Read # 16 Miklos - A Primer on Mand Training 200.ppt text version


Mand Training: A Primer on Teaching Children with Autism to Make Requests

Mike Miklos, PaTTAN Amiris DiPuglia, PaTTAN August 14, 2009 2009 National Autism Conference Penn State University

The mand was first described by B.F. Skinner in the William James Lectures at Harvard. This definition was later published in his 1957 work, Verbal Behavior.

" A mand may be defined as a verbal operant under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive control"

Mand Conceptual Analysis

· Verbal behavior controlled by specific consequences · "Under functional control of conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation" · Mand controlled by motivation

Verbal Behavior and the Mand

Verbal Behavior: Operant behavior mediated through the response of a listener... includes tacts, intraverbals, echoics, autoclitics, and the mand Mand: verbal behavior under the control of conditions of motivation...specifies its reinforcer....





Non-verbal behavior (person performs an action, etc.)


Non-verbal behavior with point to point correspondence (person imitates same action)


Non-specific reinforcement (example: praise; `you're right!', `'great job!' high five, pat on back, etc.)

Brief Review: Primary Verbal Operants

Verbal Operant Mand Tact Intraverbal Antecedent Motivative Operation ( wants cookie) Sensory Stimuli (sees or smells cookie) Verbal stimulus (someone says:"What do you eat?") Verbal Stimulus (someone says "cookie") Verbal stimulus (someone says "touch cookie")* Behavior Verbal behavior (says "cookie") Verbal behavior (says "cookie") Verbal behavior (says "cookie") Verbal behavior: repeats all or part of antecedent (says "cookie") Non-verbal behavior (child touches cookie) Consequence Direct reinforcement (gets cookie) Non-specific reinforcement (gets praised, for instance) Non-specific reinforcement (gets praised, for instance) Non-specific reinforcement (gets praised, for instance) Non-specific reinforcement (gets praised, for instance)

Imitation Point to point correspondence a.k.a. Mimetic



Listener responding/ receptive (actually not a verbal operant)

Verbal stimulus (`touch the cookie', `where is the cookie?', `can you find the cookie?', `give me the cookie', etc.) Non-verbal behavior (presentation of stimuli)

Non-verbal behavior (child touches, points to, gives the cookie)

Non-specific reinforcement (example: praise; `you're right!', `'great job!' high five, pat on back, etc.)

Match to sample

Non-verbal behavior (in presence of one stimuli, a second stimuli is selected with shared properties). Manded stimulus selection.

Non-specific reinforcement (example: praise; `you're right!', `'great job!' high five, pat on back, etc.)

Some Examples of Mands

Types of mands: · Asking for items with item present · Asking for items with item not present · Asking for activities · Asking for attention · Asking for information · Asking for continued conversation

One thing common to all mands:

Mands Benefit the Speaker

The way things get better for the speaker will vary depending on how the person asks for what they want, how much they want it, and the timing of when they make the request. However, things always get better.



Mands Benefit the Speaker

·Asking for food and getting it when you are hungry reduces the state of food deprivation. ·Asking for a pen and getting it when you need to write takes away the problem of not being able to write when one has to sign a paper. ·Saying "where are my keys?" may provide information regarding the location of the keys. The information will ultimately help the person find the misplaced keys. ·Saying "really?" or "Oh, yeah" in a conversation may serve to keep your partner talking. ·Pointing at an object may result in the "listener" looking in that direction. Thus the listener may then be able to respond to the object in some way that benefits the speaker.

Several Types of Mand Behavior: Some Examples

·Mand for item present vocal response ·Mand for item present sign language response ·Mand for item present with selection based response (i.e. Picture Exchange Communication System; Frost & Bondy, 1994) ·Mand for item not present ·Mand for attention ·Mand for action ·Mand for information ·Mand for continued verbal behavior More on this when we discuss skill sequences....


· Without motivation, most behavior will not occur. · Motivation is in the environment and not in the student · All mands have one thing in common: in the antecedent condition, there is a Motivative Operation in place. · Instructors manipulate the environment to establish reinforcement

Motivative Operations

Changes in the environment that can affect how much a person wants something and how likely they are to do something to have that event happen. Motivative Operations reflect how valuable a particular event is as reinforcement.



