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Alexander, Michael, Medievalism: The Middle Ages in Modern England, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2007; cloth; pp. xxviii, 306; 90 b/w & 20 colour illustrations; R.R.P. US$45.00; ISBN 9780300110616. Michael Alexander's Medievalism: The Middle Ages in Modern England makes a timely contribution to a growing field of interest. It offers a clear and useful definition of medievalism as `having some historical reference to a set of medieval ideas or facts' (p. 264) and posits it against `gothic fantasy' which imagines rather than genuinely makes such reference. As Alexander points out, studies of the Medieval Revival in public culture in England have hitherto commonly focused on architecture. Alexander makes sufficient mention of this, and of the visual arts, but he argues that it is actually in literature that medievalism had most impact on English culture during his period, from the 1760s to the 1970s. The literature is well contextualised in its social and political background as Alexander forms a coherent historical overview. The other major area of significance to scholars of medievalism concerns the academic interest in, and study of, the Middle Ages, but Alexander examines its more literary manifestations. The antiquarianism of men such as Thomas Percy and Thomas Warton laid the foundations of the study of medieval English literature. It is placed alongside the forgeries of James Macpherson and the imaginative imitations of Thomas Gray and others to demonstrate the nationalistic interests and underlying ideologies that accompanied the beginnings of the Medieval Revival. From this time forward, Alexander convincingly argues, exposure to medieval ideas and material significantly shaped English literary output. He draws attention, for example, to Wordsworth's acknowledgement that the Romantics owed a great deal to Percy's publications. It is in this kind of detail ­ the connections between those works which are conventionally and easily recognised as medievalist and those where the influence of such ideas is not so widely acknowledged ­ that this book is at its most interesting. The careers of key figures, such as Sir Walter Scott, are discussed in some detail. Scott, although known in the modern era for his historical novels, also wrote a great deal of verse romance in imitation of what he considered to be medieval themes and styles. Such works are compared with poems by, for example, Coleridge and Keats, further demonstrating the medievalism of the Romantics. Scott's writing receives

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detailed attention covering several chapters, as does Tennyson's, as is deserved by major and well-recognised figures of English medievalism. Where Scott and Tennyson are reasonably often conceived of in the light of their medievalism, important figures of modernism such as Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot are discussed at some length and the depth of their medievalism explored. This is important because, although medieval references abound in the work of both, they are not commonly understood as being medievalists themselves or as playing a part in two centuries of modern engagement with the Middle Ages. The two-century time span of this book is another significantly useful element as it demonstrates the changing, yet enduring, interest in the Middle Ages that occurred throughout it. Popular knowledge of medievalism in the modern period is often limited to the Victorian era of Tennyson and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and while Alexander devotes some three chapters to the period, it is bracketed by the times and ideas that came before and after it, contextualising a period which is at times examined as though it had occurred in a temporal and ideological vacuum with regards to its medievalism. The argument of this book is an important one for medieval studies as contemporary scholars often question the relevance of the Middle Ages to the present. Alexander demonstrates that medieval material and ideas did, in fact, have considerable impact on the modern era, and study of them can thus shed better light on more recent times. Alexander does not extend his argument past the 1970s, and suggests that the removal of medieval texts from secondary and tertiary education has led to a loss of knowledge of, and interest in, medieval material and ideas. Whether this is the case or not remains to be seen; the ongoing popular success of fantasy works by those serious medievalists J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis shows that the Middle Ages retain some interest and relevance at the present time, even if they are a step further removed from the original in these examples than in earlier works. With its production features of illustrations and glossy pages and a reasonably select number of endnotes, the book is aimed at the non-academic market as well as the academic. It would serve as a good introduction for the non-specialist. An expert of any one of the authors, or periods, discussed in it, may well find recontextualisation rather than new material as such, but it nonetheless has a great deal to offer as an overview of medievalism in English literature. Helen Young Department of English University of Sydney

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Andås, Margrete Syrstad, Østein Ekroll, Andreas Haug and Nils Holger Petersen, eds, The Medieval Cathedral of Trondheim: Architectural and Ritual Constructions in their European Context (Traditions and Transformations 3), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; cloth; pp. xiv, 375; 69 b/w & 4 colour illustrations; R.R.P. 60.00; ISBN 9782503523019. Seated in my office in the world's southernmost university, it seems appropriate to be reviewing a collection of essays written about the northernmost cathedral. The cathedral at Trondheim (or Nidaros, the town's medieval name) was a significant site in medieval Norway. It was an important ritual site for the Norwegian kings, as well as being a burial place for the royal family. It also housed the shrine of St Olav (995-1030), one of Scandinavia's most popular saints. It became an archiepiscopal see in 1152-53, overseeing an enormous province that included Norway, Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes, Orkney and Shetland Islands. The building itself is one of the largest churches in Scandinavia. This particular collection evolved out of a meeting at the Centre for Medieval Studies at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 2004, cosponsored by the Trondheim Centre and the Danish National Research Foundation (University of Copenhagen, Denmark). The aim was to bring together international scholars whose work focuses on the study of the Cathedral at Trondheim. One of the striking elements of this collection is the strong emphasis on ritual and liturgy. These studies explore the inherent problems faced in melding a study of ritual, and disparate surviving texts, with that of architecture. Those involved in this book include art historians, musicologists, an archaeologist and specialists in medieval ritual from Norway, Denmark, Germany and England. As is evident from the title, considerable attention is given to the role of liturgy and ritual in these studies. There is an intention to place the cathedral within an international framework, particularly England and Germany. Unlike other similar collections, however, these essays do not read like expanded conference papers but are, rather, extensive examinations of the existing literature. The introduction outlines the history and historiography of the cathedral, as well as exploring the difficulties facing modern interpreters. The editors cite Hans Sedlmayr, who points to the importance of setting aside our modern experiences of these buildings. A deeper understanding, he asserts, will be reached if we envision the cathedral in terms of its original shape and function. They also reference the German philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer's ideas about `play' and `structure' to highlight the difficulties in such a project, at the same time arguing for the place of liturgy and music in the construction of a `complete' building.

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Paul Binski provides a thoughtful and nuanced essay arguing, against Krautheimer's classic article on the iconography of medieval architecture (1942), that there was a `draining away of significatory content'. Binski counters this by proposing that the symbolic and the aesthetic spheres were not of necessity in conflict but sometimes provided a `mutual reinforcement of content'. He also reminds us that these buildings exist as part of a broader Christian belief system that was less rational than poetic. He makes the important point that, although churches have a liturgical function, this did not necessarily enforce a uniform architecture; liturgies can operate in variety of different architectural settings. Binski draws on a wide range of theoretical texts including those from anthropology as well as from art history. He also brings into his discussion brief case studies of Westminster Abbey, Canterbury, Lincoln and Ely cathedrals and their influence on Trondheim. Margrete Syrstad Andås discusses the intersection of ritual and space in a study of entrances and liminality, locating the iconography of Trondheim's north transept and south chancel portals. She explores this both in terms of the anthropological construct and in terms of major festivals and services including the dedication of churches, baptism, marriage and the churching of women, as well as the more local konungstekya, the ritual acclamation of Norwegian kings. She also discusses the impact of understandings of secular and sacred law in the decoration of these doorways. Three essays examine more specific aspects of the building. Jens Fleischer discusses the external pulpits and St Michael's chapel, further developing issues raised in Andås' essay. Øystein Ekroll also looks at the shrines of St Olav while Klaus Gereon Beuckers examines the upper-story chapels in the transepts and their possible liturgical uses. Beuckers also, in the first appendix, provides comparative texts of the Depositio and Elevatio Crucis, Visitatio Sepulcri in Easter litanies including the Nidaros Ordinal, as well as from Rheinau, the Regularis Concordia, and Maastricht, Cologne and Essen. David Chadd's contributions include a detailed comparision of texts from Palm Sunday rituals from the Nidaros Ordinal, English centres such as Sarum and York, and continental collections. In addition to this, there is included a short piece by Christopher Hohler on the west front of Salisbury Cathedral, written in response to Pamela Blum's work on Wells and Salisbury. Recent publications have increased our familiarity with important panelpaintings in Norway; this volume brings to our attention Norway's place in the broader European architectural history. It is a pity that the images of the cathedral are

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so sparse and unclear. For example, the discussions of the west front are accompanied by small images that do little to clarify the points made. This is, however, a rich study of Trondheim cathedral and the studies provide an important contribution to recent debates on the intersections between liturgical studies and architectural history. They deserve to be widely read and consulted. Judith Collard University of Otago Astell, Mary and John Norris, Letters Concerning the Love of God (The Early Modern Englishwoman 1500-1750: Contemporary Editions), E. Derek Taylor and Melvyn New, eds, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2005; cloth; pp. vii, 263; 2 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £60.00; ISBN 9780754605867. E. Derek Taylor and Melvyn New's edition of Mary Astell and John Norris' epistolary work Letters Concerning the Love of God is an addition to Ashgate's `The Early Modern Englishwoman 1500-1750: Contemporary Editions' series. In September 1693, Mary Astell wrote to John Norris about his recently published Practical Discourses Upon Several Divine Subjects (1693). At this stage she was unknown, whereas Norris was an established author. She challenged his argument `That GOD is not only the Principal, but the sole Object of our Love ... Because he is the only efficient Cause of our Pleasure' (pp. 69-70). According to Astell, Norris overlooks the fact that God is also the cause of our pain. Norris took her question seriously, and a year-long correspondence upon the theme of the love of God followed. By 1694, when Norris suggested that the exchange should be made public, Astell was also a published author; her proto-feminist tract A Serious Proposal to the Ladies appeared in print that year. In 1695, Astell and Norris' publishers combined to produce Letters Concerning the Love of God. Two editions followed in 1705 and 1730. In spite of its apparent popularity, it has not been reprinted since. This is probably owing to its subject and genre. By contrast, Mary Astell's protofeminist tracts A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, Parts I and II (1694 and 1697) and Some Reflections Upon Marriage (1700) have been reprinted in extract and full scholarly editions (most recently Patricia Springborg's editions for Broadview and Cambridge University Press). These works support the now canonical view of Mary Astell as `the first English feminist', as Bridget Hill describes her in the title of her book on Astell. According to Taylor and New, Astell's `feminist thought cannot properly be understood without studying her

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correspondence with Norris' (p. 5). There is also growing interest in John Norris, not only in generalist accounts of Early Modern philosophy, but in depth, in W. J. Mander's forthcoming Oxford University Press monograph, The Philosophy of John Norris. Taylor and New view Astell's letters less as a critique of Norris' position ­ as Hill and more recently Jacqueline Broad, in her entry to the Dictionary of Literary Biography present it ­ and more as a supportive and civil request for clarification (pp. 23-24). They emphasise the writers' shared opposition to certain tenets of John Locke's philosophy (p. 25). Astell and Norris participated in a humanist intellectual tradition that viewed the letter as the closest form of writing to speech, and therefore ideal for sociable intellectual exchange. Accordingly, Letters Concerning the Love of God exhibits Astell and Norris in dialogue, demonstrating both the interconnections between their ideas, and how ideas issue from a sociable context. Indeed, in his prefatory address `To the Reader', Norris presents the original publication as an exemplary dialogue for readers to emulate in `Conversations and Letters (instead of those many empty and impertinent Formalities that usually fill and engross them) but even of our Books and more elaborate Composures' (p. 56). Here authorship is sociable rather than singular; it derives from conversation and aims to generate further conversations. This well-presented, scholarly edition includes an introduction on background, additional notes on the letters, a useful bibliography, and some further reprinted materials by Norris and Astell to give a context for the Letters. It is a welcome addition to the scholarly reprints of Early Modern women's writing and philosophy, one that provides an impetus for the revision of twenty-first-century understandings of the work of Norris, Astell, Early Modern philosophy and intellectual and cultural history more broadly. Diana Barnes School of History and Classics University of Tasmania Bell, Dean Phillip, Jewish Identity in Early Modern Germany: Memory, Power and Community, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; cloth; pp. xii, 188; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754658979. Each term in the title of this book brings up questions that are vital to the nature of Dean Bell's study. These concerns have to do with the substance of the people, places, events and ideas that are synthesised into this very brief book. For while it

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is brief, it is no introductory survey, nor is it an easy textbook for undergraduate classes. Instead, it is a very sophisticated, terse, and therefore necessarily complex book best suited to readers already well-versed in European and Jewish history and cultures. In the first instance, by using the buzz word `identity' in regard to Jews, Bell elides the central concern actually manifested: historiography. For the question with which he is concerned, is not so much who and what the Jews thought they were in relation to the other peoples of central Europe amongst whom they found themselves. Instead, the focus here is how the Jews negotiated these peoples' emerging sense of national history, in which they were forced to play a role, not always of their own choosing, let alone of their own understanding. In addition, rather than only being about Ashkenazim, that is, Yiddish-speakers within a world of Yiddishkeyt, as one would expect if identity was defined by geography and cultural dominance, Bell also refers to Sephardim, who had their own synagogues, language, customs and sense of history. These people had been arriving in Germanic-speaking cities since the time of the great Expulsion from Spain in 1492. Only once, in passing, on the next to last page of his Conclusion, does Bell remark that among other things, the German Jews had to watch their behinds for fear that their own culture and history would be overtaken by Polish Jewry. In the second instance, by speaking of Early Modern Germany in his main title the author begs three further questions. (1) Although in the course of the following chapters, Bell does speak regularly of both `Reformation and reformations', and occasionally of `Renaissance' and `late medieval times', his designation of `Early Modern' signals a politically correct position, that is really an ideological assertion. He is arguing that there is neither a grand narrative for Europe or the world, certainly not an orderly passage through stages of progressive intellectual and aesthetic development, and consequently no heroic actors, events, or truths to be described, analysed and praised. (2) As for the use of Germany, it seems to contradict the previous comments, insofar as it is, at best, a geographical term, probably better an indication of linguistic and cultural spread, not at all the name of a political entity or nationality. Bell deals with Swiss, Danish, Czech and Dutch towns as well as those now encompassed by the Federal Republic of Germany. (3) The modernity referred to, as already suggested, hardly fits within a strict chronological scheme of forward motion, since neither Jews nor Christians were in agreement about what periodisation should be used, nor where and when to place intersections of their own specific narrative histories, destined turning points, and points of viewing the other.

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Then we come to the three words that comprise the subtitle to this book. While they are essentially faddish indicators of popular concern for a postmodernist perspective on the world, they are also nevertheless key concepts in the organisation of Bell's argument. There is one exception, however. What is at stake, as we said above, is historiography, and therefore the absence of the word `history' strikes one as significant. It is there in the title to the first chapter `Memory, History and Jewish Identity' and then again in Chapter 5 `Politics, Polemics, and History: Assessing Jewish Identity'. Bell is concerned with how Jews write about their pasts, how they conceive of the past in relation to the times in which they and other peoples have shared experiences, those in which they travelled down separate tracks, and how, if at all, they are to journey forwards together into the future. He also examines how writers of such histories ­ whether formally designated as chronicles, overviews or micro-histories ­ inadvertently recorded the past, established precedents, or sought spiritual and moral guidance in precedents remembered from personal and communal traditions. Bell examines these texts to see how selections were made, how facts were correlated and verified from other Jewish or non-Jewish sources, and how they were shaped to express current fears and anxieties or argue for protection and favour from various sources of political power. The opening survey of historiographical models available to modern scholars, such as the author himself, seems oddly to skirt the central issues of the authorities invoked. Pierre Nora is rightly placed as a pivotal figure in contemporary theories of history and memory, but the whole discussion overlooks the fundamental image of lieu de memoire, the memory place, as not just a site to consolidate and focus national memories but also to create ways of making history active and transformative. It would seem that such an idea needs to be investigated further in terms of Jewish communities with their unusual sense of place and history. This is implied in the last chapters of Bell's book, but not explicitly spelled out at all. It is also hinted at in the footnotes of Chapter 1, but mostly as citations unapplied to specific examples in German-Jewish experience. Bell also introduces Maurice Halbwachs' The Collective Memory as a formative figure in understanding the Jewish memorialisation of oral and mental experiences. To a degree he takes the basic principles set forth by Halbwachs more than half a century ago and coordinates them with those of more recent authors, such as Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi in his classic Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory. Again, however, the insights of this kind of dynamic sense of collective memory are not fully integrated into the chapters that follow.

