneblobas Soris TiTo kotejze gasawev xarjSi sxvaoba ar aris). mSeneblobis dawyebis Semdeg municipaluri ganviTarebis fonds, gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebis gamo, yvela kontraqSi mouwia Sesworebebis Setana. es, ZiriTadad, topografiuli TaviseburebebiTa da niadagebs Soris sxvaobebiT iyo gamowveuli, ramac, Tavis mxriv, Casatarebeli mosamzadebeli samuSaobis sxvadasxvagvaroba ganapiroba. fondis mier gaformebuli 14 kontraqtidan mxolod erTi Seicvala ise, rom xarjma iklo 58 lariT (berbukis dasaxleba). kontraqtebis umravlesobaSi maTi Rirebuleba 1-dan 4 procentamde gaizarda, xolo sam kompaniasTan (`aqsmSeni~, `blok-jorjia~ da `planeta") dadebul kontraqtSi ki ­ 6-7 procentiT. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom karaleTis miwa marTlac Waobiania, mocemuli ganmarteba aqarwylebs eWvs imis Sesaxeb, rom municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mier Tavdapirvelad dadebul da mogvianebiT Sesworebul kotnraqtebSi Tanxebis sxvaoba korufciis Sedegia. cnobilia, rom mSeneblobebSi dagegmili xarjebis gadaWarbeba arc Tu ise iSviaTia. saerTaSoriso finansuri institutebi, rogorc wesi, infrastruqturul da samSeneblo proeqtebSi xarjis 10-15%-s gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebisTvis arezerveben. mcxeTis municipalitets S.p.s. `niu enerjisTan~ dadebul kontraqtebSi cvlilebebi ar Seutania.

13

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondsa da mcxeTis municipalitets Soris es gansxvaveba, savaraudod, arqiteqturuli dizainSi sxvaobebiT aris gamowveuli. fonds ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministrom gadasca saerTo arqiteqturuli proeqti29, mcxeTis municipalitetma ki kompania `arqiteqturuli jgufi da partniorebi~ daiqirava, mas ramdenime proeqtis momzadeba daavala da maTgan yvelaze naklebad ZviradRirebuli aarCia. werovanisa da karaleTis dasaxlebebi, romelTagan pirveli mcxeTis municipalitetma, xolo meore municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma aaSena, xarjis mixedviT, TiTqmis erTnairia da orive maTgani e.w. urbanuli tipis dasaxlebebia, sadac tualetebi kotejebis SigniTaa. gzebi, wyalmomaragebis sistema da kanalizacia calke kontraqtebis safuZvelze gakeTda. maTi saerTo Rirebuleba 22,8 milioni lari (16,2 milioni aSS dolari) iyo. cxrili 2. infrastruqturis xarjebi TiToeuli dasaxlebisa da kontraqtoris mixedviT

pasuxismgebeli uwyeba samSeneblo kompania kontraqtis Rirebuleba larebSi 50 000 100 073 147 837 109 870 91 492 111 475 117 436 742 770 77 900 32 004 58 152 32 773 63 752 470 768 244 963 105 030 68 927 78 100 34 556 416 506 264 074 kontraqtis dawyebisa da dasrulebis vadebi

dasaxleba

samuSaos aRweriloba misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi misasvleli gzebi misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema da kanalizacia wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema misasvleli gzebi wyalmomaragebis sistema wyalmomaragebis sistema sagzao infrastruqtura, saxlebis dizaini/ proeqtireba, wyalmomaragebis sistema, kanalizacia kanalizaciis gamwmendi nagebobis mSenebloba (II etapi)

axalsofeli berbuki

S.p.s. CMC municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni S.p.s. lazo investi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. el-rio S.p.s. axmSeni

S.p.s. blok-jorjia karaleTi da municipaluri wmindawyali ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. planeta S.p.s. el-rio xurvaleTi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. el-rio

S.p.s. planeta municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni S.p.s. inJmSeni municipaluri moxisi (kaspi) ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni metexi frezeTi municipaluri S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. imereTi S.p.s. el-rio S.p.s. nola municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. el-rio S.p.s. planeta municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri S.p.s. wyalkanalmSeni ganviTarebis fondi

informacia ucnobia

SavSvebi skra Teliani

wilkani

werovani, wilkani, frezeTi

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi

S.p.s. niu enerji

17 300 000

2008 w. 3 oqtomberi - 2009 w. 1 ivlisi

werovani

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi

S.p.s. niu enerji jami

800 000 21 518 457

2008 w. 15 dekemberi - 2009 w. 15 aprili

29 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu ahmed eiveidasTan, msoflio banki, igive.

