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ACQUISITIONS SELECTED JOURNAL ARTICLES

FEBRUARY 2007 - FÉVRIER 2007

ACCROISSEMENTS SÉLECTION D'ARTICLES DE REVUES

TO CONTACT US : NATO Library Public Diplomacy Division Room Nb123 1110 Brussels Belgium Tel.: 32.2.707.44.14 Fax: 32.2.707.42.49 E-mail: [email protected] Internet website : http://www.nato.int/structur/library/library-e.htm HOW TO OBTAIN ITEMS FROM THE LIST BELOW : As a member of the NATO HQ staff you can borrow books (Type: M) for a period of one month and journals (Type: ART) for one week. Reference works (Type: REF) must be consulted in the Library. People from outside NATO can borrow books through their local library via the interlibrary loan system. HOW TO GET LIBRARY PUBLICATIONS : All Library public ations are available on the NATO Intranet website at http://hqweb.hq.nato.int/oip/library/ (Minerva network) or http://eapcweb/library/myweb/index.htm (EAPC network). Most of the publications can also be consulted on the NATO Library Internet website at http://www.nato.int/structur/library/librarye.htm.

POUR NOUS CONTACTER : Bibliothèque de l'OTAN Division de la Diplomatie Publique Bureau Nb123 1110 Bruxelles Belgique Tél.: 32.2.707.44.14 Télécopieur: 32.2.707.42.49 Adresse électronique: [email protected] Site Internet : http://www.nato.int/structur/library/library-f.htm COMMENT OBTENIR LES OUVRAGES MENTIONNES DANS LA LISTE CI-DESSOUS : En tant que membre du personnel de l'OTAN vous pouvez emprunter les livres (Type: M) pour une période d'un mois et les revues (Type: ART) pour une semaine. Les livres de référence (Type: REF) sont à consulter sur place. Les personnes n'appartenant pas à l'OTAN peuvent s'adresser à leur bibliothèque locale et emprunter les ouvrages via le système de prêt interbibliothèques. COMMENT OBTENIR LES PUBLICATIONS DE LA BIBLIOTHEQUE : Toutes les publications de la Bibliothèque sont disponibles sur le site Intranet de l'OTAN à http://hqweb.hq.nato.int/oip/library/ (réseau Minerva) ou http://eapcweb/library/myweb/index.htm (réseau CPEA). La plupart peuvent également être consultées sur le site Internet de la Bibliothèque à http://www.nato.int/structur/library/libraryf.htm

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Index

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AIR DEFENSES, MILITARY --EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES, 6 ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE--EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES , 6 ARMED FORCES, 6 ARMS SALES--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 6 ASYMMETRIC WARFARE, 7 BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSES--NATO, 23 BALLISTIC MISSILES NONPROLIFERATION, 23 BATTLES--HISTORY--DICTIONARIES , 7 BUSINESSMEN--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 24 CHINA--ECONOMIC POLICY, 24 CHINA--FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS--AFRICA, 24 CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA, 25 CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--TAIWAN, 25 CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA, 26 CHINA--HISTORY, 26 CHINA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 8 CIVIL DEFENSE--USA, 8 CIVIL WAR, 8 CLUSTER BOMBS, 9 CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT, 26 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT, 9 CORRUPTION --CEE, 9 COUNTERINSURGENCY, 10, 27 CRISIS MANAGEMENT--AFRICA, 27 CRISIS MANAGEMENT--EU, 27 CUBA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 27 DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION --USA, 28 DEMOCRATIZATION , 28 DEMOCRATIZATION --EGYPT, 28 DEMOCRATIZATION --KOSOVO (SERBIA), 28 DEMOCRATIZATION --MIDDLE EAST, 29 DNIESTER MOLDOVAN REPUBLIC--HISTORY--AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS, 29 ELECTIONS--CEE, 29 ENERGY POLICY--CHINA, 30 EU--BALKAN PENINSULA, 10 EU--ESDP, 31 EU--ESDP--NORWAY, 31 EU--ESDP--ROMANIA, 10 EU--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 11 EU--GREAT BRITAIN , 11 EU--TURKEY, 31 FIREARMS, 12 FRANCE--NATIONAL SECURITY, 32

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GEOPOLITICS--AFRICA, WEST, 12 GLOBALIZATION, 32 GLOBALIZATION--ECONOMIC ASPECTS, 33 HAMAS, 12 HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION, 12 HUNGARY--HISTORY, 13 INDIA--FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS--AFRICA, 33 INSURGENCY, 13 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, 33 INTERVENTION (INTERNATIONAL LAW), 14 IRAN --POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 33 IRAQ WAR, 2003-, 34 IRAQ--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 34 IRAQ--SOCIAL CONDITIONS, 34 ISLAM --FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS, 35 ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM--PAKISTAN, 35 ISRAEL--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN, 35 JAPAN--NATIONAL SECURITY, 36 KOREA (NORTH)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA, 36 KOSOVO (SERBIA)--INTERNATIONAL STATUS, 36 NATO, 37 NATO--CROATIA, 37 NATO--EU, 37 NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE, 14 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, 15 NUCLEAR DETERRENCE--USA, 38 NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION, 38 NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION--RUSSIA (FEDERATION), 15 NUCLEAR WARFARE--INDIA, 39 NUCLEAR WEAPONS, 40 NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GREAT BRITAIN , 40 PEACEKEEPING FORCES, 15 PEACEKEEPING FORCES, ARGENTINIAN, 41 PEACEKEEPING FORCES, TURKISH, 41 PEACEKEEPING FORCES--AFRICA, 42 PEACEKEEPING FORCES--SUDAN, 42 PETROLEUM INDUSTRY AND TRADE--AFRICA, 42 POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION--AFGHANISTAN, 43 PRISONERS OF WAR --USA, 43 PRIVATE SECURITY SERVICES, 43 PRIVATE SECURITY SERVICES--LAW AND LEGISLATION, 16 PROPAGANDA, 16 PUBLIC OPINION--USA, 17 RADIO STATIONS, 17 RIGHT AND LEFT (POLITICAL SCIENCE), 43 RISK MANAGEMENT, 17 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 18, 44 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN, 44 RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA, 44

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SECURITY SECTOR REFORM--AFGHANISTAN , 45 SOUTH AFRICA--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 45 SPECIAL FORCES (MILITARY SCIENCE)--USA, 45 SPECIAL OPERATIONS (MILITARY SCIENCE), 18 STRATEGY, 19 SYRIA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT, 46 TALIBAN, 46 TERRORISM, 46 TERRORISM PREVENTION, 19 TERRORISM PREVENTION--USA, 19 TERRORISM--ECONOMIC ASPECTS, 19 TERRORISM--RELIGIOUS ASPECTS--ISLAM , 47 TREATIES, 20 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS, 20 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE, 47 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN , 47 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PUBLIC OPINION, 48 USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--SAUDI ARABIA, 48 USA--STRATEGIC ASPECTS, 21 WAR ON TERRORISM, 2001-, 48 WEAPONS SYSTEMS, 22 WMD NONPROLIFERATION--USA, 49 WMD--LIBYA, 49 WOMEN--LEGAL STATUS, LAWS, ETC.--IRAQ, 22

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LIST OF NEW BOOKS BY SUBJECT NOUVEAUX LIVRES CLASSES PAR SUJET

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AIR DEFENSES, MILITARY--EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES Jane's Land-Based Air Defence : 2007-2008. - 20th ed. - Coulsdon, UK : Jane's Information Group, 2007. 501 p. : ill.; 32 cm. ID number: 80021180 Type: REF Library Location: 623 /00579 REF ISBN: 0710628048 Includes index.

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE--EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems : 2007-2008. - 19th ed. Coulsdon, UK : Jane's Information Group, 2007. 772 p. : ill.; 32 cm. ID number: 80021179 Type: REF Library Location: 623 /00576 REF ISBN: 0710628153 Includes index.

ARMED FORCES The Military Balance : 2007. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2007. 451 p. : ill.; 25 cm. ID number: 80021178 Type: REF Library Location: 355.2 /00002 REF ISBN: 9781857434378

ARMS SALES--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Rosoboroneksport : Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry / by Stephen J. Blank. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2007. vi, 102 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021162 Type: M Library Location: 382 /00317 ISBN: 1584872713 Author(s): 1. Blank, Stephen J. 'In August 2006, the US Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran. Although Russian observers believe that Washington did so because of these firms' arms sales to Venezuela, these sales to such dangerous states oblige us to analyze the Russian defense export program and the structure of its defense industry. Until now, that industry would have collapsed without arms sales. Arms sales thus have become the main source of its revenues until the present and will play a key role in Russia's ongoing attempt to regenerate its armed forces while winning friends and influence abroad. Unfortunately, Russia appears to be aiming to win friends and influence strictly among anti-American states and cement an alliance or coalition among them. Moreover, Russia's program of weapons exports reveals the inner workings of its defense industry and the relationship between state and society that is a fundamental driver of its foreign and defense policies. Since 1991, when the Russian Federation came into being, there have been few, if any, attempts to look at this sector of the economy and its relationship to the state, but the patterns revealed

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here are of the utmost importance for anyone wishing to come to terms with current Russian foreign and defense policies.'

ASYMMETRIC WARFARE Asymmetric Warfare : Threat and Response in the Twenty-first Century / by Rod Thornton. - Cambridge, UK : Polity, 2007. viii, 241 p.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021134 Type: M Library Location: 355.4 /01510 ISBN: 0745633641 Author(s): 1. Thornton, Rod Bibliography: p. 218-233. Includes index. 'In recent years, the nature of conflict has changed. Through 'asymmetric warfare', radical groups and weak state actors are using unexpected means to deal stunning blows to more powerful opponents in the West. From terrorism to information warfare, the West's air power, sea power and land power are open to attack from clever, but much weaker, enemies. The author unpacks the meaning and significance of asymmetric warfare, in both civilian and military realms, and examines why it has become such an important subject for study. He seeks to provide answers to key questions, such as how weaker opponents apply asymmetric techniques against the Western world, and shows how the West's military superiority can be seriously undermined by asymmetric threats. The book concludes by looking at the ways in which the US, the state most vulnerable to asymmetric attack, is attempting to cope with some new battlefield realities.'

BATTLES--HISTORY--DICTIONARIES Dictionary of Battles and Sieges : A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first Century. Volume 2 : F-O / by Tony Jaques. - Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 2007. 420 p.; 26 cm. ID number: 80021149 Type: REF Library Location: 355.4 /01514 REF ISBN: 0313335380 Author(s): 1. Jaques, Tony Dictionary of Battles and Sieges : A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first century. Volume 3 : P-Z / by Tony Jaques. - Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 2007. 587 p.; 26 cm. ID number: 80021150 Type: REF Library Location: 355.4 /01514 REF ISBN: 0313335397 Author(s): 1. Jaques, Tony Includes index. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges : A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first Century. Volume 1 : A-E / by Tony Jaques. - Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 2007. lvi, 344 p.; 27 cm. ID number: 80021141 Type: REF Library Location: 355.4 /01514 REF ISBN: 0313335370 Author(s): 1. Jaques, Tony

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CHINA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Facing China's Rise : Guidelines for an EU Strategy. - Paris : European Union Institute for Security Studies, 2006. 125 p.; 24 cm. (Chaillot Papers ; 94) ID number: 80021159 Type: M Library Location: 327 /01352 ISBN: 9291981001 'This paper is divided into three parts : the first one deals with various aspects of China's domestic transformation, the second focuses explicitly on foreign policy and the third addresses the EU's China policy.'

CIVIL DEFENSE--USA Armies in Homeland Security : American and European Perspectives. Washington : National Defense University Press, 2006. viii, 251 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021164 Type: M Library Location: 355.5 /00014 ISBN: 1579060749 'Military forces are normally trained for missions that are quite different from those necessary for achieving effective homeland security. This is particularly true with regard to the use of force. While law enforcement officers are trained to use force as a last resort, soldiers are trained to use it in the first instance. As a consequence, while the temptation to employ existing military forces to carry out homeland security missions is great, it is also replete with dangers. Soldiers are not police officers, and the danger is always present that they will use force in a manner that is inappropriate in the domestic context. This book is designed to look at how a number of states are meeting these challenges. The authors examine how Austria, Bulgaria, the European Union, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States have approached the issue of the employment of military forces in domestic security. This collection of essays offers readers the opportunity to compare and contrast these experiences and the lessons they offer for future contingencies involving the employment of military force in support of civil authorities.' CIVIL WAR Things Fall Apart : Containing the Spillover from an Iraqi Civil War / by Daniel L. Byman, Kenneth M. Pollack. - Washington : Brookings Institution, 2007. xxiii, 135 p.; 30 cm. (Analysis Paper ; 11) ID number: 80021165 Type: WEB Library Location: 341.3 /00149 Author(s): 1. Byman, Daniel L. 2. Pollack, Kenneth M. 'With each passing day, Iraq sinks deeper into the abyss of civil war. The history of such wars is that they are disastrous for all involved. The authors set out here to mine the history of recent, similar internecine conflicts for lessons that might help the United States to devise a set of strategies to deal with the looming prospect of a full-scale Iraqi civil war.'