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Though there are no illustrations contained within the book, the cover prints a woodcut by an anonymous artist of the `Einführung der Juden in ihre Gassen. Fettmilchaufstand 28.2.1616' taken from the Historical Museum in Frankfurt am Main. Though the early seventeenth-century uprising and its repression are mentioned in the last two chapters, Bell does not refer to this illustration at all, nor really make clear how and why this event, of all others, deserves to be recorded on the front of his study. Like many other fascinating snippets and anecdotes cited in the course of the book, this teases more than satisfies the reader. This is an extremely good addition to the study of `the world we have lost', but it would have been much better without the jargon (too much navigating, referencing, production of ideas, etc.) and with more careful editing. Norman Simms Department of Humanity University of Waikato Hamilton, New Zealand Clemens, Raymond and Timothy Graham, Introduction to Manuscript Studies, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2007; paperback; pp. xvi, 301; 258 colour illustrations; R.R.P.US$39.95; ISBN 9780801487088. Hollis, Stephanie and Alexandra Barrett, eds, Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, Newcastle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007; hardback; pp. xxxvi, 302; 17 colour and 11 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £34.99; ISBN 9781847183217. Scase, Wendy, ed., Essays in Manuscript Geography: Vernacular Manuscripts of the English West Midlands from the Conquest to the Sixteenth Century (Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. xii, 294; 17 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. 60.00; ISBN 9782503516950. Stocks, Bronwyn and Nigel Morgan, eds, The Medieval Imagination: Illuminated Manuscripts from Cambridge, Australia and New Zealand, South Yarra, Macmillan Art Publishing, 2008; paperback; pp. 286; 141 colour illustrations; R.R.P. Au$59.95; ISBN 9781921394072. `Manuscript study has always been the holy grail of medieval studies', according to Raymond Clemens and Timothy Graham. Whether you agree with this statement or not, it is undoubtedly true that manuscripts are central to our understanding of the medieval world, both as physical objects and as

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containers for transmitting medieval knowledge. Manuscripts continue to be a major focus of research, study and publication. These recent books are a mere selection of the numerous studies which focus on manuscripts or depend on them as evidence. Clemens and Graham's book is aimed at students beginning the study of manuscripts. It tackles such major areas as book production, scripts, dating and provenance, as well as looking at common genres and types of manuscripts. These include the Bible, liturgical books, books of hours, charters and cartularies, maps, rolls and scrolls. The focus is on Latin manuscripts, especially of the earlier Middle Ages, with a short appendix on `tools for the study of medieval Latin'. The extensive coloured illustrations are well-chosen and provide good examples for transcription and description. The material on the physical appearance of manuscripts is particularly thorough, clear, and logically arranged. As well as useful tables of technical terms, abbreviations and letter-forms, there is an extensive glossary and a good introductory bibliography. Though there is a short discussion of medieval libraries, and an explanation of the ways in which manuscripts were organized and described in the Middle Ages, there is almost no analysis of the post-medieval history of manuscripts or of the cataloguing practices of modern libraries. I would like to have seen some discussion of ways to find manuscripts in contemporary collections and some reference to the use of the Web for finding and examining manuscripts. Nevertheless, this volume can be recommended as an excellent guide for new students. At the other extreme, perhaps, Wendy Scase presents some results from an advanced research project on the vernacular medieval manuscripts of the English West Midlands. This project, described as `an experiment in manuscript geography', aims to re-think assumptions about regional approaches to medieval literature and to consider the vernacular manuscript as a product of a geographical community of producers and consumers. The essays in this volume offer a wideranging examination of different aspects of this broad approach. The majority of the contributors provide case studies of particular manuscripts and groups of manuscripts from specific areas in the West Midlands ­ Worcester, Shropshire and Warwickshire ­ across a lengthy chronological spread (from the Norman Conquest to the sixteenth century), covering Old English as well as Middle English. A smaller group of essays deals with research methodologies and tools needed to support further research. The main focus is on corpus-based approaches, systematically correlating data across a body of manuscripts ­ exemplified by Alison Wiggins' work on the characteristics of West Midlands romance manuscripts and Orietta Da

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Rold's innovative study of the use of paper in medieval English manuscripts. Both in its experiments with geographical analysis and in its use of quantitative analysis across large manuscript corpora (drawing on the work of Carla Bozzolo and Ezio Ornato), this volume offers a variety of exciting and challenging new approaches to the study of vernacular manuscripts. Medieval manuscripts are now dispersed around the world, including more than 400 in Australian and New Zealand collections. A new volume of essays edited by Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt examines the medieval manuscripts of New Zealand, both in the context of their post-colonial heritage and for their intrinsic significance and relationship to manuscripts in Europe and North America. Most of the 180 or so items in New Zealand collections reflect the collecting activities of 19th-century bibliophiles like Sir George Grey and Henry Shaw, the subjects of Donald Kerr's essay. Other contributors look at the main collections, notably the Auckland City Library, several university libraries, and the Alexander Turnbull Library in the National Library of New Zealand. There are also studies of specific manuscripts, including books of hours, illuminated manuscripts, and music. As a guide to New Zealand's medieval manuscripts, this volume shows very clearly the significance and value of these manuscripts, as well as offering stimulating and thought-provoking accounts of the colonial context for their acquisition and migration. `The Medieval Imagination' was the title of a hugely successful exhibition at the State Library of Victoria between March and June 2008, under the curatorial direction of Margaret Manion. Viewed by over 100,000 visitors, the exhibition brought together more than ninety manuscripts from Corpus Christi College Cambridge and Australian and New Zealand collections. An associated programme of events included talks by curators and researchers, concerts of medieval music, a conference, school events, and even a `medieval faire'. The sumptuous catalogue of this exhibition, edited by Bronwyn Stocks and Nigel Morgan, provides descriptions and notes on each manuscript, accompanied by large colour plates. The catalogue entries are grouped into five thematic sections, with introductions by Christopher De Hamel, Margaret Manion and the editors, as well as a general introduction by Shane Carmody with an account of the main collections involved. The quality of the scholarship, and the beauty of the colour reproductions, makes for a very fitting record of a remarkable exhibition. Toby Burrows School of Humanities University of Western Australia

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Das, Nandini, ed., Robert Greene's Planetomachia (1585) (Literary and Scientific Cultures of Early Modernity), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; hardback; pp. lvi, 168; 5 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780754656616. Published in London in 1585, the title page of Robert Greene's Planetomachia promised its prospective readers a healthy dose of entertainment and education, combining an astronomical discourse of the `essence, nature, and influence' of the planets with `pleasaunt and Tragicall histories'. In this present volume, the latest in Ashgate's new `Literary and Scientific Cultures of Early Modernity' series, Nandini Das has sought to produce the first complete critical edition of Greene's Planetomachia. Prior to Das' edition, Greene's Planetomachia was available in only two other modern editions, both with their share of errors and limitations. The need for a complete, modern, critical edition of the text is clearly warranted, and Das is to be applauded for undertaking such a task. Das' Textual Introduction begins with a comprehensive discussion of the printing of Greene's Planetomachia, followed by a collation of the six extant copies of the text, including the Houghton Library copy neglected by both previous editors. On its own, Das' bibliographical analysis is an important contribution to Greene studies. Finding in Bodleian Tanner 253(2) `the only complete copy to present the various segments of the text in the correct order' (p. xlvii), Das is justified in selecting it as the copy-text for the present volume. Beginning with a Critical Introduction, the edition includes the text of Greene's Planetomachia along with commentary and a list of emendations (among other editorial apparatus), finishing with a section for Sources and Translations, and a selected bibliography. The Critical Introduction is split into four sections: Personal Contexts, Scientific Contexts, Literary Contexts, and a Textual Introduction. Appended after the edition and the list of emendations, Das includes a number of lists and tables, the purpose of which is not always clear. Of more obvious utility, especially for those with `small Latine and lesse Greeke', is the Sources and Translations section that follows (pp. 139-59). Here Das includes translations of the Latin portions of Greene's text and extracts from his sources in the original and in translation. Finally, the volume ends with a Select Bibliography, with primary sources cited erratically with or without their place of publication, and others with incorrect titles. As laudable as these bibliographical efforts may be, other editorial procedures adopted by Das are puzzling. A modernised text might have proven more useful, but Das does not justify her decision to produce an original-spelling edition. Instead,

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the edition of the English text `preserves the spelling found in the Bodleian Tanner copy' but with many exceptions. Further, `in cases where the reader may be puzzled by ambiguous or irregular period spelling' (p. xlix), the edition gives the modernised form in brackets, noting the original in the list of emendations. Just as perplexing is Das' treatment of Greene's citations from Latin and Greek authors, and the substantial Latin sections of Planetomachia itself. While the English text was selectively regularised, expanded, and emended, the opposite approach is adopted with the Latin text. Das' decision to leave untouched and uncorrected Greene's citations from Latin and Greek authors is similarly inexplicable. The system of line numbers used throughout the edition is puzzling, and at first appears to have no utility at all. While there is no mention or explanation of the line numbers in the editorial apparatus, an astute reader will inevitably discover the purposes of the numbers appearing in increments of five in the margin of every page: to assist in locating items from the ten-page list of emendations (the majority of which are simply expanded words originally printed with a tilde, or one of the 88 substitutions of `than' for `then'). Surely it might have made more sense to implement a more conventional system of line numbering, tied to the structure of the text itself? Thankfully, Das includes the signature references in square brackets within the body of the text itself, so it is possible to cite from the edition. In the Acknowledgements, Das jokes that `like his sixteenth-century successors' she might wish to ascribe any errors in the edition `to Greene's ghost' (p. vii). If not an exorcism, Das' edition is in need of a thorough proofing, as its pages are plagued with errors from the outset, ranging from minor printing slips (such as joining `between' and `literary' in the series blurb) through to more serious mistakes in names, dates, and citations. For instance, the first footnote of the volume gives an incorrect citation for A. B. Grosart's Life and Complete Works in Prose and Verse of Robert Greene, published for private circulation in 1881-86, which was printed in 15 volumes, not 13 as stated (p. ix). Other embarrassing mistakes crop up throughout: we are told, for instance, that `Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1533' (p. xii), confusing the year of Elizabeth's birth (1533) with that of her accession (1558), and are directed twice to Religion and the Decline of Magic by one `R. V. Thomas' instead of Keith Thomas (pp. xxv, 164). Even the Textual Introduction informs readers that `diagraphs' in the text have been `silently expanded' (p. xlix), where Das clearly intended `digraphs' as opposed to the perspective drawing device invented by Charles Gavard in 1830. Preparing a critical edition of Greene's Planetomachia offered Das the enviable opportunity to paint a broader picture of a prominent (and sadly neglected) Early

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Modern literary figure and London personality. On the whole, Das succeeds in offering the reader a critical introduction to these various biographical, literary, and scientific contexts, although one might have wished for a more concentrated engagement with the text itself. Given the broad range of topics addressed by the introduction, a list of titles for suggested further reading would have been a useful addition. Das' edition of Greene's Planetomachia has much to offer scholars of Elizabethan prose, Greene specialists, and scholars concerned with the intersection of early modern literature and discourses of science and astrology, but the end result, saddled with errors and inconsistencies, reads more like a draft than a finished product. Brett Hirsch School of Social and Cultural Studies University of Western Australia Davis, Kathleen, Periodization and Sovereignty: How Ideas of Feudalism and Secularization Govern the Politics of Time (Middle Ages), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008; cloth; pp. 189; R.R.P. US$42.50, £28.00; ISBN 9780812240832. By using the terms `periodisation', `feudalism' and `secularisation', Kathleen Davis engages in an examination of three highly contentious terms. Add ideas around colonialism, postcolonialism, and a hint of nationalism, and we have a work that is both theoretically ambitious and academically challenging. The text is certainly not for the faint-hearted scholar, requiring careful and attentive reading in order to grasp the full import of Davis' argument: the idea that there is a strong relationship between the structure of the `Middle Ages' and the history of sovereignty, colonialism and slavery. Davis challenges the rigid medieval/ modern periodisation that permeates historical and theoretical scholarship. By periodisation, Davis means `a complex process of conceptualizing categories, which are posited as homogenous and retroactively validated by the designation of a period divide' (p. 3). Davis asks `Where is the Now?' suggesting that categories deemed medieval cannot be relegated to a distant and barbaric past because they are still relevant to political categories today. Feudalism and secularisation still exist, undermining the argument that they anchor the Middle Ages as a period concept and supply the narrative bases of the `modern' sovereign state and secular politics. History should not be erased or manipulated to fit a rigid timeline,

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just as the future cannot be predetermined. To ensure this, Davis suggests that `periodisation must come undone' (p. 134). The text is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 examines the continental debates of feudalism and secularisation in order to establish why, and how, they became temporal power categories. Davis suggests that the feudalism of Europe's past is based in legal battles over sovereignty. Secularisation appeared in relation to feudalism through sovereignty and is therefore the key to historical debates over periodisation. By examining the feudal narrative through the work of sixteenth century legists, Davis shows how their work grounded arguments regarding the `free' political subject and a social contract, while submerging the problem of slavery into the barbaric past (p. 8). The rise of colonialism and its associated slave trade pushed feudal law and its associated slavery onto a non-European present thus erasing any barbaric history associated with the coloniser. The legists' narratives justified historical and geographical claims to sovereignty and tried to deal with competing definitions of sovereignty and subjection, slavery and freedom culminating in contradictory narratives which were important in the development and process of periodisation. According to Davis, Chapter 1 does not advance the reader's knowledge regarding why periodisation occurred or why `it is so difficult to establish beginning and end points for "the Middle Ages"' (p. 9). This segues nicely into Chapter 2 which takes further steps towards an answer. Davis looks to seventeenth-century English scholars interested in sovereignty, conquest and absolutism, and their `discovery' of a feudal English past. Using the works of Henry Spelman and John Selden, the author shows how the English feudal narrative developed in and around a colonial discourse. Turning to eighteenth-century feudal narratives and colonial India, Davis continues with the work of William Blackstone, based on a series of triangular connections between an English feudal past, the contemporary policy of the East India Company, and the relationship, albeit controversial, between commerce and conquest. Davis concludes that the history of feudalism `is not to be found in "the Middle Ages" but in the complex and shifting series of triangulations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries' (p. 10). Chapter 3 uses the works of Carl Schmitt and Walter Benjamin, amongst others, to explore the role(s) time, religion and the secular play in relation to sovereignty. Davis argues that the `theoretical underpinnings of the relation of periodisation as a theory of history to political sovereignty' and the reactions to that theory outlined in Chapters 2 and 3 show a `disruption of the medieval/modern, sacred/ secular divide' (p. 78). Chapter 4 takes the reader back to the time of Bede. As the

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first person to coin the term anno Domini to date political and institutional history, thus linking the incarnation with political time, Bede's work is important to Davis. She follows Bede with a postcolonial work by Amitav Ghosh, subtly highlighting the benefit postcolonialists and medievalists would gain from working together. Davis sees Bede's work as evidence of a plurality of the Middle Ages rather than a single, medieval concept. This again undermines the strict medieval/modern divide. Ghosh's text emphasises the limitations of periodisation and is juxtaposed with Bede's text in order for Davis to examine time and politics as smaller parts rather than as the sum of periodisation. Rather than offering any hard-and-fast conclusions, Chapter 4 is more about Davis's suggestions for further discussion around the political theory of time. This is an interesting work that makes a valuable contribution to both postcolonial and medieval studies, and suggests scholars avoid using the terms feudalism, sovereignty and secularisation as simplistic temporal markers of history. Michelle Smith Department of History University of Auckland Distiller, Natasha, Desire and Gender in the Sonnet Tradition, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008; hardback; pp. vi, 226; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780230535633. Through the Petrarchan tradition that articulates male desire for the chaste Lady, Natasha Distiller examines the female desiring subject within Western culture. Her approach is to psychoanalyse women sonneteers. In particular, Distiller focuses on their use of Petrarchan tropes and what she terms the `difference of gender' (p. 5). This `difference of gender' challenges the notion of male superiority from within the patriarchal space of the `Petrarchan Symbolic' (p. 81) or the phallic law that emphasises sexual inequality. It enables Distiller to focus on uncovering an ideal sexual identity as an original voice, untouched by social and cultural influences. Serving as an introduction, Chapter 1 draws on Jacques Lacan's notion of subjectivity. Distiller avoids applying Lacan anachronistically, but argues that Lacanian psychoanalysis focuses on the `construction of ... language in any time and place' (p. 3). The sonnet's notion of identity is created from a particular historic period through a Petrarchan discourse. Distiller emphasises that the `difference of gender' (p. 5) is decoded through the body. Through its own language, the body creates the gendered being outside social and cultural norms. The implication is that

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gender is a fluid construct allowing different sexual identities to compete within the same body. Chapter 2 develops further the book's psychoanalytical tools. Distiller considers Sigmund Freud's theory that the libido is masculine even in women. She then examines Lacan's writings on the courtly love tradition, where the woman becomes an unattainable object. For Distiller, this is `the idealisation of the Lady' (p. 34). Although Distiller recognises that the Lady `needs to remain the object to be mastered' (p. 40), she fails to consider a key Lacanian idea that the Lady is surrounded by a barrier. One of the book's strengths lies in its close-reading of love poetry, which is perfectly realised in Chapter 3's examination of Early Modern English sonnets. Particularly impressive is the analysis of those of Sir Thomas Wyatt's love poems that were linked to Henry VIII's court. This historical background provides insight into Wyatt's difficult roles as courtier and diplomat and how these affected his poetry. It enables Distiller to expose the less-considered Petrarchan tropes of adoring, being punished by, and disparaging, the Lady. Similar shorter readings are applied to Fulke Greville's Caelica (1580s), Edmund Spenser's Amoretti (1596) and Shakespeare's sonnets (1609). The book's thesis is extrapolated further in Chapter 4 through an analysis of Mary Wroth's sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus (1621). Adhering to the Petrarchan Symbolic, Pamphilia simultaneously has to articulate her desire and be the sexualised object. As a result, Pamphilia suffers more than the male counterpart. The significance of Pamphilia to Amphilanthus is identified by Distiller: `Wroth is the first woman to enter the amorous sequence as its other, and to begin to speak back' (p. 96). This statement demonstrates the rest of the book's innovative power and originality. Chapter 5 examines Mary Robinson's Sappho and Phaon (1796), Elizabeth Cobbold's `Sonnets of Laura' (1825), Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850) and Christina Rossetti's Monna Innominata (1881). Distiller argues that these poets all `wrote poetry which found strategies to articulate female desire for the first time in the history of the Petrarchan sonnet in English' (p. 99). This feat was achieved from the superior position of respectability that replaces male authority. Robinson's strategy invokes Classical myth to defend Sappho, as the passionate woman, from allegations of promiscuity. Cobbold's sonnets give Petrarch's Laura a voice while recognising the restrictions `of appropriateness' such a poetic voice would have to endure. Through a desire to be married, Barrett Browning legitimises female passions. Her poetic speaker exceeds the courtly

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love tradition by being allowed to indulge in corporeal sexual excess. In contrast, Rossetti's female lover is allowed an incorporeal joy. However, this is at the cost of losing the beloved as spiritual desire totally excludes fleshly pleasures. Chapters 6 and 7 examine the work of Rosa Newmarch and Edna St Vincent Millay. In Newmarch's Horae Amoris (1903), Distiller considers one woman's love for another. Interestingly, this `same-sex desire' (p. 142) adheres to the Petrarchan rule of the lover having an impossible love for the beloved. In Millay's neglected sonnets, Distiller traces a subtle questioning of desire itself from the perspective of the female lover. This leads her to interlink desire and language through Lacanian theory. In her conclusion, Distiller investigates Petrarchism in contemporary gangsta rap. Interestingly, gangsta rap's aggressive sexual desire is articulated through consumerism and the exploitation of women's body parts. These same tropes, Distiller argues, were found in the Tudor court. This well-researched, readable, and fascinating book is an important psychoanalytical study of female sonneteers. It provides a critical insight to be appreciated by students and academics interested in Lacan and sonnet sequences. Overall, Distiller provides a valuable study that invites critical debate. Frank Swannack School of English, Sociology, Politics & Contemporary History University of Salford Eckstein, Nicholas A., ed., The Brancacci Chapel: Form, Function and Setting: Acts of an International Conference, Florence, Villa I Tatti, June 6, 2003 (Villa I Tatti; The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies 22), Florence, Leo S. Olschki Publishing, 2007; hardback; pp. 237; 57 b/w & 6 colour illustrations; R.R.P. US$50.00; ISBN 9788822256508. Any new book on a work of art as celebrated as the Brancacci Chapel mural painting cycle, especially one that proposes to advance new interpretations rather than reprise old ones, will surely prompt the question whether such a project can be sustained. Even if no new archival evidence directly relating to the commission for the paintings has been unearthed, or new technical information about their materials and technique revealed through scientific studies, the answer in this case is an emphatic `yes'. For the wealth of historical evidence brought to bear on the discussion of the social, political, and ecclesiastical contexts of the commission provides more plausible and complete answers to the questions that have long faced students of the Chapel.