Motivative Operations and the Mand: Jack Michael

Motivative Operations Value Altering Effects Establishes value of stimuli: events or items will serve as reinforcers Frequency Altering Effects Evokes any behaviors that in the past have resulted in obtaining the events or items Abates any behavior that in the past have resulted in obtaining the events or items

Abolishes value of stimuli: events or items will not serve as reinforcers

Unconditioned Motivative Operations

· Unlearned reinforcer · Operates on principles of satiation and deprivation

Conditioned Motivative Operations

· Learned reinforcer (learning history) · Do not operate as a result of satiation and deprivation · Are dependent on occurrence of another stimuli



Transitive MO

A motivative operation that occurs when the presentation of one stimulus is correlated with an increase in the value of some other stimulus. The occurrence of some event leads to the student doing something to make another event occur.

Examples of CMO-T

· The value of having a pen is increased if someone hands you a piece of paper and says "write your name." · When presented with a bottle of bubbles, the value of having the bottle opened will increase. · Being presented with a doll house with no furniture may increase the likelihood of asking for the furniture.

Reflexive MO

· CMO-Rs often play a large part in instances of challenging behaviors · The presentation of a stimulus makes the removal of that stimulus valuable · CMO-Rs can be thought of as warning signals · The CMO-R serves to establish any event as a reinforcer that terminates the worsening condition and will evoke any behavior that has been so reinforced (Michael, 1993)



Example of CMO-R

· You see a person who talks to you too much · In the past his talking made you late for work · Sight of the person makes getting away from the person valuable and evokes escape behavior (turning a corner asap)

Example of CMO-Rs

· In the case where instruction has been paired with:

­ tasks being too hard ­ correlation with removal of ongoing reinforcers ­ a failure to adequately reinforce cooperation




MO relates to the value of reinforcement and evokes behavior associated with obtaining the reinforcer Value does not make it available

SD stimulus correlated with the availability of reinforcement

· any stimulus that signals the onset of will serve as a CMO-R including:

­ the presence of the teacher ­ instructional materials ­ the student's desk

Availability does not make it valuable



SD vs. MO

When conducting mand training, instructors need to distinguish the effects of stimuli. It is not a pure mand if any SD is present. Remember, though, all operant behavior involves an MO (there are MOs for tacts, etc.)

Motivation and the Mand

· Mand Instruction requires attention to motivation. · You can't do mand training unless the student wants something. · To do mand training instructors need to capture and contrive motivation.

Capturing an MO

· Teaching mands for food at snack or at lunch. · Having the child ask for a coat before going out to play. · Prompting the child to ask for additional colors of crayon while drawing · Encouraging the child to ask for the remote at the time a favorite show is on.

Contriving an MO

· Giving the child a bottle with a tight lid. In the bottle is his favorite toy. · Giving the child a bowl of cereal with no spoon. · Giving the child a toy that requires batteries but withholding the batteries · Briefly turning on his or her favorite video. · Giving a bit of his or her favorite snack to another child. · Use of an interrupted chain procedure: give the child a task to do that involves a series of steps but withhold the materials needed to complete at least one step (have the child do a puzzle but withhold one piece).



The Benefits of Mand Training

1. Mands have been said to be the first type of verbal behavior acquired by children. 2. Mands help the student control their environment. 3. Mand training makes social interaction more valuable. 4. The focus on motivation in manding and developing new reinforcers may serve to reduce the value of repetitive/ stereotyped actions. 5. Mand training may assist in developing the value of communication and thus spur the acquisition of the other verbal operants. 6. Mand training makes social interaction more valuable. 7. It is relatively easy to do because you are using the child's own motivation as a tool.

Without mands we couldn't converse:

· 1. conversant 1: "What did you do last night? (mand for information) · 2. conversant 2: "I went with my son to see that new fantasy film." · 3. conversant 1: "Was it good?" (mand for information) · 4. conversant 2: "I liked it but my son found certain parts a bit scary." · 5. conversant 1: "Really?" (mand for more verbal behavior) · 6. conversant 2: "Yes, some of the dark magic stuff was too much, but he did like the flying wizards." · 7. conversant 1: "I haven't seen the movie yet." · 8 conversant 2: "Oh, I think you should go, you seem to like that kind of stuff" (mand for action) And so on....

