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Astro 101.001 Chapter 9

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For these problems only ONE answer is best ... 1) At A) B) C) D) E) closest approach Venus is about how far from Earth? 0.7 AU 0.5 AU 0.4 AU 0.3 AU 0.1 AU

9) Through radar observations it was found that Venus' A) orbit around the Sun is speeding up. B) atmosphere is changing rapidly. C) rotation on its axis is retrograde. D) orbit around the Sun is in the clockwise sense. E) orbital period is 243 days. 10) Why does Venus appear so bright to the eye? A) It gets closer to us than any other planet does. B) Venus is closer to the Sun, so gets more intense sunlight. C) The planet's cloud-cover is highly reflective, reflecting 60% of the sun's light. D) As seen from Earth, the disk of Venus can appear larger than any other planet's. E) All of the above are correct. 11) Earth and Venus are often called sister planets; in which ways are they most alike? A) atmospheric composition and density B) size, density, and surface gravity C) surface temperature and pressure D) cloud composition and meteorology E) polar caps and rusty red deserts 12) Venus' atmosphere, in comparison to Earth's atmosphere, has: a) 90 times more "air" pressure at the surface b) much higher surface temperature ( about 700K versus 300K ) c) much higher concentration of carbon dioxide ( about 96% versus less than 1% ) d) all the above e) none of the above 13) Typical "mid-day" high temperatures (at Venus' equator) are about: a) the same as on Earth b) about the temperature of boiling water on Earth c) about the temperature of melting lead on Earth d) about the temperature of melting iron on Earth e) none of the above 14) Venus is only a little bit (5%) smaller than Earth, and its density is only slightly less than Earth's. Therefore, its mass is: A) the same as Earth's. B) just a little bit greater than Earth's. C) much greater than Earth's (more than 20% different). D) just a little bit less than Earth's. E) much less than Earth's (more than 20% different). 15) The surface of Venus can be observed with: A) the Mt. Wilson 100" telescope. B) radar observations from Arecibo. C) most amateur telescopes. D) the Hubble Space Telescope. E) All of these have provided detailed observations about the surface of our sister planet. 16) Surface details on Venus are mainly observed using: a) satellites with orbits below the cloud layers b) radar "images" from Earth and the Magellan space craft c) from Russian "landers" that reached the surface of Venus d) all the above e) none of the above 17) Our most detailed maps of Venus come from: A) the Magellan space-probe. B) the Hubble Space Telescope. C) direct observation from Earth based optical telescopes. D) manned landings. E) Earth based radio telescopes.

2) Venus' full phase occurs when Venus is at: A) opposition. B) the deferent. C) conjunction. D) inferior conjunction. E) superior conjunction. 3) The orbit of Venus is such that it's angular distance from the sun is never more than 47-degrees (remember 90-degrees is a right angle). As a consequence: a) It can only be seen during full daylight b) It is generally visible during the 2 to 3 hours just after sunset or just before sunrise c) It is generally visible during the 1 to 2 hours just after sunset or just before sunrise d) It can only be seen during total solar eclipses e) None of the above 4) The rotation axis of Venus is almost perfectly at right angles to the plane of it's orbit. As a consequence Venus' seasons: a) are similar to season's on Earth b) are more extreme than season's on Earth c) are almost non-existent (much less seasonal differences than on Earth) d) none of the above 5) Venus orbits the Sun in 225 days. How long does it take to rotate on its axis? A) 225 days, so it keeps the same face toward the Sun B) 24 hours, 36 minutes, very similar to Earth and Mars C) 243 days, even though the Earth's tidal pull is not involved D) 36 days, for reasons unknown E) 450 days, exactly at 2:1 spin-orbit resonance 6) Venus' rotation: A) is the fastest of the terrestrial planets. B) is counterclockwise, like the other planets. C) takes longer than its orbit around the Sun. D) axis is highly tilted to its orbital plane, causing large seasonal changes. E) is tidally locked to the Sun. 7) Because the rotation of Venus is "retrograde": a) like the Moon, Venus shows only one "face" to the Earth b) like Mercury, Venus shows only one "face" to the Sun c) it turns in the opposite direction (on its axis) in comparison to the rotation of the Earth (on its axis) d) all the above e) none of the above 8) The fact that the rotation of Venus is "retrograde": a) was deduced by watching patterns in the cloud layers of Venus b) was deduced by watching patterns in the surface of Venus c) was deduced watching the seasonal variations of the polar ice caps d) was deduced using "Doppler broadening" of radar echos from the surface e) none of the above