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CLUSTER BOMBS Cluster Munitions = Les armes a sous-munitions. - Geneva : UNIDIR, 2006. 52 + 56 p.; 30 cm. (Disarmament Forum ; 4/06 = Forum du Desarmement ; 4/06) ID number: 80021160 Type: M Library Location: 623 /01034 'This issue provides a survey of views of the humanitarian impacts of cluster munitions : it is intended as a resource for multilateral practitioners and the general public prior to and immediately following the crucial 2006 CCW Review Conference. Articles consider the humanitarian effects of these weapons, look at previous use and existing stocks, examine relevant international humanitarian law, offer personal reflections from a deminer and reflect upon the potential role of civil society.'

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Understanding Conflict Resolution : War, Peace and the Global System / by Peter Wallensteen. - 2nd ed. - London : Sage, 2007. iv, 311 p.; 25 cm. ID number: 80021170 Type: M Library Location: 327.5 /00437 ISBN: 1412928583 Author(s): 1. Wallensteen, Peter Bibliography: p. 285-297. Includes index. 'The abundance of conflicts and wars since the end of the Cold War has created scepticism about the prospects for peace, security, dialogue and discussion among parties in conflict. We have, however, also had other developments : peacemaking paralleled warmaking. Wars have actually been terminated without the physical or political elimination of the opponent. This book focuses on the ability of opposing parties to negotiate durable agreements in spite of the fact that they have fought a bitter war.'

CORRUPTION--CEE The System Made Me Do It : Corruption in Post-Communist Societies / by Rasma Karklins. - Armonk, NY : Sharpe, 2005. x, 217 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021176 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00997 ISBN: 0765616335 Author(s): 1. Karklins, Rasma Bibliography: p. 197-208. Includes index. 'This study's underlying theme is that democratic consolidation is tied to the degree of success in dealing with corruption. Another core argument is that the pervasiveness of corrupt behavior can be changed by various means. Corruption is not an immutable fact of politics, as fatalists believe, but can be limited by good policy. The three cornerstones of corruption containment are creating institutional checks and balances, assuring that the mechanisms of accountability actually work, and mobilizing the citizenry to participate in enhancing the public good. Yet anti-corruption policies only work if a host of other factors are considered.'

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COUNTERINSURGENCY Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife : Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam / by John A. Nagl. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2005. xxix, 249 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021140 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00994 ISBN: 0226567702 Author(s): 1. Nagl, John A., 1966Bibliography: p. 227-243. Includes index. 'Armies are often accused of preparing to fight the previous war. In this book, the author considers the now-crucial question of how armies adapt to changing circumstances during the course of conflicts for which they are initially unprepared. Comparing the development of counterinsurgency doctrine and practice in the Malayan Emergency from 1948 to 1960 with what developed in the Vietnam War from 1950 to 1975, the author argues that organizational culture is key to the ability to learn from unanticipated conditions, a variable which explains why the British army successfully conducted counterinsurgency in Malaya but why the American army failed to do so in Vietnam.'

EU--BALKAN PENINSULA Endgame in the Balkans : Regime Change, European Style / by Elizabeth Pond. - Washington : Brookings Institution Press, 2006. xvii, 412 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021137 Type: M Library Location: 441 /00159 ISBN: 9780815771609 Author(s): 1. Pond, Elizabeth Bibliography: p. 353-372. Includes index. 'Starting with the wars of the Yugoslav succession, this book guides readers through the region's tumultuous recent history and explores both how the lure of European Union membership has affected the Balkans and how Balkan developments have shaped the EU.'

EU--ESDP--ROMANIA Entre Balkans et Orient : l'approche roumaine de la PESC / by Gheorghe Ciascai. - Paris : Institut d'Etudes de Securite de l'Union Europeenne, 2006. 49 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. (Occasional Paper ; 65) ID number: 80021158 Type: M Library Location: 448 /00058 ISBN: 9291980986 Author(s): 1. Ciascai, Gheorghe 'Une fois membre de l'Union, la Roumanie occupera une place particuliere au sein d'une Union elargie, entre les deux regions du continent europeen qui demeurent les plus fragiles en matiere de securite - les Balkans occidentaux et la partie europeenne de la Communaute des Etats independants. Lorsque l'Union aura integre la Roumanie, elle disposera de moyen d'actions supplementaires dans ces deux regions, que ce soit pour sa Politique de voisinage concernant les NEI ou pour les Balkans occidentaux. S'appuyant sur ce constat, la presente etude a pour objectif d'analyser ce que pourrait etre la contribution de la Roumanie au deuxieme pilier de l'Union. Ainsi se revele une Roumanie bien ancree dans la communaute occidentale, et ayant des responsabilites accrues dans le domaine de la securite de l'Europe et au-dela. Pour ce qui est du voisinage oriental, la Roumanie s'attache a approfondir la cooperation bilaterale avec tous les acteurs de la region et contribue directement et activement aux formules de cooperation regionale. Elle tente ainsi de montrer qu'elle

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est en mesure de promouvoir les priorites de la Politique europeenne de voisinage (PEV) et les interets de l'Union, y compris des routes alternatives de transport vers l'Europe des ressources energetiques de la Caspienne.'

EU--FOREIGN RELATIONS Europe puissance tranquille ? : role et identite sur la scene mondiale. - Bruxelles : GRIP, 2006. 190 p. : ill.; 21 cm. (Livres du GRIP ; 286-287) ID number: 80021153 Type: M Library Location: 441 /00160 ISBN: 280480013X 'Crise au Proche-Orient, defi nucleaire en Iran, essor de la Chine et de l'Inde, faillite des Etats-Unis, terrorisme, migrations : l'Europe ne peut se soustraire aux tumultes du monde ni se retrancher derriere les murs de sa prosperite. Elle est, bon gre mal gre, un acteur important sur la scene internationale. Ses objectifs declares sont clairs : l'aide au developpement, la resolution pacifique des conflits, la promotion de la democratie et des droits de l'homme. Mais doit-elle pour cela devenir une puissance militaire comparable a celle des Etats-Unis, alors que leur intervention en Irak montre cruellement les limites de leur capacite militaire ? Ou doit-elle, au contraire, imaginer une autre maniere de gerer ses interets et son pouvoir, en developpant une 'puissance tranquille', fondee sur le droit international, l'interdependance et le recours rationnel et exceptionnel a la force ? L'Europe est une communaute de valeurs, mais aussi une methode, forgee lors d'un long processus d'integration et de compromis entre les nations et les groupes d'interet qui la composent. Le succes de cette formule dependra de sa cohesion interne et des relations - alliance ou rivalite - qu'elle developpera avec les Etats-Unis et les pays du Sud.'

EU--GREAT BRITAIN Britain, Germany and the Future of the European Union / by Christian Schweiger. - Houndmills, UK : Palgrave MacMillan, 2007. xi, 221 p.; 23 cm. (New Perspectives in German Studies) ID number: 80021169 Type: M Library Location: 449 /00050 ISBN: 0230008097 Author(s): 1. Schweiger, Christian, 1972Bibliography: p. 177-215. Includes index. 'Since the original enlargement of the European Union, the Franco-German alliance has increasingly lost influence. As a result of the influx of new member states, the strategic level of policy making, which determines the future of European integration, is increasingly dominated by a multiplicity of flexible working partnerships between the larger EU member states. Within this group, Britain and Germany have both undergone significant changes regarding their approach towards major European policy areas since the late 1990s. This book details these changes which have been characteristic of a process of normalisation in both countries. The author examines possible areas for cooperation between Britain and Germany on major European issues and the potential significance that such a working partnership could have for the future of the enlarged European Union.'

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FIREARMS Jane's Infantry Weapons : 2007-2008. - 33rd ed. - Coulsdon, UK : Jane's Information Group, 2007. 923 p. : ill.; 33 cm. ID number: 80021129 Type: REF Library Location: 623 /00173 REF ISBN: 0710628013 Includes index.

GEOPOLITICS--AFRICA, WEST Securite et stabilite dans le Sahel africain / by Mehdi Taje. - Rome : NATO Defense College, 2006. 72 p.; 21 cm. (NDC Occasional Paper ; 19) ID number: 80021154 Type: M Library Location: 327 /01354 Author(s): 1. Taje, Mehdi 'L'arc sahelien n'est pas seulement une mer interieure separant l'Afrique 'blanche' et l'Afrique 'noire'. Il est le theatre d'une vie politique intense. Espace tampon mais surtout espace de jonction et d'echanges, difficilement controlable, il developpe une conflictualite endemique sur laquelle les differents acteurs ont peu de prise. Dans l'echiquier strategique mondial, l'arc sahelien cristallise un faisceau de facteurs crisogenes qui ont produit et qui ne cesseront de produire des conflits aux repercussions prejudiciables a la paix et a la securite de la region mais aussi a la paix et a la securite internationale.'

HAMAS The Palestinian Hamas : Vision, Violence, and Coexistence / by Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela. - New York : Columbia University Press, 2006. xxx, 244 p. : ill.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021174 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00998 ISBN: 0231140061 Author(s): 1. Mishal, Shaul 2. Sela, Avraham Bibliography: p. 227-235. Includes index. 'The authors show here that, contrary to its violent image, Hamas is essentially a social and political organization, providing extensive community services and responding to political realities through bargaining and power brokering. They lift the veil on Hamas's strategic decision-making methods at each of the crucial crossroads it has confronted : the Intifada and the struggle with the PLO, the Oslo accords and the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority, and the choice between absolute jihad against Israel and controlled violence.'

HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION Humanitarian Military Intervention : The Conditions for Success and Failure / by Taylor B. Seybolt. - Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press, 2007. xvii, 294 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021175 Type: M Library Location: 341.2 /00351 ISBN: 9780199252435 Author(s): 1. Seybolt, Taylor B. Includes index.

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'This book argues that the central factors determining whether a humanitarian intervention succeeds are the objectives of the intervention and the military strategy employed by the intervening states. Four types of humanitarian military intervention are offered : helping to deliver emergency aid, protecting aid operations, saving the victims of violence and defeating the perpetrators of violence. The focus on strategy within these four types allows an exploration of the political and military dimensions of humanitarian intervention and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of the four types. This book recognizes the limits of humanitarian intervention but does not shy away from suggesting how military force can save lives in extremes circumstances.'

HUNGARY--HISTORY The Will to Survive : A History of Hungary / by Bryan Cartledge. London : Timewell Press, 2006. xvi, 606 p. : ill.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021171 Type: M Library Location: 943 /00046 ISBN: 1857252128 Author(s): 1. Cartledge, Bryan Bibliography: p. 560-570. Includes index. 'This book describes how a small country, for much of its existence squeezed between two empires, surrounded by hostile neighbours and subjected to invasion and occupation, survived the frequent tragedies of its eventful history to become a sovereign democratic republic within the European Union. The Mongol, Ottoman, Habsburg, Nazi and Soviet empires have all vanished; but Hungary, a victim of all five and despite suffering the consequences of being on the losing side in every war she has fought, still occupies the territory the Magyar tribes claimed for themselves in the ninth century. The author traces Hungary's story from the arrival of the Magyars in Europe to membership of NATO and the European Union.

INSURGENCY Inside Rebellion : The Politics of Insurgent Violence / by Jeremy M. Weinstein. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007. xx, 402 p. : ill.; 24 cm. (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics) ID number: 80021130 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00996 ISBN: 0521860776 Author(s): 1. Weinstein, Jeremy M. Includes index. 'Some rebel groups abuse noncombatant populations, while others exhibit restraint. Insurgent leaders in some countries transform local structures of government, while others simply extract resources for their own benefit. In some contexts, groups kill their victims selectively, while in other environments violence appears indiscriminate, even random. This book presents a theory that accounts for the different strategies pursued by rebel groups in civil war, explaining why patterns of insurgent violence vary so much across conflicts. It does so by examining the membership, structure, and behavior of four insurgent movements in Uganda, Mozambique and Peru. Drawing on interviews with nearly two hundred combatants and civilians who experienced violence firsthand, it shows that rebels' strategies depend in important ways on how difficult it is to launch a rebellion. The book thus demonstrates how characteristics of the environment in which rebellions emerge constrain rebel organization and shape the patterns of violence that civilians experience.'

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INTERVENTION (INTERNATIONAL LAW) Beyond the Iraq War : The Promises, Pitfalls and Perils of External Interventionism. - Cheltenham, UK : Edward Elgar, 2006. xiii, 190 p.; 24 cm. ID number: 80021132 Type: M Library Location: 341.2 /00350 ISBN: 1845426320 Includes index. 'This book critically analyses the topic of US-led external interventions in the affairs of developing countries by using one of the most contested experiments of modern times, namely, the invasion of Iraq and its aftermath. The March 2003 invasion of Iraq has so far failed to deliver the benefits and outcomes its supporters anticipated, prompting international discussion as to whether the promises of externally-led nation-building (as an attempt to mould rogue states in a democratic, market-friendly fashion) are outweighed by the kinds of pitfalls and perils of intervention that have come to characterise the Iraq experience. The book identifies and addresses the major issues emerging from the current debate including the evolution of external interventionism as an idea, an explanation of what went wrong in post-Saddam Iraq and why the Iraq experiment is flawed by the Bush administration's refusal to address long standing political and historical grievances among Muslims as part of the 'War of Terror'. The contributors assess the troubled relationship between Islam and the West, the prospects for democracy in the Middle East, foreign policy debates in the US, and how economics and politics are juxtaposed in a highly contentious manner in any project of externally-driven nation-building.'

NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE Network Centric Warfare : Coalition Operations in the Age of US Military Primacy / by Paul T. Mitchell. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2006. 90 p.; 24 cm. (Adelphi Paper ; 385) ID number: 80021148 Type: M Library Location: 623 /01033 ISBN: 978415427333 Author(s): 1. Mitchell, Paul T. 'Since its emergence in 1998, the concept of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) has become a central driver behind America's military 'transformation' and seems to offer the possibility of true integration between multinational military formations. Even though NCW, or variations on its themes, has been adopted by many armed services, it is a concept in operational and doctrinal development. It is shaping not only how militaries operate, but, just as importantly, what they are operating with, and potentially altering the strategic landscape. This paper examines how the current military dominance of the US over every other state means that only it has the capacity to sustain military activity on a global scale and that other states participating in US-led coalitions must be prepared to work in an 'interoperable' fashion. It explores the application of computer networks to military operations in conjunction with the need to secure a network's information and to assure that it accurately represents situational reality. Drawing on an examination of how networks affected naval operations in the Persian Gulf during 2002 and 2003 as conducted by America's Australian and Canadian coalition partners, the paper warns that in seeking allies with the requisite technological capabilities, but also those that it can trust with its information resources, the US many be heading into a very secure digital corner.'

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS The Role of NGOs and the Private Sector in International Relations. - The Hague : Advisory Council on International Affairs, 2006. 39 p.; 30 cm. ID number: 80021146 Type: M Library Location: 4 /00111 'Chapter I of this report gives an introductory outline of the significance of civil society organisations in the work of international organisations and explains some of the terms used. Chapter II looks more closely at the significance - both existing and potential - of NGOs and the private sector in a number of selected international organisations. It focuses mainly on the UN as the largest international organisation but also covers the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and World Trade Organisation. Two other key organisations for the Netherlands are also discussed : the European Union and the Council of Europe. Chapter III considers some of the problems aired in the current debate on the role of civil society organisations, such as lack of representativeness, legitimacy and accountability. Finally, chapter IV makes a number of general observations and draws specific conclusions.'

NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Russian Nonproliferation Policy and the Korean Peninsula / by Yong-Chool Ha, Beom-Shik Shin. - Carlisle Barracks, PA : US Army War College, 2006. vii, 39 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021142 Type: M Library Location: 623 /01032 ISBN: 1584872691 Author(s): 1. Ha, Yong-Chool 2. Shin, Beom-Shik 'One of the key challenges of our time is the threat posed to the security of Northeast Asia by North Korea's nuclear proliferation. Efforts to resolve this problem through the medium of a six-party negotiation are proceeding with great difficulty. As in any multilateral process, a major problem is understanding the goals and perspectives of each of the participants. One of those participants is Russia, and this monograph focuses upon Moscow's perspectives with regard to North Korea's nuclear program and Russia's own standing in Northeast Asia.'

PEACEKEEPING FORCES Multilateral Cooperation in Peace Support Operations : Challenges and Limitations. - Vienna : Austrian Blue Helmet Association, 2006. 197 p. : ill.; 21 cm. ID number: 80021143 Type: M Library Location: 355.2 /00310 ISBN: 3902456515 Austrian Blue Helmet Forum 2006, GRAZ, Belgierkaserne, from 7 June to 10 June 2006. 'The Blue Helmet Forum 2006 has been critically looking at the different aspects of multilateral military cooperation in order to make a contribution to its improvement. It has brought together experts from various organisations with experience in generating and deploying multinational forces.'

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PRIVATE SECURITY SERVICES--LAW AND LEGISLATION Regulating the Private Security Industry / by Sarah Percy. Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2006. 76 p.; 24 cm. (Adelphi Paper ; 384) ID number: 80021147 Type: M Library Location: 355.2 /00311 ISBN: 978415430647 Author(s): 1. Percy, Sarah 'The under-regulation of the private security industry has increasingly become a topic of media and academic interest. This paper enters the debate by explaining why the industry requires further regulation, and what is wrong with the current system. It begins by briefly defining the industry and explaining the need for more effective regulation, before analysing three types of regulation : domestic, international and informal (including self-regulation). The paper makes several unique contributions. First, it argues that no regulatory system dealing with private security companies can ever be perfect. The nature of the industry means that it will be inherently difficult to regulate. As a result, it is important to enhance all three types of regulation as much as possible, as opposed to creating model domestic or international schemes. Second, it takes the option of self-regulation seriously. While on its own self-regulation is unlikely to regulate the industry sufficiently, it has an important role to play alongside other forms of regulation. In particular, self-regulation enabled by legislation could be an effective means of regulation. Third, the paper argues that it is essential to treat mercenaries and private security companies as different problems requiring different regulatory solutions. Any form of international regulation attempting to deal with both mercenaries and private security companies will fail to deal with the real threat posed by mercenaries and fail to institute controls over an important and growing industry.'

PROPAGANDA Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-first Century : Altered Images and Deception Operations / by Scot Macdonald. Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2007. xi, 204 p.; 24 cm. (Contemporary Security Studies) ID number: 80021133 Type: M Library Location: 355.4 /01511 ISBN: 0415771455 Author(s): 1. Macdonald, Scot Bibliography: p. 184-194. Includes index. 'This is the first book to analyse how the technology to alter images and rapidly distribute them can be used for propaganda and deception operations. Such images have already appeared, including altered images of British troops abusing prisoners in Iraq and altered photographs of a 1970s anti-Vietnam War rally with Jane Fonda sitting near 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry. Using examples from history, the author outlines the principles of propaganda and deception, and presents a history of the use of altered images (both still and moving) in politics, diplomacy, espionage and war. Discussion of the key elements of propaganda, deception and photography serve as the foundation for an examination of why the United States and the West are likely targets for attacks using altered images, how adversaries might use such images against the West and what the possible defenses are against them.'

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PUBLIC OPINION--USA Critical Masses and Critical Choices : Evolving Public Opinion on Nuclear Weapons, Terrorism, and Security / by Kerry G. Herron, Hank C. Jenkins-Smith. - Pittsburgh, PA : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006. xiii, 247 p. : ill.; 25 cm. ID number: 80021138 Type: M Library Location: 32.019 /00090 ISBN: 0822942984 Author(s): 1. Herron, Kerry G. 2. Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. Bibliography: p. 221-240. Includes index. 'This book presents a description of the American public's beliefs and preferences concerning nuclear security and terrorism, and analyzes the consistency and coherence of these beliefs over a decade bridging the 1990s to the new century. The authors' objectives are twofold. First, to describe the evolution of American citizens' thinking about the strategic security issues over the seminal decade that immediately followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and that encompassed the emergence of terrorism as a potent and highly salient threat to the US homeland. Second, to attempt to use their measures of public beliefs on security issues to address some of the most fundamental questions about the characteristics of public beliefs systems, with implications for the role of public opinion in democratic governance. In an era in which American foreign policy aggressively seeks to spread democracy and its benefits across the globe, arguments about the capacities of publics to constructively engage in setting the course of public criticisms of prospects for meaningful democratic participation in our own backyard is of no small importance.'

RADIO STATIONS World Radio TV Handbook : 2007. - Oxford, UK : WRTH Publications, 2006. 688 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021167 Type: M Library Location: 654 /00003 ISBN: 3874634100

RISK MANAGEMENT The Ascendency of Political Risk Management and its Implications for Global Security and Business Investment / by Peter Truscott. London : Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, 2006. viii, 146 p.; 23 cm. (Whitehall Paper Series ; 67) ID number: 80021161 Type: M Library Location: 65.011 /00016 ISBN: 0855161272 Author(s): 1. Truscott, Peter 'Business has many models for commercial quantitative risk assessment, including sensitivity analysis and game theory, but it is still vulnerable to the interface between commercial and political risk. This paper argues that risk management inherently requires a deeper understanding and appreciation of political risk if it is to play an efficient role in assessing and mitigating commercial risk. Political risk has a fundamental role in the generation of commercial risk in the twenty-first century. This paper examines the defence and energy sectors. It examines a number of quantitative and qualitative risk models utilized by industry and government, and determines whether they are fit for purpose. It identifies best practice in these sectors, and asks what forms of risk management approach and business

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structures best mitigate political risk.'

RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS Russia's Quest for Strategic Identity / by Stanislav Secrieru. Rome : NATO Defense College, 2006. 71 p.; 21 cm. (NDC Occasional Paper ; 18) ID number: 80021155 Type: M Library Location: 327 /01353 Author(s): 1. Secrieru, Stanislav 'Since the end of the Cold War, post-Soviet Russia has experienced a profound crisis of strategic identity. Previously a self-sufficient and autonomous international actor, post-Soviet Russia not only had to rethink its domestic political and economic organizational model in depth, but also had to 'confront the most significant transformation of its surrounding strategic environment in the past five centuries the greatest change since the rise of Muscovy'. Russia was challenged not only by the losses of strategically pivotal terrestrial and maritime strongholds, and the rise of powerful actors in its immediate vicinity, but also faced profound changes in the entire international political framework with blurred prospects for the future world order.'

SPECIAL OPERATIONS (MILITARY SCIENCE) Special Operations and Strategy : From World War II to the War on Terrorism / by James D. Kiras. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2006. xvii, 230 p.; 24 cm. (Strategy and History ; 15) ID number: 80021131 Type: M Library Location: 355.4 /01512 ISBN: 0415702127 Author(s): 1. Kiras, James D. Bibliography: p. 195-223. Includes index. 'This book examines how special operations, in conjunction with more conventional military actions, can achieve and sustain strategic effect(s) over time, and argues that the root of their effectiveness lies in understanding the relationship that exists between moral and material attrition at the strategic level through an examination of strategic theory and case studies. The book uses two concepts from classic works of strategy, strategic paralysis and attrition, as a method of examining the effectiveness of special operations within a theoretical context. However, the author argues that the path to strategic success is rarely so direct as a number of elements outlined by Clausewitz, including friction, fog of war, and uncertainty, conspire to prevent individual actions, however audacious, from achieving their desired effects. In particular the author reassesses the famous 'Dambusters' raid and its strategic effects on Nazi Germany and the Allied war effort and examines why the Special Air Service (SAS) was not used to greater effect in the Normandy campaign. In addition to these two historical cases studies, this volume draws upon numerous special operations examples, both contemporary and historical, to illustrate how the unlikely pairing of special operations and attrition offers a better explanation of how strategic effects caused by special operations occur.'

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STRATEGY L'annee strategique : 2007 : analyse des enjeux internationaux. Paris : IRIS, 2006. 611 p. : ill.; 20 cm. ID number: 80021128 Type: REF Library Location: 355.4 /00547 REF ISBN: 2247069517 'Quelles sont les grandes evolutions strategiques mondiales en cours ? Comment se redessinent les lignes de force planetaires de la guerre d'Irak et de l'explosion de la croissance economique en Chine ?'

TERRORISM PREVENTION Counterterrorism from an International and European Perspective. The Hague : Advisory Council on International Affairs, 2006. 57 p.; 30 cm. ID number: 80021145 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00993 TERRORISM PREVENTION--USA The West at War : U.S. and European Counterterrorism Efforts, Post-September 11 / by Michael Jacobson. - Washington : Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2006. xix, 139 p.; 23 cm. ID number: 80021139 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00995 ISBN: 1933162007 Author(s): 1. Jacobson, Michael 'As Europe becomes one of the most importants battlegrounds in the global fight against terrorism, US cooperation with European counterterrorism efforts is more vital than ever. Despite often-heated rhetoric, authorities on both sides of the Atlantic have adopted similar methods - and faced similar difficulties - since September 11. In this timely study, the author explores diplomatic, legislative, and tactical approaches that can help Western governments overcome their shared challenges.' TERRORISM--ECONOMIC ASPECTS The Economic Analysis of Terrorism. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2007. xv, 302 p. : ill.; 24 cm. (Routledge Studies in Defence and Peace Economics ; 9) ID number: 80021135 Type: M Library Location: 323 /00992 ISBN: 0415365236 'In the aftermath of 9/11 this book examines two crucial questions. First, how does the new global terrorism affect the economy ? And second, what contribution can economics make to the analysis of terrorism ? The answers to both questions are comprehensive and intriguing. Economic analysis is used throughout the volume to explain the deadly but rational calculus of terrorists and to outline the choices available to national and global policy makers in the fight against terrorism. The emphasis is on combing the main economic theories on terrorism research with cutting edge empirical evidence.'