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The editor, Nicholas Eckstein, is Cassamarca Senior Lecturer in Italian History at The University of Sydney, and has previously written on the predominantly working-class neighbourhood surrounding the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in which the Brancacci Chapel is found, just south of the Arno River in Florence. In 2003, he brought together an international panel of Renaissance scholars for a conference on the topic of the Chapel, held at the Villa I Tatti near Florence. In his introduction, Eckstein explains that he consciously chose to balance the number of contributions by historians and art historians in order to compare the kinds of conclusions they made. Another pertinent fact about the contributors is that of the nine whose papers are published, four are of Australian origin. This reflects the now recognised specialisation, even if recent by European standards, of Australian scholars in the fields of Florentine Renaissance history and art history. Eckstein begins the discussion by connecting the scenes in the mural paintings of Peter's miraculous healings and almsgiving, to the social context of the neighbourhood surrounding the church, and in particular to the charitable work undertaken by its leading citizens, some of whom were also supporters of the church and its related activities. Notably, the Brancacci family had long been active in the Confraternity of Sant'Agnese, one of the more prominent providers of charity in the quarter, which distributed bread to the needy at Easter and Christmas. The Confraternity met in the church, and, perhaps significantly, its altarpiece of the Virgin and Child (called the Madonna del Popolo) was installed in the Brancacci Chapel in the second half of the fifteenth century. The idea of patrons wishing to allude to their charitable acts in artworks is, of course, not new. Rogier van der Weyden's monumental altarpiece for the Baune Hospital depicts the patron, Chancellor Rolin, in the context of the Last Judgment. This is precisely the moment when he might have hoped Christ would recognise and reward his charitable foundation of the Hospital whose chapel the painting adorns. This magisterial vision of Heaven and Hell contrasts starkly with the familiar mise en scène in the Brancacci Chapel paintings. Eckstein's argument that the Carmelites favoured an association of the humble neighbourhood of their church with biblical and hagiographic narratives in order to promote the authority of their order locally, is taken up by Megan Holmes (discussing in part the visual arts), Nerida Newbigin (looking at sacred theatre), and Peter Howard (focusing on a Carmelite liturgical text). The Carmelites traced the history of their order to the time of Christ, and Saint Peter, in particular, was said to have been a witness to their early activities in the Holy Land, and they to

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his. Thus, in celebrating this Apostle, they were reminding their audience of the antiquity of their order, and so its authority. This helps to account for the dedication of the cycle to Saint Peter, as does the name of the founder of the Chapel in 1367: Piero (i.e. Peter) Brancacci, distant relative of the better known Felice Brancacci, who seems to have held the patronage rights over the Chapel during the time of its decoration in the second half of the 1420s. Furthermore, the Carmelites championed the canonisation of a local man, and one of their own, Andrea Corsini, in ways that invoked a similar set of associations: the importance of the Madonna del Popolo to local women (it miraculously aided his conception), the church as a site of miracles (where Andrea's ghost was said to have foretold a great military victory for Florence), his miraculous cures (as a sign of his holiness), and the use of Saint Peter as a template for his hagiography. The articulation of such associations exemplifies what may be this volume's most important contribution to study Brancacci Chapel scholarship. These chains of associations were generated by the Carmelites through their liturgy, programmes of artistic decoration, and theatrical performances. Through them, they linked the humblest of the parish's local citizens with their wealthier neighbours and the confraternity they supported, together with the Carmelites and their richly embellished church and convent, including the brother they promoted for sainthood, reaching all the way back to the biblical tradition on which their order was founded. Coincidentally, further evidence of this pattern was recently to be seen in Australia. The Medieval Imagination exhibition, held at the State Library of Victoria in 2008, included a fourteenth-century illumination showing the martyrdom of Saint Peter that was originally from a laudario belonging to the Confraternity of Sant'Agnese (on loan from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge). Christa Gardner von Teuffel's essay in this book looks specifically at the Mariology of the Carmelites, the confraternity, and the Brancacci, through the prism of the Madonna del Popolo and its history, before and after being placed in the Brancacci Chapel. The essay of the late Rona Goffen convincingly accounts for the prominent depictions of Adam and Eve in the cycle. Carl Brandon Strehlke and Cecilia Frosinini (the latter writing in Italian) approach the subject more from the artists' perspective. Strehlke provides a stimulating account of the significance their styles might have held for patrons in the early decades of the fifteenth century in Florence, while Frosinini provides an intricately detailed study of the social and professional associations between the artists, their neighbourhood colleagues, and the church.

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An interesting aspect of Masolino and Masaccio's collaboration, briefly commented on here by Frosinini, but discussed by the author in greater detail elsewhere, is that prior to working on the Brancacci Chapel they collaborated on the Carnesecchi altarpiece in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Florence ­ with Uccello also, according to a number of sixteenth-century sources. On this work, Masolino took the more prominent role of painting the altarpiece, while Masaccio had to be content with executing the predella, and Uccello is said to have painted the vault above. This provides some support to Strehlke's supposition that Masolino was initially the leading artistic contractor in the Brancacci Chapel, even if he rapidly became an equal partner to Masaccio in its execution. Moreover, the Saint Julian panel from the Carnesecchi altarpiece exhibits something of the knightly, aristocratic style that Strehlke argues the Brancacci would have employed Masolino to provide. The diversity of approaches and historical detail in these essays make this book an important resource for anyone wishing to learn about the Chapel. If anything, it suggests the need for some further clarification. Since the cleaning of the paintings, Heinrich Brockhaus' old proposal that any portraits of the Brancacci family in the Chapel must have been defaced following their exile from Florence has been supported by Ornella Casazza, and rejected by Paul Joannides, but is passed over here without comment. Yet the absence of an obvious donor portrait in the cycle is notable, and the hypothesis is certainly relevant to the political context of the Brancacci and their patronage, a subject addressed in Dale Kent's discussion of the letters written to Cosimo de' Medici by Felice Brancacci during his exile. It is not unusual for Italian Renaissance paintings to bear the scars of zealous worshippers who have defaced depictions of devils or other miscreants. Indeed, Filippino Lippi's portrait of Piero del Pugliesi, painted in the middle of the Raising of the Son of Theophilus and Saint Peter Enthroned scene during the latter part of the fifteenth century, itself seems to have been defaced, judging by the severe scratching that mars his face but no other adjacent area. As the most certain portrait of a contemporary figure in the Chapel ­ it is recognisably the same as Filippino's portrait of Piero as the donor in the Vision of Saint Bernard, housed in the Badia in Florence ­it is a key to unlocking the contemporary significance of the Chapel. Why was he painted here? Was it because his family had a chapel of their own nearby in the same church? And why might anyone have been unhappy enough about his presence to deface his image? Granted, it is difficult to argue on the basis of an absence of evidence, however, Casazza'a observation that a head of a Carmelite by Masaccio at the left of the

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scene was painted around by Lippi is surely correct. The intonaco (top layer of plaster) exhibits the rough surface of Masaccio and Masolino's time, rather than the finer quality intonaco of Lippi's. It seems slightly more likely that figures earlier painted by Masaccio were replaced by Lippi, than that Masaccio painted just a head in isolation, and stopped at that point. Is there an alternative explanation for why Lippi painted the group of men standing in the centre of the scene, between two other areas by Masaccio? In other words, might he have replaced figures by Masaccio there also? Another aspect of the cycle worthy of investigation is the Classical style of the fictive, Corinthian, fluted pilasters framing the scenes. Could it be related to the promotion of the all'antica style described by Diane Finiello Zervas in her study of the Guelf Party's commissions to Brunelleschi and Donatello in the first decades of the fifteenth century, as a way of associating the Brancacci with the aristocratic taste of the Guelf Party, or, as the Guelf Party did, using the style to suggest (or invent) a venerable classical tradition for themselves? Or could it relate to the Carmelites' desire to allude to the antiquity of their order ­ or perhaps all of these? Hugh Hudson Honorary Research Fellow, Art History School of Culture and Communication University of Melbourne Evergates, Theodore, The Aristocracy in the County of Champagne, 1100-1300 (Middle Ages), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007; cloth; pp. 415; 3 illustrations; R.R.P. US$95.95; ISBN 9780812240191. When Bernard of Clairvaux's aunt Anolz entered the convent of Jully-les-Nonnains in 1128, she took with her a gift of considerable value: the annual fief-rent that she and her late husband had earned from their estates. That the decision to alienate these revenues was hers to make, appears to have created little or no controversy. The implication is that the partnership of husband and wife as joint decision makers and custodians of family land was strong enough to outweigh any possibility of the dead husband's relatives seeking to overrule Anolz's generosity. It is an image of family relations that might not immediately seem familiar to all students of the period, but it is from such anecdotes that Professor Theodore Evergates seeks to build his comprehensive and authoritative analysis of the lives of the aristocracy in Champagne during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

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Evergates has spent a career among the rich archival sources of medieval Champagne and this study is a culmination of those efforts. In the first part of the book, he traces the development of the comital state to provide the necessary background for his close study of the region's elites. While the book is not primarily intended as a chronological survey, the first two chapters do provide an elegant outline of the political narrative. The focus is on the development, under several generations of the well-known comital family, of a coherent principality with centralised institutions. There is an equal emphasis on the validity of a `feudal' model of fief-based economic and political relationships; one that Evergates regrets modern historians have been too quick to dismiss. It is Chapter 4, on the aristocratic family, that is the book's most important. Here, Evergates forcefully asserts his view on the `centrality of the conjugal unit' (p. 99) as the basic entity of aristocratic social organisation, a theme that builds on the evidence provided by witnesses such as the widowed Anolz. Subsequent chapters develop the argument by studying the details of marriage, inheritance, and the `aristocratic life course'. This last involves a demographic analysis ­ based on prosopographical studies of Champagne's leading families ­ of factors such as longevity, age at marriage, length of marriage, and incidence of remarriage or entry into monastic houses by the widowed. Appendices provide a wealth of information in the form of quantitative tables, genealogical charts and a prosopographical register of some 64 prominent individuals. As always with medieval evidence, the size of the statistical sample from which Evergates builds his demographic conclusions is far from ideal, but there can be no doubt that his efforts are as exhaustive as they can possibly be. In themselves, the appendices provide an excellent resource for future scholars to consult. What is the point of all this? Beyond the author's professed desire to undertake a `sociological analysis of a regional elite' (p. 1), a goal he unquestionably fulfils, Evergates wishes to banish once and for all the influential model of the medieval family most closely associated with Georges Duby. This model had asserted the importance of changes in aristocratic self-identification and inheritance practices around the turn of the millennium. In Duby's view, this meant that until the late twelfth century, elite French families passed on property by strict primogeniture wherever possible as a way of asserting a linear, patrilineal identity that Duby referred to as `agnatic'. These practices effectively disenfranchised daughters and younger sons, the latter group forming the basis of Duby's now notorious bands of `youths' (iuvenes) who were so important to his conception of the chivalrous society.

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Evergates firmly, but diplomatically, challenges Duby on every level. There have been numerous previous attempts to question elements of the older model, but one senses Evergates' frustration that it has retained such currency despite its obvious flaws (not least the way in which Duby, in the latter part of his career, tended to rely on grand sweeping statements rather than rigorous scholarly documentation). Thus Evergates labels the use of the term `agnatic' as `unfortunate' and states that `modern historians have distorted the medieval meaning ... of the aristocratic family' (p. 87); he claims that the `normative model' of inheritance rights is `untenable' (p. 119); and he destroys the myth of disenfranchised younger sons. All of this is a clear rejection of Duby's thesis. The close studies of documents from Champagne show, instead, that partibility of estates was far more common than strict primogeniture; that the rights of eldest sons were `preferential, not exclusionary' (p. 120); and that women enjoyed substantial influence over, and took a full part in, the allocation of property rights within the family. The emphasis that Evergates places on the `conjugal unit' is therefore intended to replace Duby's patrilineal model of strict male dominance with an image of the aristocratic family that saw itself as bilineal (with descent through female lines just as valid as descent through male lines) and which tried to provide as fairly as possible for all offspring and for the surviving marital partner. No doubt Bernard's aunt Anolz would approve whole-heartedly. Lindsay Diggelmann Department of History University of Auckland Falkenburg, Reindert L., Walter S. Melion and Todd M. Richardson, eds, Image and Imagination of the Religious Self in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Proteus: Studies in Early Modern Identity Formation 1), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; cloth; pp. xxviii, 484; 161 b/w & 12 colour illustrations; ISBN 9782503520681. This is the first volume of a new series produced through Brepols entitled `Proteus: Studies in Early Modern Identity Formation'. The essays found here were originally presented as part of the Emory University Lovis Corinth Colloquium in 2003. There are fourteen essays and an extensive introduction by Walter S. Melion, one of the editors of the collection. The organising theme of the collection is the role that images play in the formation of the religious self. Melion, in his introduction, states that in the pseudoAristotelian psychology prevalent at the time, `knowledge of the immaterial ... soul

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was held to derive from its discernible operations', these being the human faculties including sensation, such as sight, and the intellectual, such as reason and memory. In the hierarchy of the senses, sight was significant as it was the mode through which sense images emitted by all perceptible objects were filtered and processed. Consequentially, the visual arts are also of interest, as they had the potential to both aid and gauge the spiritual progress of the soul. Art could act as an aid to devotional practices such as meditation, allowing the viewer to move from outward perception to inward, and to perceive the intangible. While all of the articles found here do touch on elements of these ambitious aims, the subjects covered are wide-ranging and varied, reflecting a variety of different approaches and understandings of the theme. The works range from Francesco da Barberino's I Documenti d'Amore, from the early fourteenth century to the high Baroque paintings of Rubens. Three of the essays focus on specifically Italian material, while the last two, on Hendrick Goltzius and Rubens, reflect the increasingly trans-Alpine influences that occurred in the Baroque period. The rest of the essays are more Northern in orientation, with discussions on the Hours of Mary of Burgundy and painters like Bosch, Geertgen tot Sint Jans and Jan Brueghel the Elder. Most of the works are Roman Catholic in origin, although two fascinating essays look at the impact of the Protestant Reformation. The different approaches taken by Italianists and Northern European specialists are striking. For example, Michael Cole in his essay `Discernment and Animation: Leonardo to Lomazzo' draws on Italian Renaissance art theory to discuss the treatment, by painters such as Orazio Gentileschi and Michelangelo, of saints such as St Francis, as well as angels and demons in terms of pose and decorum. The representation of the experience of the visionary rather than vision itself, in the case of images of St Francis, reflected contemporary concerns about the discernment of deception or authenticity in such visionary experiences. The self-conscious contemporary discussions of the nuances of artistic depictions written in Italy is used to advantage in this essay. Those working on Northern European topics, however, turn more to devotional and theological texts. For me, essays like that of Lee Palmer Wandel are particularly resonant. In `The Body of Christ at Marburg, 1529', Wandel very effectively uses the debate between Martin Luther and Johannes Oecolampadius and Huldrych Zwingli on the meaning of the New Testament text `this is my body' to elucidate, not only the varying interpretations of the Eucharist by Lutherans and Swiss Reformers, but also their attitudes to religious art and idolatry. This insightful essay is a model for those interested in exploring the ramifications for art in Protestant theology.