A word of caution

· Mand training can be easy, fun and gets quick results! · Mand training is one of the most technical and complex things we do. · Luckily, if you are new to basing your interventions on ABA/VB, you can get started and learn as you go.



What do teachers need to know to teach the mand?

· · · · · · · · · · · · · Know the Operant Analysis Know the verbal operants to fluency Working knowledge of motivative operations Contriving and capturing motivation Stimulus control procedures (Sd and MOs) Prompting and prompt fading Shaping Differential reinforcement Data management and data based decision making Functional analysis of non-verbal and verbal behavior Instructional control Instructional design Transfer of technology: ability to train others through guided practice, etc

Mand Training in a Nutshell

· · · · · · · · · Identify strong motivators Select response form child will use to mand Pair staff with delivery of reinforcement Teach when motivation is strong (MO) Pair delivery of reinforcement with mand form (vocal word and sign) Prompt child to use mand form Fade prompts so the mand is spontaneous Teach appropriate sequence of mand forms Use data based decision making to adjust mand programming

An Example of the Steps in Mand Training for an Early Learner

1. Establish Motivation: Teacher presents student with a sit and spin (contrives MO: spins it, etc.) 2. Pair: Teacher delivers reinforcer with model (pairing trial) 3. Prompt: Teacher pauses (time delay), prompts sign for spin, delivers spin 4. Fades Prompts: Teacher again pauses (time delay), student signs spin, delivers spin

An Example of Use of a Transitive Motivative Operation to Teach A Mand to A Vocal Student

Day 1 1.Establish Motivation: teacher tells student time to watch Dora (or some such show) 2.Prompt: holds remote control says "ask for the remote."; student says, "remote, please" Day 2 1.Establish Motivation: teacher tells student it is Dora time. 2.Prompt: holds remote, no verbal prompt; student asks for remote (teacher not holding it, out of sight) Day 3 1.Establish Motivation: teacher tells student time to watch Dora 2.No remote present, no verbal prompt; student asks for the remote



Identify Strong Reinforcers

· A critical component of mand training involves selecting the items and/or events that will be used as targets. · It is important to choose reinforcers carefully and systematically.

Basic methods for determining reinforcers to be used in mand training

· Preference inventory · Observations · Structured preference assessment (Refer to appendix in manual for details)

Categories Commonly Included on Preference Assessments

· Consumable items such as food and drinks · Tangible items such as various toys and materials · Activities that involve movement · Games · Electronic media such as TV, computer · Various forms of social interaction · Music · Preferred dramatic themes and characters

Conditioning New Reinforcers

· Most people have a wide variety of events that serve as reinforcement · Many children with autism have an extremely limited range of items and events that serve as reinforcers · In order to teach a diverse mand repertoire, effort must be given to extending the number of events that serve as reinforcers.



An Example of Conditioning: Pairing Presentation of a Known Reinforcer with a Neutral Stimulus

· Bubbles are a neutral stimulus: the student regularly ignores them when they are presented as a probe item on a preference assessment · Bubbles are presented and then immediately after the bubbles are blown, some candy is given to the student. Candy had previously been determined to be a strong reinforcer. · Bubbles are repeatedly paired with candy and other known reinforcers. · Eventually the child begins looking at and even reaching toward the bubbles. · Blowing bubbles then become an event that can serve as reinforcement for the student.

Conditioning a New reinforcer Through a Transitive Motive Operation (CMO-T)

· A student enjoys playing with certain toy figurines on the floor. · The student's teacher may start delivering the toys to the student by having them drop down a tube. · In order to access the figurines, the student needs to have the tube present (the MO for figurines establishes the value of the tube and evokes all tube getting behavior.) · Prior to this the tube was a neutral stimulus. · Now, due to the CMO-T effects (needing the tube to get the toys), access to the tube becomes a conditioned reinforcer.

Avoiding Habituation (adapted from Francis McSweeney, 2006)

· · · · · · Vary the number of reinforcers used within any one session. Vary the way the reinforcers are delivered including what you say during delivery. Vary the schedule of delivery. Do not allow the timing of delivery to be completely predictable. Stop delivery of reinforcement before it loses its value. Vary the type of reinforcer used, for instance do not always use food or always use activities; mix them up! Avoid using too much of a reinforcer at any one delivery, less can sometimes lead to wanting it more.

