Read Bonescurr.qxt text version

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE

Curriculum Set #4

The Bones & Joints of the Human Body

T

he skeletal system is composed of bones and strong elastic tissues which make up the ligaments, tendons and cartilages. The skeletal system serves as a rigid framework to support and protect the soft tissues of the body. The skeletal muscles are responsible for the voluntary movement of the bones. The ends of skeletal muscles are attached by tendons to bones. Ligaments hold the bones together at the joints.

The Bones & Joints of the Human Body Vocabulary List

calcaneus carpals clavicle coccyx costal cartilages cranium femur fibula frontal bone humerus mandible maxilla metacarpals metatarsals occipital bone os coxa parietal bone patella pelvic girdle phalanges radius ribs sacrum scapula skull sternum tarsals temporal bone tibia ulna vertebrae vertebral column zygomatic bone

There are four major types of bones. The long bones are strong, slightly curved bones and are made up of compact tissues. The arms, legs, toes and fingers are long bones. Short bones are spongy bones covered with compact tissue. The kneecap, wrist and ankle bones are short bones. Flat bones are composed of two layers of compact tissue with a spongy layer in between. The skull, ribs, sternum, hips and scapula are flat bones and provide a suitable surface for muscles to attach. Irregular bones are irregularly shaped and contain spongy and compact tissue in varying proportions. The vertebrae and facial bones are irregular bones. The skeletal system allows for movement through a complex system of joints which occur between different bones. Joints can be classified according to the manner in which they function. A ball-and-socket joint allows movement in all directions. The hip and the shoulder are usually considered to be ball and socket type joints. Hinged joints allow movement primarily in one direction. The elbow and knee are examples of hinged type joints. Gliding joints are composed of several interconnected bones with multiple joint surfaces. The wrist is an example of a gliding type joint. Articular cartilage lines the surfaces of the joints. Articular cartilage is very smooth and very slippery and provides an almost frictionless surface. The joint lining is called synovium. The synovium secretes synovial fluid, which is very slippery and helps lubricate the joint. A normal human joint, such as the knee, develops less friction than even the most perfect ball bearing.

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE Activity 1 THE BONES & JOINTS VOCABULARY

In this activity students will become familiar with selected names of bones of the human skeleton. Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. identify the names of selected bones of the human skeleton; 2. explain connections between the parts of the human skeleton; 3. prepare for a graded assessment. Lesson Objectives: This lesson will: 1. allow research of the parts of the human skeleton; 2. increase understanding of vocabulary and terminology associated with the human skeleton; 3. assist in the organization of the required material. National Standards: Grades 5-8 C.1.4 Different tissues are grouped together to form larger functional units called organs. C.1.5 The human organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease. Missouri Frameworks: SC/VII.B/5-8/3 Complex multicellular organisms are interacting systems of cells, tissues, organs, and organ networks that carry out life processes through chemical and physical means. SC/VII.C/5-8/2 Each structure in an organism is uniquely adapted to a particular function for enhancing the ability of the organism to survive. Materials: The Human Skeleton Vocabulary List - STUDENT PAGE textbook or resource materials The Human Skeleton Word Find - STUDENT PAGE The Human Skeleton Diagram - STUDENT PAGE Teacher Notes: This activity may be used in a variety of ways. The definitions and word find both use the same vocabulary list. Students can find the words in the word find and complete the definitions or they can use resource materials to find the answers. Any part of this activity could also be used for review. Procedure: The procedure will vary depending upon the format the

teacher chooses. 1. Have students complete the Human Skeleton Word Find using the Human Skeleton Vocabulary List. 2. Review vocabulary with students prior to attending the AIMS program. Assessment: Written vocabulary quiz. Have the students construct a concept web using the vocabulary list.

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE Activity 2 T H E H U M A N S K E L E TA L S Y S T E M

In this activity students will become familiar with the anatomy of the human skeleton. Objectives: The students will be able to: 1. identify the major bones of the skeletal system 2. describe the difference between cartilage, tendons and ligaments 3. explain the role of the skeletal system. Lesson Objectives: This lesson will: 1. allow observation of human bone; 2. increase understanding of vocabulary and terminology associated with the human skeleton; 3. provide an understanding of the role of an orthopedic surgeon in treating diseases or injuries to the bones and joints; 4. assist in the organization of required material. National Standards: Grades 5-8 C.1.4 Different tissues are grouped together to form larger functional units called organs. C.1.6 Disease is a breakdown in structures or functions of an organism. F.1.1 Regular exercise is important to the maintenance and improvement of health. F.1.2 The potential for accidents and the existence of hazards imposes the need for injury prevention. F.1.3 The use of tobacco increases the risk of illness. F.1.4 Alcohol and other drugs are often abused substances. F.4.4 Important personal social decisions are made based on perceptions of benefits and risks.