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No discussion of Northern art could avoid the nexus between naturalism and symbolism and this theme recurs in several essays. Henry Luttikhuizen's `Monastic Hospitality: The Cloister as Heart in Early Netherlandish Painting' engages in this debate to remind the reader of the significance of religious institutions within this society. He challenges, not only Panofsky's ideas about `disguised symbolism', a much trodden path, but also Craig Harbison's emphasis on private devotion. Harbison, like many, has emphasised personal experience over the communal and the institutional in Netherlandish painting. While not rejecting the significance of personal mysticism, Luttikhuisen reminds us that many of these important paintings were not private devotional images, but more public works. He underlines the significance of monasticism and other communities in religious life and the importance of charitable works, such as the care of the dead. These works encouraged the seeker to participate, not only in seeking mystical visions, but also more traditional acts of Christian devotion. Other essays looked at a variety of different themes, including John Decker's exploration of the metaphor of gardening and cultivation in Geertgen tot Sint Jans' `St John the Baptist in the Wilderness'. Christine Göttler's essay draws an ingenious connection between Ruben's `Ecce Homo' and his Silenus paintings. Both works draw on classical motifs, but Göttler also draws parallels between Ruben's representation of the mocking of Christ and the derision faced by the drunken Silenus, calling on Aretine interpretations, as well as the writings of Erasmus. This is a very rich collection that provides much that is useful and thought provoking. Its topics are wide-ranging, reflecting the variety of ways artists have responded to the sacred in Early Modern religious art, as well as the different functions religious images can perform. Judith Collard University of Otago Garipzanov, Ildar H., Patrick J. Geary, and Przemyslaw Urbaczyk, eds, Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe (Cursor Mundi 5), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 266; 10 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. 55.00; ISBN 9782503526157. The issues of state formation and `barbarian' ethnic identity have seen a revival of interest in recent years, and this new volume by Brepols, Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe, is a

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welcome addition on these subjects. The debate over ethnic identity is particularly interesting as it is perhaps the area in early medieval studies that witnesses the most strident debates between two opposing schools of thought (usually referred to as the `Vienna School' and the `Toronto School'). The animosity between the two was most evident in an earlier Brepols publication, On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages (A. Gillet, ed., 2002). Fortunately, this new volume mostly manages to avoid the academic vitriol that marred On Barbarian Identity, and instead scholars, who do not necessarily agree with each other, are able to sit happily within the covers of the same volume. The introduction includes a concise overview of the ethnicity debate, and notes that the two opposing schools are now closer in their approach than is immediately evident from the language of the proponents. The volume is divided into three sections, one for each of the `peoples' named in the title, concentrating on the eighth to eleventh centuries. Somewhat strangely, the first paper in the `Franks' section, Peter Heather's `Ethnicity, Group Identity, and Social Status in the Migration Period', is not actually on the Franks. Instead, the paper serves as an extended second introduction. Heather provides an outline of the ethnicity debate since 1945, and offers suggestions on how the debate may be moved forward. Investigation into the Franks begins with `Omnes Franci: Identifications and Identities of the Early Medieval Franks' by Helmut Reimitz, who demonstrates that the terms Franci and Francia changed over time and were manipulated in the process of state formation. Janet Nelson then concludes the short opening section with an examination of `Frankish Identity in Charlemagne's Empire', arguing that ethnicity was not a major concern and that the empire was multi-ethnic. Stefan Brink opens discussion on the `Northmen' with `People and land in Early Scandinavia': an examination of early people names and their association with topographical features. Unlike many modern scholars, Brink concludes that the people names provided by classical and early medieval writers are of use in searching for prehistoric peoples. Ildar Garipzanov concentrates on Denmark in `Frontier Identities: Carolingian Frontier and the gens Danorum', in which he argues that the king Godfried, encountered by Charlemagne, controlled a smaller border area and not a unified Denmark. Examining such evidence as early Danish coinage, Garipzanov concludes that once Carolingian expansion ended, the impetus for Danish unification was removed. The focus then moves to Norway with Sverre Bagge's `Division and Unity in Medieval Norway'. Bagge suggests that the impetus for unification in Norway was not particularly strong, but that

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the process was aided by an absence of any strong regional polities presenting an alternative. The section on the `Slavs' commences with a paper by Oleksiy Tolochko on the Primary Chronicle's description of the origin of the Rus state, which demonstrates that the chronicler was heavily influenced by Byzantine chronicles, and that he invented some of the tribes he named. Christian Lübke then examines the fascinating creation of a new people name and state as a pagan reaction to Christianity by the Luticians. The role of religion in state formation is also considered in Przemyslaw Urbaczyk's `Slavic and Christian Identities During the Transition to Polish Statehood', a paper that describes how, owing to a lack of written or archaeological evidence, early `tribes' in Poland have been guessed at and created in order to fill the void. Neven Budak then examines `Identities in Early Medieval Dalmatia', focusing on the distinction in that region between Croats, Dalmatians, Slavs, Romans, and Serbs, amongst others, in the seventh to eleventh centuries. The volume concludes with `Slovenian Gentile Identity: From Samso to the Fürstenstein' by Patrick Geary, a good example of the pitfalls faced by scholars examining medieval ethnicity, even in historically well-attested regions. This, and the previous paper by Budak, have particular contemporary relevance as they involve areas in which there is still an active popular interest in searching for personal, ethnic, and political identity in the medieval past. As in all volumes comprising the work of a number of authors, some of the papers in Franks, Northmen, and Slavs are stronger than others, and different sections will appeal to different scholars. However, all of the authors should be congratulated on what is collectively a useful and interesting volume. Shane McLeod School of Humanities (History) University of Western Australia Green, Karen and Constant J. Mews, eds, Healing the Body Politic: The Political Thought of Christine de Pizan (Disputatio 7), Turnhout, Brepols, 2005; cloth; pp. xxi, 264; R.R.P. 60.00; ISBN 9782503516363. It has been known since Raymond Thomassy's 1836 essay that Christine de Pizan was an author of political as well as courtly works. It is only in more recent decades, however, that a fuller analysis of Christine's engagement with, and place within, traditions of political thought in the Middle Ages has occurred. This collection of essays, edited by Monash University-based scholars Constant

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J. Mews and Karen Green, seeks to restore assessment of Christine's writings to the mutually informative fields of political theory and philosophy. Green's introduction to the volume calls for a reassessment of Christine's `feminism' along these lines, dovetailing the medieval author's own status as a woman who wrote of her concern for female virtue with the very disciplines which excluded her. It makes the point that the author, as philosopher or political thinker, cannot be divided from her gender, just as she cannot be divided from her historical or social context. Christine demonstrates this in her own writing, where she inscribes herself as a character that exists inside her text, or lays out her authorship alongside her gender in prologues to her work. The collection boasts an impressive list of contributors, amongst which Australian and New Zealand university affiliations are well represented: a testament to the growing scholarly output on Christine in the antipodes. Barry Collett aligns Christine's mirrors-for-princes with the extant medieval and classical genres, but demonstrates her innovation within those templates. In placing Christine inside this genealogy, he outlines her relation to the medieval political theorists that preceded her, and opens a space for others to consider the influence that her own works may have exercised during the Renaissance. The piece provides a fitting contextualisation of Christine's place in contemporary political traditions and demonstrates her to be a literary player on both national and international political stages. Cary J. Nederman examines Christine's unique deployment of the metaphor of the body politic by way of a comparison with that of fourteenth-century philosopher Nicole Oresme. A contribution by Susan J. Dudash closes this opening section with a social and historical contextualisation of Christine's often controversial attitude toward the menu peuple through a consideration of the space occupied by the medieval tavern in her works. In an important section on the role of `prudence' in Christine's political writings, Constant J. Mews considers Christine's working knowledge of Latin, with particular reference to her Livre de paix; Earl Jeffrey Richards also looks to Christine's sources in the same work, demonstrating the extent of Christine's careful strategies of interpretation and compilation, via the writings of Italian Bartolo da Sassoferrato. Michael Richarz shifts the textual focus to Christine's well-known biography of Charles V and how it understands medieval virtues of `prudence' and `wisdom' in a vision of the ideal leader. Karen Green delves into a deeper examination of Christine's use of `prudence' and the difficulties modern translators confront and generate in glossing the French term with its quickly-grasped equivalent. Glynnis M. Cropp explores Christine's interpretation

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of philosophy in both her Mutacion de fortune and L'Advision Cristine. An essay by Julia Simms Holderness brings us back to Christine's fashioning of princely virtues via her conception of the intellectually prosperous space of the court, city or castle. The final section presents Christine in the context of her direct engagements with contemporary political affairs. Tracy Adams suggests that several of Christine's works extend her role beyond that of would-be mediator or advisor, to public promoter of the figures she addresses to the status of `icon' (p. 180) under whom a divided country might be united. The essay revises the narrative of a critical Christine in works such as the Epistre a la royne de France, a letter addressing Charles VI's queen, Isabeau. Louise D'Arcens takes up Christine's inscription of political roles for women in her examination of the author's literary authority, which looks demonstrably to models of women's voices in the tradition of the Marian lament. Tsae Lan Lee Dow's contribution on Christine's imagining of the body politic rounds off these explorations of politics, philosophy and gender; she presents Christine's politics as `inclusive and communally oriented' through a symbolic union of the traditional `masculine' model with a feminine version in which women are equally capable of participating (p. 227). Healing the Body Politic weaves the history of political and critical response to Christine in the later twentieth and early twenty-first century, with its presentation of her own conception of contemporary political thought. It provides an indispensable account of the traditions with which Christine herself sought to engage innovatively, alongside those which, haltingly but inevitably, engaged with her. Stephanie Downes Department of English University of Sydney Griffey, Erin, ed., Henrietta Maria: Piety, Politics and Patronage (Women and Gender in the Early Modern World), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xii, 227; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754664208. There is currently a thriving industry in studies of Henrietta Maria's court. This volume is primarily devoted to aspects of her cultural interests, but many of the papers are reshapings of material the authors have put into print elsewhere. Indeed, Karen Britland's discussion of Henrietta's theatrical patronage reuses whole paragraphs from her earlier studies. Only Malcolm Smuts' chapter focuses

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on political aspects. He revisits his work on her Puritan followers in the light of his recent research in the French archives, which he suggests have been unduly neglected. Since the Stricklands worked there extensively, the records are not entirely unknown but well worth revisiting. Compressing the Byzantine intrigues of the French court into a few pages is probably an impossibility and matching it with the disruption of English politics following James I's death piles Pelion on Ossa. Whether it is possible to make a coherent account of what was happening from the calculated leaks and dissimulation in diplomatic correspondence on both sides of the channel may be doubted. Nevertheless, Smuts raises some interesting aspects of Henrietta Maria's attempts to influence the course of diplomacy, although her fraught relationship with Richelieu deserves further attention. Literary scholars, like Sarah Poynting, continue the teasing out of the works that Henrietta put on at court, in this case the somewhat tedious pastoral, The Shepherd's Paradise. This can tell us about the political attitudes of the time, although her conclusions do not get us much further than what Kevin Sharpe suggested twenty years ago in Criticism and Compliment: The Politics of Literature in the England of Charles I. Whether all interesting literary developments at the time can be linked to Henrietta's court is doubtful. Diana Barnes gives a persuasive analysis of the Secretary of Ladies, but the claim of a `close parallel' with the court is assumed rather than argued. Art history is a subject with nuances that elude the mere historian. Jessica Bell argues forcefully that Marie de Medici influenced her daughter's artistic preferences. Marie herself had encouraged Rubens to represent her as a virtual reincarnation of the Virgin. Elizabeth I had of course pre-empted this with the English image of the Virgin Queen and the widespread and long-established cult of the Virgin in Catholic countries made it an obvious parallel for a queen who was represented almost as a deity. That a mother was likely to be influential is hardly surprising, but the identification with the Virgin is fairly conventional. Whether there is any philosophical underpinning to these beliefs remains unclear. The use of archival research into Henrietta's household accounts may not be cutting edge, but Caroline Hibbard makes an interesting use of them to suggest that the fine arts took second place to decorative arts and costume in the queen's expenditure. She touches on the division of responsibility between king and queen in the running of the court, but might have looked more closely at the queen's degree of independence. She stresses, however, the way in which the luxury trades `helped to energize the early modern economy' (p. 137), understandably joining the camp that downplays the role of mass production in industrialisation in order to valorise the close examination of unique products. The most pleasurable chapter

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is that of Gudrun Raatschen who has been allowed to reproduce many of the van Dyck images of Henrietta Maria, and uses them to demonstrate the methods the painter used to produce these familiar portraits, and the purposes for which he used them. She shows that van Dyck stretched her proportions in order to meet an ideal, although he did not modify her features. Erin Griffey's own study of devotional jewellery in Henrietta's portraits gives a further opportunity for reproduction of images, here those by less well-known artists. Griffey makes the argument that, in 1632, Henrietta's image was Protestant in its iconography, but that by 1636 it had taken on a more Catholic form in which small crosses appeared, suggesting a shift that may also underlie political changes in the period. This volume should be seen in the wider context of pre-Civil War historical writing. The Caroline court, as a focus of culture, has long been a preoccupation of literary and art history scholars. Most historians, more focused on the coming Civil Wars, have not been persuaded that Henrietta's lifestyle is very relevant to the explanations they seek. Historical judgments on the peculiar, though not unique, problems that Henrietta Maria faced as a Catholic queen in a Protestant country have mostly followed as a corollary to historians' wider assessments of the political scene. As women were primarily influential only from behind the scenes, historians have found it difficult to establish how far Henrietta was able to push Charles on international alignments, or was interested in doing so. John Reeve, in Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule (p. 39), concludes that `she was not a particularly political creature'. That her court was a focus for those dissatisfied with the mainstream of royal policy, is a traditional aspect of court life in England and France and her theatrical interests an appropriate queenly occupation, but significant only in the cultural sphere. Whether, or when, the cultural and the historical approaches can be integrated remains to be seen. Sybil M. Jack Sydney, N.S.W. Haigh, Christopher, The Plain Man's Pathways to Heaven: Kinds of Christianity in Post-Reformation England, 1570-1640, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007; hardback; pp. x, 284; 12 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £26.00; ISBN 9780199216505. If the past is a foreign country, then perhaps no part is more unfamiliar than the private beliefs of the illiterate. Dr Haigh is nevertheless seeking to tease out what lay behind their deeds and words from the limited evidence provided

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by the surviving records of the offences for which people were brought before the lowest English church courts. To do this he has adapted ­ or adopted ­ the approaches Arthur Dent assigns to the participants in his popular dialogue The Plain Man's Pathways to Heaven. Haigh describes this as a novel usage, overlooking Thomas More's skilful use of the dialogue form. As a rhetorical ploy, it goes back at least to Plato and its limitations as a pedagogical tool lie in the limitations of the author's ability to frame the arguments in favour of beliefs that are not his own. Dent's characters are wooden ­ despite contemporary praise from the godly and Haigh's own assertion that the author had much experience of parish life ­ but they provide a framework within which the behaviour of parishioners across the south of England can be examined. Haigh claims that what Dent's characters had to say was not invented and that the characters, that is the ignorant and illiterate who were ripe for conversion, `could be found in every village' (p. 12). Presumably, the average parishioner was inured to the persuasive onslaughts of the godly who considered themselves superior and were certain that they knew best. Whether the run-of-the-mill parishioners were truly willing to discuss religious matters, as Haigh believes, `because they cared about religion' (p. 5) may be more doubtful. It is true that court records, by their nature, are negative but this is not a mould that can supply a positive, particularly when, as David Cressy has shown for churching, clerical attitudes to marginal rituals were variable. To the poor, avoiding religious observances and religious teaching was difficult, avoiding fines was probably more important, and cheating the system a good game. Listening to sermons, Haigh argues, gradually uplifted the consciences of many men and women. Catechising also slowly ensured that people could recite their catechism, although one may wonder whether they necessarily also understood or believed it. Rote learning was not, Haigh acknowledges, all that the godly wanted but they may have had to be satisfied with it. What the people wanted in the way of festivities and rites was not necessarily acceptable to the clergy. Haigh is focused on parishioners, not on clergy, and so does not correlate any parochial squabbling with the position of those clergy who were being pursued for their personal leanings. Instead, his godly pastors are mostly assumed to be moderates conforming to Anglican theological tenets. Haigh does not discuss those amongst the laity who might have sought to implement that strand of Reformation theology that gave the laity an important role in the church. He identifies tensions between clergy and laity but they are largely hidden behind traditional terms of abuse `both of ... individuals and of the clerical caste to

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which they belonged' (p. 54). The landscape and the social structure, within which these disputes were played out, are not defined. Clergy exist: how they were appointed and what their relationship with those who had presented them to their livings, the owners of the manors and the local bigwigs, is not determined. He is not concerned with the differences that might exist between large and small parishes, agricultural and pastoral areas, chalk and cheese, field and forest. Whereas some may seek to appreciate the infinite subtle variety amongst the parishes of England, Haigh is looking for a common denominator. Ironically, it is the exceptions in the examples that he provides, particularly for the effectiveness of penance and excommunication, that stick in the mind. The decreasing effectiveness of excommunication has long been established, despite its civil repercussions, and Haigh's examples suggest that excommunication was widely ignored. Haigh finds remarkably little material for the potentially destructive denial of the very church itself. Some were brought to book for parodying church rites and sermons but one might profitably consider the shadow relationship this bears to the mockery earlier permitted in the Corpus Christi plays and the upside down rituals of such things as the boy bishop. One needs go no further than Shakespeare to find a more public contemporary challenge when Toby Belch proclaims `Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?' Substantial evidence of irreligion, however, Haigh concludes is scarce. He is equally unable to find much in the archdeaconry records about Catholics who neither attended church nor acknowledged the authority of the archdeacons' courts; just a few examples of vocal `papistical' sentiments and evidence of secret burials in church and churchyard. He argues that despite the ideology of anti-popery amongst Protestants of all stripes, parishioners were reluctant to report their neighbours for such offences, despite godly arguments that they were traitors. Haigh has published this book without a standard bibliography of secondary sources so that the interpretations of other recent historians who have used the archdeaconry records are not discussed. He does not engage with those, like Ronald A. Marchant, R. A. Houlbrooke, Martin Ingram and others, who have written on the courts with a more structured, legal approach. This is very much an English study. How its conclusions may differ from those currently being made about `perceptions and prejudice' in Europe is interesting to consider. The study invites further analysis of archdeaconry material by integrating it with other surviving local and central records. Who were these people? Did they

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live and die in the same parish or were they amongst those who moved from place to place over the course of their lives? Were they those from whom the multifarious internecine nonconformist sects of the Civil War period sprang? One hopes that Dr Haigh will soon extend his study and follow this up. Sybil M. Jack Sydney, N.S.W. Hoche, Dominique T., The reception of Christine de Pizan's Fais d'armes in Fifteenth-century England: Chivalric Self-fashioning, Lister M. Matheson (preface), New York, Edwin Mellen Press, 2007; hardback; pp. 221; R.R.P. US$109.95, £69.95; ISBN 9780773451582. Dominique T. Hoche's use of the term `self-fashioning' allows its application to Christine de Pizan, whose self-authorisation anticipates qualities more frequently associated with Renaissance individualism and humanism. A supplement to recent assessments of a `canonical' Christine, Hoche analyses the reception of the Livre des fais d'armes et de chevalrie as an influential part of various discourses on knighthood in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century England. She maps out a trail of readers and interpreters of Christine's manual that leads from the Paston family, to Caxton's press, to the justification of war in Shakespeare's Henry V. The author takes many of her cues from Glenda K. McLeod's seminal collection on the reception of Christine, The Reception of Christine de Pizan from the Fifteenth Through the Sixteenth Centuries: Visitors to the City (Edwin Mellen Press, 1991), but especially from Earl Jeffrey Richards' insightful contribution to the volume. It is Richards' notion of `provocation' that Hoche adopts in her assessment of Christine's conciliatory place within the world of men and war in Early Modern England (p. 174). Her book sits comfortably alongside extant scholarship on the reception of Christine, although it fails to engage wholly with this emergent body of work. A number of studies, including Susan Groag Bell's Lost Tapestry of the City of Ladies, are absent from Hoche's bibliography. Structurally, the book moves from the factual to the more conjectural in order to juggle questions of audience and appeal with Christine's humanism, feminism, and her constructions of authority and masculinity. The first chapter of the book heralds a more general approach to Christine's reception in England. Hoche traces the potential French provenance of each of the manuscripts and editions of the five extant Middle English translations of Christine's writings. Her systematic