14

kanalizaciis sistema da Sida tualetebi mxolod werovanisa da karaleTi-wmindawyalis dasaxlebebSia. yvela sxva dasaxlebaSi tualetebi kotejebs gareTaa (2010 wels, msoflio bankis, evrokomisiisa da USAID-is damatebiTi investiciebis Sedegad, es SeiZleba Seicvalos). karaleTi-wmindawylis kanalizaciis sistema dasaxlebis mSeneblobis saerTo Rirebulebis daaxloebiT 5% dajda (wyalmomaragebisa da gzebis CaTvliT). werovanTan mimarTebaSi igive analizis gakeTeba ar SegviZlia, radgan mcxeTis municipalitets detaluri xarjTaRricxva ar mouwodebia, Tumca, rogorc irkveva, Sps. `niu enerjis~ mier aSenebul dasaxlebebSi (saerTo kotejebis raodenobis 68%; werovanis, wilkanis da frezeTis dasaxlebebi) gzebze, wyalmomaragebasa da kanalizaciaze daxarjuli jamuri Tanxa cametive dasaxlebaSi daxarjuli Tanxis 80%-s Seadgens. damxmare infrastruqturaze xarjebs Soris aseTi didi sxvaoba wyalmomaragebisa da kanalizaciis gansxvavebuli sistemebiT SeiZleba aixsnas. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ es sistemebi ar Seumowmebia. mesame cxrilSi mocemulia TiToeul kotejze daxarjuli Tanxebi (damxmare infrastruqturis CaTvliT) dasaxlebebis mixedviT. rogorc cxrilidanac Cans, karaleTi-wmindawylis kotejebze daxarjuli Tanxa saSualo xarjs 11%-iT aRemateba, werovanze, wilkansa da frezeTze daxarjuli Tanxa ki ­ 18%-iT. wilkani da frezeTi xarjebis siidan rom amoviRoT (arc erT maTgans kanalizaciis sistema ara aqvs), werovanze daxarjuli Tanxa saSualo xarjs 18%-ze metiT gadaaWarbebs. yvelaze iafi skris aSeneba dajda. skris Semdeg berbuki modis. cxrili 3: TiToeul ojaxze saSualod gaweuli xarji dasaxlebebis mixedviT

TiTo kotejebze damxmare kotejze saerTo xarji gaweuli infrastruqturaze gaweuli (kotejebi + xarji gawuli xarji xarji infrastruqtura) larebSi larebSi saSualod larebSi 2 706 824 3 518 450 13 470 455 3 714 615 919 013 1 534 448 4 790 124 2 278 602 1 417 906 150 073 150 073 1 063 172 77 900 90 156 96 525 349 993 257 707 451 062 2 856 897 3 668 523 14 533 627 3 792 515 1 009 170 1 630 973 5 140 117 2 536 309 1 868 968 28 569 27 377 30 278 27 284 28 833 28 120 29 040 29 492 34 611 kotejebis raodenoba

dasaxleba

pasuxismgebeli uwyeba

sxvaoba (metoba da nakleboba) TiToeuli ojaxis mixedviT procentebSi

axalsofeli berbuki

100 134

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi mcxeTis municipaliteti

4 -10 11 -5 3 -3 -2 -15 -2

karaleTi da 480 wmindawyali xurvaleTi metexi moxisi SavSvebi skra Teliani werovani, wilkani da frezeTi yvela dasaxleba 139 35 58 177 86 54

2700

76 140 000

19 098 916

95 238 916

35 274

18

3 963 ######

21 785 577

132 276 015

29 888

*amaSi ar Sedis gazisa da eleqtrogayvanilobis xarjebi. am xarjebis Sesaxeb `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba _ saqarTvelom~ informacia ver moipova. **`saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba _ saqarTvelom~ ver SeZlo mcxeTis municipalitetisgan dasaxlebebis mixedviT xarjTaRricxvis mopoveba. *am TanxebSi ar Sedis gazisa da eleqtrogayvanilobis xarjebi. am xarjebis Sesaxeb `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ informacia ver moipova. **`saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ mcxeTis municipalitetisgan detaluri xarjTaRricxva ver moipova.

