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Brenda Hoddinott

THE BASICS A-10: 11 PAGES - $2.95

These tips are recommended for artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada

CONTENTS

Brenda Hoddinott.....................................................................................2

Biography..........................................................................................................2 Art Books...........................................................................................................2 100 Terrific Tips...............................................................................................3 Generally Speaking.............................................................................................3 Protecting your Drawings.....................................................................................4 Drawing Portraits and People.................................................................................5 Composition......................................................................................................6 Perspective.........................................................................................................7 Blending Shading................................................................................................7 Warm Fuzzies.....................................................................................................8 Values and Shading.............................................................................................9 Figure Drawing.................................................................................................10 Drawing with a Grid...........................................................................................11

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BRENDA HODDINOTT

As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints.

BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY

Born in St. John's, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted "Learn to Draw" books. During Brenda's twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda's skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from "Forensic Artists International". Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community's recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children's art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities.

ART BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT

! Drawing for Dummies (March 4, 2003): Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing Fusion (2003): Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Nova Scotia, Canada, this CD-ROM is available at http://www.finearteducation.com The Complete Idiot's Guide to Drawing People (August 2004): Published by Alpha Pearson Education ­ Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book will be available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

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100 TERRIFIC TIPS

During my lengthy career, I've made tons of mistakes and learned from them. With necessity being the mother of invention, I've also discovered numerous easier and more efficient methods of working. The following 100 tips and helpful hints are but the first installment in an ever growing list of ideas to make your drawing experiences more pleasurable and less frustrating!

Generally Speaking

1. 2. You need three invaluable ingredients in order to improve your drawing skills - practice, practice, and more practice! Always purchase the best quality art supplies you can comfortably afford. Buy only drawing papers and sketchbooks that are labeled acid free. Your drawings can be ruined when poor quality paper deteriorates and turns yellow. You can clean your kneaded eraser by stretching and reshaping (also known as "kneading") it several times until it comes clean. However, kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to work properly, so pick up some extras. You need a peaceful drawing space that is comfortable and free of distractions. Have a basic set of drawing materials pre-packed so you can spontaneously take your art outside your studio. When drawing an oval or a circle, rotate your paper and look at it from different perspectives. Examine its reflection in a mirror to help locate problem areas. Check out the Internet or your public library to find out more about the history of art. Be sure not to miss Renaissance, Romanticism, Realism, and/or Impressionism. To prevent your eyes from becoming too tired, always make sure you have adequate lighting. Natural light through a window is best in the daytime. On overcast days and in the evenings, a flexible-neck study lamp can focus light directly on your drawing surface. A thorough visual examination of your subject is the most important ingredient for making great sketches. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice. Don't press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper. When you try to draw over dents in the paper with a soft pencil (such as a 2B or 6B), they show up as light lines, spoiling the overall appearance of your drawing. Always choose a drawing subject that appeals to you. Otherwise you may get bored halfway through your project.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-413. If you need anything to look symmetrical, from a vase to a face, always draw a faint line down the center of your drawing space before you begin. Visually measure the spaces on both sides of this line to guarantee that your final drawing is symmetrical. You can even use a ruler to measure different sections if you wish to be very precise! Make sure your proposed project isn't more than you can handle. If you're a beginner to drawing, choose a subject that you feel is very, very simple. You set yourself up for a frustrating experience by taking on a project beyond your skill level. Drawing from an actual object is the best possible tool for enhancing your memory. Each time you draw, valuable information is stored in your long-term memory. Experiment with drawing the different types of textures you plan to use in your drawing, on a piece of scrap paper, before incorporating them into your actual drawing. Watch your local newspapers and media for art exhibitions and plan to attend as many as possible. You can usually meet and chat with artists in your community by attending the openings of these shows. Maintain a sketchbook and save your favorite drawings. Reflecting back on your personal journey as an artist is inspirational and self-affirming. Check out your local community based educational facilities and recreational centers, for art programs in your area. You can always benefit from additional drawing classes and workshops. Be careful not to put tape on your drawing paper as it may damage the surface when you remove it. You need to be familiar with an object from all sides, before you can accurately draw its forms. If you choose to work from photographs, take lots of pictures from different angles.