Selecting the Response Form

· Behavior analysis stresses the importance of a clear, measurable definition of what response will be targeted for reinforcement · Select which communication behaviors will be shaped and strengthened through reinforcement · Communication response forms such as vocal talk, sign language or use of a communication device, will differ significantly in the muscles used by the speaker



Spoken Language

Topography Based Verbal Behavior

·Vocal ·Signing ·Written

Selection Based Verbal Behavior

·Picture exchange ·Touch talkers and other devices ·Communication board

Advantages · Most commonly used response form with wide community of skilled listeners · Free from environmental support: no materials or devices needed · Spoken language allows instruction across all verbal operants without confounds related to multiple control

Disadvantages · Difficult to prompt oral/ vocal motor movements · May be difficult to teach if the child does not have at least a minimum level of echoic repertoire (can begin repeating words or sounds)

Sign Language


· · · · · · Motor movements can be prompted and prompts faded Signs often resemble what they communicate (iconicity) Like speech, signing is a topographical system: each sign consists of distinct movements Free from environmental support: no materials or devices needed Sign language allows instruction across all verbal operants without confounds related to multiple control Sign language is a language and has a community of speakers and listeners · · ·

Picture Selection with an Exchange


· · Scanning and pointing are the same for each verbal relation thus making response acquisition less complex For picture exchange systems, contact between listener and speaker is more direct (requires some degree of physical proximity.) Can be easily prompted Does not require use of the vocal musculature system May be more easily acquired with individuals who have significant motor skill deficits Free from problems related to fidelity of sound production (i.e., articulation problems) · · · · · · · · ·


Staff need specific training in sign language Their may be a limited community of natural speakers of sign language Lack of a minimum level of motor imitation can hinder more rapid acquisition of signs


Extensive preparation of communication materials Symbols and pictures are more abstract for advanced language User must carry materials therefore limiting situations and environments where it can be used Communication becomes more difficult as language is acquired Increasingly more complex visual discrimination skills Responses involve match to sample and therefore tacts and intraverbals are not pure operants Relatively slow responding and limits the flow of communication Complex response form required Communication is limited to the store of items available

· · · ·



Picture Selection with Voice Output


· · · · · These devices can be programmed to produce a full range of spoken communication Scanning and pointing are the same for each verbal relation thus making response acquisition less complex Can be easily prompted Does not require use of the vocal musculature system May be more easily acquired with individuals who have significant motor skill deficits · · · · · · · ·


· Advantages These devices can be programmed to produce a full range of written or, if voice activated, spoken communication Does not require use of the vocal musculature system Allows production of novel responses that do not require specific programming · · · · Disadvantages Requires skilled keyboarding skills (refined motor movements) Response is slow compared to signing and spoken and limits the natural flow of communication Electronic devises may be prone to breaking or not working properly Requires user to carry device therefore limiting situations and environments where it can be used Requires increasingly more complex visual discrimination skills


Voice activated devices must be programmed Electronic devises may be prone to breaking or not working properly Device must be programmed to allow full range of words student can use Skilled speakers must become technology savvy (must be able to navigate programs on device) Complex response form required Responding is slow and limits the natural flow of communication User must carry device Requires complex visual discrimination skills

· ·


Considerations When Making Decisions in Selecting a Response Form

· The unique set of skills of the learner.

The particular pattern of skill acquisition demonstrated by a student may be most easily identified through an analysis of a verbal behavior assessment protocol.

Considerations: Sign Language as Response Form (Carbone, 2005)

· · · · · · · · Obtain a sign manual or CD or take a signing course in ASL. Make sure that all people who interact regularly with the student are familiar with sign language Teach the first signs as mands Use teaching procedures that include the fading of physical and gestural prompts to teach signed mands. Insure that the student has many opportunities to use signs for mands. Data systems should be in place to count the frequency of signed mands and to record how many signed mands the student has acquired. Sign language training will need to be used in conjunction with echoic training and other procedures for teaching vocal responses. Signs will need to be taught across all the verbal operants.