Missouri Frameworks: SC/VII.B/5-8/3 Complex multicellular organisms are interacting systems of cells, tissues, organs, and organ networks that carry out life processes through chemical and physical means. SC/VII.C/5-8/2 Each structure in an organism is uniquely adapted to a particular function for enhancing the ability of the organism to survive. Materials: AIMS 3-D program on the "Bones & Joints of the Human Body" The Human Skeleton Diagram - STUDENT PAGE Teacher Notes: The auditorium in which the AIMS program is presented is very dark, therefore it may be necessary for students to complete the material immediately after the program or during the break. Procedure: 1. Complete the "preparation activity" to familiarize students with the human skeleton vocabulary list. 2. Prior to the program, have the students generate 2 or 3 questions they would like answered by the AIMS speaker. 3. Ask students to observe the AIMS 3-D program paying close attention to the key terms from the vocabulary list and new terms introduced by the speaker. 4. If time allows, have the students ask their questions. 5. Complete the Human Skeleton Diagram - STUDENT PAGE. Assessment: Complete the student page.

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE Activity 3 BONE SURFACE MARKINGS

Lesson Objectives: This lesson will: 1. allow for better understanding of the relationships between the bone surface markings and the function a particular bone; 2. increase understanding of the skeletal system; 3. allow an opportunity to obtain information via discovery; 4. use a kinesthetic approach to learning bone surface markings. National Standards: Grades 5-8 C.1.4 Different tissues are grouped together to form larger functional units called organs. C.1.5 The human organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease. Missouri Frameworks: SC/VII.B/5-8/3 Complex multicellular organisms are interacting systems of cells, tissues, organs, and organ networks that carry out life processes through chemical and physical means. SC/VII.C/5-8/2 Each structure in an organism is uniquely adapted to a particular function for enhancing the ability of the organism to survive. Materials: 1 or more articulated or disarticulated skeletons per group high school or junior college level textbook The Axial Skeleton and The Appendicular Skeleton STUDENT PAGE Bone Surface Markings Discussion Questions - STUDENT PAGE Teacher Notes: A disarticulated skeleton may be purchased with surface markings coded with a number or you may code your own using the letters and numbers on the student pages as your guide. Group the students based on availability of skeletons. Time required is several class periods depending upon the information students are required to complete. Procedure: 1. Define condyle, epicondyle, foramen, fossa, head, process, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity. 2. Using textbook illustrations, identify the bone that possesses the characteristics labeled on the handout. Write the name of the bone under the "Bone 3. Possessing Characteristic" column. 4. Find the bone among the disarticulated skeleton and locate the surface markings referred to in the handout.

In this activity, students will investigate the surfaces of bones having various structural features adapted to specific functions. The students will use the terms; condyle, epicondyle, foramen, fossa, head, process, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity to describe skeletal structures and realize that each bone has its own unique personality. Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. name the bone that possesses the surface markings from each group; define the purpose for each surface marking as it 2. relates to a specific bone; 3. identify the bones of the axial and appendicular skeletons;

5.

Using textbooks, briefly list the function of each surface marking as it relates to the bone. (See example below.)

Characteristic 1. acetabulum

Bone Possessing Characteristic pelvis

Function / Purpose socket for the head of the femur muscle attachment

2. iliac crest

pelvis

Assessment: Monitor each group's identification during the lab. Final lab reports. Remediation: Have the pairs of students responsible for the identification of one bone and its related surface markings. As an entire class each pair presents their information and everyone fills in their handout.

Funding provided by a grant from Group Health Foundation Project Coordinator: Karen Montgomery Copyright©2000 Practical Anatomy Workshop of Saint Louis University

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE AND SCIENCE The Human Skeleton Vocabulary List STUDENT PAGE

calcaneus carpals clavicle cranium femur fibula humerus maxilla mandible metacarpals metatarsals patella pelvic girdle phalanges radius ribs scapula skull sternum tarsals tibia ulna vertebrae vertebral column BONUS: coccyx costal cartilages frontal bone occipital bone os coxa parietal bone sacrum temporal bone zygomatic bone

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE AND SCIENCE The Human Skeleton Vocabulary Word Find STUDENT PAGE