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Protecting your Drawings

22. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it's always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. Put your drawings away in a safe place when you are finished working! Handle your drawing paper by the edges. Don't touch (or let anyone else touch) the surface of your drawing paper, unless absolutely necessary (even before you begin to draw). The natural oils or dirt on someone's hands can damage your drawing paper. Don't store your drawings, with either clear tape or corrugated cardboard, touching them. Either of these items can discolor your drawings, and do permanent damage after only a few weeks. Never place or hang drawings in direct sunlight, no matter how well protected you think they are. Better safe than sorry!

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-527. When your drawing is completely finished, a spray fixative can protect it from being accidentally smudged. Use this product only in a well-ventilated place. I almost always go outside to spray my completed drawings.

Drawing Portraits and People

28. In a graphite or charcoal portrait, you can imply the color of the iris of an eye, by using different values. Brown eyes are very dark in value, almost as dark as the pupil. Hazel, blue, or green eyes are mostly shaded with middle values. Pale blue, green, or gray eyes are very light in value and contrast sharply to the dark pupil. Always add some shading to the whites of eyes. Different values can illustrate their spherical forms, tiny blood vessels, and cast shadows from eyelids and eyelashes. Only the highlights of eyes are white. Never draw eyelashes from the tip down toward the eyelid. Always draw them in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid (or root) outward. Whenever you draw eyes, keep the initial sketch lines very light so they can be erased later. No part of an eye should be drawn with dark bold lines. Instead of lines, use contrasting shading graduations to separate the various parts of the eye, and give depth to their forms. The most common mistake of beginners, attempting to draw a baby's portrait is to make the face too big, in proportion to the size of the skull. An adult face is half the size of the adult cranial mass. However, a baby's face is approximately one third the size of his or her cranial mass. Soft lighting works best for portraits of young children. The secret to drawing teeth well, is to hardly draw them at all! Simply allow the shading of the lips, the upper and lower gums, and the shadows created by the light source to define them. Teeth, which are farther back in the jaw, need to be shaded darker because they are in the shadows of the mouth. Never draw lines between the individual teeth, or else they end up looking like a checkerboard! Facial expressions are created by involuntary movements of facial muscles, especially those around the forehead, eyes, and mouth, in response to how a person is feeling. You age progress a person by illustrating the changing three-dimensional exterior forms of the skeletal structure, and by transforming the outward appearance of the skin, fat, and muscles pulled downward by gravity. You can't accurately depict the aging process by simply drawing lines on a person's face. When drawing a cartoon or caricature of someone familiar, such as a friend, family member, or a celebrity, exaggerate prominent features. If the eyes are far apart, draw them even farther apart. If his or her eyebrows are heavy, thick and dark, draw them heavier, thicker, and darker! If he or she has a big chin or nose, draw it larger! If the hair is thin, make it thinner and if it's thick, draw it thicker!

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-638. When selecting a pose for a portrait, something as simple as the tilt of a head, can enhance your composition, make your drawing more interesting, and even tell something about the personality of your model.

Composition

39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. Choose a drawing format that best fits your subject. A composition becomes more intriguing when you accentuate your center of interest. When you understand the basic guidelines of composition, you become more confident in planning your drawings, and subsequently your drawings improve. A shading plan, in the form of a thumbnail sketch, provides you with a blueprint for your composition. Define the focal point with more detail and a stronger contrast in values, than other aspects of your drawing. Always place your focal point off center in your composition. Stay away from the Bulls Eye. A focal point placed in the very center of your drawing space is a big "NO", unless you have a specific expressive or artistic reason to do so. Any object that is placed dead center commands the viewer's full attention. All the other important elements of your drawing may be ignored, and the drawing will therefore lose its impact. By visually overlapping closer objects over distant objects, the illusion of depth is created. Balance dark and light values in your drawing space. Sometimes, simply moving objects slightly to the right or left in your drawing space, or making them lighter or darker than their actual values, can offer balance to a composition. Use some of the basic elements of composition such as balance, shading, proportion, and overlapping to draw the viewer's eye to your focal point. Include an odd number of objects into a grouping, rather than an even number, whenever possible. An ideal composition needs a variety of objects of different values, textures, shapes, and sizes. Arrange your objects asymmetrically. Taller objects usually look better off to one side. Keep it simple! Too many objects in a drawing creates overcrowding and disharmony. Often you discover perfect drawing subjects with imperfect compositions. If nature or man has placed an object in a position that you don't like, you can simply draw it in a different place or remove it entirely. Confirm that objects, spaces, and perspective elements are drawn correctly. Check the relationships of objects to one another, observe that angles, sizes, and proportions are accurate, and adjust them as needed.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-754. Pay close attention to the shapes created by negative and positive spaces.

