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Astro 101.001 Chapter 14

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For these problems only ONE answer is best ... 1) The orbits of most asteroids A) lie beyond Neptune. B) lie entirely beyond the orbit of Mars. C) cross the orbit of Mars. D) cross the orbit of Earth. E) cross the orbits of all four terrestrial planets. 2) About what percent of all asteroids are S-type asteroids? A) 5% B) 10% C) 15% D) 50% E) 75% 3) About what percent of all asteroids are C-type asteroids? A) 5% B) 10% C) 15% D) 50% E) 75% 4) What is the typical size of most known asteroids? A) a few meters B) a few kilometers C) a few hundred kilometers D) larger than the Moon E) larger than the Earth 5) What is the defining property of the Trojan asteroids? A) Their orbital periods are exactly one year, like ours. B) They have orbits that cross the orbit of the Earth, but not that of Venus. C) They have orbits at the distance of Jupiter and 60 degrees ahead of or behind it. D) They have orbits between Saturn and Uranus. E) Like Pluto, they are in a 3:2 resonance with Neptune. 6) The Trojan asteroids have orbits that A) are, on average, closer to the Sun than we are. B) cross the orbit of Earth at perihelion. C) cross the orbit of Mars, but not Earth, at perihelion. D) stay sixty degrees ahead of or behind Jupiter. E) stay out beyond Neptune. 7) The type of asteroid that would appear darkest and reflect the least light is type A) A. B) B. C) C. D) D. E) S. 8) The type of asteroid that would be the densest would be type A) C. B) M. C) S. D) V. E) Z.

9) The orbits of most comets A) are like the planets, fairly circular and in the ecliptic plane. B) lie almost entirely beyond the orbit of Neptune. C) have perihelions within the orbits of Mercury. D) go no farther out than Pluto, then return to the sun again. E) are shorter than the 76 year period for Comet Halley. 10) What are comets made of? A) silicates and rocky dust B) metallic dust particles C) dark colored complex hydrocarbons D) methane, ammonia, and water ice E) all of the above 11) The Oort Cloud is thought to be A) the cloud of gas and dust from which our solar system formed. B) a cloud of debris that occasionally encounters the Earth, causing a meteor shower. C) the spherical cloud of comets and some larger icy bodies surrounding the outer solar system. D) a cloud of asteroids moving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. E) the material in the ecliptic plane that creates the zodiacal light. 12) The A) a B) a C) a D) a E) a nucleus, or main solid body, of a comet has a typical size of few centimeters. few meters. few kilometers. few hundred kilometers. few thousand kilometers.

13) Long period comets are thought to reside mainly in the A) asteroid belt. B) Kirkwood gaps. C) Kuiper Belt. D) Oort Cloud. E) Interstellar Medium. 14) The Kuiper Belt objects have orbits that A) carry them thousands of A.U. beyond the Sun. B) stay out just beyond Neptune and close to the ecliptic. C) stay sixty degrees ahead of or behind Jupiter. D) cross the orbit of Mars at perihelion. E) cross the orbit of Earth at perihelion. 15) From its orbit, we now recognize Pluto as the largest member of the A) moons of Neptune. B) asteroid belt. C) Kuiper Belt. D) Oort Cloud. E) Zodiacal Belt. 16) Pluto's bulk density is: A) 3,400 kg/m3, comparable to our Moon's. B) 2,100 kg/ m3, similar to Callisto's mix of rock and ice. C) 1,200 kg/ m3, like Mimas, made of almost pure ice. D) 700 kg/ m3, like Saturn a mix of hydrogen and helium slush. E) 400 kg/ m3, like Comet Halley's nucleus, a ice ball with many gas pockets. 17) The largest Kuiper Belt body is A) Sedna. B) Chiron. C) Pluto. D) Charon. E) Eris.

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27) The first dinosaurs A) finding B) finding C) finding D) finding E) finding

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18) Pluto's density is most similar to A) the terrestrial planets. B) the jovian planets. C) moons of the jovian planets. D) Mercury, but nor Venus, Earth, or Mars. E) Saturn, but not Jupiter, Uranus, or Neptune. 19) Meteorites are valuable to astronomers because A) they may provide evidence about the process in which the solar system was born. B) originated in other solar systems. C) they contain diamonds and gold. D) they reveal the contents of interstellar space. E) they prove that life can only exist on the Earth. 20) Large meteoroids are thought to collide with Earth A) at least once a decade. B) about once a century. C) a few times in every million-year period. D) once every billion years. E) never; only comets are thought to collide with Earth. 21) Iron meteorites are believed to come from A) the core of a dense M-type asteroid, now broken up. B) Mars, hence their reddish color. C) the crust of a differentiated type C asteroid, now broken up. D) a broken up cometary nucleus, hence their shiny appearance. E) deep space, far beyond the solar system, hence their unique crystal patterns. 22) Carbonaceous Chondrites are believed to come from A) coal formed on Mars, then blown into space by asteroid impacts. B) the core of a differentiated type M asteroid, now broken up. C) the crust of a differentiated C type asteroid, now broken up. D) a broken up cometary nucleus, dark like Comet Halley's nucleus. E) deep space, far beyond the solar system, hence their very low density. 23) Meteor shower debris is believed to come from A) the asteroid belt when Mars deflects it toward us annually. B) the core of a differentiated type M asteroid, now broken up. C) the crust of a differentiated type C asteroid, now broken up. D) the disintegration of a short period comet over many returns to the Sun. E) deep space, far beyond the solar system, deflected by the gravity of another star. 24) Which of the following objects would be found on the Moon's surface? A) sedimentary rocks B) meteoroids C) meteors D) meteorites E) asteroids 25) The body which wiped out the dinosaurs was about A) as big as our Moon. B) as big as one of Mars' moons. C) a few hundred meters across. D) as big as a 747. E) as big as an SUV. 26) The major impact in the Yucatan wiped out the dinosaurs about: A) 450 million years ago. B) 200 million years ago. C) 65 million years ago. D) 36 millions years ago. E) less than two million years ago.

hint of the role of asteroids in extinction of the came from the huge crater in the Yucatan. dinosaur fossils with meteorites embedded in them. a layer of worldwide iridium enriched dust. that dinosaurs were warm-blooded and smart. that no volcanic eruptions were linked to their disappearance.

28) The Perseid meteor shower gives us about a meteor every minute in mid A) January. B) May. C) August. D) October. E) November. ==========================

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