· ·


The ease of use for the various response forms The degree to which the system allows development of a full range of verbal responses. The availability of instructional procedures to facilitate acquisition of verbal responses



Pairing Social Interactions with the Delivery of Reinforcement

· Many students with autism have a strong history of contacting reinforcement without social interaction or through problem behaviors · It is important to teach the student to learn that appropriate social interaction is valuable as a means of obtaining desired items and events

Considerations in the Pairing Process

· Freely available reinforcement and lack of interaction · Sanitizing and delivery · Adults may need to wait patiently for pauses in problem behavior before making reinforcement available. · Timing of delivery · Better with adult than alone · Gradual "enticement": careful not to swamp the student with stimuli or make something fun scary

Approach Behavior

· Limit access to reinforcers · Hold item and let child approach teacher (avoid delivering items when child is moving away from you.) · When possible make activities more fun to do with an another person than alone · Gradually entice students to accept reinforcers, be careful not to move too fast with certain reinforcers. · Contrariwise, do not hesitate to present novelty and surprise as reinforcers. · Be sure to deliver items that the child wants when they want it (be sure there is an MO in effect.) · Deliver items that you can later teach the child to request · Monitor the strength and frequency of the child's approach behavior: data can be kept with clicker counter and graphed (i.e daily rate of approach behavior) · · · · ·

When to Initiate the Teaching of Formal Mand Forms

Observe the amount of effort necessary to keep the student in proximity to the instructor. Take approach data and review the data frequently. Keep record of the student's approach to specific reinforcers. Begin mand training when the presentation of certain items or activities are observed to evoke strong and consistent approach behavior. Consider how many items evoke approach behavior. Instructors will need to teach more than one mand, so it will be important to assess whether the student approaches for at least two or more items or activities. Notice whether the student is in any way attempting to make requests such as beginning to imitate words or sounds, reaching, looking intently at the reinforcer, and so forth. Also consider the relative strength and consistency of wanting items that will serve as mand training targets.

· ·



Guidelines for Selecting Reinforcers to Be Used in Early Mand Training

· Chose items that are consumable or allow only duration of contact · Focus on teaching mands for items that the child consistently wants. · Chose items that are easy to deliver · Select words that are familiar to the child,. · Consider words for the vocal responder that are easy to pronounce · Consider signed words whose movements are easy to produce and easy to prompt · Avoid selecting words that can be used to control multiple types of reinforcers (generalized mands).

Steps in Teaching a Specific Mand

· Although a systematic approach to teaching the first mands is required, the mand is tied to motivation and therefore, the process requires a balance between procedural accuracy and having fun. · We can assess the student's enjoyment of the process through observable behavior such as how much they are smiling, approaching adults, and the frequency of reaching towards others

The Steps to Teaching a Specific Mand

· Verify motivation is in place (capture or contrive). · Model/pair mand form and reinforcer delivery. · Prompt the mand as the child shows motivation. This requires that the instructor selects the appropriate prompt level for the student. · If the response occurs, the instructor can either immediately deliver the reinforcer or represent the item in order to immediately fade prompts. · On future trials with the same item continue to systematically fade prompts. · Once all prompts are faded, continue to provide dense practice for the child in using the mand across a variety of settings and in discrimination with other mands.

Two Prompt Procedures

· Time delay procedure without prompts

· Directly prompting the response and systematically fading prompts



Criteria for Selecting Prompts

· Select the prompt that is sure to evoke the desired response · Select the least intrusive prompt necessary to evoke the response

Guidelines for Using Prompts (Wolery, Bailey and Sugai, 1988)

· Select the least intrusive but effective prompt · Combine prompts if necessary · Select natural prompts and those that are related to the behavior · Provide prompts only when the students are attending · Provide prompts in a supportive, instructive manner · Fade prompts as soon as possible

Prompting Vocal Mands

Step Antecedent

1 Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" (echoic prompt) Ball is physically present Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "bah" (partial echoic prompt) Ball is physically present

Possible Hierarchy for Prompts: Signed Mands

Step Antecedent

Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Adult provides full hand over hand physical prompt for sign Ball is physically present


Signs "ball"


Gets the ball


Says "ball"


Gets the ball



2 3 Child wants the ball (MO) Adult whispers "bah" (partial echoic prompt) Ball is physically present

Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Adult provides partial hand over hand physical prompt for sign (first step of prompt fade) Ball is physically present


Child wants the ball (MO) Adult forms lip in shape of "buh" without saying anything Ball is physically present



Child wants the ball (MO) Ball is physically present Child wants the ball (MO)

Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Adult prompts sign at wrist (partial physical prompt with fade) Ball is physically present




Possible Hierarchy for Prompts: Signed Mands




Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Adult prompts sign at elbow (partial physical prompt fade) Ball is physically present Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Adult moves hand toward child's arm but doesn't make contact (prompt fade) Ball is physically present


Signs "ball"


Gets the ball



Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Adult signs "ball" (model prompt) Child wants the ball (MO) Adult says "ball" vocally Child wants the ball (MO)



Transferring operant control from other

Some Considerations in Prompting the First Mands

·Transferring operant control from other types of verbal behavior to the mand ·Echoic to mand prompts and transfer procedures ·Tact to mand prompts and transfer procedures ·Physical prompting of signed mand responses and transfer procedures ·Imitative prompts and signed mand responses and transfer procedures ·An intraverbal response for use as a prompt in signed mands and related transfer trials ·Multiple Control of Mand Behavior ·Use of Repeated Prompt Procedures ·Mand Transfer Trials as a Time Delay Process ·Error Correction and Reducing Scrolled Responses

types of verbal behavior to the mand

· A critical early step in teaching students language is to perform an adequate assessment of their skills across the various forms of verbal and nonverbal operant control · Results from assessment will assist in the selection of other operants to prompt the mand:

­ ­ ­ ­ Echoic to mand Tact to mand Imitation to mand Intraverbal to mand

· The goal is to transfer control of the mand to the motivative operation.



Physical prompting of signed mand responses and transfer procedures

· Use the least amount of physical contact that will be effective in having the child produce the motor movements for the sign · When prompting pay careful attention to the students muscle movements · Over-prompting a student can result in the student learning that they will get what they want if they allow someone to manipulate their hands · Avoid physically prompting a student when they are in the process of reaching toward an item · Fade physical prompts as soon as possible using a transfer trial following delivery of the reinforcer without prompts or a prompt fade transfer trial · For some students, fading prompts too soon may result in a slower pace of mand acquisition

When to use Repeated Prompt Procedures

· With students for whom it is not possible to fade prompts through immediate transfer procedures · Students who have failed to acquire the correct mand form · Attempts to fade prompts result in high rates of errors · Attempts by staff to correct scrolling do not result in acquisition of the correct mand response

Procedure for Providing Repeated Prompts

· Decide most effective least intrusive prompt that is consistent with the student's pattern of performance. · Decide most effective least intrusive prompt that is consistent with the student's pattern of performance. · Set the criteria for the number of prompted trials that will occur before attempting to fade. · Determine if a fade schedule for reducing repeated prompt trials for a specific reinforcer will need to be used. · Review data and make instructional decisions based on pattern of performance.



Steps in Using Time Delay Procedures for Prompting Mands

· Wait for child to show motivation (capture or contrive) · Model and pair mand form and reinforcer delivery (say it and/or sign it as you deliver the item) · Prompt the mand with a 0 second time delay · Deliver reinforcer as child emits prompted response · Re-present item and pause 5 seconds, if spontaneous mand occurs, deliver reinforcer, if not and child is reaching for item, prompt mand response and deliver reinforcer (this is a transfer trial) · If error occurs in time delay period, use error correction procedures outlined for each response form · Increase time delay interval with success of independent responses

Steps to Using Transfer Trial with Mand

· Provide 0 second prompted mand · Two options:

­ Deliver reinforcer (little bit) and then represent a second mand trial with no prompt ­ Do not deliver reinforcer, pause after prompted response, and allow student to mand again with no prompt

Types of Errors in Mand Frame

· Student emitting the wrong topography for a mand · Scrolling: error pattern is one in which the child says words or uses signs that in the past have resulted in the delivery of reinforcers but are not the correct word for the particular item they want at the time