15

cxrili 4: skolebi da administraciuli Senobebi werovanSi, wilkansa da frezeTSi

kontraqtis Rirebuleba larebSi 196 052 300 000 19 500 478 000 300 000 kontraqtis dawyebisa da dasrulebis vadebi 2008 w. 3 oqtomberi - 2008 w. 31 dekemberi 24 noemberi, 2008 w. - 26 ianvari, 2009 w. 2008 w. 24 dekemberi - 2009 w. 12 ianvari 2008 w. 24 dekemberi - 2009 w. 1 maisi 2008 w. 29 dekemberi - 2009 w. 1 ivlisi

dasaxleba

samSeneblo kompania

samuSaos aRweriloba

frezeTi werovani

S.p.s. efeqti S.p.s. axali enerji S.p.s. arqservisi S.p.s. rago S.p.s. niu enerji

axaldabaSi sajaro skolis reabilitacia sabavSvo baRis mSeneblobisTvis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi dagegmva da buRalteria administraciuli Senobis mSeneblobisTvis administraciuli Senobis mSenebloba sabavSvo baRis mSenebloba (II etapi)

S.p.s. niu enerji

2 500

werovanSi administraciuli Senobis mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebuli dizainis/proeqtirebisa da mSeneblobis xarjebis eqspertuli Sefaseba

2008 w. 30 dekemberi - 2009 w. 29 ianvari

jami:

1 296 052

mTavrobis angariSvaldebulebis meqanizmebis Sefaseba

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma da mcxeTis municipalitetma kotejebis mSeneblobis zedamxedvelobis, monitoringisa da SefasebisTvis sxvadasxva meTodebi gamoiyenes. es Tavi orive uwyebis xelmZRvanelebTan interviuebsa da maTgan miRebuli dokumentaciis analizs efuZneba da am procesebs mimoixilavs. kotejebis mSeneblobaSi arsebuli problemebi or ZiriTd kategoriad SeiZleba daiyos: 1. xelisuflebis braleulobiT gamowveuli defeqtebi. defeqtebis es tipi arqiteqturul gegmebSi daSvebuli Secdomebisa da mSeneblobis swrafi tempis ­ mTavrobis mier samSeneblo kompaniebisTvis dadgenili SemWidroebuli vadebis ­ Sedegia. aseT defeqtebs ganekuTvneba danestianebiT gamowveuli problemebi, maT Soris, Camoclili saRebavi, obi, iatakis ficrebs Soris arsebuli Rarebi da a.S. (municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis Tanaxmad, es aris `Sida kedlebis, Werisa da iatakis" defeqtebi.) mTavroba Riad iRebs pasuxismgeblobas am xarvezebis gamosworebaze. 2. samSeneblo kompaniebis braleulobiT gamowveuli defeqtebi. es defeqtebi uyuradRebobis, arakompetenturobisa da drois mogebis mcdelobis Sedegia. defeqtebis am tips ganekuTvneba cudad Casmuli karebebi da fanjrebi, kibeebze CamoSlili cementi, daklebuli samSeneblo masala (magaliTad, iataks qveS ficrebis ararseboba), fanjrebisa da karebebis moSlili saxelurebi da sxva msgavsi problemebi. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondTan da mcxeTis municipalitetTan dadebuli kontraqtebis Tanaxmad, kompaniebi valdebulebi arian, aseTi defeqtebi, erTwliani sagarantio vadis gasvlis Semdeg (2009 wlis dekemberi), sakuTari xarjebiT aRmofxvran.

municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi

mSeneblobis orTvian periodSi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma TiToeul kontraqts zedamxedvel inJineri miamagra (Tu erT kompaniasTan erTze meti kontraqti iyo dadebuli, masze ori inJineri iyo mimagrebuli, xolo Tu erT dasaxlebaSi sami sxvadasxva kompania muSaobda ­ TiToeul maTgans calke inJineri zedamxedvelobda). amdenad, municipaluri ganviTarebis fonds 10 dasaxlebisTvis14 zedamxedveli inJineri hyavda. TiToeuli maTgani Sesabamis dasaxlebaSi kviraSi oTx dRes atarebda. kontraqtebis menejmentSi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis ramdenime departamenti iyo CarTuli, savaraudod, maTi gansxvavebuli resursebis gamo.30

30 am TavSi mocemuli monacemebi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondidan 2009 wlis Semodgomasa da 2010 wlis dasawyisSi miRebul informacias (ramdenime interviusa da korespondenciis gziT) eyrdnoba.