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approach attempts to bring this material together for the first time in a helpful, comprehensive fashion. Hoche's assumption that the French manuscripts were of interest to readers in England only for the purposes of translation, however, belies the manuscript evidence for the wide readership of the author's French in England: Christine herself intones the power of the French vernacular abroad. Three detailed appendices arrange this material in a useful reference for those new to Christine's English reception or interested in medieval and Early Modern constructions of masculinity and chivalry; some errors and omissions, however, detract from the overall reliability of this resource. The second chapter develops the notion of a literary circle of English readers of Christine. Anthony Woodville, brother-in-law to Edward IV, is the usual candidate to preside over any such group, having once owned the Queen's Manuscript (London, BL MS Harley 4431) and translated several works. Hoche, however, designates Sir John Paston II the ideological hub of the putative reading group. She returns to Paston in the following chapter, in which he is figured as the quintessential `armchair knight', a man whose demonstrated interest in reading for moral and spiritual `profit' has a greater bearing on his masculinity than his (possibly inferior) prowess at arms (pp. 65-6). This section probes both medieval and modern definitions of chivalry and successfully avoids the simplified narrative of Christine's English reception as one in which the French female author is systematically Englished and masculinised. Hoche's exploration of `chivalric self-fashioning' positions Christine as the author who reads, and Paston as the reader who authors himself. In Chapter 4, Hoche extends this investigation of masculinity and chivalry with specific reference to the Fais d'armes. In the second half of the book, Hoche changes tack considerably, and in a more speculative style, addresses the ongoing influence of the Fais d'armes as part of a canon of writings on chivalry available to Shakespeare in the late Elizabethan period. Through a comparative study of both authors' representations of the laws of war and Shakespeare's prospective access to Christine's treatise, Hoche argues for the direct influence of Christine's Fais d'armes on Henry V at a time when direct evidence of Christine's popularity in England had waned. Although printed in 1489, the Boke of Fayttes of Armes and of Chivalry ­ Caxton's translation ­ provides a sense of the work's visibility in the later period. Hoche, however, has her sources confused when she refers to a printed version of the Boke of Noblesse, a partial translation of the Fais d'armes composed mid-fifteenth century by William Worcester. The Boke was never printed, and the reference under

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which it appears in Hoche's Appendix A, London, BL MS Harley 838, has no relation to the Worcester text at all, and is in fact a volume of heraldic miscellanea which contains the only surviving manuscript of Anthony Babyngton's English translation of Christine's Epistre Othea. Hoche concludes with a discussion of the relationship between Christine's construction of masculinity and her appeal for two centuries of Englishmen from a theoretical perspective. She provides a Bakhtinian analysis of the infrequently assessed last books of the Fais d'armes, a waking dream-vision in which Christine converses with her `mentor', Honoré Bouvet, author of the fourteenth-century Arbre des batailles. The narrative complexity of Christine's dialogue with Bouvet, queried and interrogated by the narrator as author-turned-reader, is demonstrated to be inclusive of the reader's own experience of the text. A fifteenth- or sixteenthcentury reader of Christine's Fais d'armes in England finally boasts something in common with the author herself, and by being so provoked is more likely to `profit' from the text. The same might be said of Hoche's analysis, which, in delving into the largely speculative question of Christine's appeal for English readers, provokes additional response. Stephanie Downes Department of English University of Sydney Hourihane, Colum, ed., Time in the Medieval World: Occupations of the Months & Signs of the Zodiac in the Index of Christian Art (Index of Christian Art Resources 3), Princeton, Index of Christian Art in association with Penn State University Press, 2007; paperback; pp. lxviii, 346; 657 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$35.00; ISBN 9780976820239. Although this volume is lavishly illustrated, it is a functional rather than a glossy production. It catalogues the hundreds of representations of the occupations of the months and signs of the zodiac ­ in a variety of media ­ found in Princeton's Index of Christian Art. It is intended as a guide to using that huge resource for themed research. It represents an enormous undertaking, and will doubtless be of great use to art historians and others seeking to explore how medieval people marked and imagined the passage of the year. The book comprises a categorised list of relevant entries in the Index, followed by a large selection of illustrative examples taken mostly from American collections, and preceded by a brief introductory essay. In his introduction, Colum

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Hourihane notes the necessary incompleteness of the list published here, which might otherwise have been delayed for many years as new items continue to be added to the parent Index. One must agree with him that it is in the interests of scholars and scholarship that the existing material be made available sooner rather than later, even at the expense of further entries, so that its primary purpose of facilitating research can begin. Because his intent is to provide a research tool for others, Hourihane is deliberately descriptive rather than interpretive in his comments, and anyone seeking a full discussion of the concept of time in medieval Europe must look elsewhere. However, he does draw attention to several common themes: for example, the close relationship between man and nature in life and as an expression of God's will; the comforting familiarity of time's cyclical patterns; and the association of such cycles of seasonal death and rebirth with the driving concepts of contemporary popular religion. Of course, the annual cycle was only one measure of time, albeit one that was frequently expressed through illustration. It is to be hoped that later volumes in this handy series might focus on others: the time of day (canonical hours, night/day), days of the week, seasons, time of life (passage from childhood to adulthood), or historical time (the past, present and future). Although the body of the book consists almost entirely of illustrations, it is extremely dense. The visual information is given only the loosest of structures (divided into the occupations, zodiacal signs, and some miscellaneous items), and supplemented with no text but the briefest of notes on provenance. To extract the best value from it will take a dedicated and methodical approach, and probably only after forming a clear idea of one's purpose in doing so. However, it cannot be doubted that consulting Time in the Medieval World will be an efficient way of accessing the enormous Index itself, which must require even greater patience and dedication. And there is much of value to be drawn from the variety of depictions of the passing year. For example, art historians may be tempted to make comparisons between the many, and sometimes bizarre forms of `Scorpio', while historians may glean much from the similarities and differences between depictions of contemporary agricultural practice, interiors or fashions in the labours of the months, before even considering the impact of notions of time on medieval lives. So much potential has the collected art as a resource, that it is almost a disappointment to find this book so determined to avoid contributing its own interpretations, although establishing categories and order of presentation are themselves interpretive activities. And, as a historian, this reviewer could not help but yearn to know what is written on the pages above, below, or around

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the illustrations shown. That is the beauty of this reference work: it cannot help but stimulate one to begin the interpreting. Kathleen Neal University of Melbourne Keen, Elizabeth, The Journey of a Book: Bartholomew the Englishman and the Properties of Things, Canberra, ANU E Press, 2007; paperback; pp. xii, 199; 17 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. AU$24.95; ISBN 9781921313066. In this insightful work, Elizabeth Keen traces the text of a medieval compendium, De proprietatibus rerum, on its journey from thirteenth-century Europe to the library of Sir Joseph Banks. Carefully following each separating or converging strand of meaning or way of reading, like so many lines on a complicated map, she illustrates how and why this particular text remained a living work among English readers over so many centuries, and casts light on the mental universes of its diverse readerships. Such themes as enclosure and mendicancy, orthodoxy and heterodoxy, preaching and contemplation, agricultural practice, land ownership, book ownership, memory, allegory, social order and disruption, nationalism, and Protestantism are all part of this rich topography. There is a pleasing symmetry in the fact that this study of a book about everything, itself becomes a book about everything, as the author's focus widens to accommodate each new context. Despite the complexity of her task, Keen accomplishes it with clarity and a steady momentum of argument. The Journey of a Book is thus a satisfying, as well as informative and thought-provoking, read. Irrespective of the contested identity of Bartholomew himself, Keen's point of departure is that his work, `Properties', is a compilatio of the late twelfth/early thirteenth century, and is located within a firmly Franciscan milieu. She emphasises, beginning with an interesting historiographical discussion, how such works were both authoritative collections of important facts and opinions, and exegetical texts intended to illustrate the workings of God's creation and the path to salvation. Although medieval compilatio exist in a continuum with scientific observation writings of later periods, the medieval works were not merely early, or flawed, examples of the scientific endeavour, but a distinct genre with their own intrinsic worth. However, Keen also highlights that the meaning of `Properties' was not static, but in constant flux over the long duration of its reception by English audiences. This is perhaps a truism, but one which has never been as convincingly or empathetically teased apart as in this book.

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Having established the value of `Properties' in the context of its composition, Keen proceeds to dissect the structure of the work, and reveal the relevance of apparently repetitious elements. The bee, for example, occurs in two separate chapters and numerous brief references throughout, but this was not through lack of planning. Bees were a common part of agricultural life, and their proper husbandry would have been be an important item of record. Their industriousness and communality were also key allegorical elements alluding to `authority, discipline and obedience to one's superiors; of useful, cooperative labour through one's lifespan; ... the sweetness and nourishment of God's word flourishing in fertile soil; and ... the Franciscan ideal of worship through sensory awareness of natura' (p. 32). The bee also represented the value to be gained from gathering the nectar of others' wisdom: a perfect metaphor for Bartholomew's own activities in compiling `Properties'. Such allegorical meanings may be hidden from modern minds, but, as Keen observes, glosses on medieval copies of `Properties' can assist us in uncovering these occult interpretations. For example, the bee is glossed with notes pointing to clerical obedience, humility, contemplation and study, but also ­ in the passage on drones ­ with sloth, and failure of clerical virtue. The many-layered moral meanings revealed by such glosses serve to illustrate the deep, and even subliminal, reading that was expected of and practiced by the medieval reader of `Properties'. Initially, `Properties' was intended as an encyclopaedia for sermon writing; filled with authoritative citations, recognisable characters and explicable moral meanings, and structured according to categories which could be accessed independently and from which themes could be selected. Keen goes on to show how its modular structure and reliance on ancient authorities were important in permitting and encouraging wholesale and selective transmission of Bartholomew's text down the centuries. Thus, depending on which elements were omitted, highlighted, expanded or glossed, Bartholomew's text could be seen as affirming either creation stories from Genesis, or a Neoplatonic cosmology; as a textbook for University curricula; as a piece of chivalric literature; as a handbook for lordship; as a practical informative guide; or as a monument of English intellectual achievement. Keen's delicate but persistent touch coaxes evidence for all of these, and more: readings of `Properties' from the different manuscripts, incunabula, translations and adaptations, and the identify of those who owned or commissioned them. This book is as layered and subtle as the many possible interpretations of Bartholomew's text, and it is not practical to illustrate all its interesting observations

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here. Suffice it to say that this is the kind of book one will want to return to many times, the better to contemplate the various implications and suggestions of the author. Happily, as well as being available from ANU E Press, the entire book can be downloaded from the publisher's website at no charge (provided one agrees to the conditions of use), enabling a level of cross-referencing and linking of ideas that ­ appropriately ­ carries Bartholomew's work into a whole new era of `information handling'. There is no excuse for curious readers not to obtain a copy for themselves. The only, minor quibble of this reviewer was the strangely poor quality of the illustrations. Kathleen Neal University of Melbourne Keyworth, David, Troublesome Corpses: Vampires and Revenants from Antiquity to the Present (Dracula Library 16), Southend-on-Sea, Desert Island Books, 2007; hardback; pp. 320; R.R.P. 30.00; ISBN 9781905328307. Troublesome Corpses appears as number sixteen in the publisher's `Dracula Library' series and boasts a suitably atmospheric cover of tombstones, in front of a Norman church, under a stormy night sky. Its subject is reanimated corpses, particularly vampiric ones, rather than noncorporeal ghosts, and its area is Europe, although the author occasionally varies his material with comparisons from other cultures. David Keyworth's inspiration is Augustin Calmet's Treatise on Vampires and Revenants (1746) and in particular Calmet's assertion that, although undead corpses and vestiges of vampirism existed in the past, the vampires of eighteenthcentury Europe were a unique and new phenomenon. The first four chapters survey the undead from antiquity to the eighteenth century and generally support Calmet's thesis. Antiquity provides us with shapeshifting, blood-sucking succubi (the Greek empousa or Latin lamia), maidens who return from the dead to fulfill their thwarted sexual destiny, and witches who either resuscitate the dead for prophetic purposes or surreptitiously remove vital organs, leaving the apparently intact victim to die shortly afterwards. There are, however, no recorded instances of blood-sucking corpses. Twelfth-century England suffered an outbreak of reanimated corpses, all of whom were dealt with by standard ecclesiastical measures. Scandinavian sagas, largely written down in the thirteenth century, abound in draugr, gruesome corpses who, at times with grim humour, violently and indiscriminately bludgeon to death both people and animals until the final destruction of their own bodies. It must be said that they are by far the most

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entertaining of the undead. They persist in folklore into the seventeenth century, by which time they have been joined by the spectrums of sixteenth-century Silesia and the vrykolakas of seventeenth-century Greece. Whereas both the English and Scandinavian undead offended by the stench and appearance of their decomposing bodies, the later undead manifest their unnaturalness by their apparent lack of decomposition. Nevertheless, despite spreading death and disease, none of them appear to have drunk blood. According to Keyworth, this particular depraved and insatiable appetite, which becomes the essential motive for the undead's refusal to lie down, is first mentioned in eighteenth-century accounts of Eastern European oupirs. The remainder of the book examines the material from various thematic perspectives. Keyworth compares vampires with malign supernatural beings, including ghosts, sexual demons, werewolves, witches and their blood-sucking familiars. By the eighteenth century, alleged vampires had become the subject of judicial investigations, particularly in parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire recently acquired from the Ottomans. Whereas the earlier undead overlapped with ghosts and demons, these historical vampires conform to Keyworth's definition of reanimated corpses that feed on the blood of the living. Christian paraphernalia is of very limited efficacy in repelling these menaces. Decapitation and staking are worth trying, but only cremation can be totally relied upon. The Christian doctrine of bodily resurrection and taboos on the abuse of the dead dating from furthest antiquity, discouraged these measures, but by this stage one is astonished that the afflicted did not have recourse to them sooner. Catholic belief in transubstantiation and the incorruptible bodies of saints provided a holy antithesis to vampiric abominations, while Protestants rejected the undead along with Purgatory and ghosts. The elite increasingly preferred rationalist explanations, but fear of premature burial remained a popular anxiety in the nineteenth century. The book concludes with a few words on astral vampires, the etherealised, modern, noncorporeal remnants of their all too material predecessors. The book is intended as an `academic textbook for university students in ... folklore, cultural history and religious studies' and also, of course, for the general reader interested in the supernatural. It is written in a lively and accessible style. In transforming his doctoral thesis into a potentially popular book, Keyworth has apparently chosen to concentrate on the entertaining and sensational stories while abbreviating the analysis. The historical and sociological context, which would have proved most interesting to the academic reader, has often been reduced to a concluding paragraph while the stories, being of a similar nature and

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examined from multiple perspectives, tend to become repetitious. The rationale for the discursive footnotes is not clear since the text itself is so episodic that extra examples could easily have been incorporated, leaving the footnotes for references. There are mercifully few proof-reading errors, although there is the odd mistake, as for example in the footnote on p. 167 where Catherine of Sienna is described as `a noted Spanish mystic'. A curious omission from the bibliography is R. C. Finucane's Appearances of the Dead: A Cultural History of Ghosts (London, Junction, 1982). Nevertheless, Troublesome Corpses provides both an excellent coverage of the source material and many interesting avenues for future discussion. Lola Sharon Davidson Humanities and Social Sciences University of Technology, Sydney Lanza, Janine Marie, From Wives to Widows in Early Modern Paris: Gender, Economy, and Law (Women and Gender in the Early Modern World), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; hardback; pp. ix, 252; R.R.P £60.00; ISBN 9780754656432. When death laid his icy hand on a married man, the future his relict could expect in Western countries was established by numerous aspects of law and contract that varied from town to country and from one nation to another. Nevertheless, all widows had some longstanding rights established by both religious and secular law. Literary and religious tropes on the widow have long produced a negative, ambiguous or misanthropic image that is hard to modify, even though historical widows came in many different types. Individual instances of clever or fortunate widows who parlayed their position and rose on a social and economic wave, and instances of widows whose prudent management saved the family fortunes have been identified, but were they common? To estimate the position of a widow in a society that preferred male authority and evaluate the overall success they had in maintaining the family after the death of a male head, what is needed are studies of groups of widows from a similar background whose relative success can be assessed. Since customary law, in particular, varied from place to place, it may be that a widow's opportunities were dependent on specific contexts. The outcome in one place might not have been duplicated elsewhere. Professor Lanza is contributing to our understanding in this area, by studying women who became `maitresses' in the Paris guilds on their husbands' death. They were good bourgeoises who potentially had the resources to cope in a

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male mercantile world. If they failed then, prospects for the less well endowed were discouraging. These widows were operating within a strong, traditional cultural structure that at all levels of society privileged the family above the individual. Lanza works carefully and systematically through the whole range of French legal sources, noting the complications of the widow's position, even before her husband had been lowered into the ground. Her thesis, unsurprisingly, is that property was the heart of a marriage; widows were not under male authority and had enforceable legal rights that disturbed gender norms. They were able to participate in the business world and resist male attempts to dominate them. She argues that individuals had, and used, the power to modify the contracts they signed so that they met their particular needs and so legal practice diverged from legal codes. People were able to alter legal documents as they needed, to meet their particular situations. This is particularly important in France as the crown was in dispute with the Catholic Church over the right of individuals to marry without parental consent and also attempted to regulate the financial implications of a widow's remarriage so that her children's expectations were protected. Lanza's analysis of marriage contracts shows how some aspects of the law, especially customary law, were ignored while matters subject to negotiation between the families, such as the contribution of property to the community, were taken very seriously. In all this, the ideas of the church about widowhood were basically ignored. Nevertheless, her examination of a sample of wills and inventories drawn up for widows shows an attitude to religion that reflected an emotional and gendered acceptance of the sacred. Lanza shows that there were limitations on the ways in which women, who had not been apprenticed, could participate in the life of a guild. She points out, though, that these women often had informal training and other skills, such as literacy and account keeping, that made their deficiencies less significant. Moreover, it was only the guilds of the Wine Inspectors and the Sword Masters that prohibited women from inheriting their husband's mastership. Widows did take up the masterships in every other guild and Lanza argues that they were well regarded and fully integrated in the guild structure, even though particular guilds like the Curriers and the Goldsmiths were more restrictive than others. Lanza says `the reasons for a widow's success or failure can usually only be imagined' (p. 129). She has, cautiously, looked at 72 probate records from 170490, to seek information on widows' business and personal choices. She has found