C A L C A N E U S S B O F I

I

L B O L B O N C C Y V E C

B U N M U L O C L A R B E T R E V E R O E O

S U F P E L B O N C R A N M A F X P H A L S N T C T X R A D I I U S T E R N U M Z I S N L U L O S O C F A B R A E Y

A X O T L

B V E R P A R O S C B O N

Y N C O L U M F R O N T A R U W A P L L A E Y X

C C T Z Y G M A R E C A R P A L S R A S T E R N U A C A C O S T M U R C A S A L A A T G R S L R T I L I S B U H U M R E U S C I I R I R D L L A I G E S

T A L

L B B O N R

T A R S A M A P X Y C C N M U A R P H C I P L L A V I C L E

A O F R O N N R E H G V T I S N F I B L A U C L A E C V

E C S K U L L I R

A R E F E M U R C R A M C N I

U E M F R M E U I

G A H U T M E C R U S O M A X U L N A E T M A N A D I

T L L X A

B L E M E T A C V E R T E B R A E S A L M S P M A I R D L B S S

S A A R P A R L S M E T A T A R I T E T E L L A P S E L V I

C G O S C O X A P

E P H A L A N A G E S R A D I

I G U S R O I I

S M A N D T Z

B L E L C A U L A P

S K U R L T L S I T I

E R N U M T A R S S A H U M E R U S L A S Y G O M A T I C B O N E B I A D U

L N L A B V E T E B B I R A

S C A P U L A R T E B R A E V E L R A L L E T A P L Z Y G O M A T A C E N O B L A T E I I

E C B O O N A E S

R A P T E M P O R N A L B O I L A

N E C O S T A P H A L A N G E S L C A R E T

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE The Axial Skeleton STUDENT PAGE

Using textbooks and skeletons, determine the bones that possess each characteristic and its function/purpose. Bone Possessing Characteristic Function/Purpose

Characteristic

A. cribiform plate/olfactory foramina & sinuses

B. foramen magnum C. occipital condyles

D. zygomatic arch E. mandibular fossa F. external acoustic meatus G. mastoid process H. carotid foramen

I. supraorbital foramen & sinuses

J. sella turcica & sinuses K. keystone of cranial floor L. optic foramina

M. hard palate N. upper teeth O. sinuses P. keystone of facial bones

Q. mandibular condyle (condyloid process of mandible) R. lower teeth S. mental foramen

T. manubrium U. xiphoid process V. body

Other bones of the axial skeleton about which you should know:

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

7

12

5

5 fused

4 fused

Differentiate:

true ribs

false ribs

floating ribs

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE The Appendicular Skeleton STUDENT PAGE

Using textbooks and skeletons, determine the bones that possess each characteristic and its function/purpose. Bone Possessing Characteristic Function/Purpose

Characteristic

1. lateral malleolus

2. head 3. neck 4. deltoid tuberosity 5. coronoid fossa 6. olecranon fossa 7. greater & lesser tubercles 8. medial & lateral epicondyles

9. acetabulum 10. iliac crest/ilium 11. ischium 12. pubic symphysis

13. medial & lateral condyles 14. tibial tuberosity 15. medial malleolus 16. radial tuberosity

17. spine 18. glenoid cavity 19. acromion process

20. head 21. neck 22. linea aspera (crest) 23. medial & lateral epicondyles 24. patellar surface 25. greater & lesser trochanter

26. olecranon (process) 27. coronoid process 28. trochlear notch

29. calcaneus 30. talus 31. navicular bone

32. trapezoid 33. sesamoid bone 34. trapezium 35. lunate

ADVENTURES IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE Bone Surface Markings - Discussion Questions STUDENT PAGE 1. Match the following foramina to the bone in which it occurs. 1. rotundum a. ethmoid bone 2. mental b. occipital bone 3. carotid canal c. sphenoid bone 4. olfactory d. mandible 5. magnum e. temporal bone Which of the following bones has a conoid tubercle? a. scapula d. clavicle b. humerus e. ulna c. radius Which of the following is not a cranial bone? a. sphenoid bone c. vomer b. ethmoid bone d. frontal bone Which of the following is not one of the four parts of the temporal bone? a. squamous part d. petrous part b. auricular part e. mastoid part c. tympanic part The usual number of false ribs is a. two pairs c. five pairs b. three pairs d. seven pairs

2.

3.

4.

5.

Diagram of the Human Skeleton

Information

Bonescurr.qxt

12 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

456777


You might also be interested in

BETA
Human Body Summary
HumanBody13.PDF
The Bones Inside Us