Perspective

55. 56. 57. When using geometric perspective, always draw the horizon line parallel to the upper and lower sides of a square or rectangular drawing space. Perspective allows you to draw people visually correct and more realistic. Long parts of a body, such as arms or legs, look disproportionately short when viewed from an end. Find opportunities to view people from extreme perspectives in real life. You can even lie on the floor and have a friend or family member (the taller the better) stand beside you. As you look up at the person, take note that the person's head will look especially tiny, his or her legs and feet look disproportionately large, and the entire body looks much shorter than it actually is. Be patient with yourself. Your abilities to render perspective accurately, improve with practice, and eventually become instinctive. Careful observation of people and objects around you expands your understanding of perspective. The farther away objects and people are, the smaller they appear to be. The horizon line and your eye level are the same thing. Objects at your eye level seem to touch the horizon line, and their perspective lines converge both downward and upward. Objects above your eye level are above the horizon line and their perspective lines converge downward. Angular lines of objects below your eye level (below the horizon line) converge upwards. You can create the illusion that clouds near the horizon line are farther away, than those directly overhead, by drawing them smaller, closer together, and lighter in value.

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Blending Shading

62. Be careful not to wear away tissues or paper towels so your fingers are doing the blending. Wrap several layers around your finger and check often that the tissue isn't wearing away. Blending is difficult for beginners. Many teachers of fine art even discourage blending techniques altogether. They generally encourage their students to focus on classical shading techniques, such as hatching and crosshatching. In order for blending to work well, you must first be reasonably skilled at putting graduated values on your paper. After all, there has to be something to blend. On the other hand, expecting blending to fix poorly done shading, simply isn't realistic. When blending NEVER use your fingers! As a matter of fact, don't touch your drawing paper where you plan to blend. Your skin can transfer oil to the paper, which becomes noticeable after blending (especially in light values). Creating a smooth tone then becomes darn near impossible.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-866. Realistic shading with blending requires a broad range of values. The most common blending mistake is to over blend dark values. Either use blending very sparingly in dark shadowed areas, or don't blend your darkest values at all. When blending removes too much graphite, the values may become too light. If this happens, you can darken the values again by adding more graphite. Don't give up if you don't like your first few attempts at blending. With patience and practice your blending skills improve. To blend or not to blend is completely a matter of personal preference. Various blending tools, techniques, different pencils, and assorted types of paper affect the final look of blended shading.

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Warm Fuzzies

71. Experiment with lots of different shading techniques until you find what works best for you. You are a unique individual with distinctive artistic needs. Stay true to yourself and continue developing your own artistic vision and style. Learning to see as an artist is the very foundation of drawing. Drawing is an action word ­ you learn by doing! You can develop your drawing talent with hard work, patience, and dedication. Talent is the self-discovery that you possess the ability, and motivation needed to become exceptional. This acquired physical or mental aptitude is accessible to you. Draw in a way you really love. Styles are neither right nor wrong... they just are. With time, your style develops all by itself. Patience and practice are the keys, to successfully rendering a quick sketch, of the most important elements of any subject that intrigues and inspires you. Drawing is a journey, not a destination. The day that you are totally happy with your drawings is the day you pack up your supplies and quit. Learning to draw is an infinite quest.

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Values and Shading

78. 79. Squinting, to see the different values, provides you with a map for sketching the shapes you see. You can make the transition from one value to the next barely noticeable, by drawing the individual lines of your hatching in different lengths. Sometimes a short line, placed inside a space between two other lines, helps make the transition look smoother. Keep in mind that drawing the form of an object, by drawing its shape and shading the light and shadows, is more important than drawing patterns or textures.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

-981. Your drawings can appear flat, rather than three-dimensional when too little contrast in values is used. Unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values. The shading in a cast shadow (on the surface on which an object is sitting) is darker closer to the object and becomes gradually lighter as it moves outward. For crosshatching, I personally prefer to turn my drawing paper around in various directions as I draw, so that I am always using my natural motion. You may also wish to try holding your arm in different positions as you draw. Whatever you find to be the most comfortable is right for you. Use your most comfortable hand movement, and don't forget that you can turn your sketchbook around as you draw. Most artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium values.