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18) Our best data about the surface topography of Venus has come from: A) Magellan radar data and radar observations of the planet from Earth. B) spacecraft flybys like Mariner 2 and visual observations of the planet. C) radio and visual observations. D) orbiter photos from Pioneer Venus Orbiter. E) the three flybys of Mariner 10. 19) Which of the following characterizes a shield volcano? A) It is dormant. B) It can erupt only briefly before being dragged off the hot spot. C) It sits above a hot spot in the planet's mantle. D) It forms along a plate boundary. E) It cannot grow very large, for it has a very short span of eruption. 20) Which statement is true of Venus' surface? A) It has remained unchanged for billions of years. B) Atmospheric pressure is very low. C) There is an extensive hydrosphere. D) There are no shield volcanoes. E) There are two continent sized uplands. 21) Compared to Earth, Venus has: A) a more transparent atmosphere. B) a lower average surface temperature. C) a far greater percentage of its surface in low-level ocean basins. D) about the same percentage of its surface in raised continents. E) a far greater percentage of its surface in raised continents. 22) The surface details of Venus show: a) fewer "continent" like elevated regions than the Earth b) about the same fraction of "continent" like elevated regions and lower "ocean" like regions as the Earth c) more "continent" like elevated regions than the Earth 23) The largest "continent" like region on Venus, called "Aphrodite Terra" is about the size of: a) Europe b) Africa c) Asia d) lake Superior e) none of the above 24) Radar images from the Magellan satellite suggest: a) clear evidence for plate tectonics on Venus b) one or two isolated examples for plate tectonics on Venus c) little or no evidence for plate tectonics on Venus 25) Venus is known for its large number of: a) impact craters b) volcanoes c) rift valleys d) mountain chains e) none of the above 26) Venus has a feature named Aphrodite Terra. What is this feature? A) a very large volcano B) a large impact crater C) a continental-sized plateau D) a large basin similar to the maria on the Moon E) a great rift valley like Valles Marineris on Mars 27) Maxwell Montes on Venus is: A) an impact crater larger than Texas. B) the longest rift valley on the planet C) the highest mountain range on the planet D) ocean basin larger than the Pacific Ocean.

28) What percentage of the surface of Venus could be characterized as continental-sized highlands? A) less than 10% B) about 30%, like the Earth C) 45% D) 75% E) 100% 29) Various observations suggest there may be recent or even continuing volcanic activity on Venus. Which of the following has NOT been observed? A) bursts of radio energy, similar to those produced by lightning discharges occurring in the plumes of erupting volcanoes on Earth B) spacecraft detection over a period of days of flowing lava on Venus C) fluctuations in the level of sulfur dioxide in the planet's atmosphere D) surface features resembling rift valleys on Earth E) larger shield volcanoes than Hawaii 30) Magellan did not find which of these on Venus? A) impact craters, all larger than five kilometers across B) large shield volcanoes C) actual volcanic eruptions in progress D) coronae, huge but very flat circular features E) continent sized uplands 31) The largest volcanic structures on Venus are called: A) shield volcanoes. B) cinder cones. C) coronae. D) calderas. E) crater cones. 32) Venus is known for its large number of: a) impact craters b) volcanoes c) rift valleys d) mountain chains e) none of the above 33) The most common type of volcano on Venus is: a) cinder cone b) shield volcano c) composite volcano d) all the above e) none of the above 34) Some of the unusual type volcanoes on Venus are called: a) ticks b) domes c) both of the above d) none of the above 35) The largest volcanic structure on Venus is called: a) ticks b) domes c) shield volcanoes d) coronae e) none of the above 36) The highest peak on Venus is called: A) Shif. B) Gula. C) Cleopatra. D) Maxwell. E) Lakshmi.

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37) The rilles found in Ovda Regio are evidence of: A) ancient river beds. B) plate tectonics. C) something akin to sea-floor spreading. D) ancient oceans. E) lava flows. 38) A at A) B) C) D) E) characteristic of shield volcanoes is the formation of a crater the summit which occurs when: the volcano erupts explosively. the lava withdraws and the surface collapses. the lava flows melt through the thin crust of the peak. the underlying hot spot suddenly turns on. the volcano is impacted by a large meteorite.

46) Which of the following contributes to Venus being so hot? A) It is closer than Earth to the Sun. B) Its atmosphere is much denser than the Earth's. C) Its atmosphere is made chiefly of carbon dioxide. D) It has very little axial tilt so the equator is always directly exposed to the Sun. E) All of the above are factors. ===================

39) Volcanic activity on Venus is thought to be: A) more frequent, but less violent than volcanic activity on Earth. B) more frequent and more violent than volcanic activity on Earth. C) less frequent, but more violent than volcanic activity on Earth. D) less frequent and less violent than volcanic activity on Earth. E) the same as volcanic activity on Earth. 40) (Suggestive) evidence for on-going volcanism on Venus includes: a) short term variations in the levels of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere b) bursts of radio signals (from the surface) similar to lightening that occurs in the plumes of erupting volcanoes on earth c) both the above d) none of the above 41) The atmospheric pressure on Venus: A) shows an extreme change with the seasons. B) is much lower than on Earth. C) is about the same as on Mercury. D) is much higher than on Earth. E) causes variations in surface temperature. 42) What is the result of the Greenhouse effect on the surface environment of Venus? A) It has little or no effect. B) Its effect is about the same as on Earth. C) It has reduced the surface temperature by about 30 degrees Celsius. D) It has raised the surface temperature by hundreds of degrees Celsius E) It causes the surface temperature of Venus to become hotter than the Sun. 43) It is suggested that the high surface temperatures on Venus are primarily the result of: a) being closer to the Sun than the Earth b) run-away greenhouse effect c) extensive and active volcanoes d) remnants of planet formation 44) What is the main constituent of the atmosphere of Venus? A) oxygen B) nitrogen C) hydrogen D) carbon dioxide E) sulfuric acid 45) What is the composition of the clouds of Venus? A) water, like Earth's clouds B) frozen carbon dioxide, as on Mars C) a combination of ammonia and methane, like Uranus D) sulfur and sulfuric acid droplets E) hydrogen sulfide and ammonia

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