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one or two cases where a widow was unsuccessful, but no means of establishing whether the business was already well down the path to failure in the husband's lifetime. In other cases, the agreements entered into suggest that a widow who had capital and an established clientele had good prospects of success. Regrettably, there seems to be too little evidence to enable a prosopographical study to be undertaken that might provide a more solid basis. Lanza tells us that `artisanal widows were less likely to remarry than other widows' (p. 95). This raises many relevant questions that cannot be answered, such as the age of the widow, the length of the marriage, the age of any children, the financial contribution the widow had originally made to the family resources and the support she might receive from her birth family. Professor Lanza has written a careful and scholarly study, set in the wider context of arguments about the improvement or decline of women's status in the period. It will form a useful part of further investigations into the world from a woman's perspective. Sybil M. Jack Sydney, N.S.W. Limor, Ora and Guy G. Stroumsa, eds, Christians and Christianity in the Holy Land: From the Origins to the Latin Kingdoms (Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages 5), Turnhout, Brepols, 2006; hardback; pp. xii, 527; 20 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. 80.00; ISBN 9782503518084. As Guy G. Stroumsa's introduction explains, the primary aim of this collection of essays is to deal `with Christianity and Christians in the Holy Land, rather than with the Holy Land in Christian consciousness' (p. 3). The volume, whose origins lie in a conference held in Jerusalem in 1999, is intended to fill a perceived gap in the historiography and provide a springboard for future research. The thirteen articles are divided into two sections, the first of which, under the title `History', contains five essays which sketch the development of Christianity in the region from the religion's inception up until Salah al-Din's conquest of Jerusalem in 1187. The remaining eight essays, grouped under the title `Major Themes and Issues', begin with Christoph Markschies' evaluation of the extent to which the region's native-born churchmen contributed, or rather failed to contribute, to the shaping of Christian thought in the third and fourth centuries. They conclude with Bianca Kühnel's considered exploration of the part played by the Holy Land in the evolution of Christian art and architecture. Along the route between these two

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points are to be found articles as varied as Ora Limor's wide-ranging examination of pilgrimage and sacred landscape and Stéphane Verhelst's detailed study of the Jerusalem liturgy. Amongst the most thought-provoking contributions in the collection are Günter Stemberger's consideration of Christian-Jewish relations under Byzantine rule and Yizhar Hirschfeld's exploration of the types of monastery that developed in the region. One of this volume's key strengths lies in its organisation: the editors have ensured that the majority of articles contain, where appropriate, references to material elsewhere in the volume. For example, the casual reader of Brouria Bitton-Ashkelony and Aryeh Kofsky's general survey of monasticism in the Holy Land will find themselves usefully directed to Sidney H. Griffith's exploration of the evolution of Christianity under the Caliphate. While the range of essays in this collection certainly justifies the subtitle From the Origins to the Latin Kingdoms, it is worth noting that those interested in the history of the Byzantine and pre-Byzantine Church will find more to interest them than the historian of the Muslim world or the crusades. While Griffith's contribution certainly shines much-needed light on Christian use of Arabic and the language's role in shaping the identity of the Orthodox community in the wake of the Arab conquests, it is unfortunate that none of the essays focus on the broader interaction between Christianity and Islam in the era of the Caliphate. Another topic notable by its absence is a dedicated discussion of the evolution of non-Chalcedonian Christianity in the Holy Land. Overall, however, this is an excellent, informative volume that will doubtless spark new and innovative research. Chris Jones School of History University of Canterbury, Christchurch Newstok, Scott L., ed., Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare, West Lafayette, Indiana, Parlor Press, 2007; paperback; pp. lv, 308; R.R.P. US$32.00, £18.00; ISBN 9781602350021. Scott L. Newstok explains that this book `gathers and annotates' all of the `Shakespeare criticism, including previously unpublished notes and lectures, by the maverick American intellectual Kenneth Burke (1897-1993)' (p. xvii). This is in itself a grand undertaking and there is more. Newstok also provides an appendix that details `Additional References to Shakespeare in Burke's Writings',

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a valuable guide to the presence of Shakespeare in the major works, among them Counter-Statement (1931), A Grammar of Motives (1945), A Rhetoric of Motives (1950), The Rhetoric of Religion (1961). In addition, he supplies his own clear and knowledgeable introductory essay to the collection. This is just as well because Burke is a difficult thinker, and he needs introducing. Newstok claims modestly that his essay is no more than the `recursive gathering of different perspectives' on Burke's `Shakespearean meditations' (p. xvii). However, it insightfully explores the extent of Burke's influence on Shakespearean criticism and reflects on why this is so rarely acknowledged. Burke's influence is everywhere to be seen in several different areas, he notes, `yet paradoxically [each] field does not seem to recognize fully this influence' (p. xxi). The same applies to Shakespearean scholarship. Burke's influence is `acknowledged largely through indirection'; he is often `found in characteristically grateful but buried footnotes' (p. xxiii). Meanwhile, Burke is not included in any of the recent genealogies of Shakespeare criticism (p. xxxi). There are several possible reasons for this that Newstok cites, and in some cases discounts: his `neologistic impulses' (p. xxiv), his lack of engagement with all but a few secondary works, and even, as Newstok hesitantly suggests, `a complicated resistance among American intellectuals to come to terms with their native theoretical roots' (p. xxi). But the main reason proposed is the sheer scale of Burke's ambition, which is `to examine "the farthest reaches of our subject ... the ultimate secrets of man, as the symbol-using animal"' (p. xxv; citing Burke in this edition p. 100). This quotation comes from the conclusion to Burke's longest essay, `Othello: An Essay to Illustrate a Method', which was published in The Hudson Review in 1951. This piece illustrates the difficulty of Burke's thinking, but also why it is worth staying with him. I say `thinking' rather than `writing'. Newstok describes Burke's style as `legible', and I would agree with this. The difficulty that readers are likely to encounter is with following the train of his thought. In this essay, he begins characteristically at the end: `Othello: ACT 5, Scene 2. Desdemona, fated creature, marked for a tragic end by her very name (Desdemona: "moan-death") lies smothered' (p. 65). Burke reflects on the function of Othello, Iago and Desdemona, and explores this in terms of the `internal relations' of the play. It is not until we arrive at the heart of the essay, however, that he explicitly tells us what he is doing and why: his method emphasises dramatic explanations for character effects. And he contrasts this with the `"novelistic" approach' to Shakespearean drama that is the legacy of nineteenth-century character criticism, which `conceals the functioning

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of the play' (p. 81). `Shakespeare is making a play,' Burke reminds us, `not people' (p. 84). 1951 seems rather late in the day to be offering a critique of A. C. Bradley, which is what Burke is doing here. But Burke's intention is much broader than this. He is also performing and reflecting on the process of critical thinking. The problem with Bradley is that his critical thinking ends too soon. He is absorbed by Shakespeare's characters and forgets that these are `an illusion arising functionally from the context' of the play. This is an example of a critic ending where `he should begin' (p. 85). Burke's method in this essay is to proceed `from the logic of the action as a whole, to the analysis of the character as a recipe fitting him for his proper place in the action' (p. 90). One implication of this is to consider how often we still read plays as `readers', not as writers who are looking for dramatic explanations. When we read Shakespeare, we would do well to consider what traits a dramatist needs to invoke to make the next stage of the action plausible. This is the key to one of Burke's most significant contributions to the `modernist' study of Shakespeare's dramatic forms: to make us read like a writer. This is a very complete edition not just because of the material Newstok has uncovered, but also because of the support he provides. I very much hope that, thanks to this work of dedicated scholarship, Burke will at last receive the attention from Shakespeareans that he deserves. It remains to be seen whether we are ready not only to acknowledge Burke's influence, but to engage with, and even to extend, his ambitious project. Jennifer Richards School of English Literature, Language and Linguistics Newcastle University, UK Ricciardelli, Fabrizio, The Politics of Exclusion in Early Renaissance Florence (Late Medieval and Early Modern Studies 12), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; cloth; pp. xiv, 294; R.R.P. 60.00; ISBN 9782503523897. This book is a study of the various forms of exclusion of political opponents of the Florentine government that took place between 1215 (the beginning of the battles between members of the Guelf pro-papal and Ghibelline pro-imperial forces in Florentine politics) and 1434 when Cosimo de' Medici the Elder returned to Florence after having himself been excluded from politics and government the previous year by the triumphant Albizzi. This period is often thought of as the

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heyday of Florentine republicanism and Fabrizio Ricciardelli argues that the story of political exclusion that he wishes to tell represents `the dark side of the Florentine republican system' (p. 1). This `dark side' is exemplified by the fate of one of the city's most famous poets Dante Alighieri who was excluded as a result of being on the losing side of a battle between two opposing factions of the dominant Guelf Party in the fourteenth century (Chapter 2). The system that supported the economic prosperity of Florentine merchants and enabled and celebrated the city's renowned cultural achievements could not tolerate any form of political dissent. It is noteworthy that Ricciardelli chooses the phrase `political exclusion' to frame his narrative rather than `political exile' and he does so, he argues, because the legal records of the period referred to exclusion not exile. Moreover, Ricciardelli suggests that the nature of the punishments imposed ­ exclusion from political office, heavy fines and even the death penalty ­ were designed to ensure that opponents had no choice but to flee, thereby effectively excluding themselves from their native city. The book's first chapter is principally concerned with the legal forms of exclusion such as the ban, a judicial process that could be overturned through the payment of a steep fine, but which if not paid would lead to banishment or possibly even death. While there was little difference between being banned or confined in terms of the actual effect, the latter was a harsher, distinctly political instrument. Another form of punishment was an admonition, which was used by the Guelf majority in Florence as a blunt political weapon against any and all whom the Guelf Party saw as opposition, regardless of the political leanings of the people concerned. Accusations could be brought without evidence and the accused was stripped of political office as were his immediate male relatives and descendants. The lack of political office was so great a shame that the men affected had no option but to leave. Ricciardelli argues that the exclusions that occurred in the thirteenth century were often the result of street fights and vendetta between warring families whose violent activities threatened the stability of Florence. The affected families, known as magnates, were subject to specific legislation (the Ordinances of Justice) and other punitive measures including fines, banishment, the destruction of family palaces or towers and even death sentences. By the fourteenth century, the rise of the mercantile classes and the use of mediation to settle disputes reduced the need to exclude people because of lawlessness. Instead, exclusion was used to deal with political conflict between

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various factions, the dominance of the Guelf Party as well as internal political instability within the Florentine Government. As the century went on, successive political regimes came and went, including the well-known Ciompi (woolcarders) regime of 1378-1382 that gave previously disenfranchised, poor workers a brief hold on political power. The factional brawls between prominent families and their supporters continued during the late fourteenth century and into the fifteenth, with each successive regime expelling members of the previous one along with their male relatives. During this period, the enforcement arm was the Eight on Security, which Ricciardelli suggests increased its power, from the time Cosimo de' Medici the Elder returned from exile in 1434, to become a police force directly appended to the executive. Cosimo was able to use the same measures as his predecessors had to deal with his opponents, but without the need to negotiate the system to be used. It would be useful if the book included some critical discussion of the concept of political exclusion, perhaps derived from the anthropological and/or political science literature in order to provide an analytical frame of reference. The text's narrative approach can be somewhat dry and such an approach may have enabled the author to provide greater analysis of emerging themes. Nevertheless, the book is based on detailed and sound research, and Ricciardelli makes judicious use of the relevant legal and governmental records, as well as the ubiquitous Florentine chronicles of the period and a raft of essential secondary sources on the period ­ including the important work of the late Dr Louis Green (1929-2008) of Monash University. Certainly, this book makes an important contribution to our understanding of political exclusion in Renaissance Florence. Natalie Tomas School of Historical Studies Monash University Richards, Judith M., Mary Tudor (Routledge Historical Biographies), Abingdon, Routledge, 2008; paperback; pp. xvii, 264; 10 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$27.95; ISBN 9780415327213. While Judith Richards' new biography of Mary Tudor studies a member of a much investigated period and dynasty, this accessible text finds much that is new to say about Mary. It offers a fresh analysis of the queen, whose reputation as `bloody Mary' was advanced by sixteenth-century Protestant historians and martyrologists,

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chiefly John Foxe in his Book of Martyrs, but whose reputation also became a historiographic orthodoxy for nineteenth- and twentieth-century historians. Richards establishes from the outset the historical parameters which have hitherto defined Mary Tudor and acknowledges that her biography will seem to be an attempt to `rehabilitate' Bloody Mary, especially as she diverges significantly from the path pursued by David Loades' authoritative biography. She acknowledges that any attempt to rehabilitate, or at least re-think Mary's rule is still a controversial undertaking in scholarly circles. The introduction situates her study in the existing scholarship and interpretations of Mary and makes clear that Richards intends to revise the general reputation which adheres to Mary's name. She stresses that `Bloody Mary' in fact earned praise from unexpected quarters, including the evangelical bishop Nicholas Ridley, for the sweetness and mildness of her temperament. While Richards notes the significant religious disorder, especially in London, which marked the beginning of her reign, she also reconstructs the spontaneous popular revival of Catholic cultic practices (including the Mass) which reformers shrilly condemned and suggests that Mary's religious policies met with widespread approval that has been overlooked. The following chapters adhere to a chronological structure and examine in turn the foundation of Tudor rule, Mary's birth, childhood, her status as princess and outcast during the later years of her father's and brother's reigns, and her own rule and marriage to Philip of Spain. While much of this content is necessarily a familiar narrative, Richards offers fresh insights into Mary's childhood and adolescence. Many historians depict this phase of her life, especially after her parents' divorce, as unremittingly miserable and regard Mary's enforced separation from her mother Catherine of Aragon as a tragedy. But Richards stresses Mary's closeness to Catherine Parr, the last of Henry's six wives, even though Parr was inclined to support religious reformers. The most significant point of distinction between Richards' work and earlier studies, is her analysis of the foundation of Mary's rule. She establishes the financial, agricultural and religious crises confronting Mary in 1552, when Edward VI died. Richards argues that deeper constitutional problems confronted Mary, who was challenged by the absence of any existing English precedent for a queen regnant, rather than a queen consort (barring the brief rule of Matilda in the twelfth century). Richards also argues that Mary entered into her reign from a context where the powers of even the queen consorts had been exposed as vulnerable, given Henry VIII's treatment of four of his wives.

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Richards stresses Mary's skill and efficiency in meeting these different challenges. The transition from a king to a queen regnant was indicated by the ritual and language of the coronation ceremony and by the unusually large number of women who were participants in, rather than spectators, of the queen's processional entry into London. Richards also offers a fresh perspective on the efficiency of Mary's swiftly-formed Privy Council, efficiency which stands in contrast to the desperate efforts by the ailing Edward VI to establish stable rule and then the debacle of Lady Jane Grey's short reign. Richards also offers new insights to Mary's initial independence from Hapsburg and Spanish influence. Whereas other historians have depicted her as in thrall to her Spanish husband's personality and influence, Richards notes the significance of Renard, the Spanish Ambassador, not joining Mary's circle of advisors. Of course Richards addresses the origin of Mary's bloody soubriquet: the burnings of Protestants during the final years of Mary's reign. It is here that Richards seems most anxious to rehabilitate Mary, or at least to place her actions in a context where they seem less discordantly bloody and more typical of her context. Richards argues that evangelical, as much as Catholic churchmen were likely to condone burning and quotes evidence from Calvin, Hugh Latimer and others who endorsed burning as a punishment for religious offences. She therefore argues that Mary's revival of the Heresy Laws and her method of punishment seem `conventional' in her context (p. 193). While Richards stresses that many voices from the sixteenth century endorsed burning, other contemporary voices, among them Foxe's, also condemned the practice. Richards acknowledges that the number of victims of Mary's reign ­ over 3000 ­ was an extraordinarily high number in practice, even if in theory her actions were conventional. Richards also suggests Foxe was a solitary voice in condemning the burnings, although her point should not obscure the wild popularity of his text and the wide concurrence which he views attracted in the sixteenth century. This is an erudite, scrupulously researched survey of a queen which offers fresh thoughts on many aspects of her reign and personality. Marcus Harmes History Discipline University of Queensland

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Robinson, David M., Closeted Writing and Lesbian and Gay Literature: Classical, Early Modern, Eighteenth-Century, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2006; hardback; pp. xx, 295; R.R.P. £60.00; ISBN 9780754655503. To people unfamiliar with the term, `LGBT Studies' may sound as mysterious as `BLT' on the café blackboard. However, it denotes the academic field from within which David Robinson writes, namely Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Studies, or as he phrases it more broadly, `LGBT Studies and the History of Sexuality' (p. 25). This book revives a practice which Robinson describes as `supposedly retrograde' (p. viii), seeking out closeted homosexual writing from past eras. As he explains in his Preface, from the vantage-point of `differentist' scholarship, itself founded on the Foucauldian premise that homosexuality was an `invention' of the nineteenth century, such a focus may seem `naively anachronistic' (p. vii). But Robinson argues bravely for the validity of `continuist' approaches (p. x), re-engaging the once discredited notion of authorial intention, along with historical contextualisation and close reading, to illuminate poetry, fiction and drama from his clustered classical, Early Modern and eighteenth-century periods. His central contention is that `if we remain open to similarity ... instead of only identity and difference, we can more productively explore the longstanding Western awareness that people often selectively conceal and disclose same-sex love and desire' (p. 10). The three parts of the book are entitled: (1) Intentionality: Closeted Homosexual Writing; (2) Intentionality: Closeted Homophobic Writing; and (3) Continuity. In his strong third chapter, `The Closeting of Closeting: Cleland, Smollett, Sodomy, and the Critics' Robinson juxtaposes an astonishingly animated and, he argues, realistic, depiction of sodomy between `two young sparks' in John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure with examples of `Gay Bashing Eighteenth-Century Style' (p. 51) drawn from Smollett's Peregrine Pickle and Charlotte Charke's Henry Dumont. The last two texts form a prelude to Robinson's analysis of `Smollett's textual homophobia' in Roderick Ransom (p. 58), where he shows convincingly that Smollett `condemns sex between men, in order to present what matters most to him: love between men' (p. 77). The writing here displays Robinson's lively engagement with other criticism attentive to homosexuality as it impacts on these writers' texts and identities, whereas, when arguing for the satirical anti-lesbian thrust of Delarivier Manley's New Atlantis in Chapter 5, his differences from the pro-lesbian readings of feminist critics produces less supple prose and some unwieldy footnotes. In