· Differential reinforcement of more independent responses



Error Correction and Reducing Scrolled Responses

1. Make sure errors do not contact reinforcement: 2. Signal non-availability of reinforcement 3. Wait a few seconds 4. Re-present item with "0" second-delay prompt 5. When possible provide a transfer trial

Other Considerations

· Determine time delay between emission of error and presentation of next trial · Differential reinforcement of independent responses · If error correction fails consider discrimination protocol

Discrimination Protocol

1. Have all reinforcers available across many motivational categories. 2. List the reinforcers on the discrimination data sheet 3. Probe for Motivation 4. Probe for topography 5. Conduct teaching session 6. Repeat probe after completion of session 7. Graph percent of 1st and last probes scored "yes" (do not include trials with "no MO"

Discrimination Protocol Teaching Procedures:

1. For each presentation of the reinforcer check for an MO as described above. 2. Rotate the presentation of reinforcers across both motivational and topographical classes. 3. Use the least amount of prompting necessary and therefore teach near errorlessly. 4. Fade prompts appropriately. 5. Try not to conduct more than 3 consecutive teaching trials of the same reinforcer. 6. Teaching can occur both in the NET and at the table.



Mand Skill Area Establishing Social Interaction as Source of Reinforcement: Critical throughout Mands with Item/SD Present and Prompts

Initial Instruction

Intermediate Instruction

Advanced Instruction

Mands with Item/SD Present

Extend Number of Items/Actions

Mands Across Instructors

Mands Across Settings

Peer to Peer Manding

Mands for Missing Items

Mands Solely under Control of MO

Establishes Audience Contact

Mands for Negation: Remove item or stop activity



Mand Skill Area

Initial Instruction

Intermediate Instruction

Advanced Instruction

Mand Skill Area Mands for Assistance: specifics (actions) and help

Initial Instruction

Intermediate Instruction

Advanced Instruction

Mands for People

Mands for others to Attend to Specific Stimuli (items, activities, etc)

Manding for Peer Participation in Play or Activities

Mands for others to Comment/Respond to Actions, Features, Possessions of Speaker

Mands for Information

2 component manding (action + noun, adjective + noun, action + adverb, action + action, noun + noun)

Mands for Future Events

Multiple Component (more than 2 components)

Increasing Mean Length of Utterances to Sharpen Audience Control (Autoclitics)

Mands in Response to an MO related Question with Yes, No

Conversational Mands

Mands with Prepositions

Mands for Sympathy and Emotional Support

Mands with Pronouns

Barriers to Effective Manding

· · · · · · · · · · · · · Mand training is not part of of the child's early language training history The target response form is too difficult for the child When a child has no or limited vocal behavior, sign language or PECS have not been tried. The response requirement is too high and weakens the relevant MO There is no current MO in effect for the targeted item (e.g. satiation, weak to begin with) The response is prompt bound by physical, echoic, imitative, or verbal stimuli A nonverbal stimulus acquires control of the response and blocks MO control. A verbal stimulus acquires control of the response and blocks MO control. Motivation (MO) does not control the response form. The child has weak MOs in general Free or cheap access to reinforcers without manding Self-stimulation or obsessive behaviors compete with other MOs. A small group of mands has a strong history of reinforcement (e.g. candy, juice, skittles) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Barriers (cont.)

There is a limited availability of established imitative or echoic responses. No variation in captured and contrived MOs. Negative behavior functions as mand Inappropriate mands become too strong and are intermittently reinforced. The curriculum is poorly sequenced. Fading out the object/non-verbal stimulus too soon. A single response topography functions as the mand (e.g. more, please, that) Can't establish different response topographies. Scrolling gets reinforced. Not enough mand trials are provided each day. Poor audience control. Mands only required and reinforced in a specific setting. Generalization training is not provided. Verbal information does not function as reinforcement for the child. Manding does not come under the control of natural contingencies. A history of punishment for attempts at manding.



The End of the Presentation

Pennsylvania's Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of Supplemental Aids and Services before considering a more restrictive environment.

Thank You for Your Participation!

Bureau of Special Education Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network

Edward G. Rendell Governor

Gerald L. Zahorchak, D.Ed. Secretary

Diane Castelbuono, Deputy Secretary Office of Elementary and Secondary Education John J. Tommasini, Director Bureau of Special Education

Contact Information: Name of Consultant, Email address



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