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TREATIES Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General : Status as at 31 December 2005. Volume I, Part I, Chapters I to XI. - New York : United Nations, 2006. liv, 933 p.; 28 cm. ID number: 80021151 Type: M Library Location: 341.2 /00131 ISBN: 9211337402 Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General : Status as at 31 December 2005. Volume II, Part I, Chapters XII to XXIX, and Part II. - New York : United Nations, 2006. liv, 637 p.; 28 cm. ID number: 80021152 Type: M Library Location: 341.2 /00131 ISBN: 9211337402 Includes index.

USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS Dangerous Nation : America and the World, 1600-1898 / by Robert Kagan. - London : Atlantic Books, 2006. 527 p.: 24 cm. ID number: 80021173 Type: M Library Location: 327 /01356 ISBN: 1843545306 Author(s): 1. Kagan, Robert Bibliography: p. 481-509. Includes index. 'During the fist centuries of its history, the people of the United State of America perceived themselves as citizens of an isolationist nation with little regard for the rest of the World. From George Washington's farewell address, with its strict warning against entanglements with foreign - and in particular European - powers, to the Monroe Doctrine, in which the United States agreed to remain neutral in European conflicts if Europe withdrew from its colonies, America's tradition of distancing itself from the rest of the world seems in the course of its history to have been confirmed again and again. The author demonstrates here that rather than being indifferent to what happens in most of the rest of the world, in fact Americans care rather too much. The book argues that the American people would benefit greatly from understanding the United States' history better. The author proposes, in fact, that the pervasive myth of early American foreign policy as inwardly-focused and passive until provoked rests on a fundamental misunderstanding.' Etats-Unis : le temps de la diplomatie transformationnelle / by Justin Vaisse. - Paris : Institut d'Etudes de Securite de l'Union Europeenne, 2006. 118 p. : ill.; 24 cm. (Cahiers de Chaillot ; 95) ID number: 80021168 Type: M Library Location: 327 /01355 ISBN: 9291981036 Author(s): 1. Vaisse, Justin 'Les attentats du 11 septembre 2001 ont demontre de facon spectaculaire que les principaux defis de securite poses a l'Amerique ne venaient pas des rivalites de puissance traditionnelles mais plutot des zones grises, en mal de souverainete, des Etats faillis ou mal gouvernes dont s'emparent les extremistes. L'enjeu n'est donc plus d'agir sur les relations entre Etats mais sur les Etats eux-memes, afin qu'ils cessent de generer du terrorisme, de la proliferation, des genocides, des guerres civiles, etc. C'est la qu'intervient la 'diplomatie transformationnelle', mot d'ordre lance par la secretaire d'Etat Condoleezza Rice au debut de l'annee 2006, qui consiste a

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travailler avec les partenaires des Etats-Unis en vue de 'construire et soutenir des Etats democratiques, bien gouvernes, qui satisferont les besoins de leur population et se conduiront de facon responsable dans le systeme international'. Pour cela, c'est d'abord la diplomatie americaine qui doit se transformer, afin de devenir moins 'analytique' et plus operationnelle, d'agir sur les societes etrangeres et non plus seulement sur les politiques etrangeres. Cet ouvrage s'interroge sur la portee et les limites de cette action 'transformatrice' : le paradigme realiste, celui des rivalites de puissance, est-il vraiment depasse ? Les diplomates peuvent-ils se changer en agents de promotion de la bonne gouvernance ? Les autres pays sont-ils prets a les accueillir, a les accepter, sans crier a l'ingerence ? La diplomatie transformationnelle peut-elle veritablement changer le monde ?'

USA--STRATEGIC ASPECTS US Defense Strategy from Vietnam to Operation Iraqi Freedom : Military Innovation and the New American Way of War, 1973- 2003 / by Robert R. Tomes. - Abingdon, UK : Routledge, 2007. xiii, 204 p. : ill.; 24 cm. (Strategy and History ; 19) ID number: 80021136 Type: M Library Location: 355.4 /01513 ISBN: 0415770742 Author(s): 1. Tomes, Robert R. Bibliography: p. 178-196. Includes index. 'The books examines the thirty-year transformation in American military thought and practices that spanned from American military withdrawal from Vietnam through the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During these decades, new technology and operational practices helped form what observers dubbed an American 'Revolution in Military Affairs' in the 1990s and a 'new American way of war' in the 2000s. Drawing on a diverse range of recently declassified documents, interviews, innovation research, and personal experience, the author tells for the first time the story of how innovative approaches to solving battlefield challenges gave rise to nonnuclear strategic strike, the quest to apply information technology to offset Soviet military advantages, and the rise of 'decisive operations' in American strategy. The historical chapters provide the first serious consideration of the evolution of military capabilities and doctrine that underwrote a rapid dominance approach to military operations and recent preemption language in US national security strategy. The author provides historical context for understanding the post-Vietnam renewal in American military affairs and the key military innovations of the 1970s and 1980s by reviewing the evolution of Cold War national military strategy. The author documents how capabilities designed to defend NATO evolved into a training revolution, precision strike, stealth aircraft, joint doctrine, and integrated intelligence capabilities; these are the core elements of current US military dominance. Among the contributions to strategic studies is the book's exploration of how research and development strategies conceived in the late 1970s influenced later research and development activities. An important contribution to military innovation studies, the book suggests an innovation framework applicable to the study of both past and current defense transformations.'

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WEAPONS SYSTEMS Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems : Issue Forty-Six. - Coulsdon, UK : Jane's Information Group, 2007. 637 p. : ill.; 30 cm. ID number: 80021166 Type: REF Library Location: 623 /00577 REF Includes index.

WOMEN--LEGAL STATUS, LAWS, ETC.--IRAQ Iraq, Women's Empowerment, and Public Policy / by Sherifa D. Zuhur. - Carlisle, PA : US Army War College, 2006. v, 51 p.; 23 cm. (Letort Papers) ID number: 80021163 Type: M Library Location: 392 /00001 ISBN: 1584872705 Author(s): 1. Zuhur, Sherifa D. 'The role and experience of women is not always considered in wartime or during stabilization and reconstruction operations. In Iraq, where an entirely new political order can only flourish with the spirit of democratization, it is essential to consider women's needs and the obstacles they now face. The author examines here some of the difficulties that attend policy formulation on women in the Iraqi context. Iraqi women have identified the security situation and basic services as their top priorities. Beyond these, the issues and contours of family law are explained, as the future of family law in emerging Iraq is as yet undetermined. Along with an increased political presence, legal reforms together with education and employment opportunities have been the planks of women's changing status throughout the Middle East. How these are resolved will speak to the success of policy concerning women in Iraq.'

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SELECTED LIST OF JOURNAL ARTICLES BY SUBJECT SELECTION D'ARTICLES DE REVUES CLASSES PAR SUJET

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BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSES--NATO NATO Missile Defence : The Political and Operational Case for a Two-Base Structure / by Stephan Fruhling, Svenja Sinjen., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 58-61.) ID Number: JA023330 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fruhling, Stephan 2. Sinjen, Svenja Since the United States continues to develop and deploy a system to protect its population from ballistic missiles, the need for European states in NATO to define their position has become more pressing, and ballistic missile defence is at the top of the agenda at the Riga summit. Decisions about whether and how to defend the European continent are charged with technological, operational and political issues which have yet to be addressed in public debate. Although typically not recognized as such, missile defence is now central to the security relationship between Europe and the United States, and NATO's raison d'etre. A European debate on BMD is overdue. This article is intended to help initiate such a debate.

BALLISTIC MISSILES NONPROLIFERATION Pragmatic Micawberism ? Norm Construction on Ballistic Missiles / by Mark Smith., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 526-542.) ID Number: JA023311 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Smith, Mark Ballistic missile and WMD proliferation go hand-in-hand, yet missile norms remain the most chronically under-developed of all the international arrangements surrounding WMD. This article argues that although the link between missiles and WMD undoubtedly is important, it should not be overplayed when trying to establish norms and controls over international missile proliferation. Ballistic missile control will certainly reinforce international controls over WMD, but will need to be constructed on a different set of principles. It no longer is sufficient waiting, as if for something to turn up. Nonetheless, there is a way forward, one that requires a pragmatic deference to existing realities, but tempered with a certain optimism that the way chosen will produce results in the long term rather than immediately. Bans are infeasible, but control may result from a process of patient construction, including such elements as regional agreements and a shift to missile defence.

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BUSINESSMEN--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) Putin's Silovarchs / by Daniel Treisman., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 141-153.) ID Number: JA023342 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Treisman, Daniel Since the late 1990s, most of Boris Yeltsin's oligarchs have left the political stage. In their place, a new business elite has sprung up, most from the network of security service and law enforcement veterans known as the siloviki (roughly, 'power agents') who form the backbone of President Putin's administration. Indeed, the security forces' takeover of corporate boardrooms is coming to define Putin's regime. Silovarchs can deploy intelligence networks, state prosecutors, and armed force to intimidate or expropriate business rivals. Their temptation to use secret service tools and techniques predisposes the regime toward authoritarian politics. Western policy towards Russia will have to recognize these realities. The most promising path toward authentic democracy in Russia involves the cooptation of leading siloviki into the international business world.

CHINA--ECONOMIC POLICY The Faces of Chinese Power / by David M. Lampton., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 115-127.) ID Number: JA023304 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lampton, David M. Accurately assessing the rise of China is a critical task. Yet US policymakers often overestimate China's military might. And if they continue to view China's power in substantially coercive terms when it is actually growing most rapidly in the economic and intellectual domains, they will be playing the wrong game, on the wrong field, with the wrong team.

CHINA--FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS--AFRICA Chine-Afrique : une strategie donnant-donnant ? / by Barthelemy Courmont, Irving Lewis., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 103-110.) ID Number: JA023284 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Courmont, Barthelemy 2. Lewis, Irving Au lendemain de la revolution de 1949, la Chine s'interessa a l'Afrique et commenca a exporter son ideologie 'tiers-mondiste' en direction des nouveaux pays independants et des peuples encore sous domination coloniale. Elle soutint l'Algerie, la Tunisie et le Maroc lors de la conference de Bandung en 1955 et etablit des relations diplomatiques avec l'Egypte le 30 mai 1956. Les annees 60, marquees par la rivalite sino-sovietique, se traduisirent par le soutien de Pekin a des mouvements independantistes. Apres plusieurs decennies de cette guerre ideologique, place aujourd'hui a la guerre economique. La Chine est le troisieme partenaire commercial de l'Afrique apres les Etats-Unis et la France, et les echanges commerciaux sino-africains ont atteint 50 milliards de dollars en 2006.

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CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--AFRICA Dimensions politiques du partenariat strategique Chine-Afrique / by William Leday., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 95-102.) ID Number: JA023283 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Leday, William Le premier sommet entre la Republique populaire de Chine (RPC) et les Etats d'Afrique s'est tenu a Pekin du 3 au 5 novembre 2006, reunissant 48 delegations, dont 24 chefs d'Etat. Ce sommet marque le retour politique de la Chine sur le continent africain, apres un certain repli politique au tout debut du processus de sa modernisation lancee en 1978. La Chine propose d'inscrire de facon durable les relations sino-africaines dans le cadre d'un partenariat strategique global, qui accompagne une percee economique spectaculaire en Afrique, et vient conclure un cycle commence avec la publication du Livre Blanc sur la politique africaine de la RPC (11 janvier 2006) et ponctue par une serie de tournees de haut niveau (le ministre des Affaires etrangeres Li Xhaoxing : Cap Vert, Libye, Senegal, Mali, Liberia et Nigeria ; le president Hu Jintao : Kenya, et Nigeria ; et le Premier ministre Wen Jintao : Egypte, Ghana, Congo, Angola, Afrique du Sud, Tanzanie et Angola).

CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--TAIWAN China's New Nationalism and Cross-Strait Relations / by Yongnian Zheng, Lye Liang Fook., 2007. (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC, vol. 7, no. 1, 2007, p. 47-72.) ID Number: JA023323 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Zheng, Yongnian 2. Fook, Lye Liang The new wave of nationalistic fervor in China is believed to have further complicated cross-strait relations. Ordinary Chinese are not willing to see Taiwan moving towards independence. Yet such a nationalistic belief that the mainland has a rightful claim over Taiwan does not seem to accord with the feelings of a rising number of Taiwanese who tend to regard their separateness from the mainland as a unique feature that deserves safeguarding. While the potential for conflict is there, the situation is not all gloomy. The Beijing leadership has so far been able to keep the new nationalism in check by adopting a calibrated response to perceived independence moves by Taiwan. While more conciliatory in its gestures towards Taiwan, China can be firm if the need arises. Also, the United States appears to be tilting in favor of China in terms of maintaining cross-strait stability. Depending on the situation, the Chinese leadership retains the political initiative to break the deadlock at some point in the future.'