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criticism too, similarity more often produces interesting textual possibilities than absolute difference. After a chapter on metamorphosis and homosexuality in Ovid's `Iphis and Ianthe' and related tales, Part III culminates in a chapter exploring variations on this myth in six Early Modern dramas ranging from the well-known ­ John Lyly's Gallathea (1592) ­ to the obscure ­ Charles Hopkins' Friendship Improv'd; Or, The Female Warriour (1700). Curiously, Shakespeare and Fletcher's The Two Noble Kinsmen, with Emilia's narrative of her twin-like love for her girlhood friend Flavina, rates not even a passing mention. The discussion gains coherence from the Ovidian myth the plays hold in common, and Robinson's tracking of the plays' varying processes of `rejecting or unknowing' (p. 250) female and male homosexuality (excepting Gallathea) is at once persistent and playful, responsive to theatrical context as it might determine meaning. It is a fine, close to an impressive, provocative study. Sophie Tomlinson Department of English University of Auckland Sherlock, Peter, Monuments and Memory in Early Modern England, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xiv, 282; 38 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754660934. This is a groundbreaking study of funerary architecture and the meanings, explicit and implicit, found in the often wildly elaborate tombs and cenotaphs erected in English cathedrals, churches and college chapels after the Reformation. Peter Sherlock's study brings this strikingly visual source material into the realm of historical study and historical anthropology and he is dealing with source material of extraordinary richness and diversity. Most significantly, Sherlock explores the implications of the Reformation for the meaning and function of tombs, as well as their vulnerability, as the Elizabethan government could not adequately legislate to protect monumental art from reformist vandalism and destruction. His survey begins in the era after the Henrician and Edwardian reforms and especially after Elizabeth I legislated in 1560 to protect ancient, and not so ancient monuments, from iconoclastic defacing. His choice of a terminus ante quem and terminus post quem seems to have been governed as much by stylistic as historical concerns. His survey ends in the late-seventeenth century when the

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style of English tombs was being transformed by a burgeoning classicism which brought monumental design into a different visual aesthetic to that of the postReformation era and especially of the distinctive Jacobean tomb monuments. In studying and interpreting tomb monuments, Sherlock is dealing with source material which mostly emanated from an elite social stratum. One had to be at least a churchwarden to obtain room in the privileged space of a church building for commemoration; the monuments under examination typically were those of the aristocracy, gentry and episcopacy, especially the larger monuments. The monuments Sherlock discusses have often already been extensively described and catalogued, typically in county archaeological or antiquarian journals or by the thorough surveys of churches and their furnishings undertaken many decades ago by Nikolaus Pevsner. Sherlock also acknowledges that he is writing in the wake of earlier historical and art historical surveys of this material, including those of Howard Colvin and Erwin Panofsky, as well as the pioneering study of Early Modern tomb monuments by Nigel Llewellyn, and Peter Burke's study of memory and ritual in the Early Modern period. But Sherlock's study, an elaboration of his doctoral thesis and several journal articles, breaks new ground in the readings he makes of these artifacts and the meanings which he finds to reside in them as regards cultural memory, religious identity and artistic impulses. Sherlock makes several claims to originality in this study, including the religious import which he insists remained in the meaning and iconography of the tombs in the post-Reformation period. In contrast to earlier interpreters of these artifacts, Sherlock argues that the designers and commissioners of the tombs intended them to convey religiously-charged meanings. Whereas modern interpreters of Renaissance iconography have argued that the Renaissance indicates a shift in focus from the mechanics of salvation and the fate of the soul to material commemoration, Sherlock argues that English tomb monuments stressed their function as agents of earthly posterity, but also expressed the ascent of the soul to heaven. While he mostly examines the monuments for what they could and were meant to transmit to posterity, he argues that monuments could also repress information and were designed to do so. This book explores and interprets tomb monuments as transmitting messages to posterity, in terms of their epitaphs, funerary architecture and religious import. Sherlock therefore makes clear that he is examining tombs as the interactive, yet permanent, aspect of Early Modern funerary ritual, which remained when the cenotaphs, coffins, hangings and hatchments may all have passed away. As such, he makes clear that his book is intended to be a dialogue between past and present.

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He also incorporates some theoretical insights from Pierre Nora and Maurice Halbwachs' writings on sites of memory and Sherlock stresses the novelty of applying this theoretical content to an Early Modern study. Although he examines the tombs as being intended to provide messages to posterity, he also studies them in their immediate context in terms of the preoccupations with lineage and familial continuity which prompted their commissioning and design. A spouse or executor could erect multiple tombs, including monuments for husbands, wives, children, parents and grandparents. The text is copiously illustrated, although colour plates would do greater justice to the striking visual aesthetic of Early Modern tomb monuments. English tombs have had their interpreters but this text offers many fresh ideas mostly owing to the religious import which Sherlock reads into these postReformation statements to their present and future. Marcus Harmes History Discipline University of Queensland Silver, Larry, Marketing Maximilian: The Visual Ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; cloth; pp. 352; 100 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$49.95, £29.95; ISBN 9780691130194. It is easy to forget, given the dynasty's later history of dominance in central Europe, how tenuous Habsburg authority was in the late fifteenth century. To be sure, the family had furnished several Holy Roman Emperors over the preceding centuries but never until 1493 had a Habsburg son succeeded his father as King of the Romans and subsequently as Emperor. The death of Frederick III in that year saw the elevation of his son, Maximilian I, who ruled until his death in 1519. Professor Larry Silver's contention is that Maximilian's patronage of the arts was intended, above all, to solidify his political position by creating an image of himself as the unquestioned heir not only to earlier Habsburgs, but to Charlemagne and the Caesars as well. Silver's focus is on the artistic production that Maximilian supervised with great personal interest and an iron hand. In a letter of 1517, the emperor complained to court scholar Johann Stabius, an adviser on the Arch of Honor woodcut project, that the image in question was `not rendered according to the content of our command and according to the exemplar that you have in your hand ... so that we

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are greatly displeased' (p. 84). In fact, this vast woodcut sequence, which the author describes as `a large fantasy hybrid creation on paper' (p. 92), forms something of an organising motif for the entire book. Silver returns to it frequently, drawing on its complex allegorical schemes and its representations of Maximilian's real and imagined forebears to demonstrate the process of imperial myth creation. Silver follows Maximilian and his scholarly advisers as they trace the imperial lineage along Roman, Frankish, biblical, and even Trojan lines, reconciling or choosing between these various strands (Noah was out of favour as an imperial ancestor; Hector was not) before having artists, including Dürer and his workshop, turn constructed myth into visual reinforcement of Habsburg legitimacy. Much of this is uncontentious. Ideas of translatio imperii (`translation of the empire', the subject of Chapter 2) from antiquity to contemporary standard bearers had been common in medieval discourse and have exercised modern scholars at least since Robert Folz's The Concept of Empire in Western Europe. The importance of constructed genealogies (dealt with in Chapter 1) was also typical of later medieval dynastic image making and was by no means new to Maximilian. In this sense the book is not especially groundbreaking at the conceptual level. Its strength lies instead in the wealth of detail that Silver has accumulated on the process of producing imagery to support Maximilian's status. This imagery included not only the great woodcut sequences such as the (never completed) Triumphal Procession but also architectural initiatives and celebratory coinage (like the woodcuts, an `expensive form of publicity' in Silver's view, p. 101). The analyses of these initiatives, and the interpretation of their intended meanings, form the core of the book. Where Silver does claim novelty for his subject is in Maximilian's use of the printing press. Here his argument is not entirely convincing. It is one thing to claim that Maximilian was the first leader to make significant use of the new technological tool for propaganda purposes. It is another thing entirely to state that modern political spin and `the constant manipulation of television coverage by political leaders' are `a most direct outcome of the shaping of public opinion by Maximilian' (p. ix). By ignoring the intervening five centuries, such a claim lends to Maximilian an importance in the history of political image-making that is impossibly over-inflated. A `Great Communicator' he may have been; Ronald Reagan he was not. One might contend that the book's very title is based on an unfortunate anachronism: to suggest that Maximilian was intent on `marketing' himself is to ascribe to him a set of modern, commercial motivations that do not sit well in a late medieval context. Fortunately, Silver's argument tends to

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wander in these unfruitful directions only in the opening pages. His theoretical musings on the `routinization of charisma' and the `theater state' (with nods to Max Weber and Clifford Geertz at pp. vii and ix) are less confident and less thorough than his discussion of the art works themselves. One might also note that the author's discussion of the reception of imperial imagery amounts to a fairly brief account, in the final chapter, of the way his programmes were continued and adapted by his Habsburg successors. Silver has little to say about the way Maximilian's subjects and contemporaries may have understood the images their emperor sponsored (if indeed they had access to these images at all). Political propaganda can only be effective if its intended message is correctly read by those at whom it is aimed, and it is not always clear whether Maximilian's image makers hit their mark. Nonetheless, in its attention to detail and its interpretation of complex iconography, Silver's study of Maximilian and his artistic entourage makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the early stages of the Habsburg imperium. Lindsay Diggelmann Department of History University of Auckland Tarbin, Stephanie and Susan Broomhall, eds, Women, Identities and Communities in Early Modern Europe (Women and Gender in the Early Modern World), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardcover; pp. xiii, 242; 12 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$99.95, £50.00; ISBN 9780754661849. As part of the `Women and Gender in the Early Modern World' series, this excellent collection of thirteen essays examines the power of gender in shaping identities and communities in Early Modern Europe. Dedicated to Professor Patricia Crawford, the editors of this collection acknowledge Crawford's work `as an example of rigorous feminist scholarship by which conventional interpretations of women, gender and early modern history might be challenged' (Preface). The Introduction provides an overview of both Crawford's scholarship and the collection of essays. Tarbin and Broomhall assert that: `In this collection we respond to Trish's challenge to acknowledge the complexity of women's lives, recognizing the critical power of gender to structure identities and communities both in the historical sources we treat and in our experiences as historians today' (p. 9). These essays successfully respond to this challenge. Crawford's enormous contribution to this field is evident throughout, underpinning what also stands

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alone as a valuable and timely study of women's experiences in Early Modern Europe within the contexts of identities and communities. This collection is thematically divided into six parts ­ Reading Communities in History; Domestic Polities; Social Networks; Negotiating the City; Gentry Communities; and Queens and Court. Tarbin and Broomhall state that they have `arranged these essays according to the contexts they accentuate as most significant for their individual analyses of communities and identities' (p. 8). Recognising a review such as this cannot do justice to such a broad range of scholarship, I offer instead a brief overview. In the first section, Anne Laurence explores identity and gender in seventeenth-century Ireland. Considering religious, linguistic, political and national participation, Laurence suggests studying these themes through an analysis of families and households. Next, Sarah Ferber considers French cases of demonic possession within the context of identity politics, including how the historian identifies with historical figures. Both Laurence and Ferber challenge conventional approaches to the reading of historical documents to reveal women's experiences, suggesting new methods of enquiry. Philippa Maddern, considering servant marriages in late medieval English households, and Claire Walker, through a study of English nuns and their communities in the seventeenth century, present examples of households which, when analysed within the context of gender, revise established ideas of domestic structures. Dolly MacKinnon studies Early Modern women's social networks through an analysis of clothing bequests in an Essex parish. MacKinnon demonstrates how charity shaped women's collective identities within the parish, and the effect this could have upon individual women. Jacqueline Van Gent also considers women's social networks in her fascinating reading of eighteenth-century Swedish witchcraft trials, highlighting how women could use magic as a uniting or divisive force. Moving from the rural to the urban, Lyndal Roper and Laura Gowing explore women and the Early Modern city; Ausburg and London respectively. Roper's vividly illustrated essay explores the feminine symbols representing an overtly male civic community, within which women occupied an ambiguous position. Gowing's essay studies the experiences of poor single mothers in negotiating their position within the city, successfully demonstrating women could create a certain sense of belonging, although it was `for many women a point of hard bargaining' (p. 150).

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Sara Mendelson sensitively reads Anne Dormer's letters recounting her abusive marriage. Mendelson shows how the local gentry neighbourhood of seventeenth-century Oxfordshire served as a female community, supporting Dormer despite individual religious or political differences. Frances Harris analyses correspondence between Elizabeth Packer Geddes and Elizabeth Burnet. Set against the backdrop of the Revolution of 1688, Harris suggests how reading shaped women's political identities, whilst also demonstrating how women formed connections between themselves through such shared concerns. Susan Broomhall analyses Eleanor de Poitiers' record of fifteenth-century Burgundian court life within the context of the honour culture of the court. Broomhall considers the importance of knowledge of court ritual in the shaping of female identity, and the limitations of the power derived from this ritual in comparison to men. Judith M. Richards examines public identity and public memory in her case studies of Margaret Beaufort and Catherine of Aragon, with a focus upon queenly reputation. To conclude, Sybil Jack also considers queenly reputation; engaging poetry to study the queen consort in seventeenth-century Britain. These final two essays demonstrate the power of historical representations in shaping identity, and the underlying purposes of such representations. This collection makes a significant contribution to women's history in Early Modern Europe. The value of Crawford's work is demonstrated, as is the need for continued enquiry into women's experiences in this period. The essays work well together, forming a strong response to the challenge presented in the Introduction. They are persuasive and raise important questions in relation to women, communities, identity and power; questions which go beyond the parameters of this study. The Introduction is strongly footnoted, with a number of relevant sources. The collection is well-edited, including a good, and up-to-date, select bibliography on the themes of the volume. The notes are thorough and there is also an index. This is a fine example of current work in feminist Early Modern scholarship. I strongly recommend it to students and specialists alike. Sally Fisher University of Melbourne

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Vaught, Jennifer C., Masculinity and Emotion in Early Modern English Literature (Women and Gender in the Early Modern World), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. x, 244; 10 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £50; ISBN 9870754662945. Jennifer C. Vaught's monograph is a welcome addition to the study of gender and emotions in Early Modern culture, a field to which she has already contributed with the important co-edited collection Grief and Gender: 700-1700 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003). Masculinity and Emotion in Early Modern English Literature makes a significant addition to the study of affect, feeling, emotions and mood in various disciplines over the last fifteen to twenty years. Vaught's study also contributes to the scholarship on sexed and gendered bodies and spaces in Early Modern culture; gender, like emotion, `is a sociocultural construct' (p. 12, n. 28). One particularly welcome aspect of Vaught's book is its attention to genre as the site where competing ideas about gender and emotion can be put to the test. Masculinity and Emotion examines prose, poetry and drama in order to map the prehistories of the eighteenth-century `man of feeling', helping us revise our understanding of this figure and suggesting new ways to investigate his afterlives. An Introduction sets the scene, simultaneously charting the methodological contexts and intellectual aims of Vaught's study. Stated as generalisations, her propositions may sound rather bland: emotional displays sometimes have positive outcomes and sometimes have negative outcomes for men; different genres privilege different emotional registers for men and women. Her study proposes to dismantle any vestigial binary thinking about emotion, demonstrating that there can be no hard-and-fast rules about the cultural valuation of, for example, reason and emotion and the gendering of those categories. In fact, reason and emotion are perhaps less useful conceptual categories for this study than the distinction between inherited Augustinian and Stoic attitudes to what might be called the `decorum of demonstrativeness'. Vaught uses the positive valence of moderate emotional expressivity in Aristotelian philosophy and Augustinian theology, and the negative valence of strong feelings in the Stoic philosophers as an initial structuring device for her study. Spenser's `passionate Protestantism' and Jonson's `Stoical anger' are the focus for a fascinating analysis of the attitudes of these two scholars to literary authorities, their inter-texts figured as arboreal `motifs that stand for the literary and cultural matter that has shaped and informed their poetics' (p. 25). This opening section shows how reading masculinity and emotion together can yield new insights into familiar, though unconventionally paired Early Modern texts.