16

kotejebis aSenebidan erTi wlis Semdeg municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis zedamxedvelma inJinrebma TiToeuli koteji Seamowmes, raTa meore tipis ­ samSeneblo kompaniebis braleulobiT gamowveuli ­ defeqtebi gamoevlinaT, defeqtebis siebi SeedginaT da isini Sesabamisi kompaniebisTvis miewodebinaT. erTi Tvis Semdeg maT isev Seamowmes kotejebi da devnilebisgan SesakeTebeli samuSaoebis damadasturebeli xelmowerebi Seagroves. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ xurvaleTis defeqtebis siisa da devnilebis xelmowerebis dokumentis asli moipova da 2010 wlis 14 ianvars am dasaxlebaSi Cavida, raTa Catarebuli samuSaoebi Seefasebina. Cven SemTxveviTi SerCevis principiT SevarCieT 12 koteji, TiToeuli maTgani davaTvaliereT da maTi mcxovreblebic gamovkiTxeT. qvemoT warmogidgenT Cvens mier Semowmebuli siis nimuSs: cxrili 5: municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis defeqtebis aRricxvisa da xelmowerebis dokumentis nimuSi aqti #: es aqti adasturebs, rom sofel xurvaleTSi (goris raioni) mdebare devnilebis kotejebSi yvela xarvezi (gare kedlebis, Werisa da iatakis xarvezebis garda) aRmofxvrilia. TariRi: 2009 wlis 3 dekemberi kontraqtori: `samSeneblo tresti #3~ momzadebulia: municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mier kotejebis raodenoba: 100

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 devnili kaxaZe nugzari kobaZe nino TavaZe eTeri wereTeli vaxtangi julayiZe Tamari xorguaSvili naTela defeqtis aRweriloba sarineli, Camtvreuli fanjara kibis aRdgena, saxuravis SekeTeba dazianeba ar aris fanjris aRdgena mcire bzarebi fasadze, sarinelis aRdgena fanjrebisa da karebis aRdgena xelmowera

7

talaxaZe gela

samzareulos kars ara aqvs mina da fanjara gabzarulia. bzarebia sarinelSi. fanjrebsa da kars Wirdeba daregulireba

da sxv.

xelmowerebi: municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi da S.p.s. samSeneblo tresti #3

*cxrilSi mocemuli saxelebi, saxlebis nomrebi da defeqtebi Secvlilia.

`saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ mxolod ori samSeneblo kompaniis mier Catarebuli SesakeTebeli samuSaoebis nawili Seamowma (14 kompaniidan). orive maTganma kotejebi erT dasaxlebaSi aaSena, amitom qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis sxva dasaxlebebsa da kontraqtorebze ganzogadeba araswori iqneba. qveda cxrili aRmofxvrili defeqtebis aRweras (meoTxe cxrilis Sua sveti) `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ mier gadamowmebul informacias adarebs.

17

cxrili 6: xurvaleTSi Catarebuli SesakeTebeli samuSaobis dadasturebis dokumenti, 2010 wlis 14 ianvari

koteji 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 samSeneblo kompania samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 samSeneblo tresti #3 S.p.s. intermSeni A&P S.p.s. intermSeni A&P S.p.s. intermSeni A&P ramdenad emTxveva realuri mdgomareoba municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis dokumentSi aRwerils? mTlianad SekeTebulia nawilobriv SekeTebulia (municipaluri ganviTarebis dokumentacia arasworia) nawilobriv SekeTebulia nawilobriv SekeTebulia mTlianad SekeTebulia nawilobriv SekeTebulia mTlianad SekeTebulia mTlianad SekeTebulia nawilobriv SekeTebulia nawilobriv SekeTebulia mTlianad SekeTebulia mTlianad SekeTebulia