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CHINA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA Hoping for the Best, Preparing for the Worst : China's Response to US Hegemony / by Andrew Erickson, Lyle Goldstein., 2006. (JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, vol. 29, no. 6, December 2006, p. 955-986.) ID Number: JA023266 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Erickson, Andrew 2. Goldstein, Lyle In the post-Cold War strategic environment, Beijing could plausibly have opted for Soviet-style geostrategic competition with Washington, but it has not. Chinese leaders have not thus far, and almost certainly will never, amass thousands of nuclear weapons on hair-trigger alert or deploy significant forces to a network of bases spanning the globe. Nevertheless, this assessment of China's increasing hard and soft power yields the conclusion that a Chinese challenge to US hegemony cannot be ruled out. The United States must prudently maintain military forces appropriate to facing a potential peer competitor. At the same time, however, Washington must engage in a process of creative diplomacy that simultaneously matches China's soft power and engages seriously with Beijing to create areas of consensus and cooperation.

CHINA--HISTORY The History of the PRC (1949-1976)., 2006. (CHINA QUARTERLY, no. 188, December 2006, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA023271 Type: ART

CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT Means of Rejuvenation / by Michael Krepon., 2006. (ARMS CONTROL TODAY, vol. 36, no. 10, December 2006, p. 18-22.) ID Number: JA023288 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Krepon, Michael After a long and successful run, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) has fallen on hard times. The negotiating forum that has produced treaties setting norms against nuclear testing and chemical and biological weapons has, for the last 10 years, sat on its hands. CD ambassadors who once worked on deadline to hammer out key provisions governing on-site inspections and schedules of prohibited substances now moonlight on other assignments in Geneva. Time is Running Out / by Stephen G. Rademaker., 2006. (ARMS CONTROL TODAY, vol. 36, no. 10, December 2006, p. 13-15.) ID Number: JA023287 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rademaker, Stephen G. The problems confronting the UN Conference on Disarmament (CD) were succinctly and correctly diagnosed in the June 2005 final report of the congressionally mandated bipartisan Task Force on the United Nations.

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COUNTERINSURGENCY Learning about Counter-Insurgency / by John Kiszely., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 16-21.) ID Number: JA023325 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Kiszely, John How well do militaries, in general, learn the lessons of counter-insurgency ? What factors affect this learning process ? And what might the answer to these questions tell us about how armed forces should approach the subject of learning about counter-insurgency in the future ? This article sets out to answer these questions.

CRISIS MANAGEMENT--AFRICA La gestion des crises africaines : vers une clarification de la doctrine francaise / by William Leday., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 29-38.) ID Number: JA023279 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Leday, William Le 3 juillet 2006, le Senat publiait le rapport d'information de la commission des Affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees, relatif a la gestion des crises africaines, faisant etat de la position francaise en la matiere et enoncant les fondements qui presideront la doctrine francaise dans les annees a venir. Alors que s'affirme l'Union africaine et que l'Union europeenne s'implique davantage, ce document expose le changement de cap opere par la France dans sa relation avec un continent qui a beaucoup evolue depuis la fin de la guerre froide.

CRISIS MANAGEMENT--EU Europa, actor mundial / by Javier Solana., 2007. (POLITICA EXTERIOR, vol. 21, no. 115, enero - febrero 2007, p. 121-125.) ID Number: JA023351 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Solana, Javier Hay una demanda de la UE en el mundo. Loes europeos parecemos ser los menos conscientes de este hecho. Desde los Balcanes hasta Congo, Sudan o Indonesia, la UE ha acumulado experiencia en la prevencion y gestion de crisis. Ha llegado el momento de un nuevo impulso europeo.

CUBA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Fidel's Final Victory / by Julia E. Sweig., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 39-56.) ID Number: JA023300 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Sweig, Julia E. The smooth transfer of power from Fidel Castro to his successors is exposing the willful ignorance and wishful thinking of US policy toward Cuba. The post-Fidel transition is already well under way, and change in Cuba will come only gradually from here on out. With or without Fidel, renewed US efforts to topple the revolutionary regime in Havana can do no good - and have the potential to do considerable harm.

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DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION--USA Building the Future Force : Challenges to Getting Military Transformation Right / by Kevin P. Reynolds., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 435-471.) ID Number: JA023313 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Reynolds, Kevin P. The United States military is in the midst of a major transformation effort, largely conceived around weapons systems procurement. This process of transformation through acquisition will not produce fully operational capabilities for another 15-20 years. But will the capability sets that these weapons represent enable, or will they constrain, the policy options of future national decision-makers ? Although national security policy should drive the development of future military capabilities, that is seldom the case, as these problems show. The problem arises largely from three challenges to transformation : the difference in planning horizons between national security and weapons systems or policy lag; problems with the role of the armed forces in weapons systems decision-making; and the Department of Defense's fixation on the narrow theoretical constructs of Network Centric Warfare. These problems are illustrated here by the US Army's dominant contemporary procurement project, the Future Combat System. Overcoming these challenges will require bureaucratic reform throughout the government's national security community, including the National Security Council, Department of Defense and the Congressional Armed Services committees.

DEMOCRATIZATION Securing Democracy in Complex Environments., 2006. (DEMOCRATIZATION, vol. 13, no. 5, December 2006, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA023272 Type: ART

DEMOCRATIZATION--EGYPT Stalled Reform : The Case of Egypt / by Hala Mustafa, Augustus Richard Norton., 2007. (CURRENT HISTORY, vol. 106, no. 696, January 2007, p. 39-41.) ID Number: JA023298 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Mustafa, Hala 2. Norton, Augustus Richard As Wahington shows renewed interest in stability, have authoritarian regimes resumed their repressive ways ?

DEMOCRATIZATION--KOSOVO (SERBIA) Democratization without a State : Democratic Regime-building in Kosovo / by Oisin Tansey., 2007. (DEMOCRATIZATION, vol. 14, no. 1, February 2007, p. 129-150.) ID Number: JA023354 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Tansey, Oisin This article examines the relationship between democratization and the state with reference to recent political developments in the non-state entity of Kosovo. Existing analyses of the role of the state in democratic transitions provide critical insights into the politics of democratization, but have suffered from a lack of consensus regarding the concept of the state itself. This study distinguishes three separate dimensions of statehood - recognition, capacity and cohesion - and argues that each has separate implications for transition

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politics. Analysis of democratic political development in Kosovo suggests two conclusions : first, the international recognition of statehood should not be viewed as a prerequisite for democratization, and second, that problems of state capacity or state cohesion present far more fundamental challenges to successful democratic regime change.

DEMOCRATIZATION--MIDDLE EAST The Middle East Freedom Agenda : An Update / by Tamara Cofman Wittes, Sarah E. Yerkes., 2007. (CURRENT HISTORY, vol. 106, no. 696, January 2007, p. 31-38.) ID Number: JA023297 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Wittes, Tamara Cofman 2. Yerkes, Sarah E. To overcome Arab rulers' intransigence, the United States will need to buttress democratic assistance with diplomatic pressure. DNIESTER MOLDOVAN REPUBLIC--HISTORY--AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS The Transnistrian Conflict after the 2005 Moldovan Parliamentary Elections / by Andreas Johansson., 2006. (JOURNAL OF COMMUNIST STUDIES AND TRANSITION POLITICS, vol. 22, no. 4, December 2006, p. 507-516.) ID Number: JA023308 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Johansson, Andreas This article focuses on the Dnestr Moldovan Republic, but within the context and time-frame of the altered political landscape since the Moldovan parliamentary elections of March 2005. Given that much of what goes on in PMR is related to events in Moldova proper, neighbouring states such as Ukraine and Romania, and 'external' neighbours such as Russia, the attempt here is to place the breakaway republic within a regional context rather than focus solely on the PMR. The 'Renewal' of Transnistria / by Vladimir Korobov, Georgii Byanov., 2006. (JOURNAL OF COMMUNIST STUDIES AND TRANSITION POLITICS, vol. 22, no. 4, December 2006, p. 517-528.) ID Number: JA023309 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Korobov, Vladimir 2. Byanov, Georgii

ELECTIONS--CEE Regime Diversity and Electoral Systems in Post-Communism / by Jack Bielasiak., 2006. (JOURNAL OF COMMUNIST STUDIES AND TRANSITION POLITICS, vol. 22, no. 4, December 2006, p. 407-430.) ID Number: JA023306 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Bielasiak, Jack Regime type has an impact on the design and reform of electoral systems, as revealed by a classification of the 28 former communist states as authoritarian, semi-authoritarian, and democratic regimes and a comparison of their electoral arrangements. From 1989 to the end of 2005, the selection of electoral rules in the post-communist polities conformed to the world-wide trend of more permissive electoral systems over time, although the different regime types

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embraced diverse electoral design strategies. Democratic and semi-authoritarian regimes adopted election rules in favour of inclusive PR, generous district magnitude and assembly size. Authoritarian regimes made use of restrictive majoritarian formulas to constrain the political process. As in the rest of the world during the third wave of democratization, 'electoral democracy' emerged as an important legitimating criterion for the post-communist political systems, but the rules for contestation were devised in very different ways to facilitate or constrain political competition.

ENERGY POLICY--CHINA Chinese National Oil Companies and Human Rights / by Matthew E. Chen., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 41-54.) ID Number: JA023348 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Chen, Matthew E. China's efforts to secure foreign oil and natural gas to meet its growing energy demand are contributing to massive human rights violations in Sudan and Burma. These human rights conflicts, significantly influenced by abundant oil and gas reserves, have strained US-China relations and complicated international efforts to create a more effective architecture to address both rights crises and conflict management over energy resources. The United States and its allies should not only engage Beijing but also bring Chinese national oil companies into the international energy market as stakeholders. Failure to address these matters could encourage other parties seeking scarce energy supplies to take similar compromises on human rights as they court questionable oil regimes, a development that would be detrimental to international peace and security. China and Global Energy Markets / by Peter Cornelius, Jonathan Story., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 5-20.) ID Number: JA023349 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cornelius, Peter 2. Story, Jonathan China's emergence as a global economic powerhouse has caused the world economy to become more oil intensive and energy policy to become a key component of China's foreign policy. Responsibility for the country's energy policy is split among various commissions and is further complicated by geopolitical considerations. To the extent China's leadership succeeds in meeting these challenges, it will have major repercussions for the rest of the world, and in particular on China's relations with the United States. But conflict between the United States and China is far from inevitable, as long as the global price mechanism operates reasonably efficiently and Washington and Beijing can operate in partnership rather than rivalry.

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EU--ESDP Europa no esta segura / by Jose Enrique de Ayala., 2007. (POLITICA EXTERIOR, vol. 21, no. 115, enero - febrero 2007, p. 15-25.) ID Number: JA023353 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Ayala, Jose Enrique de Las naciones europeas deben abordar el futuro de su seguridad, del que depende el futuro de su independencia politica y su prosperidad, y asumir la responsabilidad en el campo de la defensa.

EU--ESDP--NORWAY Norway and the ESDP : Explaining Norwegian Particiaption in the EU's Security Policy / by Pernille Rieker., 2006. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 15, no. 3, 2006, p. 281-298.) ID Number: JA023291 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rieker, Pernille This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of why various Norwegian governments of recent years have been willing to contribute to European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) operations and integrate into the ESDP structures despite their country's increasingly limited access to the decision-making and/or decision-shaping process in this policy area. Norway participates in most of the ESDP structures in one way or the other - it contributes with troops and personnel to ESDP operations, participates in a battle group and has an association agreement with the European Defence Agency. The result of Norway's will to integrate is that, as a non-member, it has become more integrated into the ESDP structures than members such as Denmark, who have chosen to opt out from this policy area. How can this be explained ? Does the Norwegian government decide to participate because that is seen as the best way of pursuing Norwegian national interests, or are there other institutional or normative explanations for this policy choice ?

EU--TURKEY Turkey and the EU after the First Year of Negotiations : Reconciling Internal and External Policy Challenges / by Gulnur Aybet., 2006. (SECURITY DIALOGUE, vol. 37, no. 4, December 2006, p. 529-549.) ID Number: JA023277 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Aybet, Gulnur The EU's commencement of accession negotiations with Turkey in October 2005 represents a watershed in Turkish-EU relations. However, even in the area of straightforward technicalities, the negotiations are linked to a wider set of unresolved and highly sensitive political issues, of which the Cyprus question is the most significant. Unresolved Aegean disputes with Greece and the Armenian issue form another set of wider external issues that affect the day-to-day framework of the negotiations. Internal issues than can have repercussions on the negotiations include Kurdish minority rights and the decision of the European Court of Human Rights calling for a retrial of PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan. The EU accession process has left Turkey with the dilemma of how to reconcile its internal and external policy challenges. Traditionally, Turkey has separated its internal security challenges, such as Kurdish separatism and Islamic fundamentalism, from its external security relations, which are based on state-centric security relationships. This situation is being superseded by an emergent discourse on Turkish foreign policy, as Euro-sceptics who frame Turkey's national security within a traditionalist military-dominant perspective are challenged by pro-EU

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actors who view economic instability as more significant than traditional military threats. While Turkey's uniqueness - such as the special place of its military within the state and society - is difficult for the EU to grasp, the very speciality of the Turkish case does not in itself warrant an alternative to full membership, such as privileged partnership. All previous accession negotiations have ended in full membership. If Turkey were to become an exception after it has made headway in implementing EU criteria, this would have wider repercussions for Turkey's relations with the West and the EU's image in the Islamic world at large. Thus, the Turkish case probably constitutes the greatest challenge the EU has had to face dealing with an accession country.