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Part II also develops the dialectic relationship of Augustinian and Stoic positions, this time focusing on the politics of emotion in Marlowe's Edward II and Shakespeare's Richard II in an exploration of `Emotional Kings and their Stoical Usurpers'. This pairing is perhaps more conventional than the choice of texts discussed in Part I, but Vaught's crisp discussion ensures the argument is lively. Part III is a study of `tearful shepherds' in Pastoral Romances by Sidney (New Arcadia) and Spenser (Book VI of the Faerie Queene). Indeed, Spenser's Faerie Queene and Shakespeare's Richard II and The Winter's Tale are `pivotal works', examined `in dialogic relation to those by their contemporaries in order to explore how male figures ... express emotions' (p. 17). Part IV concerns texts by Shakespeare, Lanyer, Cary, Donne, Walton and Garrick. The range of examples and the relations between them are skilfully handled and this discussion, like Part I is full of interest and insight. In effect, Masculinity and Emotion offers a historical formalist investigation of the prehistory of the Sentimental `man of feeling'. While one might not agree that Mackenzie's novel is the triumphant keynote of this affective register (instead, marking its spluttering extinguishment, as Maureen Harkin has argued) in any case, the literary man of feeling is clearly not an eighteenth-century `invention'. Vaught makes a strong case for the nuanced valuation of masculine emotional expressiveness (strong or otherwise) in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English culture. She brings the man of feeling up close and personal with her final chapter on Garrick's commercial success, Florizel and Perdita. The discussion of Garrick's adaptation arrives within disciplinary reach of theatre history and performance studies. It is a mark of the book's clarity of focus and admirably incremental argumentation that this material seems, not just fresh, but also up to the task of providing something of a finale. I feel compelled to mention the footnotes which dominate the page in the opening section, each a micro-essay of the issues at hand. Despite appearances, the argument does not require the reader's constant deference to this documentation. In fact, scholarly apparatus appears in inverse proportion to the number of primary authors treated: the book opens with a pair and ends with a crowd of authors. A postscript swiftly recapitulates the main agenda of the book and usefully points to further projects that might emerge from Vaught's findings. Heather Kerr English Discipline University of Adelaide

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Wolfram, Herwig, Conrad II, 990-1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms, Denise A. Kaiser, trans., University Park, Penn State University Press, 2006; cloth; pp. xx, 475; 19 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. US$60.00; ISBN 9780271027388. A reader who sought out Herwig Wolfram's biography of Conrad II (r. 1024-39) with the aim of, for example, using it as a reference tool to determine the first Salian emperor's activities in the spring of 1032 will almost certainly find themselves placing the book back on the shelf and shaking their head in puzzlement. Such a reader might, perhaps, be left wondering why Chapter 8, entitled `The Emperor in Germany (1027): Court Diets, Synods, Confidential Discussions, and Compromises', leads directly into a chapter concerned with the emperor's second Italian venture of 1036-38, passing over nearly a decade in apparent silence. The answer is to be found in the fact that Wolfram has written something of a rarity amongst the plethora of biographies of medieval royalty that jostle for precedence on the academic bookshelf: an interesting and thought-provoking book. Conrad II is structured into five main sections, sandwiched between an introductory sketch of the medieval world in the early eleventh century and an epilogue in two parts, the first part of which, Chapter 22, summarises the essence of Wolfram's portrait of Conrad. In `From Worms to Basle', the book's first section, Wolfram offers a study of Conrad and his wife Gisela's rise to power, situating this within the broader context of early eleventh-century imperial politics. This is followed by `Conflicts and their Resolution', a wide-ranging study of Conrad's approach to dealing with resistance and to governing the German and Italian lands of the Empire. This section of the book is particularly notable for the changes it highlights in the emperor's approach to dealing with Italy: in 1026-27 Conrad swept into the Italian peninsula as the defender of episcopal rights; by the time he returned in 1036 he had reversed this policy, becoming the defender of lay rights against episcopal encroachments. In its first half, the third section, `The Realm', examines what, amongst other things, Conrad's attitude towards the imperial insignia and public crown wearing tell us about his conception of royal authority. The second part of this section includes a stimulating analysis of the various layers that comprised the political `classes' of Conrad's empire. The fourth section, `Foreign Policy', focuses primarily on Conrad's dealings with the Empire's eastern neighbours, but frames this discussion by considering his Byzantine and Burgundian policies. The book ends with a section exploring Conrad's attitude towards the Church. In his introductory comments, Wolfram states his purpose as being, in part, `to tell Conrad's story in modern language, from a modern perspective, and with

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an eye to modern modes of interpretation' (p. xviii). If the book has an important flaw, it is that Wolfram does not dwell sufficiently on elucidating the perspective he adopts and these `modern modes of interpretation'. In an interview given in 2003, the author explains the aim of Conrad II far more explicitly than he does in the book itself: it is an attempt `to reinvent politics and policy for the historical profession' and to produce a biography in a similar vein to Jacques Le Goff's Saint Louis (Paris, 1996) (John Eldevik and Christoph Sonnlechner, `An Interview with Herwig Wolfram', Comitatus, 34 [2003], pp. 187-95). If Wolfram's decision to let the book's approach speak for itself may confuse some of its readers, this should not, however, detract from its author's considerable achievements. In adopting a thematic structure, Wolfram is consciously seeking to produce the antithesis of H. Bresslau's Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs unter Konrad II, 2 vols (Leipzig, 1879-1884). At the same time, his primary concern lies with revising Bresslau's influential portrait of Conrad, based on advances in our understanding of medieval society and politics. The result is a convincing depiction of an emperor who lacked the `high-handedness' and `ruthlessness' with which Bresslau endowed him, but who nevertheless departed strikingly from his predecessor Henry II's policies in almost every respect: `the new king did not immediately introduce an entirely new set of policies, but instead adopted his predecessor's political methods and goals, put them to the test, and then made a drastic break with tradition as soon as he recognized their deficiencies' (p. 321). This approach characterised not only Conrad's Italian policy, but also his dealings with the Empire's eastern neighbours and the Church. In this latter area, in particular, Wolfram paints a very different Conrad from Bresslau's unrelentingly secular ruler: `[w]hen it came to the ecclesiastical hierarchy, the Salian ruler did not pursue an antimonastic or antiepiscopal or even a broadly antichurch policy, nor would he have entertained one. He did, however, swiftly and utterly dispense with the sort of favoritism Henry [II] had shown the clergy to the detriment of the secular nobility' (p. 322). Rejecting recent views that the reign lacked any form of conceptual underpinning, Wolfram returns frequently to the idea that the emperor espoused an emerging `transpersonal' conception of rulership: `Conrad's success seems to have been a function of his ability to pursue two incongruous political courses ­ the exercise of personal authority and the institution of a transpersonal polity ­ almost simultaneously' (p. 328; see also pp. 115, 143, 153, 324-5, 331). This is a book that benefits from being read in its entirety: only after it is digested fully can Wolfram's conception of Conrad and his reign be appreciated properly. This is not a book without flaws: the nature of the Burgundian law

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`restored' by Conrad (p. 339) is, for example, one of several topics Wolfram raises but leaves unanswered. Nevertheless, Penn State Press has performed an important service in making a work as significant for its general approach, as its reassessment of the first Salian emperor, available to an English-speaking audience. Chris Jones School of History University of Canterbury, Christchurch

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Books Received

Andersson, Roger, ed., Constructing the medieval sermon (Sermo: studies on patristic, medieval, and Reformation sermons and preaching, v. 6), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. 334; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503525891. Andrew, Malcolm, and Robert Waldron, eds, The poems of the Pearl manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 5th ed., Exeter, University of Exeter Press, 2007; paperback; pp. 414 + 1 CD-ROM; R.R.P. £16.99; ISBN 9780859897914. Arnold, John H., What is medieval history? (What is history?), Cambridge, Polity Press, 2008; paperback; pp. ix, 155; 4 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £13.99; ISBN 9780745639338. Bejczy, István J. and Cary J. Nederman, eds, Princely virtues in the Middle Ages, 1200-1500 (Disputatio, v. 9), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. xi, 361; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503516967. Bliss, Jane, Naming and namelessness in medieval romance (Studies in medieval romance), Woodbridge, D. S. Brewer, 2008; hardback; pp. xi, 253; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9781843841593. Bolton, Brenda and Christine Meek, eds, Aspects of power and authority in the Middle Ages (International medieval research, v. 14), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. 349; R.R.P. US$102.00; ISBN 9782503527352. Burke, Kenneth, Kenneth Burke on Shakespeare, edited by Scott L. Newstok, West Lafayette, Parlor Press, 2007; paperback; pp. lv, 308; R.R.P. US$32.00; ISBN 9781602350021. Cartlidge, Neil, ed., Boundaries in medieval romance (Studies in medieval romance), Woodbridge, D. S. Brewer, 2008; hardback; pp. 198; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9781843841555. Clunies Ross, Margaret, ed., Poetry on Christian subjects (Skaldic poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages, v. 7), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; 2 vols. (pp. 1414); R.R.P. US$174.00; ISBN 9782503518930. Cormack, Bradin, A power to do justice: jurisdiction, English literature, and the rise of common law, 1509-1625, Chicago, University of Chicago Press; pp. 406; R.R.P. US$35.00; ISBN 9780226116242. Cruz, Anne J., ed., Material and symbolic circulation between Spain and England, 1554-1604 (Transculturalisms, 1400-1700), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xxvii, 176; 9 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754662150.

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D'Abrera, Anna Ysabel, The tribunal of Zaragoza and crypto-Judaism, 1484-1515 (Europa sacra, 3), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 240; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503524726. Davis, Carmel Bendon, Mysticism & space: space and spatiality in the works of Richard Rolle, The cloud of unknowing author, and Julian of Norwich, Washington, DC, Catholic University of America Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xiii, 271; R.R.P. US$74.95; ISBN 9780813215228. Davis, Kathleen, Periodization and sovereignty: how ideas of feudalism and secularization govern the politics of time (Middle Ages series), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008; hardback; pp. 187; R.R.P. US$42.50; ISBN 9780812240832. Dell, Helen, Desire by Gender and Genre in Trouvère Song (Gallica, 10), Woodbridge, D. S. Brewer, 2008; hardback; pp. x, 241; R.R.P £50.00; ISBN 9781843841647. Distiller, Natasha, Desire and gender in the sonnet tradition, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008; hardback; pp. vi, 226; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780230535633. Dyas, Dee, ed., Pilgrims & pilgrimage: journey, spirituality & daily life through the centuries: interactive CD-ROM, York, University of York, 2007; 1 CD-ROM; R.R.P. £15.00; ISBN 9780855067310. Eisenbichler, Konrad, and Nicholas Terpstra, eds, The Renaissance in the streets, schools, and studies: essays in honour of Paul F. Grendler (Essays and studies, 16), Toronto, Centre for Reformation & Renaissance Studies, 2008; paperback; pp. 373; R.R.P. US$25.00; ISBN 9780772720429. Ephraim, Michelle, Reading the Jewish woman on the Elizabethan stage (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. x, 180; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780754658153. Evergates, Thomas, The aristocracy in the county of Champagne, 1100-1300 (Middle Ages series), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007; hardback; pp. vi, 415; 1 map; R.R.P. US$95.95; ISBN 9780812240191. Fabiani Giannetto, Raffaella, Medici gardens: from making to design (Penn studies in landscape architecture), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xiv, 306; 54 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$55.00; ISBN 9780812240726.

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Falkenburg, Reindert, Walter S. Melion, and Todd M. Richardson, eds, Image and imagination of the religious self in late medieval and early modern Europe (Proteus: studies in early modern identity formation, v. 1), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. 483; R.R.P. US$181.00; ISBN 9782503520681. Garipzanov, Ildar H., Patrick J. Geary and Przemyslaw Urbaczyk, eds, Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: identities and state formation in early medieval Europe (Cursor mundi, v. 5), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 226; R.R.P. US$80.00; ISBN 9782503526157. Goldin, Simha, The ways of Jewish martyrdom (Cursor mundi, v. 2), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 399; R.R.P. US$102.00; ISBN 9782503525235. Griffey, Erin, ed., Henrietta Maria: piety, politics and patronage (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xii, 227; 37 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754664208. Habib, Imtiaz H., Black lives in the English archives, 1500-1677: imprints of the invisible, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xvi, 415; R.R.P. £60.00; ISBN 9780754656951. Haigh, Christopher, The plain man's pathways to heaven: kinds of Christianity in post-Reformation England, 1570-1640, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007; hardback; pp. x, 284; R.R.P. £25.00; ISBN 9780199216505. Hermann, Pernille, Jens Peter Schjøodt and Rasmus Tranum Kristensen, eds, Reflections on Old Norse myths (Studies in Viking and medieval Scandinavia, v. 1), Turnhout, Brepols Publishers, 2007; hardback; pp. xii, 176; R.R.P. US$73.00; ISBN 9782503526140. Hiatt, Alfred, Terra incognita: mapping the Antipodes before 1600, London, The British Library, 2008; hardback; pp. xii, 298; 8 colour and 47 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. £40.00; ISBN 9780712349314. Hoche, Dominique T., The reception of Christine de Pizan's Fais d'armes in fifteenthcentury England: chivalric self-fashioning, Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen Press, 2007; hardback; pp. xiii, 221; R.R.P. US$109.95; ISBN 9780773451582. Holt, Mack, ed., Adaptations of Calvinism in Reformation Europe: essays in honour of Brian G. Armstrong (St Andrews studies in Reformation history), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; hardback; pp. xiv, 252; 1 b&w illustration; R.R.P. £60.00; ISBN 9780754651499. Howe, Elizabeth Teresa, Education and women in the early modern Hispanic world (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xiv, 240; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780754660330.

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196

Books Received

Katz, Dana E., The Jew in the art of the Italian Renaissance (Jewish culture and contexts), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xi, 228; 70 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$55.00; ISBN 9780812240856. Klaeber, Frederick, ed., Klaeber's Beowulf, 4th ed., edited by R. D. Fulk, Robert E. Bjork, and John D. Niles (Toronto Old English series, 21), Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2008; paperback; pp. 704; R.R.P. US$39.95; ISBN 9780802095671. Klausner, David N. and Karen Sawyer Marsalek, eds, "Bring furth the pagants": essays in early English drama presented to Alexandra F. Johnston (Studies in early English drama, 9), Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2007; hardback; pp. vi, 329; 3 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$60.00; ISBN 9780802091079. Kraft, Elizabeth, Women novelists and the ethics of desire, 1684-1814: in the voice of our biblical mothers, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. 199; 1 b&w illustration; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754662808. Lamb, Mary Ellen and Karen Bamford, eds, Oral traditions and gender in early modern literary texts (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xxv, 250; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754655381. Lanza, Janine Marie, From wives to widows in early modern Paris: gender, economy, and law (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; hardback; pp. ix, 252; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754656432. Maxwell, Robert A., The art of medieval urbanism: Parthenay in Romanesque Aquitaine, University Park, PA, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007; hardback; pp. xxiii, 375; 95 colour and 190 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$90.00; ISBN 9780271029566. McAvoy, Liz Herbert, ed., Rhetoric of the anchorhold: space, place and body within the discourses of enclosure (Religion and culture in the Middle Ages), Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xv, 239; R.R.P. £75.00; ISBN 9780708321300. Newman, Barbara, ed., Thomas of Cantimpré: The Collected Saints' Lives; Abbot John of Cantimpré, Christina the Astonishing, Margaret of Ypres, and Lutgard of Aywières (Medieval women: texts and contexts, 19), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. x, 324; R.R.P. 60.00; ISBN 9782503520780. Nichols, Stephen G., Andreas Kablitz, and Alison Calhoun, eds, Rethinking the medieval senses: heritage, fascinations, frames (Parallax: re-visions of culture & society), Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008; paperback; pp. ix, 327; 17 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$24.95; ISBN 9780801887376.

Parergon 25.2 (2008)

Books Received

197

Ostrem, Eyolf and Nils Holger Petersen, Medieval ritual and early modern music: the devotional practice of lauda singing in late-Renaissance Italy (Ritus et artes: traditions and transformations, v. 1), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 348; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503520667. Pearson, Andrea, ed., Women and portraits in early modern Europe: gender, agency, identity (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xiv, 228; 63 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754656661. Peter Lombard, The Sentences: Book 1 and Book 2, trans. by Giulio Silano (Mediaeval Sources in Translation, 42-43), Toronto, Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2007-2008; paperback; vols. 1-2; R.R.P. US$39.95, US$34.95; ISBN 9780888442925 and 9780888442932. Peterson, David S. and Daniel E. Bornstein, eds, Florence and beyond: culture, society and politics in Renaissance Italy: essays in honour of John M. Najemy (Essays and studies, 15), Toronto, Centre for Renaissance and Reformation Studies, 2008; paperback; pp. 528; 8 colour and 9 b/w illustrations; R.R.P. C$37.00; ISBN 9780772720382. Prest, Wilfred, William Blackstone: law and letters in the Eighteenth Century, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008; pp. 284; R.R.P. £29.99; ISBN 9780199550296. Ross, Jill, Figuring the feminine: the rhetoric of female embodiment in medieval Hispanic literature, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2008; hardback; pp. 305; R.R.P. US$75.00; ISBN 9780802090980. Schoff, Rebecca L., Reformations: three medieval authors in manuscript and movable type (Texts and transitions: studies in the history of manuscripts and printed books, v. 4), Turnhout, Brepols, 2007; hardback; pp. 230; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503523163. Schulte, Petra, Marco Mostert and Irene van Renswoude, eds, Strategies of writing: studies on text and trust in medieval Europe: papers from "Trust in Writing in the Middle Ages" (Utrecht 28-29 November 2002) (Utrecht studies in medieval literacy, v. 13), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. xiii, 413; R.R.P. US$116.00; ISBN 9782503517582. Scott, Virginia, Performance, poetry and politics on the queen's day: Catherine de Médicis and Pierre de Ronsard at Fontainebleau (Studies in performance and early modern drama), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007; hardback; pp. ix, 267; 15 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754658399.

Parergon 25.2 (2008)

198

Books Received

Silvas, Anna M., ed., Macrina the younger, philosopher of God (Medieval women: texts and contexts, v. 22), Turnhout, Brepols, 2008; hardback; pp. 262; R.R.P. US$87.00; ISBN 9782503523903. Silver, Larry, Marketing Maximilian: the visual ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xii, 303; 100 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$49.95; ISBN 9780691130194. Simpson, James, Burning to read: English fundamentalism and its Reformation opponents, Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007; hardback; pp. viii, 346; 3 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$27.95; ISBN 9780674026711. Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel, Commentary on the Rule of Saint Benedict, trans. by David Barry, Kalamazoo, Cistercian Publications, 2008; paperback; pp. v, 568; R.R.P. US$49.95; ISBN 9780879072124. Stahl, Harvey, Picturing kingship: history and painting in the Psalter of Saint Louis, University Park, PA, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xiv, 371; 60 colour and 50 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$85.00; ISBN 9780271028637. Tarbin, Stephanie and Susan Broomhall, eds, Women, identities and communities in early modern Europe (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. xiii, 242; R.R.P. £50.00; ISBN 9780754661849. Taunton, Nina, Fictions of old age in early modern literature and culture (Routledge studies in Renaissance literature and culture, 8), New York, Routledge, 2007; hardback; pp. 210; R.R.P. US$135.00; ISBN 9780415324731. Tyrwhit, Elizabeth, Elizabeth Tyrwhit's Morning and evening prayers, edited by Susan M. Felch (The early modern Englishwoman 1500-1750: contemporary editions), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. 205; R.R.P. £45.00; ISBN 9780754606611. Vaught, Jennifer C., Masculinity and emotion in early modern English literature (Women and gender in the early modern world), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. x, 244; 10 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754662945. Yachnin, Paul and Patricia Badir, eds, Shakespeare and the cultures of performance (Studies in performance and early modern drama), Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008; hardback; pp. 210; 10 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. £55.00; ISBN 9780754655855.

Parergon 25.2 (2008)

Books Received

199

Zieman, Katherine, Singing the new song: literacy and liturgy in late medieval England (Middle Ages series), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008; hardback; pp. xvii, 294; 6 b&w illustrations; R.R.P. US$59.95; ISBN 9780812240511.

Parergon 25.2 (2008)

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