rogorc `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ Semowmebisas gamovlinda, miuxedavad imisa, rom SesakeTebeli samuSao yvela kotejSi Catarda, nanaxi kotejebis TiTqmis naxevarSi defeqtebi jer kidev iyo darCenili. amis mizezi ramdenimea: zogierT kotejSi samSeneblo kompaniam xarvezebis nawili ar aRmofxvra (magaliTad, erT kotejSi kibeebi SekeTebuli iyo, dazianebuli fanjara ki ­ iseve datovebuli, miuxedavad imisa, rom municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis defeqtebisa da xelmowerebis siaSi fanjarac iyo miTiTebuli da kotejis mcxovrebs xemoweriT dadasturebuli hqonda, rom orive SesakeTebeli samuSao Sesrulda), xolo zogierTSi municipaluri ganviTarebis fonds defeqtebi Tavidanve arasrulad hqonda aRricxuli. sam nanax kotejSi mis garSemo dagebuli betonis safaris bzarebi mxolod quCis mxares iyo SekeTebuli, ukana mxare ki bzarebiT iyo datovebuli. erTma devnilma Tqva, _ `samSeneblo kompaniam gviTxra, rom saxlis ukana mxares arsebuli bzarebis SekeTeba maT pasuxismgeblobaSi ar Sedioda.~ roca `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ erTerT asakovan devnils hkiTxa, Tu ratom moawera SesakeTebeli samuSaoebis dasrulebis damadasturebel dokuments xeli, roca yvela samuSao Sesrulebuli ar iyo, man Tqva, _ `kargad ver vxedav da ras movawere xeli, ver wavikiTxeo.~ defeqtebisa da maTi SekeTebis damadasturebeli xelmowerebis sxvadasxva dasaxlebebidan mopovebuli siebi, formatiTa da detalizaciiT, erTmaneTisgan mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba. zogierT maTganSi Sesrulebuli samuSaoebi saerTod ar aris miTiTebuli (karaleTi, wmindawyali, metexi da Teliani), sxva siebSi zmnebi iseT droSia, rom maT mixedviT, samuSaoebi jer dasrulebuli ar unda iyos. magaliTad, defeqtebis aRweris svetSi weria: `sarineli da kibe aRsadgenia~.31 amis miuxedavad, maT gaswvriv devnilebis xelmowerebia, riTic isini adastureben, rom samuSaoebi ukve Sesrulebulia. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ ganumarta, rom pasuxismgebelma departamentebma damoukideblad moamzades angariSgebis formebi. am procesis standartizacia is erT-erTi martivi nabijia, romelic municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis monitorngs sagrZnoblad gaaumjobesebda. municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis informaciis Segrovebis sistemaSi xarvezebis arsebobisa da `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ SezRuduli Semowmebis (romelic mxolod 12 kotejis Semowmebas efuZneba) miuxedavad, kotejebis mSeneblobis xarisxis da municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis monitoringisa da angariSgebis sistemis gamarTulobis Sesaxeb garkveuli pirveladi daskvnebis gakeTeba SesaZlebelia. rogorc kvlevam cxadyo, fondis samuSaoebis Sesrulebis damadasturebeli dokumentacia bolomde sarmwuno ar aris, Tumca, is devnilTa dasaxlebebSi samSeneblo kompaniebis braleulobiT gamowveuli problemebis masStaburobisa da simwvavis zogad suraTs mainc gvaZlevs. magaliTisTvis, berbukis siaSi aRniSnulia, rom kotejebis 85%-ze metSi iatakebi defeqturi iyo, risi gamosworebac samSeneblo kompania `lazo invests~ daevala. sainteresoa, rom yvela sxva dasaxlebaSi iatakTan dakavSirebul problemebze (rac nedli xis gamoyenebiT iyo gamowveuli) pasuxismgebloba municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma da mTavrobam aiRes. xurvaleTSi yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli, municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis siis Tanaxmad, sarinelTan dakavSirebuli defeqti iyo. sarineli aris adgili kedelSi, sadac fanjara montaJdeba.32 gaumarTavi sarinelis

31 xurvaleTSi `samSeneblo tresti #3-is~ mier aSenebuli sacxovrebeli saxlebis defeqtebis CamonaTvali, municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi 32 `sarinelis~ inglisuri Targmani `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ ucnobia.

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problema, ZiriTadad, `#3 samSeneblo trestisa~ (mis mier aSenebuli kotejebis 73%-Si) da `intermSeni A&P~-is (mis mier aSenebuli kotejebis 74%-Si) mier aSenebul kotejebSi gamoikveTa. amdenad, defeqtebisa da xelmowerebis siebi monitoringis ganmaxorcielebeli jgufebisTvis saintereso informacias Seicavs. saerTo jamSi, municipaluri ganviTarebis mier mSeneblobebis administrirebis procesSi Semdegi ZiriTadi problemebi gamoikveTa: · gaumarTavi pirveladi dokumentacia da Semdgomi gadamowmebis sistema. · samSeneblo kompaniebis mxridan samuSaoebis arasrulad da uyuradRebod Sesruleba (municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis monitoringis Semdegac ki). · devnilebis mxridan xelmowerebiT iseTi dokumentaciis dadastureba, romelic realur suraTs ar asaxavs. yvela am problemas Tu gavaerTianebT, Znelia imis Tqma, rom samSeneblo kompaniebis braleulobiT gamowveuli xarvezebi saTanadod gasworda. Sesabamisad, aucilebelia, rom Semowmebisa da dadasturebis ufro efeqtiani meTodologia iqnas SemuSavebuli. dResdReobiT kontrolis arsebuli sistema ori daskvnis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas iZleva: pirveli aris rekomendacia imis Taobaze, rom municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma, monitoringis gaumjobesebisTvis, dokumentaciisa da xelmowerebis Segrovebis standartizacia unda moaxdinos; meore, ufro zogadi daskvna ki is aris, rom Semowmebis procesi kidev erTxel cxadyofs, Tu ramdenad kompleqsur sakiTxebze muSaoba uwevdaT municipaluri ganviTarebis fonds, mcxeTis municipalitetsa da sxva pasuxismgebel uwyebebs mokle droSi da mSeneblobis daCqarebuli tempis dros ramdenad ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba monitoringisa da angariSvaldebulebis efeqtiani sistemebis danergva.