FRANCE--NATIONAL SECURITY From Common Defence to Comprehensive Security : Towards the Europeanization of French Foreign and Security Policy ? / by Pernille Rieker., 2006. (SECURITY DIALOGUE, vol. 37, no. 4, December 2006, p. 509-528.) ID Number: JA023275 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rieker, Pernille This article looks at the relationship between European integration and national foreign and security policy - specifically, how and to what extent the development of a European (EU) foreign and security policy leads to adaptation and change in national foreign and security policy. The theoretical point of departure is an interest in national changes in response to EU norms. It will be argued that national approaches tend to adapt to norms defined by an international community or institution to which they are closely linked; that this adaptation takes place over time, through a socialization process; and that it may also, in the end, lead to change in national identity. This argument challenges the common assumption of international relations theory that national identities and/or interests are fixed and independent of structural factors like international norms and values. The empirical focus is on changes in French foreign and security policy since the early 1990s. How and to what extent has the dominant French national discourse on foreign and security policy changed since the early 1990s ? And how are these changes related to the European integration process in general, and to the development of a European foreign and security dimension in particular ?

GLOBALIZATION How Globalization Went Bad., 2007. (FOREIGN POLICY, no. 158, January - February 2007, p. 48-54.) ID Number: JA023286 Type: ART From terrorism to global warming, the evils of globalization are more dangerous than ever. What went wrong ? The world became dependent on a single superpower. Only by correcting this imbalance can the world become a safer place.

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GLOBALIZATION--ECONOMIC ASPECTS Has Globalization Passed Its Peak ? / by Rawi Abdelal, Adam Segal., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 103-114.) ID Number: JA023303 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Abdelal, Rawi 2. Segal, Adam Not long ago, the expansion of free trade worldwide seemed inevitable. Over the last few years, however, economic barriers have started to rise once more. The forecast for the future looks mixed : some integration will probably continue even as a new economic nationalism takes hold. Managing this new, muddled world will take deft handling, in Washington, Brussels, and Beijing.

INDIA--FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS--AFRICA L'Inde : une puissance africaine / by Francois Lafargue., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 111-117.) ID Number: JA023285 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Lafargue, Francois Si la presence de la Chine en Afrique fait desormais l'objet de frequentes publications, le role de l'Inde sur le continent noir ne suscite pas pour le moment autant d'interet. Pourtant, la diplomatie de New Delhi se montre elle aussi particulierement active sur le continent noir depuis quelques annees. Cette strategie d'influence repond a deux objectifs energetique et diplomatique.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT Crimenes y tribunals internacionales / by Antonio Remiro Brotons., 2007. (POLITICA EXTERIOR, vol. 21, no. 115, enero - febrero 2007, p. 141-150.) ID Number: JA023350 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Brotons, Antonio Remiro El siglo XXI ha visto nacer el primer tribunal internacional con caracter permanente. Sobrevivra mas de una decada ? Limitaciones estatutarias, la automarginacion de paises muy significativos y la oposicion activa de EE UU son el origen de la prematura debilidad de la CPI.

IRAN--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Iran's Conservative Revival / by Bahman Baktiari., 2007. (CURRENT HISTORY, vol. 106, no. 696, January 2007, p. 11-16.) ID Number: JA023295 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Baktiari, Bahman Hard-liners, including President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, now control all of Iran's power centers.

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IRAQ WAR, 2003End the Crusade / by Dimitri K. Simes., 2007. (NATIONAL INTEREST, no. 87, January - February 2007, p. 4-11.) ID Number: JA023322 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Simes, Dimitri K. The debacle in Iraq reaffirms the lesson of a thousand years ago : there is no such thing as a good crusade; divine missions are not conducive to sensible policy.

IRAQ--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Iraq's Civil War / by Ahmed S. Hashim., 2007. (CURRENT HISTORY, vol. 106, no. 696, January 2007, p. 3-10.) ID Number: JA023294 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hashim, Ahmed S. Accepting the fact that a civil war has started is a necessary first step toward bringing an end to the conflict. Beyond the Point of No Return / by Gareth Stansfield., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 1, January 2007, p. 4-6.) ID Number: JA023292 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Stansfield, Gareth Iraq's communities have now collapsed into an ethno-sectarian civil war. Criminality is rife; the government is a bit-part player; and the coalition is, for want of a better word, clueless. In effect, 2006 will be described as the year in which the civil war finally took hold. Perhaps the destruction of the Askariyya shrine in Samarra last February will be seen as the final straw, with the devastating suicide bombs targeting Shi'as in Sadr City at the end of November indicating that the point of no return had been passed and an existential struggle for survival had truly broken out between Sunnis and Shi'as. All that is left to manage the conflicts and prevent them becoming a catalyst for much wider instability. IRAQ--SOCIAL CONDITIONS Iraq : A Look Back / by Laurie King-Irani., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 91-106.) ID Number: JA023345 Type: ART Author(s): 1. King-Irani, Laurie Although the diversity of the Iraqi people has in the past hindered any sense of national identity, their suffering before and since the 2003 war has given most Iraqis a common desire to live normal lives. This desire can be a valuable asset for transformation. But the many displaced Iraqis, political prisoners, and families of executed and disappeared persons need healing, which will require considerable time. The prospects for postwar rehabilitation look poor now, with many observers claiming that civil war has already begun. Moreover, until the rule of law can be established, the country will be condemned to another generation of suffering, which will not be confined to Iraq. The current situation might have been averted, but it was not, and now Iraqis and Americans are intimately and problematically linked.

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ISLAM--FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS Post-Soviet Islam : An Anthropological Perspective., 2006. (CENTRAL ASIAN SURVEY, vol. 25, no. 3, September 2006, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA023299 Type: ART

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM--PAKISTAN Containing Pakistan : Engaging the Raja-Mandala in South-Central Asia / by Vanni Cappelli., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 55-70.) ID Number: JA023347 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cappelli, Vanni Recent events have refocused attention on Pakistan's role as an epicenter of global Islamist terror and called into question Islamabad's reliability as an ally in the fight against a resurgent Taliban and the hunt for Osama bin Laden. Pakistan in fact suffers from abiding structural pathologies that make it a questionable Western ally at best. In its foreign policy toward Pakistan, the United States would do well to consider the ancient Indian geopolitical concept of the raja-mandala ('ruler circle'), which seeks to balance opposing spheres of influence and exploit the tensions between them. This concept provides the key to containing and eventually eliminating South-Central Asian terror.

ISRAEL--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN Israel and Iran in the New Middle East / by Gawdat Bahgat., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 363-375.) ID Number: JA023317 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Bahgat, Gawdat Students of Middle Eastern policy and policy-makers in Europe and the United States have traditionally addressed the two Middle East subsystems - the Persian Gulf and the Levant - separately. This assumption was challenged by the July War from 12 July to 14 August 2006 between Israel and Hezbollah, largely seen as a proxy contest between Israel and Iran. This article examines the historical relationship between Tel Aviv and Tehran and its deterioration into proxy war. Particular attention is given to the creation of Hezbollah in 1982. The article also identifies the major changes in the emerging security environment in the Middle East following the 2006 war. The experience of the war shows that military means no longer are sufficient to end Middle East conflict. Although the war occurred largely as part of a reaction against the Middle East peace process, the experience reaffirms the overwhelming importance of a long-term solution that establishes a genuine peace between Israel and its neighbours and creates rapprochement with Iran.

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JAPAN--NATIONAL SECURITY Where Do Norms Come From ? Foundations of Japan's Postwar Pacifism / by Akitoshi Miyashita., 2007. (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC, vol. 7, no. 1, 2007, p. 99-120.) ID Number: JA023324 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Miyashita, Akitoshi Constructivists have advanced the study of Japanese national security policy by illuminating how normative factors shape state behavior. At the same time, they have overemphasized the role norms and ideas play while downplaying the structural and material forces that often underlie normative factors. This article seeks to reveal the political foundations of Japanese postwar pacifism. It maintains that explanations based on norms and identities cannot be separated from discussion on material and structural factors when it comes to the question of where norms come from and why they are sustained. Power and interests may not explain everything, but they often account for why certain norms emerge and are sustained to influence policy. By examining the shifts in public opinions and the Social Democratic Party's defense policy, this article argues that Japan's postwar pacifism has been possible in large part because peace was relatively abundant in postwar Japan and that the majority of the Japanese felt that the alliance with the United States contributed to that effect.

KOREA (NORTH)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA Coercing to Reconcile : North Korea's Response to US 'Hegemony' / by Narushige Michishita., 2006. (JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, vol. 29, no. 6, December 2006, p. 1015-1040.) ID Number: JA023270 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Michishita, Narushige Since 1993 North Korea's response to US 'hegemony' has been a seemingly paradoxical attempt to bandwagon with the United States by means of military coercion. However, after more than a decade of effort, North Korea has failed to normalize its relations with the United States. In the years ahead, it can either pursue more proactively the strategy of bandwagoning with the United States, shift its strategic focus to China, or embark upon a policy of equidistance between the United States and Japan on the one hand and China on the other.

KOSOVO (SERBIA)--INTERNATIONAL STATUS De status van Kosovo en de Servische minderheid / by Chris van der Borgh., 2006. (VREDE EN VEILIGHEID, jg. 35, nr. 4, 2006, p. 401-424.) ID Number: JA023331 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Borgh, Chris van der Dit artikel analyseert het verzet van de Servische minderheid tegen het door de Verenigde Naties geleide proces van democratisering in Kosovo. Na de militaire NAVO-operatie en de komst van de militaire missie KFOR en de VN-missie (UNMIK) in 1999 veranderden de krachtsverhoudingen tussen de Albanese minderheid en de Servische minderheid. Het conflict tussen beide groepen was op dat moment niet beeindigd, maar ging een nieuwe fase in. Het lukte UNMIK onvoldoende om de veiligheid van de minderheden te garanderen, terwijl de grootste minderheid, de Serviers, de autoriteit van UNMIK en van de voorlopige regering niet erkennen. De redenen hiervoor moeten worden gezocht in het gebrek aan nationale en internationale consensus over het einddoel

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van de missie in Kosovo, in de toenemende invloed van de nationalistische politieke elites in Belgrado, en in het feit dat UNMIK te 'soft' was ten aanzien van groepen die niet wilden meewerken.

NATO What Next for NATO ? / by Andrew A. Michta., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 155-164.) ID Number: JA023341 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Michta, Andrew A. Whether or not NATO still matters depends on whether or not it is able to deliver security where needed, which in turn depends on whether a broader agreement on its overall mission can be developed and sustained. US security policy goals and the Europeans' ability to share American priorities and accept the attendant risks are the main variables as NATO's problems with ongoing operations deepen, especially in increasingly uphill battle its troops face in Afghanistan. Operations in that country are becoming the key test for NATO's viability.

NATO--CROATIA Croatia and NATO : Moving Toward Alliance Membership / by Ryan C. Hendrickson, Ryan P. Smith., 2006. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 25, no. 4, October - November 2006, p. 297-306.) ID Number: JA023334 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hendrickson, Ryan C. 2. Smith, Ryan P. NATO's 'Open Door' policy continues to generate much enthusiasm from aspiring countries across eastern and southern Europe. This paper examines Croatia's efforts to meet NATO's membership standards and assesses its reforms and policy changes across three issue areas, including civil-military relations, military modernization, and recent foreign policy directions. The authors' research suggests that Croatia has made significant improvements in moving towards NATO's political and military standards. While it still faces reform challenges due to its historical legacy under Franjo Tudjman and low public approval ratings for NATO, recent policy developments still indicate that NATO's willingness to expand produces a powerful incentive for ongoing reform.

NATO--EU EU-NATO Relations : How Close to 'Strategic Partnership' ? / by Natalia Touzovskaia., 2006. (EUROPEAN SECURITY, vol. 15, no. 3, 2006, p. 235-258.) ID Number: JA023290 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Touzovskaia, Natalia This paper analyses the developing relations of the European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, both adapting to a new international security environment and building a network of interactions with each other. While the nature and functions of these two organisations remain different, their aims are becoming closer and new capabilities are being formed to achieve the same goals. The paper looks first at the declared level of cooperation with its benefits and limits, questioning whether this level corresponds to the practical one. It then envisages the modalities of EU-NATO practical cooperation in Bosnia and in the Western province of Sudan, Darfur.