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Figure Drawing from Life

85. Identifying the exterior three-dimensional forms of adult bodies, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles, is more important to artists than memorizing the names of different parts of the body. Choose poses that are expressive, artistically pleasing, and comfortable for your model. Experiment with different drawing media such as conté, charcoal, or graphite sticks and use large sheets of paper. When figure drawing from a live model, have snacks and beverages handy. Remember, modeling is very difficult. Use tape or chalk to mark the placement of his or her body on the surface on which he or she is sitting, standing, or lying. For example, by marking the outline of the model's feet in a standing pose, he or she can easily find the correct pose again after a break. Take time to experiment with different media, techniques, and ways of drawing until you find the styles you are most comfortable with. Don't worry if your drawings of hands and feet look all wrong at first. Just do your best and in time, you will get better! When drawing a figure, break the subject down into shapes and visually measure the proportions. Take note of the areas where parts of his body bend, twist, or are extended or outstretched.

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

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Drawing with a Grid

93. Tape the corners of your drawing paper to a large sheet of graph paper to help draw the grid lines. Adjust the size of each square proportionate to the size you want the drawing to be. For example, if you want your drawing to be twice the size of the photo, use four (2 by 2) of the one-quarter-inch graph squares, to represent one, quarter-inch grid square on the photo. Draw the grid on your photo with an ordinary ballpoint pen. It works well on most photos, doesn't smudge as easily as markers, and can be seen more clearly than a pencil, which tends to just scratch the surface of the photo. Never draw a grid directly on a valuable photo! Make a photocopy, or scan and print it, and work from the copy. Use the following guidelines for making a drawing larger than a photo: Photo Size 2 by 3 3 by 3 3 by 4 3 by 5 4 by 5 4 by 6 5 by 7 5 by 8 5 by 9 6 by 8 6 by 9 8 by 10 9 by 12 10 by 12 11 by 14 Some Options for converting to a Larger Drawing 3 by 4.5 4.5 by 4.5 4.5 by 6 4.5 by 7.5 6 by 7.5 6 by 9 7.5 by 10.5 7.5 by 12 7.5 by 13.5 9 by 12 9 by 13.5 12 by 15 13.5 by 18 15 by 18 16.5 by 21 4 by 6 6 by 6 6 by 8 6 by 10 8 by 10 8 by 12 10 by 14 10 by 16 10 by 18 12 by 16 12 by 18 16 by 20 18 by 24 20 by 24 22 by 28 5 by 7.5 7.5 by 7.5 7.5 by 10 7.5 by 12.5 10 by 12.5 10 by 15 15 by 17.5 12.5 by 20 15 by 22.5 15 by 20 15 by 22.5 24 by 25 22.5 by 30 25 by 30 27.5 by 35 6 by 9 9 by 9 9 by 12 9 by 15 12 by 15 12 by 18 15 by 21 15 by 24 15 by 27 18 by 24 18 by 27 24 by 30 27 by 36 30 by 36 33 by 42

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

- 11 97. To make a drawing smaller than the reference photo, consider the following guidelines: Photo Size 5 by 7 8 by 10 9 by 12 10 by 12 11 by 14 12 by 16 16 by 20 Some Options for Converting to a Smaller Drawing 4 by 5.6 6.4 by 8 7.2 by 9.6 8 by 9.6 8.8 by 11.2 9.6 by 12.8 12.8 by 16 3.5 by 4.9 5.6 by 7 6.3 by 8.4 7 by 8.4 7.7 by 9.8 8.4 by 11.2 11.2 by 14 3 by 4.2 4.8 by 6 5.4 by 7.2 6 by 7.2 6.6 by 8.4 7.2 by 9.6 9.6 by 12 2.5 by 3.5 4 by 5 4.5 by 6 5 by 6 5.5 by 7 6 by 8 8 by 10

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Using a grid helps render precise facial and figurative proportions and correct perspective. Try taping a photograph in the center of a piece of grid paper to draw the grid lines. Rather than using a ruler to measure the squares, you only need to connect the lines on the opposite sides of the photo with the ruler. Voila! A very accurate grid! Don't press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents do happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!

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Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail [email protected] Web site http://www.finearteducation.com

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