mcxeTis municipaliteti

mcxeTis municipalitetma S.p.s. `niu enerjis~ mSeneblobaze yoveldRiuri monitoringis ganxorcieleba S.p.s. `eqsperts~ daavala. am kompaniis ofisi mcxeTis municipalitetis Senobis gvedriT mdebareobs. S.p.s. `eqspertis~ warmomadgenlebis TqmiT, misma direqtorma da TanaSemwem yvela koteji Seamowmes. `Cven `niu enerjisTan~ mWidrod vTanamSromlobdiT. rogorc ki problemas aRmovaCendiT, amis Sesaxeb maSinve vacnobebdiT samSeneblo kompaniis muSebs, romlebic maT dauyovnebliv aRmofxvridnen. sam TveSi 2 700 kotejis aSeneba didi miRwevaa,~ _ aRniSna Tamaz xabeiSvilma, S.p.s. `eqspertis~ direqtorma.33 municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis mzgavsad, mcxeTis municipalitetma moamzada mSeneblobis mizeziT gamowveuli kotejebSi arsebuli sxvadasxva defeqtis CamonaTvali. am siis mixedviT, defeqtebi dafiqsirda werovanis, wilkanisa da frezeTis mxolod 398 kotejSi, maSin, rodesac am sam dasaxlebaSi 2700 koteji aSenda. (municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis inJinrebma defeqtebi daafiqsires TiTqmis yvela kotejSi, romelzec isini iyvnen pasuxismgebelni). mcxeTis municipalitetis saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis samsaxuris ufrosma, merab Tuxarelma "saerTaSaoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos" auxsna mSeneblobis defeqtebis dafiqsirebis procesi: mcxeTis municipaliteti mSeneblobasTan dakavSirebiT devnilebis saCivrebs mudmiv reJimSi iRebda, ris Semdegac municipaliteti da/an Sps. "eqsperti" adgilze midioda da aramarto aRniSnul kotejs, aramded am kotejis mimdebare teritoriaze aSenebul sxva kotejebsac Seiswavlida da arsebul defeqtebs afiqsirebda. defeqtebis nusxa 2004 wlis 4 ivniss gadaeca kompania "niu enerjis". kompanias 2009 wlis 20 ivnisamde mieca defeqtebis gamosworebis vada. `didi xania saCivrebi aRar migviRia, amdenad, vTvliT, rom yvela problema aRmofxvrilia,~ _ aRniSna batonma Tuxarelma. werovanis, wilkanisa da frezeTis mSeneblobis xarisxis saboloo Sefaseba aseve spontanur xasiaTs atarebda. TiToeuli kontraqtis dasrulebis Semdeg34 ikribeboda mcxeTis municipalitetis mier Seqmnili komisia, romelSic S.p.s. `eqspertis~ direqtori da municipalitetis departamentebis xuTi warmomadgeneli Sedioda. komisias mSeneblobis xarisxis saboloo Sefaseba da Sesabamisi dokumentaciis gadamowmeba evaleboda.35 komisiaSi arc erTi damoukidebeli wevri ar iyo. komisiis Sefaseba TiToeul dasaxlebaSi ramdenime kotejis daTvalierebis Sedegebs daefuZna. Sefasebis Semdeg

33 `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ satelefono interviu, 2010 wlis 22 Tebervali. 34 `niu enerjisTan~ xuTi sxvadasxva kontraqti gaformda, rogorc saxelmwifo biujetidan mcxeTis municipalitetisTvis gamoyofili transferebi. pirveli transferi 9 seqtembers gamoiyo. dasrulebis vadad yvela kontraqtSi 2008 wlis 15 dekemberi iyo miTiTebuli. 35 komisiis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen: mcxeTis municipalitetis aparatis ufrosi, municipalitetis saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis samsaxuris ori warmomadgeneli, municipalitetis ekonomikisa da infrastruqturuli ganviTarebis saagento da S.p.s. `eqspertis~ warmomadgeneli. (`saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ satelefono interviu merab TuxarelTan, mcxeTis municipalitetis saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis samsaxuris ufrosi, 2010 wlis Tebervali).