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NUCLEAR DETERRENCE--USA Parity in Peril ? The Continuing Vitality of Russian-US Strategic Nuclear Deterrence / by Stephen J. Cimbala., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 417-434.) ID Number: JA023315 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cimbala, Stephen J. The stability of nuclear deterrence between the United States and Russia no longer can be regarded as a relic of the Cold War. The topic is rapidly re-emerging as one of ever-greater relevance and policy-strategic urgency. A more fluid international order, the complexity of post-Cold War security issues, and the pressure of incipient nuclear proliferation in Asia, make clarity in American-Russian nuclear arms control of first importance. Through the revival of proven analytical techniques, however, this article self-consciously reintroduces concepts long at the heart of strategic nuclear debates. These show that although there is no imminent risk to first strike stability, arms control stability is more nuanced and cannot be assumed without deliberate effort. Missile defences, already deployed by the US and possibly appealing to others, may further complicate the stabilisation of Russian-American nuclear security relations and the containment of nuclear arms races in Asia. Strategic stability is not as important as before for immediate human survival, nor does it raise a significant danger of Russian-American confrontation, and certainly not a risk of pre-emptive attack. The strategic balance, rather, remains a precondition to cooperation on other issues, above all nuclear proliferation.

NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION Can the NPT Survive ? The Theory and Practice of US Nuclear Non-proliferation Policy after September 11 / by Mario E. Carranza., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 489-525.) ID Number: JA023310 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Carranza, Mario E. This article examines the prospects for survival of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in the post-9/11 world, arguing that American non-proliferation policy and the future of the NPT are inextricably linked. It discusses the shift from the Clinton administration's nuclear arms control and disarmament agenda of the mid-1990s to the Bush administration's preferences for informal arms control regimes and the new policy of non-proliferation exceptionalism that distinguishes between good proliferators (India, Pakistan) and bad proliferators (North Korea, Iran). The Bush administration's penchant for unilateral foreign security policies and its double standards in implementing export restrictions on sensitive technologies while disavowing American nuclear disarmament obligations undermine the NPT bargain and endanger the treaty. The Bush administration's security-oriented strategy and acceptance of selective proliferation for balance of power purposes may lead to the emergence of a silent crowd armed with nuclear weapon capabilities. The key to preserving the relevance of the NPT is to reconnect nuclear non-proliferation with nuclear disarmament, while strengthening the treaty's enforcement machinery against non-compliers.

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Nucleaire non-proliferatie en juridische en politieke dubbele standaarden / by Andre de Hoogh., 2006. (VREDE EN VEILIGHEID, jg. 35, nr. 4, 2006, p. 425-442.) ID Number: JA023332 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Hoogh, Andre de Tegen de achtergrond van recente ontwikkelingen op het terrein van non-proliferatie, wordt gepoogd het relatieve karakter van het nucleaire non-proliferatieregime aan te tonen. Op grond daarvan wordt betoogd dat het verdrag dient te worden versterkt door het te universaliseren. Na een bespreking van de inhoud van het Non-Proliferatie Verdrag (NPV) wordt stil gestaan bij de heersende dubbele standaarden, die worden belicht vanuit het beginsel van de soevereine gelijkheid van staten, de afwijkingen daarvan die in juridische en politieke zin worden gehanteerd en de tweedeling die wordt gesuggereerd en bediscussieerd tussen (gewone) staten en schurkenstaten. De weg vooruit ligt in het universaliseren van het nucleaire non-proliferatieregime en meer algemeen in de versterking van het waarborgenregime. Het universaliseren van het NPV zal alleen mogelijk zijn indien de huidige kernwapenstatus van India, Pakistan en Israel wordt aanvaard. Hall Full or Half Empty ? Realizing the Promise of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty / by Jean du Preez., 2006. (ARMS CONTROL TODAY, vol. 36, no. 10, December 2006, p. 6-12.) ID Number: JA023289 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Preez, Jean du Some analysts are already writing the epitaph for the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Others are dusting off Cold War prognosis about nuclear chain reactions, arguing that the treaty has failed and that more and more states will break out or creep out from the almost 40-year-old regime. Still others are looking into ways to establish a new nuclear nonproliferation regime, arguing that the NPT cannot meet today's challenges.

NUCLEAR WARFARE--INDIA India's Nuclear Doctrine and Command Structure : Implications for Civil-Military Relations in India / by Harsh V. Pant., 2007. (ARMED FORCES AND SOCIETY, vol. 33, no. 2, January 2007, p. 238-264.) ID Number: JA023274 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Pant, Harsh V. India finalized its nuclear command structure and formalized its nuclear doctrine in January 2003, nearly five years after coming out of the nuclear closet and openly declaring itself as a nuclear-weapon state. While a clearly enunciated nuclear doctrine and command structure are seen by some as essential in enhancing regional stability and assuaging the concerns of the international community, its implications for the civil-military relations in India remain far from clear. Strategic imperatives and political pressures concerning civil-military relations seem to be pulling Indian nuclear policy in opposite directions. This article examines Indian nuclear doctrine and command structure with an attempt to decipher its implications for the future of civil-military relations in India with respect to the management of its nuclear arsenal.

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NUCLEAR WEAPONS Nuclear Addicts / by Hans Blix., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 2, February 2007, p. 11-13.) ID Number: JA023339 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Blix, Hans At one time the idea of a whole new generation of nuclear weapons might have been unthinkable. But that is the policy being advocated in Washington and London at the very same moment Iran and North Korea are being urged to give up their nuclear aspirations. But the author argues there could be another way. The nuclear states could instead reduce their addiction to such weapons and encourage arms control and disarmament. Under the Shadow / by Bruno Tertrais., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 2, February 2007, p. 7-9.) ID Number: JA023337 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Tertrais, Bruno In recent weeks, both the United States and Britain have taken major decisions which should ensure the continuation of their nuclear deterrents well into the century. Britain is about to choose a successor to Trident. Washington is to design a new generation of nuclear warhead, which will resist the passage of time and the ageing of components. Along with similar trends in France and Russia, these events clearly signify that the official nuclear powers have every intention to maintain their nuclear capabilities for the foreseeable future. But what will the nuclear world be like in 2030 ? We should not assume that it will be that different from today; but some critical events could radically alter current trends.

NUCLEAR WEAPONS--GREAT BRITAIN Trident Is the Answer, Now What Is the Question ? / by Andrew Dorman., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 2, February 2007, p. 9-11.) ID Number: JA023338 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Dorman, Andrew Next month, parliament will vote on whether to replace Britain's Trident nuclear missile submarines with a new and similar system. There is little doubt the proposal with be approved with support from the Conservative opposition. But the facts used to back the government's favorite option raise as many questions as answers. The future of Britain's defence is in doubt. Trident : The Balance of Costs and Benefits / by Michael MccGwire., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 46-51.) ID Number: JA023328 Type: ART Author(s): 1. MccGwire, Michael Scaling up from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a single Trident submarine has the notional capacity to cause 20 million instantaneous deaths. Do we need this capability ? Do we need a 'sub-strategic' capability ? Do we need nuclear weapons of any kind ? As we come to the end of a procurement cycle, this is the first real opportunity to address that question since the post-Suez Defence Review in 1957. Anchored off Western Europe, with allies and friends on all sides, Britain is unusually secure. Do we still need a nuclear capability ?

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PEACEKEEPING FORCES, ARGENTINIAN The Traumatic Journey from Dictatorship to Democracy : Peacekeeping Operations and Civil-Military Relations in Argentina, 1989-1999 / by Katherine J. Worboys., 2007. (ARMED FORCES AND SOCIETY, vol. 33, no. 2, January 2007, p. 149-168.) ID Number: JA023273 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Worboys, Katherine J. In 1983, democratic elections ended a seven-year military dictatorship in Argentina, bringing the end of a regime calling itself the 'Process of National Reorganization' and, with it, the end of the 'Dirty War', the state's campaign to eliminate what it labeled 'subversive elements' within Argentine society. Estimates suggest that the Dirty War claimed as many as 30,000 lives, decimating civilian political activity and civil society in the process. When civilians returned to power, they moved to revoke domestic political authority from the military and to alter military status by shaping the armed forces into something far less threatening. One of Argentina's most prominent goals in restructuring its defense industry in this way was to promote peacekeeping operations. This articles argues that Carlos Menem's civilian administration (1989-1999) used peacekeeping missions to create an entirely new identity for the armed forces in Argentina and to direct their attentions away from domestic politics.

PEACEKEEPING FORCES, TURKISH Peace Operations and the Transformation of Turkey's Security Policy / by H. Tarik Oguzlu, Ugur Gungor., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 472-488.) ID Number: JA023312 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Oguzlu, H. Tarik 2. Gungor, Ugur Peacekeeping operations usually are evaluated in terms of their effects on conflict, but their effect on participants can be just as transformative. This article contends that participation in such operations has been an identity-constructing activity for Turkey, enabling the country to reinforce its eroding Western identity in the 1990s. The article discusses alternative motivations behind Turkey's involvement in peace operations, such as security-related considerations in a neo-realist vein and domestic influence of ethnic lobbies, but argues that these accounts fall short of offering convincing explanations. Based on Turkey's experiences in peace operations, the article reaches the following conclusions. First, these activities have enhanced its image within the Western community. Second, Turkey transformed its security identity and interests bringing it closer to prevailing Western security conceptions. Third, the modernisation and reform of its armed forces has become easier as a direct consequence of participation in such operations. Fourth, the prospects for Turkish membership in the European Union have been helped through its participation and leadership in peacekeeping. Finally, participation improved Turkey's relations with the US, which otherwise deteriorated in the post-Cold War era.

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PEACEKEEPING FORCES--AFRICA Maintien ou retablissement de la paix en Afrique / by Jacques Norlain., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 15-27.) ID Number: JA023278 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Norlain, Jacques Cinquante ans d'operations de maintien ou de retablissement de la paix n'ont pas permis de garantir l'efficacite requise. Cependant, ces missions restent le seul moyen d'eviter l'effondrement du droit dans de vastes parties du monde. C'est le cas de l'Afrique ou les interventions de l'ONU sont indispensables en attendant le moment ou les Africains pourront, par eux-memes regler leurs problemes.

PEACEKEEPING FORCES--SUDAN Premier bilan de l'Amis et de la cooperation UA/UE dans la crise du Darfour / by Elodie Riche., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 39-47.) ID Number: JA023280 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Riche, Elodie L'African Union Mission in Sudan (Amis) a ete mise en place au Darfour seulement deux ans apres la creation de l'Union Africaine (UA). Initialement concue comme une mission d'observation d'une centaine d'hommes, elle est progressivement montee a 3 000 puis a plus de 7 000 hommes, sans empecher la degradation securitaire de ces derniers mois. Cette operation n'est pas une entiere reussite, mais l'echec doit surtout etre impute aux negociations politiques qui n'ont pu etablir d'accord entre tous les protagonistes. Sur le plan des relations UE/UA, le bilan est egalement mitige, mais des pistes d'amelioration existent.

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY AND TRADE--AFRICA La ruee vers l'or noir : une chance pour sortir l'Afrique de l'impasse ? / by Geraud Magrin., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 75-85.) ID Number: JA023281 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Magrin, Geraud Un nouveau contexte petrolier s'est installe en Afrique a la faveur de la hausse des cours des hydrocarbures. De nombreux acteurs americains, europeens ou asiatiques rivalisent pour la maitrise d'une scene petroliere renouvelee par des decouvertes recentes. Cette competition risque de renforcer les effets pervers de l'or noir souvent observes dans les Etats fragiles : economies destructurees, corruption generalisee, environnement et droits de l'homme bafoues. D'un autre cote, des initiatives internationales militent pour un comportement plus responsable des societes minieres et des Etats impliques dans les activites extractives, afin que celles-ci contribuent mieux au developpement. Cet article vise a eclairer les perspectives dessinees par la rencontre de ces deux dynamiques contradictoires.

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POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION--AFGHANISTAN Saving Afghanistan / by Barnett R. Rubin., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 57-78.) ID Number: JA023301 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rubin, Barnett R. With the Taliban resurgent, reconstruction faltering, and opium poppy cultivation at an all-time high, Afghanistan is at risk of collapsing into chaos. If Washington wants to save the international effort there, it must increase its commitment to the area and rethink its strategy - especially its approach to Pakistan, which continues to give sanctuary to insurgents on its tribal frontier.

PRISONERS OF WAR--USA Long Legal Limbo / by Louise Arimatsu., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 2, February 2007, p. 25-27.) ID Number: JA023340 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Arimatsu, Louise Five years on, the trials of eighty of the five hundred or so detainees held at Guantanamo Bay are due to start. As for the rest, there is still no end in sight because they are classified as enemy combatants. But is the evidence that supports both the prosecutions and continued detentions so tainted that even the United States' closest allies are unconvinced ?

PRIVATE SECURITY SERVICES Private Security Companies in an Insecure World / by Jeremy Greenstock., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 42-44.) ID Number: JA023327 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Greenstock, Jeremy The world in which today's private security companies (PSCs) operate is defined, above all, by insecurity. Modern PSCs came into being at the end of the Cold War era, a relatively stable period, less complex than the present. Their numbers have increased substantially and the industry is changing as the world becomes more unpredictable.