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Semajamebeli angariSi ar momzadebula, Tumca, mcxeTis municipalitetis TqmiT, masa da S.p.s. `niu enerjis~ Soris gaformda miReba-Cabarebis aqti, romelic adasturebda, rom kontraqtorma valdebuleba srulad Seasrula.36 S.p.s. `eqspertma~ aseve erTi kotejze dayrdnobiT eqspertizis daskvna dawera, rac batonma xabeiSvilma imiT axsna, rom `yvela koteji erTnairad aSenebuli~ da Sesabamisad, identuri iyo. am faqtebisa da municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis monitoringSi gamokveTili sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebiT, nakleb savaraudoa, rom mcxeTis municipalitets, saboloo Semowmebis gamarTuli meqanizmis gareSe, kotejebis mSeneblobis procesi efeqtianad Seemowmebina da gaekontrolebina. garda amisa, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelosTvis~ dRemde ucnobia imis argumentacia, Tu ratom gadawyvita mTavrobam kotejebis 68%-is mSenebloba, municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis nacvlad, angariSvaldebulebisa da saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis naklebaddaxvewili sistemebis mqone municipalitetisTvis daevalebina.

daskvnebi da rekomendaciebi

kotejuri tipis dasaxlebebis mSenebloba grZelvadiani gansaxlebisa da devnilebis integraciisken gadadgmuli uprecedento nabijia ­ uprcecedento rogorc saqarTveloSi, aseve mis gareT. pirvel talRasTan ­ 1990-ian wlebSi devnilebTan SedarebiT, romelTac 17 weli uvargis koleqtiur centrebSi (gaumarTavi damxmare infrastruqturiTa da wyalmomaragebis sistemiT) mouwiaT cxovreba da romlebic mniSvnelovnad iyvnen damokidebulebi socialur daxmarebaze, 2008 wlis devnilebi gacilebiT ukeTes mdgomareobaSi arian. grZelvadiani sacxovrebliT dauyovnebeli uzrunvelyofa damoukideblad arsebobis erT-erTi mniSvnelovan winapirobas qmnis. am mxriv es didi eqsperimenti momaval wlebSi farTo msjelobis sagani kidev bevrjer gaxdeba. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ saerTo daskvna mSeneblobis procesTan dakavSirebiT araerTgvarovania. mSeneblobis daCqarebulma tempma ara erTi iseTi problema gamoiwvia, romelTa arideba ufro neli midgomis ­ dagegmvasa da proeqtirebaze Tuncad sul ramdenime TviT meti drois daxarjvis SemTxvevaSi ­ advilad SesaZlebeli iqneboda. konretuli miznebis swrafad misaRwevad daCqarebuli tempi saqarTvelos xelisuflebisTvis simptomaturia, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas amisTvis arasakmarisi adamianuri resursi da SezRuduli finansuri SesaZleblobebi aqvs. aseT garemoSi donorebs, maTi proeqtebis dafinansebis gziT, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT. kotejebis mSeneblobis procesi municipaluri ganviTarebis fondisa da mcxeTis municipalitetisTvis garkveuli testic iyo ­ imis testi, Tu ramdenad SeZlebdnen isini mokle droSi xarisxiani Senobebis aSenebas. am kvlevis farglebSi mcxeTis municipalitetis mier ganxorcielebuli samuSAos xarisxi ar Semowmebula, Tumca, aSkaraa, rom ori uwyebis monitoringis sistemebs Soris radikaluri sxvaobaa: municipaluri ganviTarebis fondma kotejebis 32%is monitoringisTvis 14 inJineri daiqirava, mcxeTis municipalitetis mier aSenebul kotejebze (saerTo kotejebis 68%) ki zedamxedvelobas erTi kompaniis ori TanamSromeli da mcxeTis municipalitetis ramodenime TanamSromeli awarmoebda, anu erTi monitori 1 000 saxlis mSeneblobas adevnebda Tvalyurs. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, mcxeTis municipalitetis mier daqiravebul zedamxedvelebs 10-jer meti samuSaos Sesruleba uwevdaT, vidre municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis zedamxedvel inJinrebs. garda amisa, municipaluri ganviTarebis fondis dokumentacia garkveul xarvezebs Seicavda, Tumca, is ufro informatiulia da garkveuli analizis saSualebas mainc iZleva, mcxeTis municipalitetis dokumentacia zedapiruli da nakleb detaluria. bolo periodamde xelisufleba naklebad reagirebda samoqalaqo sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebis mxridan kotejebis mSeneblobis processa da xarisxTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebze. is ar cdilobda, sajarod ganemarta, Tu rogor iqna mSeneblobisa da misTvis saWiro resursebis gamoyofis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebi miRebuli. xelisuflebis bevr gadawyvetilebas sakmaod myari, legitimuri dasabuTeba aqvs, magram imis gamo, rom gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesi gaumWvirvalea, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro xSirad obieqturad xdeba kritikis obieqti. 2009 wels gamoqveynebul kvlevaSi, sadac devnilTa sakiTxebis magaliTze saqarTvelos mmarTvelobiTi sistema iyo Sefasebuli, valeri kopaleiSvilma, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros administraciuli departamentis ufrosma moamzada erT-erTi Tavi saxelwodebiT `saqarTvelos mTavrobis angariSvaldebuleba iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebis mimarT~, romelSic is wers: `iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebTan komunikaciis gafarToebis mcdelobis miuxedavad, resursebis simwiris gamo, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministro xSirad farTomasStabiani sainformacio kampaniis warmoebis gareSe axorcielebs Tavis saqmianobas. sainformacio kampaniis warmoebisTvis saWiroa donorebis finansuri mxardaWera, romlis mopovebac did dros moiTxovs da biurokratiul sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli.~37 Tumca, elementaruli, sakmaod iafi sainformacio kampaniac ki SeiZleba sakmaod efeqtiani

36 (`saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelos~ interviu merab TuxarelTan, mcxeTis municipalitetis saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis samsaxuris ufrosi, igive. `saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelom~ miReba-Cabarebis aqtis asli ver moipova. 37 valeri kopaleiSvili, `saqarTvelos mTavrobis angariSvaldebuleba iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebis mimarT,~ mzia miqelaZisa da aaron

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iyo. informaciis gansajaroeba ­ misi, pasuxismgebeli uwyebebis logoebiT, gamoqveynebis TariRisa da cxeli xazis sakontaqto informaciis miTiTebiT, devnilebis dasaxlebebSi sajaro adgilebSi ganTavseba _ dRes saTanado doneze ar xdeba. es naklebad aris kavSirSi resursebis simwiresTan da saTaves ufro politikis dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis problemebidan iRebs. gadawyvetilebebis miReba daxurul kars miRma xdeba, maTi ganxorcieleba ki ­ erT RameSi. aseT viTarebaSi yvelaze keTilSobilur miznebze gaTvlili da kargad dafinansebuli sainformacio kampaniac ki ver iqneba efeqtiani. devnilTa gansaxlebis problemebis mogvarebaSi samomavlo investirebis gamWvirvalobisa da efeqtianobis amaRlebis surviliT, `saerTo gamWvirvaloba ­ saqarTvelo~ xelisuflebasa da donorebs Semdeg rekomendaciebs sTavazobs: · farTomasStabiani samSeneblo da infrastruqturuli programebis ganxorcielebisas aqcenti unda gakeTdes ufro xangrZliv da met CarTulobaze orientirebul dagegmvisa da proeqtirebis procesebze. es xels Seuwyobs gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesis daxvewas da saboloo jamSi, dadebiTad imoqmedebs xarisxsa da proeqtebis Sedegebis mdgradobaze. · ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrom, axali proeqtebis dawyebamde, sazogadoebas da maT Soris, devnilebs unda warudginos mtkicebulebebze damyarebuli naTeli axsna imisa, Tu ra gadawyvetilebebs iRebs is. man vebgverdze unda ganaTavsos saxelmwifo strategia, misi ganxorcielebis samoqmedo gegma da sxva mniSvnelovani dokumentacia da saWiroebidan gamomdinare, regularulad moaxdinos maTi ganaxleba. · donorebi daxmarebis procesSi, ufro meti gamWvirvalobisa da angariSvaldebulebis moTxovnis mxriv, mniSvnelovan rols asruleben. maT unda moaxdinon imis advokatireba, rom dagegmvisa da proeqtirebis etapebi ufro gamWvirvale da monawileobiTi gaxdes. daxmarebis gamoyofa angariSvaldebulebis sajarod gacxadebul winapirobas unda miebas, Tumca, aseve mniSvnelovania, rom angariSvaldebulebis sistema naTeli da martivi iyos, rom is sajaro uwyebebisTvis zedmet sirTuled ar iqces. · donorebma Tavad unda Seqmnan magaliTi. am angariSs aklia Tavi imis Sesaxeb, Tu romelma donorma romeli kotejuri tipis dasaxlebis aSeneba daafinansa, radgan aseTi informaciis mopoveba ukiduresad rTuli iyo. msoflio banki da evrokomisia sakmarisad ar cdiloben, ganmarton, rogor gadanawilda maTi dafinanseba, rac dainteresebul mxares kvlevisa da analizis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas ukargavs.

elrixis redaqtirebiT, saqarTveloSi efeqturi mmarTvelobis sirTuleebi, Tbilisi: 2009, gv. 49. (gamoqveynebuli USAID-is sajaro samsaxuris reformis proeqtis farglebSi, ekonomikis saerTaSoriso skolasTan, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetTan da `kavkasiisa kvlevisa da resursebis centrebTan~ TanamSromlobiT).

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