RIGHT AND LEFT (POLITICAL SCIENCE) The Contemporary Russian Left after Communism : Into the Dustbin of History ? / by Luke March., 2006. (JOURNAL OF COMMUNIST STUDIES AND TRANSITION POLITICS, vol. 22, no. 4, December 2006, p. 431-456.) ID Number: JA023307 Type: ART Author(s): 1. March, Luke The steep decline of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation has considerable implications for the broader left in Russia. It is likely to be an irreversible decline. This provides opportunities for a revived non-communist left, which has shown recent signs of resurgence. Nevertheless, the Russian left as a whole remains deeply disorientated, and the obstacles to revival are evident. These include the weakness of leadership and organization, ever more active state manipulation of the party system and the left in particular, the lack of an attractive electoral appeal grounded in stable social support, and, perhaps above all, the continued influence of Russian nationalism on the discourse of the Russian left.

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RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS Russia : 'European But Not Western' ? / by Nikolas K. Gvosdev., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 129-140.) ID Number: JA023343 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Gvosdev, Nikolas K. The question whether Russia is part of the Western world has plagued Russian intellectuals and Western observers alike for the past two centuries. The question matters because where Russia 'belongs' is part of a larger debate about how one differentiates between 'the West' and 'the Rest' given changes in the Western family of nations, and because of larger questions of geopolitical alignment. The Slavophile vs. Westernizer paradigm, which suggests that throughout Russia there are two opposing camps engaged in a struggle to determine the course of the country is too simple to reflect the true complexity of post-Soviet Russia. Moreover, an equilibrium may have been reached where not answering the question of Russia's relationship to the West is desirable for all parties concerned.

RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN Trump and Trap / by Yury Fedorov., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 2, February 2007, p. 4-6.) ID Number: JA023336 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Fedorov, Yury Russia is playing a risky game in Iran, continuing to build a nuclear power plant while supporting United Nations sanctions on Tehran for its nuclear policy. Moscow may be hoping for a deal with the west, but if restraint fails and Iran goes nuclear, the missiles would be too close for comfort. Equally a pre-emptive American or Israeli strike on Iranian nuclear sites might unleash serious consequences for Russia too.

RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--USA 'Calmly Critical' : Evolving Russian Views of US Hegemony / by Andrew Monaghan., 2006. (JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, vol. 29, no. 6, December 2006, p. 987-1013.) ID Number: JA023269 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Monaghan, Andrew Russia has consistently opposed US hegemony since the early 1990s. Moscow has sought to create a world overseen by the UN Security Council and several power centres supporting an anti-hegemonic axis. Until recently, Russia's resources have been very limited. Russian opposition therefore was largely conceptual or a work in progress. Russian policy was largely reactive - and nonconfrontational. However, the failure of the Russia-US relationship to develop practically has highlighted negative views of US hegemony, and the greater wealth generated through high energy prices is supporting an increasingly active Russia policy.

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SECURITY SECTOR REFORM--AFGHANISTAN The Lead Nation Approach : The Case of Afghanistan / by Emma Sky., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 22-26. ) ID Number: JA023326 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Sky, Emma This case study focuses on security sector reform (SSR) in post-conflict Afghanistan, a process driven by foreign actors with insufficient co-ordination, domestic ownership and local capacity-building. The case first describes the context and 'lead nation' approach to SSR, and then considers the negative consequences of the lack of local ownership. At the time of writing, it seems highly unlikely that the international approach to SSR will lead to national institutions and security forces capable of maintaining security in Afghanistan. SOUTH AFRICA--FOREIGN RELATIONS La politique exterieure de l'Afrique du Sud / by Sebastien Cornu., 2007. (DEFENSE NATIONALE ET SECURITE COLLECTIVE, 63e annee, no. 1, janvier 2007, p. 87-94.) ID Number: JA023282 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Cornu, Sebastien Jusqu'en 1994, la puissance sud-africaine n'a pu se deployer du fait de son isolement diplomatique, le regime de Pretoria se contentant d'objectifs geopolitiques limites ou predominaient les imperatifs de securisation de ses frontieres et de ses 'populations' blanches. La nouvelle Afrique du Sud tourne deliberement le dos a cet heritage. La fin de l'apartheid et l'arrivee de l'ANC aux affaires marquent le retour de Pretoria sur les scenes mondiale et africaine. Le nouveau regime se pose frequemment comme mediateur des conflits de l'Afrique sub-saharienne et pousse a la reforme de l'OUA (Organisation de l'unite africaine) devenue l'UA (Union africaine). Elle fait egalement montre d'une intense communication politique autour de la Nepad et de la 'Renaissance africaine'. Tres presente dorenavant au sein des organisations internationales, l'Afrique du Sud se fait l'apotre du multilateralisme et plaide la cause de l'Afrique dans tous les forums internationaux. Cet activisme suscite la mefiance de certains Etats africains, prompts a denoncer les velleites d'hegemonie de l'Afrique du Sud. Elle n'est pas non plus sans susciter l'agacement de la part des grandes puissances occidentales; sans parler du decalage entre l'ambition des projets et la mesure de leur realisation.

SPECIAL FORCES (MILITARY SCIENCE)--USA The Growing Relevance of Special Operations Forces in US Military Strategy / by Matthew Johnson., 2006. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 25, no. 4, October - November 2006, p. 273-296.) ID Number: JA023333 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Johnson, Matthew Special Operations Forces (SOF) have transitioned from a marginalized force structure to a prominent part of US military strategy. The gradual increase in status for SOF has been a long road. Historically, conventional military leaders have been skeptical of SOF and reluctant to use such forces. Political leaders, in contrast, have traditionally had an almost intuitive understanding of the capabilities and potential benefit of SOF. For the first time, military and political

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leaders are both convinced of the value of SOF. This shift has occurred for several factors : a dramatic change in the security environment marked by irregular threats, the declaration of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), and the conduct of SOF in Afghanistan and Iraq.

SYRIA--POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Understanding Syria : An Israeli Perspective., 2006. (COMPARATIVE STRATEGY, vol. 25, no. 5, December 2006, Special Issue.) ID Number: JA023335 Type: ART

TALIBAN Understanding the Taliban and Insurgency in Afghanistan / by Thomas H. Johnson, M. Chris Mason., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 71-89.) ID Number: JA023346 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Johnson, Thomas H. 2. Mason, M. Chris Afghanistan is in danger of capsizing in a perfect storm of insurgency that mimics operations and tactics witnessed in Iraq. This article assesses this insurgency and the re-emergent Taliban. The common view of the Taliban as simply a radical Afghan Islamist movement is overly simple, for that organization has been able to build on tribal kinship networks and a charismatic mullah phenomenon to mobilize a critical and dynamic rural base of support. This support, buttressed by Talib reinforcements from Pakistan's border areas, is enough to frustrate the US-led Coalition's counterinsurgency strategy. At the operational level, the Taliban is fighting a classic 'war of the flea', while the coalition continues to fight the war largely according to the Taliban 'game plan'. This is resulting in its losing the war in Afghanistan one Pashtun village at a time. Letter from Afghanistan : Are the Taliban Winning? / by Ahmed Rashid., 2007. (CURRENT HISTORY, vol. 106, no. 696, January 2007, p. 17-20.) ID Number: JA023296 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rashid, Ahmed As public morale sags and events spin out of control, many Afghans believe the war against resurgent Islamists is already lost.

TERRORISM Countering Terrorism : Could Hezbollah and Hamas Show the Way ? / by Fairborz Mokhtari., 2006. (CONTEMPORARY SECURITY POLICY, vol. 27, no. 3, December 2006, p. 376-396.) ID Number: JA023316 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Mokhtari, Fairborz Despite five years of concerted effort to eradicate it, terrorism has managed to taunt us continuously. Understanding terrorism and that which makes a person a terrorist is essential, but will not be enough. Dealing with terrorism is a multi-faceted problem reflecting numerous dimensions, peoples and cultures. To be effective, understanding must translate into wise policies, and policies into actions, carried out with judicious sensibility. The emotional desire to simplify terrorism as a characteristic of a certain culture or geographic region ought to

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be rejected as misguided and counterproductive. This article suggests a crucial distinction between leaders and recruits, and posits that terrorist movements with political aspirations may be converted. Two case studies, Hezbollah and Hamas, are briefly presented to illustrate that possibility. Negotiating with Terrorists / by Peter R. Neumann., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 128-138.) ID Number: JA023305 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Neumann, Peter R. Although many governments say that they will not negotiate with terrorists, in practice they often do. And their rhetoric has prevented the systematic analysis of how to do so best. The goal should be to buttress moderates among the terrorists without strengthening hard-liners - by promising legitimate political involvement, but only if the terrorists eschew violence and accept democratic principles.

TERRORISM--RELIGIOUS ASPECTS--ISLAM Jigsaw Jihadism / by Justine A. Rosenthal., 2007. (NATIONAL INTEREST, no. 87, January - February 2007, p. 61-66.) ID Number: JA023321 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Rosenthal, Justine A. Ethnic terrorist groups like Hamas can be engaged but there is no negotiating with religious terrorists. A strategy for splitting up the Al-Qaeda network.

USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--EUROPE Las bases de una nueva relacion transatlantica / by Hubert Vedrine., 2007. (POLITICA EXTERIOR, vol. 21, no. 115, enero - febrero 2007, p. 115-120.) ID Number: JA023352 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Vedrine, Hubert Pese a sus desacuerdos, Europa y Norteamerica comparten el sentimiento de pertenecer al 'mundo civilizado', de ser el nucleo de Occidente. Aunque conserva su enorme capacidad de influencia, Occidente ha perdido el monopolio de la direccion de los asuntos del mundo.

USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--IRAN Iran is on a Roll / by Richard Dalton., 2007. (WORLD TODAY, vol. 63, no. 1, January 2007, p. 7-9.) ID Number: JA023293 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Dalton, Richard For all the cynicism it has evoked, the United States' Iraq Study Group report might still lead to a regional diplomatic process, which could ease Iran and the US into negotiations. A grand bargain is very unlikely, but with Washington at the table, there might be enough advantage for both sides in a gradual process to halt the current slide towards a deeper confrontation.

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Reshaping Our Iran Policy / by Jim Saxton., 2007. (NATIONAL INTEREST, no. 87, January - February 2007, p. 42-46.) ID Number: JA023318 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Saxton, Jim US policy must ensure the price of Iranian aggression becomes unaffordable.

USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--PUBLIC OPINION Mind the Gap / by Daniel W. Drezner., 2007. (NATIONAL INTEREST, no. 87, January - February 2007, p. 47-53.) ID Number: JA023319 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Drezner, Daniel W. Why policymaking elites and foreigners alike distrust the judgment of Americans. USA--FOREIGN RELATIONS--SAUDI ARABIA America's Struggle Against the Wahhabi/Neo-Salafi Movement / by Benjamin E. Schwartz., 2007. (ORBIS, vol. 51, no. 1, Winter 2007, p. 107-128.) ID Number: JA023344 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Schwartz, Benjamin E. One consequence of using labels such as the 'global war on terrorism', 'the long war', 'the global struggle against violent extremism' or any name that dissociates the conflict from the Wahhabi/neo-Salafi movement is that Americans lack the necessary framework for assessing US policies. Misconceptions concerning the war proliferate on both the Left and the Right because of the absence of an analytical framework to provide precise vocabulary identifying the origins and objectives of the enemy. The current war and the sources of Al Qaeda's conduct can only be understood by examining the complex history of Arabia, the US-Saudi alliance, and a particular historical cycle of corruption, decadence, violent purification, and moral restoration that characterizes the Wahhabi/neo-Salafi narrative.

WAR ON TERRORISM, 2001A Battle for Global Values / by Tony Blair., 2007. (FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 86, no. 1, January - February 2007, p. 79-90.) ID Number: JA023302 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Blair, Tony The war on terrorism is not just about security or military tactics. It is a battle of values, and one that can only be won by the triumph of tolerance and liberty. Afghanistan and Iraq have been the necessary starting points of this battle. Success there, however, must be coupled with a bolder, more consistent, and more thorough application of global values, with Washington leading the way.

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WMD NONPROLIFERATION--USA Beyond the NRA Doctrine / by Charles D. Ferguson, Peter van Ham., 2007. (NATIONAL INTEREST, no. 87, January - February 2007, p. 55-60.) ID Number: JA023320 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Ferguson, Charles D. 2. Ham, Peter van America should join with Europe in aggressively policing proliferation.

WMD--LIBYA Libya's Nuclear Turnaround : What Lies Beneath ? / by Malfrid Braut-Hegghammer., 2006. (RUSI JOURNAL, vol. 151, no. 6, December 2006, p. 52-55.) ID Number: JA023329 Type: ART Author(s): 1. Braut-Hegghammer, Malfrid Three years after Libya's nuclear turnaround, the reasons behind the Muammar Qadhafi regime's decision to end the pursuit of nuclear weapons remain disputed. What caused Libya's welcome decision ? Was Libya's nuclear turnaround the result of multilateral negotiations, increasingly robust counter-proliferation measures, or domestic developments ? This article examines Libya's proliferation motives and how Tripoli responded to the international community's efforts to persuade the regime to change course. The so-called 'Libya model' is discussed in order to consider whether this counter-proliferation success can be replicated.

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